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("Canada Social Security and Welfare," 2012) (Aaron, 1999) (Livingston, 2007)
This is different from Social Security as these areas are not covered. Any kind of assistance for health care would fall under other programs (i.e. Medicare and Medicaid). However, these are only designed to protect those individuals who meet the age and income requirements. To provide assistance for low income families, this would fall under the WIC program (which is used in conjunction with the states). ("Canada Social Security and Welfare," 2012) (Aaron, 1999) (Livingston, 2007)
Moreover, someone who is disabled (in Canada) is eligible to receive long-term care assistance and additional income. Anyone who is laid off and facing financial challenges are provided with a monthly income. Also, there is additional help offered, to someone over the age of 65 years old (who needs extra monthly income). These different programs are paid for from the tax revenues that are…
Canada Social Security and Welfare. (2012). Expat Focus. Retrieved from: http://www.expatfocus.com/expatriate-canada-social-security
Aaron, H. (1999). Should the United States Privatize Social Security. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Livingston, S. (2007). United States Social Security. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO
Williams, R. (2011). Health Care Disparities. New York, NY: Springer.
Social security is financed with the idea that those people currently working, along with their employers, can donate enough money to pay the benefits to those currently getting them: not only retired people but some people with disabilities, and some widows with young children. When Social Security first began, this system worked well. The problem facing Social security is that the numbers of retirees are going to increase at the same time the numbers of workers will decrease. When Social Security began, there were five workers for every one person receiving benefits. Current projections, however, suggest that by 2030 that ratio will be three to one. y 2080, it is expected to shrink to two to one (Reynolds, PAGE). This system, called "Pay as You Go," will eventually be unable to provide all the funds needed to make payouts to individuals, and will essentially be bankrupt.
Several solutions have been…
O'Neil, John. "Risky: Privatizing Social Security An Unwarranted Gamble." NEA Today, Sept. 2004.
Reynolds, Alan. "Myths about social security: and the dispelling truth." National Review. March 14, 2005.
Slow the growth of traditional Social Security benefits for middle- and upper-class Americans. The benefits of the wealthiest Americans (those who earn more than $100,000 a year) would grow "only" at the rate of inflation.
In this way nobody would suffer a true cut -- even the richest Social Security recipients would be guaranteed at least the same, inflation-adjusted level of benefits today's retirees receive. Meanwhile, because benefits for the poorest Americans would remain tied to wages, we'd ensure that they receive proportionally higher benefits in years to come (Feulner).
Personal Retirement Accounts (PRAs) would let all workers invest a portion of their payroll taxes into personal accounts they would own and control. They would be similar to an IRA, except workers would be investing their own tax money, and they would have only a handful of safe bond and mutual funds to invest in. At retirement, a worker could…
Feulner, E. "Solutions for Social Security." 2005. The Heritage Foundation. 9 May 2009 .
Geneology Today. Social Security History. n.d. 9 May 2009 .
Paine, Thomas. Quotes About Social Security. 15 February 2008. 9 May 2009 .
Tanner, Michael. "Social Security Problems Have Not Gone Away." March 2008. Cato Institute. 9 May 2009 .
In 1940, an amendment to the BNA was passed, followed by the first institution of unemployment insurance in Canada. The Marsh eport offered a comprehensive social security plan for Canada that included old age pensions paid for by employment taxes, as well as a public health plan. The Canadian Social Security system continued to grow, subject to the political whims of the time, until the 1970s. After this time, reforms were called for, as the system was growing too expensive (the Canadian Encyclopedia).
Both the Canadian Social Security system and the United States Social Security system currently face the problem of rising costs and increased spending. According to United North America, the United States publicly spends 1.8% more than Canada on Social Security and related programs than Canada, with Social Security comprising 6% of the U.S. budget as compared to 4.2% of the Canadian budget (United North America). Does this…
"Canadian Pension Plan and Old Age Security." Human Resources and Skills Development, Canada.
Retrieved from: http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/oas-cpp/index.shtml . 4/1/2012.
"Comparisons between Canada and the United States of America." Chart. Retrieved from:
Social Security Crisis
While the United States does not provide a pension and health care for all its citizens as some countries do, we do have a program designed to make sure that all our older retired workers have some money on which to live. Called Social Security, it also provides money to people who are so disabled before retirement age that they cannot work, and (depending on the age of the children), widows and mothers of covered workers who die before the children are grown (Toner, PAGE). One factor in American history that contributed to the establishment of Social Security was the Great Depression of the 1930's, which wiped out many people's savings and left them in severe economic distress.
While the great majority of Americans are in favor of Social Security, it no longer works well as it was first organized. The problem stems from shifts in…
O'Donnell, Charles F., and Strittmatter, Robert. Social Security Trust Funds and the Federal Budget." The CPA Journal, Vol. 70, 2000.
O'Neil, John. "Risky: Privatizing Social Security An Unwarranted Gamble." NEA Today, Sept. 2004.
Reynolds, Alan. "Myths about social security: and the dispelling truth." National Review. March 14, 2005.
Toner, Robin. "Social insecurity: Social Security is much more than the retirement program people think it is." New York Times Upfront. March 28, 2005.
Increase payroll taxes.
This is seen to increase the cash-flows in the Social Security thus can lessen the cash needs of the organization to meet its services to its program members.
Increase the Limit on Taxable Earnings
Increasing the limit on taxable earnings could similarly increase payroll taxes that in turn will increase inbound cash flows in Social Security.
Increase Taxation of the Benefits
Again, this means that an increase in tax paid by the workers could increase the inbound cash-flows in Social Security, thus providing them with an increased cash sources.
aise the etirement Age.
aising the retirement age would mean providing the Social Security with more period to use and grow its finances.
Change Investment Procedures
The way that the Social Security invests its finances may have flaws. Thus, changing and improving its investment procedures may provide better revenues.
Will the Proposed Changes Work?
Some of the proposed…
John, David. How Today's Social Security Works. 2005. http://www.heritage.org/Research/SocialSecurity/bg1827.cfm
The Social Security Program in the U.S.A. - How it Works. 2005. http://www.seniorjournal.com/NEWS/SocialSecurity/5-05-09HowSocialSecurityWorks.htm
Social Security Issues.
National Center for Policy Analysis. http://www.ncpa.org/pi/congress/socsec/socsec19jj.html
Since its inception, the Social Security system has provided benefits to augment the income of people upon their retirement. However, current projections point to a crisis in Social Security. Experts believe that by 2038, the Social Security trust fund will have been depleted (illiamson).
This paper presents an overview of the current social security crisis and evaluates the plans to address this problem. The first part of the paper provides a history of the Social Security system, from its inception in 1935 to its current status under the federal government.
The next part then studies how the Social Security system is funded. In the final part, the paper studies the problems facing many retirees who stand to be adversely affected by the Social Security deficit. It looks at the pitfalls of privatization and other methods now being used to address the problem, such as proposed tax credits, simplifying…
Leone, Richard C. "The risky business of retirement." The American Prospect, 14(5): May 2003. ProQuest Database.
Schieber, S.J., and J.B. Shoven. The real deal: The history and future of social security. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.
Ungar, Alan B. "Viewpoint: Social Security: It has to be our issue!" Journal of Financial Planning, 16(2): February 2003. ProQuest Database.
What's Wrong with Individual Investment Accounts?" Political Issues. AFL-CIO Website. March 2003. Retrieved May 10, 2003 at http://www.aflcio.org/issuespolitics/socialsecurity/ssbasics/inv_acct.cfm
Social Security System
How does one earn a living wage during economic hardship? Certainly, earning a living wage is the mainstay of a decent standard of living for most working age Americans and their families. However, Social Security, the nation's largest family protection program, is in much need of improvement. "America's most popular and successful social program, Social Security provides a steady, reliable income for 45 million elderly and disabled workers of all races and income levels, as well as for many of their dependents and those of deceased workers"(Hendley and ilimoria). efore Social Security was enacted, organized business and Republicans bitterly opposed it. For example, Congressman John Taber (R-NY) said, "Never before in the history of the world has any measure been brought in here so insidiously designed as to prevent business recovery, enslave workers and to prevent any possibility of employers providing work for the people" (Hendley and…
BibliographyTanner, Michael. "A Social Security Crisis Exists," An Aging Population Opposing Viewpoints174, Laura Egendorf, Ed. Greenhaven Press, 2002.Alexa A. Hendley and Natasha Bilimoria, "Minorities and Social Security: An Analysis of Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Current Program," Social Security Bulletin 62, 2 (1999): 59-64.Aaron, Henry J. And Robert D. Reischauer. Countdown to Reform: The Great Social Security Debate. New York: Century Foundation Press, 2001.
Samuelson, Robert. "The Aging May Need to Continue to Work" An Aging Population. Opposing Viewpoints Laura Egendorf, Ed.174 Greenhaven Press, 2002.Minkler, Meredith. "The Aging Population Is Not Hurting the Economy" An Aging Population. Opposing Viewpoints Laura Egendorf, Ed.174, Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Social Security Today
The History of Social Security: What it is and How it Works
The Social Security system was established in 1935 by President Roosevelt in order to provide some form of economic security to the elderly. The first world war and the following world wide economic depression had left many elderly people without a support system. This insecurity, along with the general economic turmoil of the era, led to many radical movements calling for state-sponsored pensions and aid for the helpless. One of the most popular programs, which almost replaced the Social Security program, called for a national sales tax to provide pensions. (DeWitt) However, the program finally put in place functioned instead by creating a flat tax on worker income, which created "credits" that would later give that worker benefits comparable to his income. Social security did not actually address the needs of those who were already…
Bartlett, Bruce. " Social Security Problems Accelerating" Idea House, 1997. http://www.ncpa.org/~ncpa/oped/bartlett/dec397.html
Daly, Marc. "Understanding the Social Security Debate" FRBSF Economic Letter 99-20; June 25, 1999. http://www.frbsf.org/econrsrch/wklyltr/wklyltr99/el99-20.html#subhead4
DeWitt, Larry. "Brief History" SSA Historian's Office. http://www.ssa.gov/history/briefhistory3.html
Dreyfuss, Robert. "The end of Social Security as we know it?" Mother Jones (Online), 1996. http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/1996/11/dreyfuss.html
Social Security Administration (SSA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with administering the Social Security. The Social Security is a social insurance program that consists of retirement, disability, and survivors benefits. For a person to qualify for the program benefits, they must remit Social Security taxes. The employees' contributions determine all benefits. The SSA was established in August 14, 1935 as the Social Security Board. SSB was renamed to SSA in July 16, 1946. SSA was an independent agency when it was established, but in 1939, it became a sub-cabinet agency. It remained in this status until 1995 when it regained its independent status. The current commissioner for the SSA is Carolyn W. Colvin (Acting) who succeeded Michael J. Astrue. She was sworn in on February 14, 2013. Social Security is considered the largest social welfare program that constitutes of 37% of the United…
Bakija, Jon, Adam Cole, and Bradley T. Heim. "Jobs and Income Growth of Top Earners and the Causes of Changing Income Inequality: Evidence from Us Tax Return Data." Williamstown: Williams College (2010). Print.
Behaghel, Luc, and David M. Blau. "Framing Social Security Reform: Behavioral Responses to Changes in the Full Retirement Age." American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 4.4 (2012): 41-67. Print.
Evans, Richard W, Jeremy Perdue, and Kerk L. Phillips. "When Will the Social Security Trust Fund Run Out? Linearization About the Current State." (2012). Print.
There are huge differences between Social Security and privatization. As this paper will discuss, Social Security is more than just an investment strategy. It is a guarantee to all citizens that they won't be subjected to the dire economic consequences resulting from inadequate income to save for retirement, failed investment strategies, and untimely death or a disability. These reasons require that Social Security remain in tact to protect Americans who have worked their entire lives from poverty.
Social Security guarantees working and retired Americans and their families economic stability that helps to keep them out of poverty; privatization does not. This is because Social Security shares risk across the entire workforce to ensure that all workers and their families are protected from old age, disability, and death. Privatizing Social Security retirement benefits would enable high-wage workers to reap gains from private retirement investment without having to help protect…
DeGette, Diana. "Honesty Needed in Social Security Debate." 6 Feb. 2005. Available: http://www.house.gov/apps/list/speech/co01_degette/050206.html (Accessed 15 May 2005).
Kretzmann, John and McKnight, John. "Building Communities from the Inside Out: A Path Toward Finding and Mobilizing a Community's Assets." Chicago, IL: ACTA Publications, 1993. Available: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/publications/community/introd-building.html (Accessed 15 May 2005).
Coalition on Human Needs Report: "Social Security: A Human Needs Issue 1/14/05." Available: http://www.chn.org/dia/organizations/chn/humanneeds/050114b.html (Accessed 15 May 2005).
Social Security and Healthcare
In the United States, Social Security, along with private pensions and personal savings, form the traditional "three legged stool" of economic security for elderly and retired Americans. Already, many problems are emerging both the inadequacies of this system to provide for a person's needs. Similarly, there are also problems regarding the infusion of and generating funds for Social Security.
In the recent years, a fourth component has emerged as a necessary factor to human well being - health coverage. The growing need for health coverage not just among retired people but across the board as well are further taxing an already overburdened social insurance system.
This paper focuses on the problems of the current social insurance system with regards to providing comprehensive healthcare for all Americans.
It examines the need to incorporate healthcare not just for retired persons, but also for poor families whose needs may…
Graetz, Michael J. And Jerry L. Mashaw. (1999). True Security: Rethinking American Social Insurance. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Japsen, Bruce (2002). "Uninsured Americans on the rise; 14.6% lacking health coverage, U.S. report finds." Chicago Tribune. Sept. 30, 2002: 1.
Kennedy, Edward M. (1990). "The Health Care Crisis: A Report to the American People." excerpted in Health Care and Human Values: Ideas in conflict. Gary E. McCuen, ed. Wisconsin: GEM Publications (1993).
Schieber, Sylvester K. And John B. Shoven (1999). The Real Deal: The History and Future of Social Security. New Haven: Yale University Press.
I think that Social Security will still be here for me, though, because I don't see how the President and the Congress could let something that is so necessary for so many people just disappear. I believe that this is part of the reason that President Bush wants to change Social Security so that people can invest part of that money into other things. Doing this would take some of the Social Security burden off of the government and still let people have enough money to survive on when they retire. Even though Social Security doesn't always pay a lot to these older people, for some of them it is all that they have. While I think Social Security, at least in some form, will still be here for me, I also think that I might want to look into how I can save money and invest money in other…
Social Security can be an effective tool in public personnel administration and can benefit common American a great deal if used effectively. Therefore it is imperative to look into the future prospects of the programs and remove loopholes and bottlenecks in its future implementation.
Under the Social Security plan government is collecting more money today then it is paying out as benefits to citizens. The surplus money remains safe in trust fund. However, the future situation seems troublesome due to various issues and reasons. "Social Security gradually expanded from its inception through the early 1980s by increasing benefits and coverage for various groups. To pay for those modifications, payroll tax rates and the maximum earnings ceiling have been steadily raised. Now the Social Security trust funds are in long-term financial imbalance, and benefit cuts and more payroll tax rate increases seem inevitable if Americans are to retain the important…
Blahous III, Charles P (2000). Reforming Social Security for Ourselves and Our Posterity. Westport, CT.: Praeger Publishers.
Tanner, Michael D. (2004). Social Security and Its Discontents: Perspectives on Choice.. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.
Social Security (United States). Retrieved November 5, 2006, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Web site: ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Security_ (United_States)
Company Network Security Policy
This paper is intended to address the importance of having a written and enforceable Computer Network Security Policy for The Financial Group, an accounting corporation. The company's accounting systems comprise three major elements: a eb-based front-end server, a back-end database, and business-logic applications. OS-level console access is used for system administration. Accountants access the system with eb browsers using HTTP only and are authenticated via the HTTP basic authentication mechanism.
Network Security Policy Components
Network security is the most critical element of The Financial Group's IT security program. This security policy identifies the rules and procedures that all persons accessing computer resources must adhere to in order to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data and resources.
Security Definition: This security policy is intended to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data and resources through the use of effective and established IT…
Erlanger, Leon. "Defensive Strategies." PC Magazine 5 November 2002.
Frye, Emily. "The tragedy of the cybercommons: Overcoming fundamental vulnerabilities to critical infrastructures in a networked world." The Business Lawyer November 2002: 349-382.
Goncalves, Marcus and Brown, Steven. Check Point Firewall 1:Administration Guide 2000. Emeryville: McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, 1999.
Greenberg, Eric. Network Application Frameworks, Boston: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998
Individuals would have a choice in their retirement plan and would essentially own their own Social Security benefits, as opposed to the current system that finds middle aged families hoping to see their welfare checks upon retirement. his mere fact would certainly lead to an increase in morale throughout the working class community. However, there are drawbacks that must be considered as well. Most importantly, the cost and maintenance of overhauling such a large system is daunting. Both government officials and taxpayers may see an increased burden as the scope of social security benefits is broadened. While workers would have a choice to invest in a personal retirement account, this leads to more responsibility being places on the workers who will receive the payout. hat dynamic has its own set of risks and rewards.
he shift to a personal retirement account cannot happen overnight, nor is it a decision that…
The shift to a personal retirement account cannot happen overnight, nor is it a decision that should be taken lightly. Yet the possibility of increased inheritances for needy workers makes it a notable debate that should continue to receive attention in Washington. On principle alone, workers should have an increased voice in the fate of their retirement funds. While changes have been made since the Social Security Act was approved in 1935, little has been done to give workers any form of flexibility in determining the path of their retirement funds. The inclusion of personal retirement accounts to the nation's Social Security system would not only address this issue, but may end up playing a role in turning the tides of poverty that has plagued many working class American households.
Beach, William W. (2004). "Peace of Mind in Retirement: Making Future Generations Better Off by Fixing Social Security." Heritage Foundation Center for Data Analysis. No. CDA04-06
The Federal Reserve. "2001 Survey of Consumer Finances." federalreserve.gov/pubs/oss/oss2/2001/scf2001home.html
Social Security Reform
Can Social Security Be Reformed?
Doing nothing to fix our Social Security system will cost us, as well as our children and grandchildren, an estimated $10.4 trillion, according to the Social Security Trustees. The longer we wait to take action, the more difficult and expensive the changes will be. -- hite House Press Release, January 11, 2005
Today, Social Security is the largest of all government programs and has represented the primary basis of economic support for millions of Americans, including retired persons, disabled persons, and family members of workers who have retired, become disabled or who died for 70 years (hat is Social Security? 2005). The programs administered by the Social Security Administration have unquestionably contributed to the economic well-being of the United States in the past, but many observers are questioning whether there will be anything left in the system after the baby boomers get…
Blahous, Charles P. III and Alan K. Simpson. Reforming Social Security for Ourselves and Our
Posterity. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000.
Bolter, Joshua B. (January 14, 2005). Remarks by OMB Director Joshua B. Bolter. White House: Speeches and News Releases. Available: http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus / social-security/.
Diamond, Peter A., David C. Lindeman and Howard Young (Eds.). Social Security: What Role
Social Security System
Social security reforms
Social Security Reform
In recent years, social security reform has emerged to be more of a political issue than a social concern and it is within the public domain that through the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform commissioned by President Obama in 2010, there has been a heightened congressional interest in this matter. This commission was charged with the responsibility of coming up with recommendations on how to improve the long-term fiscal outlook that was to incorporate transformation to the Social Security programs. This paper deliberates on range of thoughts for reforms ranging from moderately insignificant reforms through to the pay as you go social insurance system which was put in place way back in 1930s to the modernized system based on personal savings as well as investment models. It will also look at proponents of the deep-seated dissimilar moves toward reform…
Coronado, Julia L., Don F. & Thomas G., " The Progressivity of Social Security" National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 7520, February. 2002.
Feldstein, Martin and Jeffrey L., "The distributional Effects of an Investment-Based Social System." Distributional Aspects of Social Security Reform." M.Feldstein and J. Liebman, eds. Chicago, University of Chicago press, pp. 263-326. 2002.
Feldstein, Martin and Andrew Samwick. "Potential Paths of Social Security Reform." Tax Policy and Economy 2001, Volume 16. J. Poterba, ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp. 181-224. 2002.
Feldstein & Martin. "The missing Piece in Policy Analysis: Social Security Reform."American Economic Review. May, 86:2.1996.
Social Security Administration
In 1935, Social Security was designed as a program to provide a safety net for those who are disabled and as supplemental retirement income. When it was first introduced, it was designed based upon the total amount of individual earnings during their career. As time went by, the program was expanded to include spouses, the children of those who are deceased and the disabled. These transformations meant that Social Security was no longer linked exclusively to an individual's lifetime earnings. Instead, it became focused on other factors such as marriage or permanent disabilities. This paper focuses on what is happening and it troubleshoots critical challenges.
Summarize the key issues confronting your selected organization after conducting and writing your situational assessment. Be sure to discuss the extent to which you think the organization is facing a "dire situation" or a "stable, unchanging situation."
The situation with Social Security…
Increasing Retirement Ages. (2012). Urban Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.urban.org/retirement_policy/ssretirementage.cfm
Social Security Reform. (2012). Department of the Treasury. Retrieved from: http://www.treasury.gov/resource - center/economic-policy/ss-medicare/Documents/post.pdf
Spouse and Survivor Benefits. (2011). Urban Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.urban.org/retirement_policy/ssspousesurvivor.cfm
Diamond, P. (2011). Want to Fix Social Security. Gale Group. Retrieved from: http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/ovic/ViewpointsDetailsPage/ViewpointsDetailsWindow-failO verType=&query=&prodId=OVIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display- query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Viewpoints&limiter=&currPage=&disableHi ghlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_within_results=&p=OVIC&action= e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CEJ3010878227&source=B ookmark&u=mckendree&jsid=765bbebc89c6210fef868f3adeaad616
The Original Concept of Social Security
The concept of social security as originally conceived by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was that Americans should enjoy security at home, and they should expect to have a secure livelihood, and they should also have social insurance as "…a minimum of the promise that we can offer to the American people" (Houser, et al., 2014). The President also said, on June 8, 1934, that a social security program would provide relief and recovery from the Great Depression, and would help people reconstruct their lives, Houser writes on page 150.
It should be explained that at the time Roosevelt was elected there were millions of Americans that were financially destitute, especially older Americans. Houser writes that about half of Americans older than 55 years of age "…were destitute and unemployed with little hope of changing their situation" (150). On June 28, 1934, Roosevelt's…
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP). (2012). The Future of Social Security:
12 Proposals You Should Know About. Retrieved December 26, 2014, from http://www.aarp.org .
Brooks, R., and Razin, A. (2005). Social Security Reform: Financial and Political Issues in International Perspective. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press
Houser, K.A., and Rosacker, R.E. (2014). A Fireside Chat on the Foundations of Social
Meantime, a group called "Progress for America Voter Fund," an advocacy group that is part of the epublican Party, is spending $2 million on TV ads (one-minute spots) promoting the Bush Social Security reform project. "Some people say Social Security is not in trouble, just like some thought the titanic was unsinkable," the ads state. The commercial also says that "if nothing is done," Social Security will "go bankrupt."
Progress for America" spent millions of dollars promoting Bush's reelection campaign, according to an article in the New York Times (Justice, 2005). The current commercial, which opens "with a scene of a fog-shrouded iceberg," will run on "national cable channels for weeks," the Times' piece stated.
The Democrats have countered with ads of their own, according to the Associated Press (aum, 2005) on Sunday, March 13. The Democrats call Bush's proposal to privatize Social Security "a risky privatization scheme." The…
AARP (American Association of Retired Persons). About Social Security: Frequently Asked
Questions About Strengthening Social Security. 13 March 2005. Retrieved at http://www.aarp.org /socialsecurity-about/articles' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Federal Government Policy Program: Social Security
It should be noted, from the onset, that the federal government has in place a number of programmes and policies to enable it accomplish its various obligations and objectives in diverse sectors of the economy. In basic terms, the said programmes and policies are meant to promote the wellbeing of citizens. To a large extent each and every economic sector has specific/special policies. Examples of federal government policy programs include, but they are not limited to energy independence, welfare, Social Security, healthcare programs, etc. This text concerns itself with Social Security. In so doing, it will amongst other things evaluate the said policy with an intention of establishing how successful it has been.
Social Security Platforms
According to the Social Security Administration – SSA (2020), Social Security has for the past 80 years advanced financial protection to citizens of the U.S. Indeed, according…
Social Security was instituted with the passage of the Social Security Act of 1935. It was signed into law by President oosevelt as a means of providing a social safety net for retirees. The passage of Social Security occurred during the depths of the Great Depression. Prior to this, the concept of social security did not exist in the U.S. -- you either worked until you died, or you retired when you were wealthy enough to do so. Social Security is run by the Social Security Administration, which also administers Medicare as part of the system. Social Security is theoretically self-funding. In 1937, the first taxes were collected to finance the Social Security system. Workers pay into the Social Security system via a payroll tax. According to the SSA's website, general tax revenues have never funded Social Security to any meaningful extent, implying that the program is self-funding through these…
Autor, D. & Duggan, M. (2006). The growth in social security disability rolls: A fiscal crisis unfolding. NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://cid.bcrp.gob.pe/biblio/Papers/NBER/2006/Agosto/w12436.pdf
Biggs, A. (2011). Means testing and its limits. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://www.aei.org/article/economics/retirement/means-testing-and-its-limits/
SSA.gov. (2014). FAQs. Social Security Administration. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://www.ssa.gov/history/hfaq.html
Templin, B. (2006) Full funding: The future of social security. Thomas Jefferson School of Law. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://drupaldev.tjsl.edu/sites/default/files/files/Full_Funding-The_Future_of_Social_Security.pdf
A proposal to change the program
educing Benefits: This can be done in various ways. Monthly benefits can be reduced by minimizing cost of living adjustments or by minimizing the primary insurance amount (PIA) for a certain average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). Other proposals include targeting reductions towards high-income retirees. Benefits can also be reduced by increasing the retirement age or imposing full taxes on social security benefits. These benefit reduction proposals are some of the simplest and cheapest to implement. If future clients expect lower benefits, they are expected to save more or work longer; all of which will have a positive effect on the economy (Midgley, 2006).
Complete privatization: one of the radical proposals is to erase the social security system and encourage individuals to save in their accounts held by private investment companies. Owners of accounts will have great discretion over their decision of investment…
Brown, J., Liebman, J., & Wise, D. (2009). Social Security Policy in a Changing Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cross, T.E. (2010). Social security: Capital markets & educational issues associated with individual accounts. S.l.: Diane Pub Co.
Midgley, J. (2006). Challenges to social security: An international exploration. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Auburn House.
Social Security program. The wrier explores what the program is and what problems it faces. In addition, the writer explains how the services work and what role social workers play in the program. The writer then wraps it up with a discussion about changes that are needed and what the writer would like to see implemented.
Each month the social security office prepares and mails out millions of social security checks to those who are eligible. Many people believe that social security is a program only designed to assist the elderly who have retired but it has several other purposes and programs that assist those who are eligible (Facts about Social Security benefits http://www.epinet.org/content.cfm/issueguide_socialsecurityfacts).
For one to explore and analyze the program, one first needs to understand the program completely.
Several of President Bush's ideas also seem to be feasible methods to improve the current system as well.
Facts about Social Security benefits http://www.epinet.org/content.cfm/issueguide_socialsecurityfacts
Five Reasons to Privatize Social Security.
On Wall Street; 8/1/2001; Tanner, Michael
Social Work, Social Welfare, and American Society, sixth edition, by Philip R. Popple adn Leslie Leighninger 2005
Social Security Privatization is a Bad Idea
It is possible to use a Toulmin-based argument structure to help explain why privatizing Social Security would negatively impact both the results as well as the effectiveness of the program itself. Using this structure, the argument is broken down into six separate sub-headings as it is discussed further.
Social Security should be left in the hands of the U.S. Government and not be privatized.
There is much proof that privatizing Social Security would lead to a less effective and efficient system. This social safety net program was originally based on the idea that people would claim their benefits at the age of 62 after working and contributing to the resource pool their entire lives. In the 1930's, when Social Security was first implemented, not as many people lived long enough to claim their benefits or didn't live long enough to claim…
Fehr, Hans, Christian Habermann, and Fabian Kindermann. "Social security with rational and hyperbolic consumers." Review of Economic Dynamics 11.4 (2008): 884-903.
Shipman, William. "Slippery Social Security Slope." Washington Times, March
ecommendations to Change Social Security in United States of America
Social Security is one of the major federal programs prevalent in the United States of America. It is a collective insurance system by which retired and disabled workers, their family members, and family members of the dead employees are paid benefits. The total number of Social Security beneficiaries till 2009 were 52.5 million. Approximately 156.3 million workers were covered by Social Security in 2010 (Nuschler, 2010).
In the past, the Social Security system has faced financial deficits. In 1977 and 1983, a number of measures were endorsed by the Congress to address the monetary imbalance of the system. Those actions consisted of "constraints on the growth of initial benefit levels, a gradual increase in the full retirement age from 65 to 67 (i.e., the age at which unreduced benefits are first payable), payroll tax increases, taxation of benefits…
Hanushek, E.A., & Maritato, N.L. (1996). Assessing Knowledge of Retirement Behavior. Washington: National Academy Press. Retrieved July 16, 2012 from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=8LT9wlg6XUYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Assessing+Knowledge+of+Retirement+Behavior&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ANMDUNfhGqn74QS5-YXFCg&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Assessing%20Knowledge%20of%20Retirement%20Behavior&f=false
Liebman, J.B. (2005, March-April). Reforming Social Security. Harvard Magazine, Retrieved July 16, 2012 from http://harvardmagazine.com/2005/03/reforming-social-securit.html
Nuschler, D. (2010, September 14). Social Security Reform: Current Issues and Legislation. Retrieved July 16, 2012 from http://aging.senate.gov/crs/ss6.pdf
Saving, T.R. (2010, March 24). Simple Steps to Fix Social Security. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://roomfordebate.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/03/24/simple-steps-to-fix-social-security/
This program was the A's initial responsibility and remains its largest single one, consuming 44% of the effort of its workforce.
The ocial ecurity Administration understands that it is fraught with faults. Its culpability is clear and the agency admits that it "did not do as good a job as we should have" when it came to monitoring I funds. In 1994 Commissioner Chater in her testimony before Congress acknowledged the problems and said that the public "has a right to expect that those disabled by substance addictions will not simply continue on the disability payment rolls without taking responsibility for themselves." For this reason, states have been order to tighten their candidate screening in order to ensure that only the deserving get benefits of A.
A faces many new challenges as well. The biggest however will still be ineligible candidates getting benefits. It has also been seen that many…
SSA is a program that must have helped many deserving individuals but at the same time, the agency has faced its fair share of criticism, problems and challenges. In the coming years, its most pressing challenge would be to survive under trying economic times. With this rate of economic progress, the federal government is not likely to increase funding to SSA. It may actually be forced to cut funding to some extent and that would hurt the program seriously and more oversights would become a strong possibility.
Social Security Administration, Executive Handbook of Selected Data, SSA Pub. 47-085 ( May 1988), p. 10.
Michael Rust, "Social Security Scam: Uncle Sam as Enabler," Insight on the News 11 Apr. 1994
It would be nonsensical to take away Social Security, as the program, for all of its flaws, gives the government the ability to tax wage earners in support of the program. If this tax revenue is stopped, and the government still has to provide for those in need as it surely will do without Social Security in place, an attempt to solve one problem will be replaced with a much larger crisis.
eplacement of Social Security with a privatized system is a popular remedy for phasing out Social Security, but this is an unlikely scenario, given the fact that private accounts would only create a feeding frenzy among Wall Street power brokers to collect huge commissions on financial transactions, while the account holders are left with nothing (Baker, 1998). The bottom line is that ending Social Security is unlikely and impractical.
In conclusion, as has been shown, from a…
Baker, D. (1998, July). Nine Misconceptions about Social Security:. Privatize Social Security? Any Money Saved Would Be Eaten Up in Wall Street Transaction Costs. The Atlantic Monthly, 282,.
Dishonest Social Security Ads. (2006, September 17). The Washington Times, p. 03.
Invest Social Security Trust Fund Surpluses?. (2006, August 20). The Washington Times, p. B05.
Mcmanus, J.F. (2004, May 31). The Truth about Social Security: The Truth Behind the Popular Myths and Outright Lies of Social Security Proves That This Form of Socialism Must Be Rejected in Favor of Private Enterprise. The New American, 20, 8+.
Social Security Administration Strategic Plan
Social Security Administration
Written below is a prelude to Social Security Administration strategy plan. The prelude consists of size, history, location, reason for creation, core areas explored and other relevant roles. The plan is basically aimed at working along with examples taken from federal agencies and to assess the analytical thinking skills of students as well.
At present, what is the size of the organization? At present, it has around 75,000 employees, both state and federal. The plan consists of increasing the number of employees to 100,000 (Social Security Administration). With 1,500 offices, the field organization is capable of nationwide network service. There are 10 regional offices, 8 processing centers, around 1,250 field officers, 30 Teleservice Centers, 5 National Hearing Centers, 169 hearing offices, the Appeals Council, Baltimore, Maryland Headquarters and National Care Assistance Center (Social Security Administration). Plans are underway to increase the…
SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION AGENCY STRATEGIC PLAN. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2015, from http://www.socialsecurity.gov/agency/asp/materials/pdfs/plan-2014-2018.pdf
Summarized Goals 1-5: Fundamental improvements in platform cybersecurity; website UI and UX; easier access to accurate and comprehensive information by phone or through digital portals; increased emphasis on beneficiary-centric information; communication and services; and improved customer service on all channels.
What SS Invests
What SS Does
Who SS Reaches
Accurate data and relevant information
Timely delivery of information (currently constrained by the evolution of technology platforms and website build-out)
Safeguards against fraud
Provides timely, accurate information to the beneficiaries and others
Protects the database from cybercrime and digital data breaches
Provide benefits according to the legal parameters and calculations to those who qualify
To establish access to data and information via several secure channels (mail, physical offices, phone, and online)
Beneficiaries who are of full retirement age (FRA)
Beneficiaries who are retiring early
Veterans who are beneficiaries
Widows and widowers…
Privatizing Social Security
Social security can be generally defined as a program that provides social protection or protection against conditions that are socially recognized to workers and their dependents. Such social conditions include old age, poverty, disability, and unemployment. This program is funded by the social security tax.
In most industrialized economies and a good portion of developing countries the postwar period has been spent to dramatically expand the pay-as-you-go social security programs that already existed. Although this expansion has led to a reduction of poverty rates among the elderly, it has as well led to the tremendous redistribution of sums from young and future generations, as a group, to simultaneous older generations, as a group (Altig and Gokhale, p.03). The mechanism that causes the redistribution to the initial elderly is clear. A bonus is received by the generations that are retired or close to retirement when an increment on…
Altig, D., and Gokhale, J., "Social Security Privatization: A Simple Proposal," Working Paper
97-03, 1997. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
Cooley, T.F., and Soares, J.. "Will Social Security Survive the Baby-Boom?" Carnegie
Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy 45, 89;12. 1996.
Also, this should be seen as a short-term solution for people who are temporarily out of jobs in the U.S. And not as a long-term means to living comfortably.
Social Security Benefits
Social security benefits help many elderly and disabled people to live a reasonable life. In 2010, more than 53 million Americans received social security benefits that amount to a whopping $703 billion. Out of these, 34 million retired workers accounted for $40 billion and $1.7 billion went to 2.9 dependents of retired workers at an average amount of $1,170 per month. The eight million disabled workers and their $1.9 billion dependents received an average of $1,065 per month and this amounted to $8.5 billion and $0.6 billion respectively. The remaining $6.3 billion went to 6.4 million survivors at an average monthly benefit of $1,129. (Social Security Administration USA, 2010).
The Social Security Administration of the U.S. estimates that…
USDA Food and Nutrition Service. (December 2010). State Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Rates in 2008. Washington, DC:Author. Retrieved from: http://www.fns.usda.gov/oane/MENU/Published/snap/FILES/Participation/Reaching2008.pdf
DeParle, Jason. (November 28, 2009). Food Stamp Use Soars and Stigma Fades. New York Times.
Social Security Administration USA (2010). Fact Sheets. Washington, DC:Author. Retrieved from: http://www.ssa.gov/pressoffice/factsheets/basicfact-alt.pdf
Trumball, Mark. (2011, January 17). The Retirement Workforce. Christian Science Monitor.
It becomes more and more likely that by the middle of this century, all those hard-earned dollars that today's twenty- and thirty-year-olds have paid into Social Security will simply not be there.
Privatizing social security ensures the post-baby boomers that their money will be there for them when they retire. It takes the control out of the government's hands, which has notoriously not been the best financial advisor in history, and places in the hands of the individuals who earned it. In addition, eventually, it will reduce the expenses of the Social Security Administration as more and more workers no longer have to rely on the system. In addition, it puts money into the U.S. economy, not sitting stagnant in the U.S. treasury.
Disadvantages of President Bush's Plan:
Both aspberry (2005) and Weisman and White (2005) see one major flaw in the President's plan. The future scenarios that lead to…
Ehrenfeld, T., Atkins, a., Ozols, J.B., Crowley, P., Grimes, L., Joseph, N., Raymond, J., Reno, J., Shenfeld, H., Shulman, K., Skipp, C., & Quinn, J.B. (14 Feb. 2005). How to land on your feet. Newsweek, 145(7). Retrieved February 22, 2005, from Academic Search Premier database.
Raspberry, W. (7 Feb. 2005). A test of faith on social security. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 22, 2005, from Proquest database.
Sloan, a., Berman, a., Macbride, E., Reno, J., & Riccitiello, R. (12 Apr. 2004). Why your tax cut doesn't add up. Newsweek, 143(15). Retrieved February 22, 2005, from Academic Search Premier database.
Weisman, J. & White, B. (9 Feb. 2005). Bush's social security plan assumes much from stocks. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 22, 2005, from Proquest database.
Future of Social Security
The office of Social Security makes the current attitude of the administration clear: "Social Security was never meant to be the sole source of income in retirement. It is often said that a comfortable retirement is based on a three-legged stool of Social Security, pensions and savings. American workers should be saving for their retirement on a personal basis and through employer-sponsored or other retirement plans," and not simply rely on Social Security. The F& Q. section of the website also adds that "more than 30 countries, including ritain, Australia and Sweden, have established versions of personal accounts," in response to these nation's rapidly aging demography (F& Q. Website, 2005)
ut Democrats say that the current president's idea of cutting future benefits on a sliding scale -- " with low-income workers seeing no change, middle-income workers seeing some reductions and the wealthiest sustaining the hardest hit"…
"Bush Presses Argument for Social Security Overhaul." CNN.com. 30 Apr 2005.
Davis, Julie Hirschfield. "Fight Intensifies over Social Security on Capital hill." Issues & Campaigns. The Baltimore Sun. 30 April 2005. From Our Future.com Website. http://www.ourfuture.org/ issues_and_campaigns/socialsecurity/05_4_30_baltimore_su.cfm 'Frequently Asked Questions About Social Security's Future." Social Security Website. 2005. http://www.ssa.gov/qa.htm
Social Security is one of the strongest federal social welfare programs in the United States. Initiated as part of Franklin Delano oosevelt's New Deal, Social Security kick-started a revolution in federalism that characterized the twentieth century. Prior to New Deal reforms, federal powers were kept largely in check. Social Security was, and still is, challenged on constitutional grounds because of the way its parameters allow for a strong federal government. Social Security raises issues of federalism, in its use of federal resources, funding and power. Moreover, Social Security precludes states from opting out. This essay will analyze the overall effectiveness of Social Security, as determined by the overall goal of the policy in promoting social welfare. The thesis is that in spite of some weaknesses and presumptions, Social Security remains consistent with the constitutional framework of federalism.
When President oosevelt backed Social Security, the policy was a direct response…
Jeffrey, T.P. (2011). Authors of social security believed it was unconstitutional. Retrieved online: http://cnsnews.com/blog/terence-p-jeffrey/authors-social-security-believed-it-was-unconstitutional
Katz, E. (1997). American federalism, past, present, future. Retrieved online: http://www.ucs.louisiana.edu/~ras2777/amgov/federalism.html
Norton, G. (2011). Breaking: Supreme Court rules Social Security is constitutional. Daily KOS. Retrieved online: http://www.dailykos.com/story/2011/08/29/1011367/-Breaking-Supreme-Court-Rules-Social-Security-Is-Constitutional
SSA Status eport
The author of this report has been asked to do an analysis of the Social Security program as it exists in the United States. First, there will be a look at how Social Security was initially envisioned and planned by President Franklin Delano oosevelt. Second, there will be an analysis done of what is projected to happen with Social Security over the next twenty to thirty years. Third, the author of this report will provide two recommendations that will help improve the viability and existence of Social Security over the next generation. Finally, there will be an evaluation of how these recommendations can be implemented given the contentious political environment that exists right now. While petty fights and demagoguery will surely get in the way, the Social Security system is in bad long-term shape and needs to be properly fixed and adjusted immediately.
According to a…
History.com. (2015). FDR signs Social Security Act - Aug 14, 1935 - HISTORY.com.
HISTORY.com. Retrieved 17 July 2015, from http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fdr-signs-social-security-act
Reuteman, R. (2010). Will Baby Boomers Bankrupt Social Security?. CNBC. Retrieved
17 July 2015, from http://www.cnbc.com/id/34941334
Strategic Plan for the Social Security Administration
social security administration is an institution created with the aim of ensuring that workers have a secure future when they retire. The organization pools funds from the people through the check-off system where the employees and other citizens are deducted some amount from their salary automatically. The practice was adopted when it was realized that some people encountered some problems when remitting the money. It also ensured that they live a comfortable life once the income streams from salary have been deducted (Ware, 2011). The same is done in order to ensure that people who have always had challenges to the status of their economy. This paper discusses the strategic plan of the social security administration with respect to making the work go on smoothly. In this study, the possibility of growing the organization to better levels is also analyzed. The paper also…
Bovbjerg B.D. (2008). Social Security Administration Field Office: Reduced Workforce Faces Challenges as Baby Boomers Retire Congressional Testimony. DIANE Publishing
Bovbjerg B.D. (2010). Social Security Administration: Better Planning Needed to Improve Service Delivery: Congressional Testimony. DIANE Publishing
Osterweil, L. (2007). Social security administration electronic service provision a strategic assessment. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
Ware, W. (2011). Elements of systems modernization for the Social Security Administration a report. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Judicial Philosophy of the Supreme Court
Judicial philosophy is a concept that refers to the way judges understand and interpret the law in relation to the specific cases they are handling. This concept emerges from the fact that while laws are universal and broad, they need to be applied to specific cases based on the judge's understanding and interpretation of the law as well as the unique circumstances surrounding the case. The two most common judicial philosophies of the Supreme Court are judicial activism and judicial restraint, which have influenced various cases including Gore vs. Bush (2000) and Obergefell vs. Hodges (2015). Judicial activism refers to a philosophy in which judges depart from conventional precedents to adopt new, progressive social policies whereas judicial restraint is a philosophy in which judges limit the exercise of their own authority (Bendor, 2011).
Judicial activism of the Supreme Court influenced cases like Gore vs.…
115). Congress certainly has the sole right to enact the legislation with which administrative agencies must comply. Moreover, the Congress has an oversight function, and it can and does react when people respond negatively to administrative actions, as occurred in the SSI and disability review examples (Derthick, p.153). Of course, the Court system is the major overseer in the United States. Derthick maintains that courts and administrative agencies perform sufficiently similar roles, making their potential for conflict great (Derthick, p.131). Both courts and administrative agencies are tasked with filling in statutes, but courts are generalists while administrators are specialists, making conflict between their decisions almost inevitable (Derthick, p.131). Moreover, courts may interpret laws differently in different jurisdictions, meaning that a single federal agency could ostensibly have to meet several different federal guidelines (Derthick, p.131). In both the SSI and the review scenarios, court involvement complicated the agency's task, with some…
Martha Derthick. Under Stress: the Social Security Administration in American Government.
Washington, D.C., Brookings Institution, 1990.
President George Bush has recently won reelection as the President of the United States. While he has remained clear and concise on many of his political stances, his position on Social Security has been one of at least marginal variation. His overall belief that the Social Security system should be reworked has not altered, but his position on the best way to do that seems to have changed from month to month. This paper will follow statements from President Bush since November of last year through the election, and will show that while his overall ideas have remained stable, the details of those ideas have changed.
It is important to note that the issue of Social Security reform is not new to President Bush. As early as July of 2000, President Bush was redesigning the Social Security system, beginning to introduce ideas of how to revamp the system to provide…
Allen, Mike. "Bid to Change Social Security is Back." Washington Post, 21 Nov 2003: A14.
Andrews, Edmond L. "To Trim Deficit, Greenspan Urges Social Security and Medicare Cuts." New York Times, 26 Feb., 2004: A10.
Andrews, Edmund L. "Tough Issues, Awaiting their Turn." New York Times 13 April 2004: online. Retrieved 13 Nov 2004 from New York Times.
Associated Press. "Social Security Shortfall Disputed." Washington Post 12 June, 2004: A09.
A system possesses authenticity when the information retrieved is what is expected by the user -- and that the user is correctly identified and cannot conceal his or her identity. Methods to ensure authenticity include having user names and secure passwords, and even digital certificates and keys that must be used to access the system and to prove that users 'are who they say they are.' Some highly secure workplaces may even use biological 'markings' like fingerprint readers (Introduction, 2011, IBM).
Accountability means that the source of the information is not anonymous and can be traced. A user should not be able to falsify his or her UL address or email address, given the requirements of the system. "Non-repudiation is a property achieved through cryptographic methods which prevents an individual or entity from denying having performed a particular action related to data... Through the use of security-related mechanisms, producers and…
Introduction to z/OS Security. (2011). IBM. PowerPoint. Retrieved September 27, 2011 at http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/resources/systems_z_advantages_charter_security_zSecurity_L1_Security_Concepts.ppt
Why is information security important? (2011). Security Extra. Retrieved September 27, 2011 at http://www.securityextra.com/why-is-information-security-important.html
social workers find themselves in the position of being primary care coordinators. This is especially true in situations like the Parker family's, in which there are multiple interrelated issues affecting the family and those issues require input from a wide variety of diverse healthcare workers. The National Association of Social Workers (NASW) stresses the importance of developing and maintaining cross-disciplinary partnerships and partnerships across different organizations that can "enhance access to and continuity of care for social work clientele," (p. 33). Therefore, the most important thing to address whether in public policy or administrative procedure is to have protocols and standards in place for coordinating care across various disciplines and agencies.
The Parker family is dealing with several interrelated issues that include mental health issues but also gerontological ones. More effective coordination of care would help increase and improve access to mental health services for Stephanie while also addressing Sara's…
(Huff, Social ork, 2000, Chapter 1, p.3)
Private efforts were not enough to treat the ills caused by the unchecked capitalism of the Gilded Age, however, an age that brought tremendous wealth to some Americans and tremendous poverty to others. During the first depression occasioned by this split between the haves and the have-nots in 1890, private relief organizations could not cope. "In Mulberry Bend, the heart of the Italian district, one-third of all babies born in 1888 died before their first birthdays. Traditional agencies such as the Children's Aid Society and the Salvation Army were overwhelmed, incapable of meeting the demands placed on their services." (Huff, Social ork, 2000, Chapter 1, p.4) "The old shibboleths commonly accepted as the major causes of poverty, low character, indolence, and intemperance, were replaced with more systemic theories," that sought economic and social causes as the cure, rather than moral reform. (Huff, Social…
Murray, Jill. (1996) "The Social Work History Online Time-Line." The School of Social Work. Retrieved 10 Nov 2005. http://www.gnofn.org/~jill/swhistory/
Huff, Dan. (2000) Social Work: Progress and Reform. A Cyberhistory of Social Work's Most Formative Years. Retrieved 10 Nov 2005 http://www.idbsu.edu/socwork/dhuff/history/central/tc.htm
Security Sector eform
Overview of the relevant arguments regarding Security Sector reform
The objective of security sector reform has to take care of the threats to the security of the state and the safety of its citizens. These arise often from the situation within the state and military responses may not be suitable. This leads on to an analysis of the government. The second article talks in a wider, more theoretical and less action oriented tone. It says that "existing constitutional frameworks have been used to maintain status quo than promote change." This much is certainly true and it is true not only of the countries with a security problem, but also of even United States wherein recently a justice of the Supreme Court was appointed, though she had no experience of being a judge, but she was a friend of the Chief Executive of the country. There are and…
Anderson, Major Will. Wiring up Whitehall: Ensuring Effective Cross -- Departmental
Activity. Journal of Security Sector Management. Volume 3 Number 3 -- June 2005. Retrieved from http://www.jofssm.org/issues/jofssm_0303_AndersonW_Wiring_up_whitehall_2005.doc?CFID=939029& CFTOKEN=57506392 Accessed 6 October, 2005
Ball, Nicole. Enhancing Security Sector Governance: A Conceptual Framework for UNDP. 9
October, 2002. http://www.undp.org/bcpr/jssr/4_resources/documents/UNDP_Ball_2002_SSR%20Concept%20Paper.pdf Accessed 6 October, 2005
Security Audit for FX Hospital EH/EM Systems
The study carries out the security audits for the FX Hospital EH/EM information systems to identify the vulnerabilities in the systems. The study uses the BackTrack as an auditing tool to penetrate the website, and outcomes of the auditing reveal that the website is not secure and can be subject to different vulnerabilities. After carrying out the auditing, the study is able to collect as much patients' data as possible revealing the website can be subject to vulnerable attacks. One of the vulnerabilities identified is that the website UL starts from HTTP showing that an attacker can easily break into the website and collect sensitive information. Moreover, all the data in the website are not encrypted making them easy for an attacker to collect patients' data.
By consequence, the FX Hospital can face lawsuits for failing to protect patients' data because if patients'…
Abdel-Aziz, A. (2009). Intrusion Detection & Response - Leveraging Next Generation Firewall Technology. SANS Institute.
Burr, W. Ferraiolo, H. & Waltermire, D. (2014). IEEE Computer Society. NIST and Computer Security.
Chadwick, D. (2012). Network Firewall Technologies. IS Institute, University of Salford.
Mell, P.Bergeron, T. & Henning, D.(2005).Creating a Patch and Vulnerability Management Program. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
There needs to be however more efficiency put into the process of validating just what is personal vs. professional mail, with a more insightful series of policies put in place to define acceptable use of e-mail and communications systems (Breaux, Anton, 2008).
Clearly, being able to guard against personal data of employees being accessed, sold or used in any way needs to have even more stringent rules associated with it (Breaux, Anton, 2008). The fact that so many companies today have their employee database compromised and then selectively sold off to telemarketers, it is clear that higher penalties need to be put into place for it professionals who either have lax security in place to allow this to happen, or unfortunately make the terrible mistake of thinking this is a way to make extra cash. As has been seen from the cases of overt theft of employee data, it has…
Breaux, T., & Anton, a.. (2008). Analyzing Regulatory Rules for Privacy and Security Requirements. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 34(1), 5-20.
Doss, Erini, & Loui, Michael C. (1995). Ethics and the privacy of electronic mail. Information Society, 11(3), 223.
Lautsch, John C.. (1985). Information Privacy and the MIS Manager. The Journal of Information Systems Management, 2(2), 79.
Patel, M.. (2009). The Threat from Within. Risk Management, 56(5), 8-9.
Already educated, she had the resources to -- and indeed did find - employment opportunities. Sociologically, she belonged in the lower middle classes. Both individuals had intelligence, courage and grits. But both also possessed existent privileges with which they could pull themselves up. Critics of the work-it-hard perspective omit these facts. Perhaps they do so because focusing on the ordeals of the working class would suck us in a web of responsibility.
The unfortunate fact is that individuals belonging to the working class castigate themselves unfairly for conditions that are beyond their control.
An example in Newman's book is illustrated by 'Jarvis' who, despite his experience, unable to find a job in a restaurant is still seeking employment. Yet 'Jarvis' still holds himself accountable for his lack of success "Some people are willing to try hard and therefore they can make it, regardless if the deck is stacked against them…
Newman, K.S. No Shame in my Game: The Working Poor in the Inner City. NY: Vintage, 2000
Aging and Social Policy
rends in Aging Social Policy
he Rise of the Contenders
he number of citizens above the age of 65 has expanded dramatically over the past 100 years. In 1900, the average life expectancy was just 47.3 years, but a child born in 2008 can expect to live another 30.8 years on average. From an economic perspective, the seniors alive 100 years ago were largely dependent on others for their survival and this realization triggered policy changes that provided many advantages, including a security net for retirees.
After World War II, the economy became robust enough that the aged began to experience a longer life expectancy and greater economic wealth. his resulted in the emergence of a politically powerful demographic that could begin to influence public policy on its own. his process has been viewed as cyclical, in that public policies strengthened a specific demographic and the…
The expectation is that this trend will put an enormous stress on the U.S. economy. By the time ACA was signed into law by President Obama in 2010, close to 16% of the nation's gross domestic product was being spent on healthcare. By 2035, this percentage is expected to double. As the baby boom generation begins retirement over the next two decades, the public will increasingly shoulder the burden of health care costs for the aged.
The ACA attempts to limit increasing Medicare costs by shifting the focus of providers from generating volume to improving care quality. For example, hospitals will be penalized for preventable hospital readmissions and diseases/injuries acquired during hospital stays. The ACA provisions also reduce payments to Medicare Advantage recipients, who tend to be retirees who want or need more flexibility and protections than standard Medicare coverage provides. By comparison, the most recent federal budget plan proposed by congressional Republicans calls for repeal of the ACA and converting Medicare into a voucher program. The Republican budget also calls for an increase in the retirement age. Although the White House budget plan has yet to be released, the expectations are that Medicare will remain intact as an entitlement program, but the wealthier beneficiaries will be expected to pay more.
The budget battle over federal entitlements is essentially a battle over values. From the Republican perspective, those that have earned their way when young will receive some measure of help when they retire, but there are no guarantees on how much help will be provided. In contrast, the White House and congressional Democrats view Medicare as something earned and therefore inviolate. Viewed another way, the Republicans envision a minimalist government and Democrats see a role for government in easing the fears many face when they become disabled or too old to care for themselves. In view of this perspective, seniors have benefited largely from the latter values for the past 78 years.
" (Muntenu, 2004)
According to Muntenu (2004) "It is almost impossible for a security analyst with only technical background to quantify security risk for intangible assets. He can perform a quantitative or qualitative evaluation using dedicated software to improve the security of the information systems, but not a complete risk assessment for the whole information system. Qualitative assessment based on questionnaires use in fact statistical quantitative methods to obtain results. Statistical estimation represents the basis for quantitative models." Muntenu states conclusion that in each of these approaches the "moral hazard of the analyst has influence on the results because human nature is subjective. He must use a sliding window approach according to business and information systems features, balancing from qualitative to quantitative assessment." (2004) qualitative study of information systems security is reported in a study conducted in U.S. academic institutions in the work of Steffani a. urd, Principal Investigator for…
Burd, Steffani a. (2006) Impact of Information Security in Academic Institutions on Public Safety and Security: Assessing the Impact and Developing Solutions for Policy and Practice. Final Report." NCJ 215953, United States Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice, Oct 2006.
Muntenu, Adrian (2004) Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions Information Security Risk Assessment: The Qualitative vs. Quantitative Dilemma
Full text PDF: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/215953.pdfMunteanu , Adrian (2004) the Information Security Risk Assessment: The Qualitative vs. Quantitative Dilemma. Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions.
Tracking normal activity patterns of users is essential to enable abnormal activity to be flagged. Also, unintentional user errors such as logging onto unsecure websites and opening up potentially infected documents must be flagged. Sending an email from an odd-looking address and seeing if employees open the email is one way to gage the relative wariness of employees. If employees open up the email, it staff can include a message warning them that this is just the kind of message employees should delete.
Creating 'backdoor' threats and viruses to attack a system, and see if it is vulnerable is one potential 'fire drill' that can be used by the organization to assess potential areas that can be compromised. General assessments of the knowledge of non-it and it staff of proper security procedures and the areas which can pose new threats are also essential.
Simple systematic procedures, such as requiring employees…
Internet: Security on the Web
Security on the Web -- What are the Key Issues for Major Banks?
The age of digital technology -- email, Web-driven high-speed communication and information, online commerce, and more -- has been in place now for several years, and has been touted as a "revolutionary" technological breakthrough, and for good reason: This technology presents enormous new business opportunities. For example, by moving the key element of marketing and sales from local and regional strategies onto the global stage, and by providing dramatically improved customer convenience, the Web offers medium, small and large companies -- including banks -- unlimited growth potential.
That having been said, there are problems associated with online services, in particular online banking services, and security is at the top of the list of these issues. Some of the most serious security issues associated with Web-banking keep customers away from this technology, in…
Anti-Phishing Working Group (2004), "Committed to wiping out Internet scams and fraud: Origins of the Word 'Phishing'," Available: http://www.antiphishing.org /word_phish.html.
Arnfield, Robin (2005), "McAfee Warns on Top Viruses," (News Factor Network / Yahoo! News), Available:
http://www.news.yahoo/news?tmpl=story& cid=75& u=/nf/20050104/tc_nf/29450& printer=1.
Bergman, Hannah (2004), "FDIC Offers, Solicits Ideas on Stopping ID Theft," American Banker, vol. 169, no. 240, p. 4.
Despite its clear benefits and advantages in terms of ease of use and cost effectiveness, there are certain risks associated with wireless networking. These risks are discussed further below.
Review of the Literature.
Security Risks Associated with IEEE WLAN 802.11. The applications for wireless communication technology continue to develop and expand; today, at least, the 802.11b is the standard of choice for wireless router communication used with network installation (Gonazles & Higby 2003). "The integrity of the transmitted data is a valid 2.4 GHz. At this wavelength medium, the propagation of wavelength maintains strong connectivity" (Gonzales & Higby 2003, p. 30). The technology of WLANs actually dates back to the mid-1980s; during this period, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) freed up radio frequency (rf) to the industry. "Initially, this was viewed as a broadcast reception procedure and very little thought went to broadcast transmission" (Gonzales & Higby 2003, p. 30).…
Alexander, Steve. 2004. Computers and Information Systems. In Encyclopedia Britannica Book of the Year [premium service].
Anderson, Robert H., Tora K. Bikson, Richard O. Hundley & C. Richard Neu. 2003. The Global Course of the Information Revolution: Recurring Themes and Regional Variations. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Bliss, R. Marion. September 5, 2003. Homeowners Connect to Wireless Fidelity. The Washington Times, p. F29.
Brookshear, J.G. 2000. Computer Science: An Overview. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.
The first 10 years the 21st century began a seemingly new age of terror and fear where heightened alert statuses and preventive measures can be seen as taken to extremes. The macrocosmic status of the global affairs which are often riddled with warfare, strife and suspicion can be examined at the microcosmic level within the information security and data protection industry. The purpose of this essay is to examine these questions: "How should we decide how secure we want our information to be? And who should be responsible to make these decisions? I'll answer these questions using ideas connecting the rationality of fear and security. Next I'll examine how materialism has distracted technology from its true essence, to help mankind. Lastly I will offer solutions to hopefully eliminate confusing and overbearing problems that humanity's quest for security can both effectively and efficiently have serious impact on that condition.
Antonopoulos, A. (2011). " Can you have too much security? "NetworkWorld May31, 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.networkworld.com/columnists/2011/053111-andreas.html
CIOinsight. (2005). "Jurassic Plaque: the u-curve of security." April 21, 2005.
Fact Forum Framework. (n.d.) "Computer Security." Retrieved from http://www.caplet.com/security/taxonomy/index.html
Lipowicz, A. (2010). "Wikileaks fallout: white house orders classified data security review." Federal Computer Week Nov 30, 2010. Retrieved from http://fcw.com/articles/2010/11/30/white-house-wikileaks-classified-data-security - review.aspx
Colic's (2005) argument is that there is a very strong correlation between porr housing and an individual's physical ill health. He goes further to point out that six out of every ten homeless individuals do suffer from a certain form of mental distress. About 20% of this lot have severe mental illness. In a nutshell, social exclusion gives rise to a direct form of social and economic consequences that include poor housing and limited financial resources.
Dunn (1999) studied the link between social exclusion and mental health. His concluded that the correlation was rather strong and was in congruence with what other authors have documented. It has been acknowledged that unemployment affects persons who have long-term mental disorders in a way that is far greater as compared to the other persons with disability. A total of only 13% are employed as opposed to the more than a third of individuals…
Burnett, R. (2004) To reoffend or not to reoffend? The ambivalence of convicted property offenders in Maruna and Immarigeon, After Crime and Punishment.
Burnett A and Peel M (2001) Health needs of asylum seekers and refugees British Medical
Journal 322:544-547 (link to www.bmj.com)
Colic, P., (2005). Refugees and Employment: The effects of visible difference on discrimination. Perth: Murdoch University Press.
Health-Care Data at Euclid Hospital Security and Control: A White Paper
Protecting Health-Care Data
The efficiency of the modern healthcare system is increasingly becoming reliant on a computerized infrastructure. Open distributed information systems have been initiated to bring professionals together on a common platform throughout the world. It needs to be understood that easy and flexible methods of processing and communication of images; sound and texts will help in visualizing and thereby cure illnesses and diseases effectively. Another aspect is that the easy access and usage can risk patient privacy, accountability, and secrecy associated with the healthcare profession. Therefore, Information Technology -- IT must be able to focus mainly on improving the health of the patient and should not put the patient's health in danger. (IO Press)
This implies that right data has to be made available to the right person at the right time. IT strongly affects the confidentiality…
A WWW implementation of National Recommendations for Protecting Electronic Health
Accessed 21 September, 2005
IO Press. Retrieved from http://www.iospress.nl/loadtop/load.php?isbn=9051992661
Security at workplaces is not only the responsibility of the management, but all the parties in the premises. Therefore, it is important that everyone is involved one way or another in maintenance of security. In a company the size of Walter Widget, with 240 personnel, it can be challenging to maintain high security standards.
With the increasing nationwide crime against workplaces and businesses, the stakes in workplace security are high. Walter Widget must be concerned about theft of any kind including trade secrets, computer information and other resources. The firm needs to take necessary steps to prevent other security risks such as arson, vandalism and workplace violence.
Workplace crime affects production. According to Bressler (2007) businesses are prone to a wide variety of crimes and need to take action in prevention of criminal activities that influence profitability. Workplace crime affects the employees, because it results insecurity at work. Safety at…
Bressler, M.S. (2007). The Impact of Crime on Business: A Model for Prevention, Detection & Remedy. Journal of Management and Marketing Research.
Burke, M.E., & Schramm, J. (2004 ). Getting to Know the Candidate Conducting Reference Checks. Alexandria: Research SHRM.
Deitch, D., Igor, K., & Ruiz, A. (1999). The Relationship Between Crime and Drugs: What We Have Learned in Recent Decades. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs .
Idaho National Engineering and Enviromental Laboratory. (2004). Personnel Security Guidelines. U.S. Department of Homeland security. Idaho Falls: Idaho national Engineering and Enviromental Laboratory.
Social Engineering Attacks Counter Intelligence
Social Engineering Counter Intelligence
Describe what social engineering and counterintelligence are and their potential implications to our national security in regard to the leaked Afghan War Diary and the Iraq War Logs.
Social engineering is the theft of classified information. Then, using it to change everyone's opinions and perceptions about what is happening. Counter intelligence is preventing hostile enemies or organizations from obtaining access to sensitive material. These areas are viewed from two different perspectives. The first one is that of more liberal attitudes. They believe that any kind of secret files, are allowing the U.S. government to hide the truth. This is when it has no accountability for engaging in different actions. These voices, feel any kind of disclosures of classified information, is critical to understanding the larger issues and letting the public (i.e. world) know what they are up to. (Mulrine, 2013) (Harding,…
Wiki Leaks. (2010). ABC News. Retrieved from: http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wikileaks-109000-deaths-iraq-war/story?id=11949670
Wiki Leaks Releases. (2010). VOA News. Retrieved from: http://www.voanews.com/content/wikileaks-releases-400000-classified-us-military-files-105568738/128719.html
Fowler, A. (2011). The Most Dangerous Man in the World. Carlton: University of Melbourne Press.
Harding, L. (2011). Wiki Leaks. New York, NY: Public Affairs.
Like all other aspects of business today, security systems often prove to be highly complex and hard (even for the participants) to identify.
The culture of an organization is like the culture of a family, a community, or a nation: Because it surrounds the people in it they often have a great deal of difficulty in recognizing to what extent policies and procedures arise from the constraints of culture and what therefore can be relatively easily changed. Matz (2010) summarizes the ways in which organizational culture both supports an organization and can blind the individuals in it to ways in which their actions may no longer be as effective as they once were:
… the essence of organisational cultures consists of a set of 'unspoken rules' that exist without conscious knowledge of the members of the organisation. Over time the invisibility of the attributes at the deepest level…
Dalton, D.R. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post 9/11 Era, New York: Butterworth-Heinemann
Deal, T.E. & Kennedy, a.A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: The Rites, and Rituals of Corporate Life, London: Penguin.
Gartenberg, M. (2005). How to develop an enterprise security policy. http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/98896/How_to_develop_an_enterprise_security_policy .
Johnston, L. & Shearing, C. (2003). Governing Security: Explorations in Policing and Justice. London: Routledge.
What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?
The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).
In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and…
Baptiste, T. (2009). Being a Leader and Making Decisions. 1st. ed. New York: Chelsea House.
Beerel, A. (2009). Leadership and Change Management. 1st. ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Bornstein, D. & Davis, S. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know. 1st. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. 1st. ed. London: Routledge.