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Proactive and reactive - the Solution-Focused parent begins with a plan then continually evaluates how the plan is working, allowing modifications to be made to maximize its effectiveness (CEUS, 2005, p.1). Bruce (1995) believes that implementation of active, diverse strategies and interventions, including role-playing, artwork, homework assignments, interpretations, visualizations, and reframing help children and adolescents achieve their goals.
Active rather than directive - the Solution-Focused perspective includes the belief that helping children make decisions for themselves is generally better than making decisions for them (CEUS, 2005, p.1). Bruce (1995) thinks that by establishing clear, concrete, measurable goals that serve to help the teacher and student evaluate their progress.
Empowering - A solution-Focused approach encourages the child to view him/herself as an agent of change rather than a powerless pawn in a dangerous world (CEUS, 2005, p.2).
Positive - Solution-Focused approaches allows a parent to realistically and consistently see the positive…
Bruce, M.A. (1995). Brief Counseling: An effective model for change. School Counselor, 42, 353-364.
CEU Station (2005). Solution Focused Parenting. Retrieved 09/20/05, at http://www.ceustation.com/freeceu.html
Perkins, J.E. (1999). The Solution Frame: The Genius of Solution-Focused Therapy. The solution frame, pp.1-9. Retrieved 09/20/05, at http://www.drizzle.com/~newroots/papers/1m07.html
Schieffer, J.L., & Schieffer, D.J. (2000). Problem-Solving Skills: Solution-Focused Strategies for student Development. Problem solving, 1, pp.1-8. Retrieved 9/20/05, at http://www.ncacasi.org/jsi/2000v1i2/problem_sol_4
Solution focused therapists operate on the logic that all problems have exceptions and by studying those exceptions and maintaining a definite vision of the ideal future, the therapist and patient can collaboratively come up with ideas to resolve problems. Their focus is the future, and competency. These therapists underscore and harness client strengths for facilitating a better future. The assumption underlying solution focused counseling is that solutions might be found within clients and their social networks. With postmodernism raising questions regarding the "universal truth" concept and the preeminence of the counselor's role, the counselor-client relationship started transforming, with the clients coming to be recognized as experts when it comes to their own lives. This gave rise to a more cooperative counseling approach, setting up a context wherein solution focused therapy could succeed (AIPC).
How It Is Based On Systems Theory Principles
The area of systems psychology applies complicated systems for…
AIPC. (n.d.). Solution Focused Therapy: A Guide to Counselling Therapies. J & S. Garrett Pty Ltd.
American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. (2014, October 31). Code of Ethics. Retrieved from AAMFT.org: http://www.aamft.org/imis15/content/legal_ethics/code_of_ethics.aspx
Bertolino, B., & O'Hanlon, B. (2002). Collaborative, competency-based counseling and therapy. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Cook, F. (2015). Solution-Focused brief Therapy. Retrieved from The Stuttering Foundation.
Marriage Family Therapy
My main clients are single-parent African-American women from low socio-economic backgrounds. They present themselves for therapy as a result of overwhelming feelings of stress, depression, and/or medical conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, etc. Some clients use non-prescription drugs such as marijuana. My primary therapy model is solution focused therapy and my secondary MFT models are general systems theory and post-modernism. My goal in using solution focused therapy is to collaborate with clients in identifying goals that they could set for themselves to achieve a higher quality of life for themselves. My secondary goals, using my secondary models, is to draw out the subjective experience of my clients so that it can analyzed from an objective standpoint by identifying patterns in the behavior and thinking that they demonstrate in response to questions that I ask.
For example, in order to understand what goals might be appropriate…
Berg, I.K. & Dolan, Y. (2001). Tales of solution: A collection of hope inspiring stories. New York: W.W. Norton.
Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General System Theory: Foundations, Developments,
Applications. New York: Braziller.
De Jong, P., & Berg, I.K.(2007). Interviewing for solutions (3rd Edition). Brooks/Cole:
Solution Focused Therapy
Depression is regarded as one of the most common psychiatric illnesses across the globe since it's the second most incapacitating disorder among all physical and psychological disorders. The rate of life prevalence of this psychiatric disorder is high among women throughout the world since it ranges between 12 and 25%. Parents of disabled children are increasingly likely to suffer from depression because of the negative effects of the disability such as high degrees of stress and anger (Motamedi et. al., 2007, p.3). Since mothers play a fundamental role in raising children and ensuring the stability of the family, they are increasingly likely to suffer from depression when caring for children with disabilities. As a result of their increased vulnerability to depression, it is important to identify and utilize appropriate therapy for mothers with children with disabilities, especially young mothers. Solution focused therapy seems to be the most…
Motamedi et. al. (2007). A Study in Depression Levels among Mothers of Disabled Children. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, 5(5,6), 3-7.
Reichman, N.E., Corman, H. & Noonan, K. (2008). Impact of Child Disability on the Family. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 12(6), 679-683.
Trepper et. al. (n.d.). Solution Focused Therapy Treatment Manual for Working with Individuals. Retrieved September 10, 2015, from http://www.sfbta.org/research.pdf
Objective: The motivation behind this paper is to give annotated bibliography of sources on research in regards to overseeing conduct in young people and kids through arrangement centered treatment. Solution Focused Therapy or SFBT is a type of therapy that spotlights on solutions rather than on issues. Therapists do this by helping Adolescents and Children recognize what's annoying them. A significant piece of SFT is helping the Adolescents and Children distinguish what has and hasn't worked in the past when managing a specific test. It at that point urges them to utilize their qualities to achieve their objectives. Since SFBT is objective arranged and present moment, it tends to be less exorbitant and less tedious than long haul treatment. Methodology: For this undertaking, FSCJ's databases diary articles are used to find them. To identify with similar restricted center articles, the hunt terms "Overseeing Behavior in Adolescents and Children Through…
The author of this paper is about to offer a brief literature review of what has come to be known as solution-focused therapy. Included in that literature review will be several specific topics or examples that are within the solution-focused therapy paradigm. These include the history of the theory, the use of language to help create a solution-focused therapeutic environment, the role of family history when it comes to solution-focused therapy, the shift from a problems focus to a solutions focus in a way that benefits the client, the development of a short vignette that is based on a family situation, global goals of the treatment method using the language of theory, interventions that should be used at each stage of treatment (those being beginning, middle and end) and a succinct summary of all of the above. There are certainly other methodologies that can be used when treating…
Carr, S.M., Smith, I.C., & Simm, R. (2014). Solution-focused brief therapy from the perspective of clients with long-term physical health conditions. Psychology,
Health & Medicine, 19(4), 384-391. doi:10.1080/13548506.2013.824594
Cotton, J. (2010). Question Utilization in Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Recursive
Frame Analysis of Insoo Kim Berg's Solution Talk. Qualitative Report, 15(1), 18-
Thus, giving the patient a 'bird's eye view' of his/her life gives him/her a chance to reconsider past actions committed and change these to improve his/her relations with a partner or family member. As in family brief therapies, reconstructing a family's life according to each member's interpretation and reflection helps the therapist identify the family member who adopts a constructive or destructive view of the 'reconstructed family life.' Through SFT, the therapist is able to create a therapeutic process that would be time-efficient and beneficial to patients.
itter and Nicoll (2004) elucidated effectively the effectiveness of brief therapy treatment for couples and families (64):
brief therapists seek to establish in their clients a renewed faith in self as well as optimism and hope for their immediate and long-term futures. It is caring, however, that guarantees the client support and a safe return in a future session, now matter how the…
Bury, D. (2000). "Constructivist paradigms in other therapies." Journal of Constructivist Psychology, Vol. 13, Issue 4.
Bitter, J. And W. Nicoll. (2000). "Adlerian brief therapy with individuals: process and practice." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 56, Issue 1.
____. (2004). "Relational strategies: two approaches to Adlerian brief therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 1.
Disque, J.G. And J. Bitter. (2004). "Emotion, experience, and early recollections: exploring restorative reorientation processes in Adlerian therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 2.
For example, Jones and Charlton note that it is possible to develop appropriate problem-solving techniques in the following four major areas:
1. Identifying the goal which is appropriate and achievable;
2. Identifying exceptions to the usual pattern of problems;
3. Measuring the student's progress towards achieving the goal; and,
4. Providing useful and positive feedback.
Finally, SFBT can be used either as a "stand-alone" counseling approach or in tandem with other techniques. For example, Linton (2005) emphasizes that SFBT ". . . can operate as a stand alone approach or in conjunction with traditional models of treatment. Solution-focused mental health counselors do not view SFBT and traditional models of treatment as incompatible. Collaborating with clients to create counseling goals, be they directed towards abstinence, self-help group attendance, changes in thinking errors, or some other goal of the client's choosing, selves to enhance motivation to change" (p. 298). Likewise, Jones and…
de Shazer, S. (1979, Summer). Brief therapy with families. American Journal of Family
de Shazer, S. (1986). An indirect approach to brief therapy (Family Therapy Collections, Vol.
19, pp 48-55, Aspen Systems). Milwaukee, WI: Brief Family Therapy Center.
Counseling Therapy Theories
Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT)
The solution focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a type of therapy that is used much in counseling and a lot of time referred to as talking therapy that is based on the social constructionist philosophy. This therapy focuses on the aim or goal of the customer rather than the problem that drove him to seek help. It does not focus on the past events but primarily pays attention to the future.
The SFBT at times referred to as solution-focused or solution-building therapy was initiated and developed by Steve Shazer (1940-2005) in collaboration with Insoo Kim Berg (1934-2007) and their colleagues from the late 1970's in Wisconsin. This therapy is future focused, focuses on the goals and the solutions rather than on the problem (Institute for Solution-Focused Therapy, 2011).
Here, it is the duty of the counselor to invite the client to try…
Alan Car, (1998). Michael White's Narrative Theory, Contemporary Family Therapy. Human Sciences Press Inc. http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=j42386l16060v3q0&size=largest
Cynthia Good Mojab, (2006). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy. Retrieved September 6, 2011
Freedman, J. & Combs, G. (1996). Shifting paradigms: From systems to stories. In Freedman, J. & Combs, G., Narrative therapy: The social construction of preferred realities, chapter 1. New York: Norton.
Solution-Focused Brief Therapy on Mothers with a Disabled Child
This research paper will focus on the ability of the author to effectively provide therapy services to individuals and adopt an enabling role, coaching the client in exploring his/her own way of solving the problems experienced, thereby using his own competence to the greatest extent possible. By using the Solution Focused Therapy approach and the author's own views on letting the client become the expert, promoting self-esteem, and most importantly creating change through various techniques and interventions, it will allow client to see through a new 'lens' of self.
This researcher selects Janet as a case study. She is 25 years old and lives in with her boyfriend with whom she has two son. The older son, James, has a disability in his clef foot. This incurable disability, her husband's abusive attitude and the natural inner struggles of a growing woman…
Bryman, A. (n.d.) Triangulation. Reference World. Retrieved on November 29, 2015 from http://www.referenceworld.com/sage/socialscience/triangulation.pdf
Cepeda, L. M. and Davenport, D. S. (2006). Person-centered therapy and solution-focused brief therapy: an integration of present and future awareness. Vol. 43 # 1,Psychotherapy: Pubmed.
Retrieved on November 26, 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22121955/
Darlaston-Jones, D. (2007). Making connections: the relationship between epistemology and research methods. Vol 19 # 1, The Australian Community Psychology: University of Notre
What Corey describes as "postmodern" therapy is, in reality, largely a series of evolutionary changes. Recalling how evolution works -- in which organisms change form ultimately as an adaptive mechanism -- might be useful here, insofar as many of these "postmodern" approaches seem adaptive in terms of the actual climate of opinion concerning psychotherapy and its medical utility. The chief example that I am thinking of here is "solution-focused brief therapy."
The notion of "solution-focused brief therapy" would have caused Sigmund Freud to spin in his grave, considering Freud devoted an entire book, entitled Analysis Terminable and Interminable, to the question of whether psychotherapy should ideally last forever. However the widespread cultural rejection of the Freudian paradigm is, perhaps, one reason why the notion of long-term Freudian analysis has come to be replaced with the fast food approach. But the chief reason appears to be adaptive: increasingly health…
Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) radically transforms the therapeutic process and relationship. As the name suggests, solution-focused brief therapy is about "being brief and focusing on solutions, rather than on problems," ("About Solution-Focused Brief Therapy," n.d.). Instead of drawn-out and costly sessions with therapists, the client receives highly focused therapeutic intervals that do not delve into the past other than what is absolutely necessary. Only three to five sessions are generally warranted for solution-focused brief therapy (Iveson, 2002). The underlying principle of being solution-focused is that therapy should be proactive. The Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Association (n.d.) claims, "so much time and energy, as well as many resources, are spent on talking about problems, rather than thinking about what might help us to get to solutions that would bring on realistic, reasonable relief as quickly as possible." In fact, during the intake interview, the client might not even be asked about…
"About Solution-Focused Brief Therapy," (n.d.). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Association. Retrieved online: http://www.sfbta.org/about_sfbt.html
Iveson, C. (2002). Solution-focused brief therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 8. 149-156.
Solution-Focused Therapy: AIDS and Dying Well
Pattern of Questioning
The pattern of questioning that Berg uses in "Dying Well" begins with effective questioning technique. Berg asks Tanya what she hopes or wants to accomplish before death. It is Tanya's response that she wants to confront her past -- so that she can go home and say goodbye to her mother. Her goal is to "get rid of" the past issues that are keeping her from going home -- namely, the abuse she suffered at the hands of her brothers and father (Berg, 2012). She feels that by confronting this issue she can avoid having a bad encounter with her family if she goes home.
Berg asks Tanya, "What difference will it make?" if she confronts this issue and "gets rid of" the problem she is having about her feelings of hate for her brothers and father. Tanya talks through this…
Berg, I. K. (2012, October 4). Dying well. Milwaukee, WI [Video File].
Gerhart, D. R.(2014) Mastering competencies in family therapy Belmont, CA: Brooks-
Cole, Cengage Learning.
It also relaxes them and helps build rapport, and it can give you ideas to use for treatment...Everybody has natural resources that can be utilised. These might be events...or talk about friends or family...The idea behind accessing resources is that it gives you something to work with that you can use to help the client to achieve their goal...Even negative beliefs and opinions can be utilised as resources. (p. 451)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy also works with negative aspects of the client's life as a way to increase the positive aspects of his or her life. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a more established therapy than in solution-based therapy, although the two are conceptually twinned. The major goal of cognitive behavioral therapy is to solve difficulties that arise in the client's life as the result of the presence of behaviors and cognitions (that is, thoughts) along with emotions that are dysfunctional (Albano…
Jones, D. (2008). Becoming a brief therapist: Special edition. London: Lulu Enterprises.
McCullough, J.P. (2003). Treatment for chronic depression: Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy. London: Guilford Press.
Miller, S.D., Hubble, M.A., Duncan, B.L. (1996). Handbook of solution-focused brief therapy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
O'Connell, B. (1998). Solution focused therapy. Los Angeles: Sage.
Constructivist Perspective of Brief Therapy
Understanding the basis of theories and therapy is a necessary element of the therapist's trade. Without some knowledge of why certain therapies are practiced, or where they came from, it is difficult to develop a personal theory and a personal view of how to conduct therapy. Since one of the basic concepts presently is that of brief therapy, it is necessary to see how that concept was formulated by other concepts. Thus, this paper examines how constructivist perspectives underlie brief therapy. This paper also gives the author the opportunity to voice a personal statement about how these findings coincide with personal constructions of therapy.
It is first necessary to understand the terms that are to be discussed. The two primary phrases to be discussed are constructivism and brief therapy. However, it is also necessary to grasp what brief therapies exist.
Fritscher, L. (2009). Brief therapy. Retrieved from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/brieftherapydef.htm
Levenson, H., Speed, J., & Budman, S.H. (1995). Therapists' experience, training and skill in brief therapy: A bicoastal survey. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 49(1), 95-106.
Maturana, H.R. & Varela, F, J. (1998). The tree of knowledge: The biological roots of human understanding (Revised Edition). boston: Shambhala
Presbury, J.H., Echterling, L. G, & McKee, J.E. (2008). Beyond brief counseling and therapy: An integrative approach (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson/Merill Prentice-Hall.
Collaborative language systems focuses on the collaborative dialogue between therapist and client, where the two analyze and change the client's use of language about his or her problems to formulate a workable solution (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide).
Another type of postmodern therapies is narrative therapy, which tries to help clients see how cultural narratives have shaped the subject's way of being in the world. By seeing their life narratives as constructed, clients are free to rewrite those narratives in a more positive fashion. Similarly, solution-focused therapy focuses on "the construction of solutions to problems" and building new connections: the focusing past is not meaningful, because the past is always interpreted through the lens of the present, so what is more important is creating a fruitful approach to living today (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide). The therapist acts as a facilitator, and since there are no universal truths, the goal…
Notes: Postmodern therapy. (2009). Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.hsu.edu/uploadedFiles/Faculty/williaw/O-H%20Notes%2013%20Postmodern%281%29.pdf
Postmodern therapy. (2009). Depression Guide. Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.depression-guide.com/postmodern-therapy.htm
Factors that augment risks of self-cutting
Treatment of Self-Cutting
Aims of Group Therapy
Aspects of Group Therapy
The aim of this research is to investigate and identify opinions regarding vital elements for successful group therapy and to suggest the distinguished elements as guiding principles for future group counselling guidelines, theoretical as well as program development. Therapists are to recognize the essential factors of group therapy, which contribute to positive therapeutic results. The important elements of group therapy established by the board of professionals shall be suggested as guiding principles for future group therapy, theoretical and program development (Edwards, 2001).
Group therapy is a type of psychotherapy whereby one or more therapists attend to a tiny group of patients together as a group. It entails one or more psychologists that head a group of approximately five to fifteen clients. In the same milieu, group counselling…
Conyne, R. K. (Ed.). (2011). The Oxford handbook of group counselling. Oxford University Press.
Edwards, S. A. (2001). The essential elements of multi-family group therapy: A Delphi study.
Fehr, S. S. (Ed.). (2012). 101 interventions in group therapy. Routledge.
Glass, S. D. (2010). The practical handbook of group counselling. Bloomington, Ind.: Trafford Publishing
Dana is a young and beautiful woman with family members that seem to constantly put her down whenever they get together. They appear to be self-centered and attention seeking. The mother has set expectations she places on her family and seems angry whenever they do not meet those expectations. For example, the mother suggested Dana get breast enlargement surgery to appease her boyfriend Matt. Her sister, Joanie also commented on Dana's appearance, making sure to let Dana know she appeared overweight or had a large rear end. These comments can and do affect people's self-esteem especially when the source of such comments are from people that person loves or is supposed to trust.
Dana takes everything and says nothing, agreeing with the remarks and feeling like she truly is overweight even if objectively people see her as very attractive. She also cannot say how she feels even around her boyfriend.…
Arendt, K., Thastum, M., & Hougaard, E. (2015). Homework Adherence and Cognitive Behaviour Treatment Outcome for Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders. Behavioural And Cognitive Psychotherapy, 44(02), 225-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1352465815000429
Gingerich, W. & Peterson, L. (2013). Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Systematic Qualitative Review of Controlled Outcome Studies. Research On Social Work Practice, 23(3), 266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049731512470859
Hayes, S., Levin, M., Plumb-Vilardaga, J., Villatte, J., & Pistorello, J. (2013). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Contextual Behavioral Science: Examining the Progress of a Distinctive Model of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy. Behavior Therapy, 44(2), 180-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2009.08.002
Hofmann, S., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I., Sawyer, A., & Fang, A. (2012). The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy And Research, 36(5), 427-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9476-1
Contextual and Larger System Factors
Role of Collaboration
Steve de Shazer, Insoo Kim erg, and coworkers came up with the original version of the SFT (Solution-Focused rief Therapy) in the year 1982 at Milwaukee, Wisconsin's rief Family Therapy Center. At first, they employed the approach of problem resolution, which they had become acquainted with at Palo Alto, California's Mental Research Institute during their work with psychotherapist, John Weakland. ut upon listening to clients/patients explaining their problems' fine points, they started noticing that clients revealed exceptions as well -- i.e., times when their problem proved to be minimal or even sometimes absent. At this juncture, therapy shifted its emphasis from problem description to two exceptions' specifics. This change of focus ensured migration of therapy to development of a solution, from resolution of the issue. With redefinition of the therapy's focus, a shift was observed in clients' and therapists' individual role expectations,…
Greenberg, G., Granshorn, K., & Danilkewich, A. (2001). Solution-focused therapy: Counseling model for busy family physicians. Can Fam Physician, 2289-2295.
Hertlein, K., Shute, J. L., & Benson, K. (2004). Postmodern Influence in Family Therapy Research:Reflections of Graduate Students . The Qualitative Report, 538-561.
Hepworth, DH, Rooney, R. H., Rooney, G. D., Gottfried, K. S., & Larsen, J. (2006). Direct social work practice: Theory and skills (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
France, M., Rodriguez, M., Hett, G., (2012). Diversity, Culture and Counselling: A Canadian Perspective, 2e. Brush Education: UK.
Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).
Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.
It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…
Cabaj, Robert Paul, and Smith, Mickey. (2008). Overview of Treatment Approaches, Modalities,
and Issues of Accessibility in the Continuum of Care. Center for Substance Abuse
Treatment. Retrieved August 27, 2011, from http://www.samhsa.gov .
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2008). A Provider's Introduction to Substance Abuse
Narrative Therapy vs. Solution-Focused Therapy
What is Superior for Clients in Crisis?
This paper will explore two similar approaches to therapy for clients in crisis: that of narrative therapy and solution-focused therapy. Both therapeutic techniques evolved as a way of helping clients deal with problems in a proactive manner, versus focusing on delving into the individual's past history or attempting to reform the individual's character. However, although they share many similarities, solution-focused therapy has increasingly found favor with both therapists and clients as a way of developing positive cognitive approaches to deal with difficulties. This paper will explore possible reasons why this is so and if solution-focused therapy is indeed superior to narrative therapy. It will conclude with a discussion of another therapy that has also been offered as an alternative to narrative-based therapy -- reality therapy -- which similarly offers a grounded way for clients to perceive their problems…
Narrative therapy. (2010). AIPC. Retrieved from:
Narrative therapy. (2015). Good Therapy. Retrieved from:
Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach
There have been significant interest in research on the problems of addiction; hence, the many scientific studies on the issue. Many of the studies in this area end up with the same conclusions; the concept of addiction is complicated. The complexity partly arises from the effect it has on the drug abuser from different perspectives such as psychological, social, biological, and the impacts of addiction on social law, economics and politics. On the other hand, psychologists perceive drug addiction as a disease. From a religious worldview, addiction is a sin. Therefore, it is possible to view addiction from a medical, behavioral, and spiritual angle. As stated, the concept of addiction is complex, and there are many definitions of addiction reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon (Sremac, 2010).
Notably, all the definitions of addiction portray a negative judgment on addiction, but owing to…
Caldwell, K., & Claxton, C. (2010). Teaching Family Systems Theory: A Developmental-
Constructivist Perspective. Contemporary Family Therapy, 32(1), 3-21.
Gruber, K.J., & Taylor, M.F. (2006). A Family Perspective for Substance Abuse: Implications
from the Literature. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 6(1), 1 -- 29.
Human behavior can be a very fickle and complex thing. Just as human behavior is a rather complex and variable thing, solution-focused therapy variations are much the same way. Indeed, there different viewpoints and methods like postmodernism, general systems, biopsychological, spiritual/ecological and the very important contributions of people like Bronfenbrenner. egardless of the influence or the method, the overall focus of any solution-focused therapy is to find solutions and better outcomes. The major thing that varies is the precise pathway and method that is used to get to that end. Indeed, the patterns and facets of a given method will vary based on the ideology and logic that underpins it. While there are multiple ways and methods that can all accomplish good things for a therapy patient, it is important to know the desired endgame and find a way to move towards the same.
When it comes to postmodernism,…
Hodge, D. R. (2000). Spiritual ecomaps: a new diagrammatic tool for assessing marital and family spirituality. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 26(2), 217-228.
Lau, J., & Ng, K. (2014). Conceptualizing the Counseling Training Environment Using
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory. International Journal for The Advancement of Counselling, 36(4), 423-439.
Neal, J. W., & Neal, Z. P. (2013). Nested or Networked? Future Directions for Ecological
Keller and Helton (2010) explore the "application of a strengths-based empowerment approach in the delivery of counseling. A case study is the research design chosen for this exploratory research.
The research question examined in this work is: How can specific counseling theories be utilized in accordance with specific Appalachian cultural values for client assessment and empowerment? The case study was conducted involving a 28-year-old female. The woman was divorced and at the time was living with her two sons on the west side of Cleveland. The researchers examined the life of the case through observation and in-depth interviews. The data were subsequently analyzed using a strengths-based empowerment framework. The strength-based empowerment framework allowed the researchers to examine existing theoretical frameworks such as feminism, existential therapy and solution focused therapy in addition to others.
The case study demonstrated that strength-based counseling approaches could be used successfully with clients from the Appalachian…
Akers, A.Y., Gold, M.A., Borrero, S., Santucci, A., & Schwarz, E.B. (2010). Providers'
Perspectives on Challenges to Contraceptive Counseling in Primary Care Settings.
Journal of Women's Health, 19(6), 1163-1170. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Keller, S., & Helton, L. (2010). Culturally Competent Approaches for Counseling Urban
Counseling Theory: Postmodern Approaches
Counseling orientation has experienced paradigm shifts over the decades from traditional pioneering theories such as cognitive theory, psychoanalysis, and humanism to the postmodernist theory. The rationale for the progression to postmodernism has been the evolving notion of a multiplicity of reality, a shift from modernist empiricism to constructivism (Shurts, 2015). The traditional counseling theorist considered counseling as a true mapping of the psychic phenomena depicting an accurate depiction of human psychological processes (Hansen, 2015). Contrasting with the modernistic approach that assumes a knowable reality, postmodernism assumes that observers create realities. Hansen (2015) notes postmodernism is grounded on the premise of anti-essentialism where observers always infuse phenomena with meaning as opposed to the true knowledge of phenomena being revealed by through objective observation. Postmodern therapy is anchored on the principle of collaborative and consultative stance between the patient and therapist as opposed to the unidirectional and authoritative…
SBFT focuses on the aim a couple wants to achieve. It centers on talking about the present and future conditions of both the partners. Some of the major contributions in the field were made by Milton Erickon, who provided the basics of hypnotic techniques. He asserted the use of hypnosis techniques to discuss with couples the existing and potential problems in their marital life. He focused on the effective and open two way communication regarding all issues of marital life including trust, expectations, sex, and excessive alcohol use (or abuse) by one of the partners and other similar issues (Erickson, 1976). Erickson made use of his proposed hypnosis techniques in counseling couples for solution of all the problems by letting them speak their heart. A
wide variety of hypnotic techniques is of great importance in marriage preparation for the couples who have some issues between them before marriage.
Bowen, Murray (1990) Family Therapy in Clinical Practice: Jason Aronson Publishing.
De Shazer, S. (1985). Keys to solution in brief therapy. New York: W.W. Norton.
Erickson & Rossi (1976) Two-Level Communication and the Microdynamics of Trance and Suggestion, The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1976 Reprinted in Collected Papers Vol.1
Fisch, R., Weakland, J.H., & Segal, L. (1982). The tactics of change. San Francisco:
Training and Development
"Training is an intensive process whereby an employee's job behavior is modified.
Training prepares and enables a person to perform job tasks at a greater level of efficiency"
(Hertig, as cited in Colling & York, 2009, p. 233).
Training Method Options
If Equipped for Life does not successfully train its staff and volunteers to more effectively confront current challenges Staff and volunteers regularly experience regarding maintaining order at the group's weekly dinner and socially-oriented meetings -- the organization's programs could ultimately "fail." At times, according to Shek and Wai (2008) in their study, "Training workers implementing adolescent prevention and positive youth development programs: What have we learned from the literature?" when an adolescent program reflects negative results rather than preventive effects, the organization's program could be attacked. ather than the program or its curriculum constituting the problem, however, the organization's lack of implementing training for Staff and…
Colling, R.L. & York, T.W. (2009). Hospital and healthcare security. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Connie, E.E. & Metcalf, L. (2009). The art of solution focused therapy. New York, NY
Springer Publishing Company.
Ghul, R. (2005). Working with multiple stakeholders. In Education and training in solution focused brief therapy. London, England: Psychology Press. Hamilton, N.L. (2010). Family support network for adolescent cannabis users. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Rockville, MD: DIANE Publishing.
Terrorism: Convergence Between Terrorism Organized Crimes in Mexico
Assessment eport for Marceline
123 Crawford Lane
Phone: +54-675 5545
Presenting Problem or eason for eferral
Marceline is a 19yr old that is self-referred, with a 26-month-old male child. Marceline is very frustrated with her child and her boyfriend, Leon, for whom she is seeking counseling. Marceline's frustration with her child is making her think of giving him off to her mother-in-law. M reports feeling frustrated, uses alcohol and other substances to calm her nerves, is miserable from her job loss four months ago, and mounting bills. M also indicates to be confused on to stay with Leone her current live in boyfriend or gets back to her husband Michael the father to Michael Junior. She also indicates to be depressed with suicidal thoughts, which she overcomes with alcohol and substance abuse.…
Burwell, R.P. & Chen, C.P. (2006). Applying the principles and techniques of solution-focused therapy to career counseling. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 19(2), 189-203.
Buss, D.M. & Larsen, R.J. (2002). Personality psychology: dimensions of knowledge about human nature (1 de edition). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct: Including 2010 Amendments. (2012). American Psychological Association, APA. Retrieved http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx?item=7.
Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2005). Psychological testing: principles, applications, and issues. (6th edition). Belmont, USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
You can't simply say you're going to integrate the science of psychotherapy with scripture." Moore argues, "because there are only sciences and theories of psychotherapy that are contradictory and incoherent." The implication that pastoral care and counseling and not and have not been Biblical, Vicki Hollon, executive director of the Wayne Oates Institute in Louisville, insists, was creating a false dichotomy. Hollon contends that Southern officials created the proverbial straw man. "And their movement away from science reveals a lack of faith, or at least a fear that somehow science is outside the realm of God's creation and domain." Some secular counselors encourage clients, including those in marital counseling, to refrain from reading the Bible and to stop going to church if that made them feel worse. Stuart Scott, a former pastor and current professor and convert to biblical counseling, became disillusioned with the answers psychology gives. Scott states he…
Briggs, M.K., & Rayle, a.D. (2005). Incorporating Spirituality into Core Counseling Courses: Ideas for Classroom Application. Counseling and Values, 50(1), 63+. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019987790
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from: www.bartleby.com/66 / www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786083
Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.). (2003). Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners. New York: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786085 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786083
Daniel, R.L. (2003). Chapter 10 Counseling Men. In Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners, Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.) (pp. 189-207). New York: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786293 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005843832
However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.
Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.
Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis
In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…
Colangelo, N. (2007). Counseling gifted students: Issues and practices. In N. Colangelo and G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (2nd ed.), (pp. 353-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Colangelo, N., & Assouline, a. (1993). Families of gifted children. A research agenda. Quest, 4, 1-4.
Dworkin, M., & Hirsch, G. (2004). Responding to managed care: A roadmap for the therapist. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13, 1-21.
Emerick, L., & Zirpoli, T. (2000). Different concerns, different needs? Perceptions of gifted children and parents of children with disabilities. Paper presented at the conference of the American Association of Gifted and Talented, Little Rock, AR.
journal and literature review that all centers on the same single test case of a patient situation that is known to the author. Indeed, the case in question is one the author of this report is aware of from an internship as a social work intern. The specific case is that of a seven-year-old Hispanic male that has been diagnosed with both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). The boy in question comes from lower socioeconomic status and, obviously, is of a racial minority group at the same time. The author will cycle through five different book excerpts and journal articles that pertain in whole or in part to the plight and diagnosis faced by the boy mentioned above and the learning gleaned from each source will be applied to his case. While the boy in question has a comorbid diagnosis and faces some societal roadblocks…
Corcoran, J. (2003). Clinical applications of evidence-based family interventions.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Drake, K., & Ginsburg, G. (2012). Family Factors in the Development, Treatment, and Prevention of Childhood Anxiety Disorders. Clinical Child And Family Psychology
Review, 15(2), 144-162. doi:10.1007/s10567-011-0109-0
eparative Therapy for Homosexuals
The issue of homosexuality needs to be a major controversy within the social environment. All across the world people are still struggling with the idea that they may or may not be, homosexual, especially within the context of society that tends to look down and discriminate against individuals based on sexual orientation. In the light of this controversy, there are some therapeutic methods which have been created and regarded by many within conservative or religious institution as being effective in helping remold one's sexual identity. Also known as reparative therapies, these are psychological or other style implementations of therapeutic methods designed at rewiring one's sexual identity. Still, the majority of psychologists and professionals view these therapies as more harmful than beneficial; this makes it crucial for pastor therapist to help guide potentially concerned individuals towards more productive use of therapeutic models that would focus on self-acceptance…
Herek, Gregory M. (2012). APA council of representatives passes resolution on so-called reparative therapy. Resolution 97. Web. http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/html/resolution97.html
National Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues. (2000). Reparative and conversion therapies for lesbians and gay men. National Association of Social Workers. Web. http://www.naswdc.org/diversity/lgb/reparative.asp
Schumacher-Matos, Edward. (2012). The furor over gay conversion therapy. NPR. Web. http://www.npr.org/blogs/ombudsman/2011/08/05/138963061/the-furor-over-gay-conversion-therapy
A teen might be asked to tell their own story from the point-of-view of other people they know, looking at themselves from other viewpoints. These clients are freed to invent stories and play parts in that serve the purpose of providing a framework of meaning and direction for themselves. The stories are never singled out as "true" or "false," but a recognition that truth is complex and no one story can encompass all of the truth aids the client in seeing him or herself as a complex and meaningful role-player. And in that context, since one story may not be claimed to be the whole truth, no one story may not dominate a person's life. Life, to the client and narrator of these "stories" becomes an adventure in which trials are meant to be overcome and designed to prepare one for the future, rather than to defeat. The religious story…
Brown, Laura S. Feminist Therapy, Part of the Systems of Psychotherapy, APA Psychotherapy Video Series (2006)
Brown, L.S. (1994). Subversive dialogues: Theory in feminist therapy. New York: Basic Books.
Bruner, J. (1986) Actual Minds, Possible Worlds, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dutton-Douglas, M.A., & Walker, L.E.A. (Eds.). (1988). Feminist psychotherapies: Integration of therapeutic and feminist systems. Norwood NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Dysfunctions and Their Therapies
Dysfunctions and emedies involved
Treatment and Control of Dysfunctions
The Thought Focused Treatment System
The thought focused treatment systems are those which narrow down to thought processes and systems of belief. The system believes in the child developing process being the cause of dysfunction. Social learning and modeling of ideas result to the personalities of an individual. The personalities result to experiences such as thoughts and feelings, critical learning, and the imitation of these behaviors. For instance, the child develops thoughts and behaviors from the parents. If the parents hide their feelings and never cry, the child grows knowing that crying is not the solution. The environment directly affects the child's thoughts. Therefore, if an individual's development is distorted in any manner, there is likely to be an experience of dysfunctional issues or poor health. An individual learns how to cope with stress and problems in…
Grohol, J.M. (2004, September 21). Types of Therapies: Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/therapy.htm
Grohol, J.M. (2011). 15 Common Cognitive Distortions. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2009/15-common-cognitive-distortions/
Timothy, and Brown, Sandra A. (2006). Adolescent Self-Selection of Service Formats:
Implications for Secondary Interventions Targeting Alcohol Use. The American Journal on Addictions, ol. 15, 58-66.
The authors employed three formats of intervention (individual, group, and website) on youth in four schools over a four-year window of time. The results of this survey (which involved "Project Options") of 1,147 students is that minority teens who willingly sought alcohol services preferred to receive interventions in a private context rather than in group therapy.
Gil, Andres G., Wagner, Eric F., and Tubman, Jonathan G. (2004). Culturally sensitive substance abuse intervention for Hispanic and African-American adolescents: empirical examples from the Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) Project. Addiction,
This article offers a strategy that (in this case) significantly reduced use of marijuana and alcohol in all ethnic groups involved in the project. Some 213 juvenile offenders participated in…
Von Wormer, Katherine, and McKinney, Robin. (2003). What Schools Can do To Help Gay/
Lesbian/Bisexual Youth: A Harm Reduction Approach. Adolescence, 38(151), 409-420.
Von Wormer asserts through this article that because adjusting to heterosexual environment in public schools -- and dealing with the bias that often is in evidence -- is difficult, it is a "major cause of psychological problems" which leads these minorities to alcohol and drug abuse issues.
From this discussion, Dubin (2009) then moves to presenting a new and unique model for implementation in both marriage and family counseling contexts. The current article models the "Basic Needs Genogram" as the primary method to be tested in contemporary therapy structures. This is a genogram that is based off the works of Glasser (1998) and breaks down our complexity of needs into five basic categories: "self-preservation, love and belonging, power or self-worth, freedom or independence and fun or enjoyment" (Dubin, 2009). These needs are interconnected and help drive behavior within the context of relationships, whether those relationships are marriage of familial structures. Dubin (2009) suggests that the Basic Needs Genogram will allow individuals, as well as family members to consider how current and past generational patterns influence the formation of their 'picture albums,'" which then dictate how their own relationships are formed and maintained (Dubin, 2009, p 17). It…
Duba, Jill A. (2009). Introducing the 'basic needs genogram' in reality therapy-based marriage and family counseling. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 28(2), 15-19.
The primary difference between the two however, is gestalt therapy concentrates more on the ability of the individual to make proper choices regarding their care. This theory or approach to therapy reminds the client of the connection between mind, body and spirit. The behavior approach is less concerned with the paradigm of holistic health, and more concerned with a therapist-driven approach to identifying problems and selecting appropriate solutions.
In this sense, gestalt therapy seems like it is a more effective approach, because it encourages the individual to make judgments about their health and understand the connections existing between their behaviors and emotions. Because gestalt therapy is patient-driven more so than psychotherapist drive as behavior therapy, many believe patients are able to realize relief and successful outcomes more quickly, as well as retain greater self-esteem (James & Jongeward, 1996; Palmer, 1996). If a patient wants patient-centered care that provides effective relief,…
Cleland, C., Foote, J. Kosanke, N., Mabura, S., Mahmood, D. & Rosenblum, a. (2005). Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(1): 35.
Diemer, R.A., Hill, C.E., Lobell, L.K., & Vivino, B.L. (1996). Comparison of dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions in brief therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(1): 99.
Fine, M.A. & Schwebel, a.L. (1994). Understanding and helping families: A cognitive-behavioral approach. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
James, M. & Jongeward, D. (1996). Born to win: Transactional analysis with gestalt experiments. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing.
Structural family approach
Major contributors of Structural family approach
Structural family approach mainly operates by considering problems within the family structure, it emphasizes on dealing with the individual symptom through examination of the whole family interaction pattern. Furthermore, this theory does not insist on the relation between family interactions and pathology but, it associates the symptoms with family's interaction. Structural family theory has three operating areas, these include; the family, the problem itself and the change process. First stage entails, the therapist knowing the kind of family he/she is dealing with, the composition and hierarchy of the family. he/she tries to fit in the family's environment so as to capture the real picture. In the second stage, the therapist identifies is specifically stopping the family from living harmoniously. he/she also finds out the function and position of the problem behavior Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2008()
History of Structural family…
Bobrow, E., & Ray, W.A. (2004). Strategic Family Therapy in the Trenches. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 23(4), 28-38. doi: 10.1521/jsyt.188.8.131.52840
D'Angelo, S.L. (1995). The Milan approach to therapy revisited. PsycCRITIQUES, 40(4), 352-352. doi: 10.1037/003578
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family Therapy: An Overview: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Rosen, K.H. (2003). Strategic family therapy. In L.L. Hecker & J.L. Wetchler (Eds.), An introduction to marriage and family therapy. (pp. 95-121). Binghamton, NY U.S.: Haworth Clinical Practice Press.
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques
Case of the Fat Lady
Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…
Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
Burns, Kubilus, Breuhl, Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 81-91.
Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2007). Psychodynamic psychotherapy: a systematic review of techniques, indications and empirical evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 80(2), 217-228.
Rathod, S., Kingdon, D., Weiden, P., & Turkington, D. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for medication-resistant schizophrenia: a review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(1), 22-33.
Perceptions are generally based on the present, and therefore, the need to explore the past by delving into it in great detail becomes totally unnecessary. Glasser felt that even if the person exhibited bizarre and extremely strange types of behavior at a particular time, it was because of an innate reason of trying and attempting to find the best solution in order to meet the person's needs at that particular time in his life, and therefore, it was logical and sane to him, if not to others who would sometimes label him as strange or insane. (the Use of eality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools) delinquent would make choices based on the best way to meet his basic needs at that time, and therefore, must not be criticized. This, in essence formed the theory of eality Therapy of William Glasser, wherein the concept of 'Choice Theory' was emphasized…
Hazelden, Paul. "Reality Therapy" Retrieved at http://www.hazelden.org.uk/gr01/art_gr003_reality_therapy.htm . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Historic Overview of Psychiatric Care" Retrieved at http://www.jcjc.cc.ms.us/faculty/adn/jmcmillan/psychcl1.html. Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Lennon, Brian. "From Reality Therapy to Reality Therapy in Action" Retrieved at http://www.socc.ie/~wgii/articlebl.htm. Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Lennon, Brian. "The Use of Reality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools" Retrieved at http://www.ncge.ie/handbook_docs/Section1/Reality_Therapy_Guide_Sch.doc . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
William Glasser wrote the book reality therapy in 1965. Since its publication, it has gained increasing prominence in the United States, as well as the world. Dr. Glasser developed his ideology to address the limitations he found in the Freudian model of psychology. The methods and practices intrinsic to reality therapy differ substantially from conventional therapy. Dr. Glasser challenges several widely accepted notions of psychiatry, such as mental illness and the role of therapists. Glasser founded the William Glasser Institute to encourage the spread of his ideas into psychiatric practice.
Over the last thirty-five years, Glasser's ideology has proven to be an effective form of therapy, with successes in both institutional settings and private practices.
Reality therapy concentrates on the client's needs and getting them to confront the reality of the world. In Reality Therapy, these needs are classified into power, love and belonging, freedom, fun, and survival.…
Corey (2000). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 6th Ed. Brooks/Cole, 2001.
Glasser, Naomi (1989). Control Theory in the Practice of Reality Therapy. New York: Harper & Row.
Glasser, Carleen and William (2000). Getting Together and Staying Together. New York: HarperCollins.
Glasser, William (1965) Reality Therapy: A New Approach to Psychiatry. New York: Harper & Row.
1. The term “depth psychology” is appropriate for referring to psychoanalysis, but not for all types of psychotherapy. Any psychotherapy that involves in-depth self-assessments through the exploration of unconscious or subconscious urges, dreams, or childhood memories can be considered depth psychology. As the term suggests, depth psychology presumes that psychological issues have deep roots, requiring a process of systematic digging. Self-awareness is only possible through an understanding of all psychic content that has been and still is being repressed or suppressed (Axelrod, 2012). Depth psychology is therefore important for persons who experienced childhood traumas, or people seeking to understand the causes of their lingering anxiety or depression. Other therapeutic models like cognitive-behavioral therapy or positive psychology do not focus on the subconscious or unconscious but mainly on manifest behaviors.
According to Firestone (2009), depth psychology has its detractors because of the long periods of time required to complete the therapeutic…
A synthesis of what the studies reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question developed
The mindfulness meditation theory appears to have the potential to treat addictive disorder patients. Zgierska and coworkers (2009) state that such models seem to be safe if implemented within the context of clinical studies. One can find considerable methodological shortcomings in a majority of existing works on the subject. Further, which addiction-diagnosed individuals may derive maximum benefits out of mindfulness meditation isn’t clear. But, of late, related initiatives and practices in the role of complementary clinical aids for treating multiple physical and psychological ailments have grown in popularity. MBCT (mindfulness-based cognitive therapy) and MBSR (mindfulness-based stress reduction) as clinical initiatives have specifically been analyzed, with a sound evidential pool recording their efficacy. Integration of the latter initiative’s aspects and cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive psychology strategies resulted in the former’s creation. At first,…
" Long-term use may develop psychoses, like schizophrenia and severe depression. The use of MDMA may produce psychological difficulties, like confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, severe anxiety and paranoia, even weeks after the use of the drug. MSMA develops symptoms, such as muscle tension, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movements, faintness, chills, sweating, and increased heart rate and blood pressure. it, therefore, poses a special risk for those with heart disease. Overuse can lead to death (Kurtzweil).
West Africans used ibogaine as a stimulant and aphrodisiac in the early 1900s (Kurtzweil 1995). Native Americans used mescaline from peyote cactus in religious rituals. LSD was first synthesized in 1938. Throughout history, it was considered a source of many types of medications. Its psychedelic effects were first discovered in 1943. Two decades after World War II, LSD was used to determine its effects on patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders.…
Kotler, Steven. Drugs in Rehab. Psychology Today: Sussex Publishers, Inc., April 2005
Klotter, Jule. End-of-Life and Psychedelic Research. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients: The Townsend Group, July 2005
Kurtzweil, Paula. Medical Possibilities for Psychedelic Drugs. FDA Consumer: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1995
Luke, David P. And Marrios Kottenis. A Preliminary Survey of Paranormal Experiences with Psychoactive Drugs. Journal of Parapsychology: Parapsychology Press, 2005
Application of healing thermal agents to certain body areas that feel wounded or dysfunction is heat treatment. The main use of a heat treatment is to help alleviate pain, support muscle repose, increase function of the tissue cells, improve blood flow, and remove poison from cells and to increase the extensibility of soft tissues. Superficial and deep are the two types of heat treatment. Superficial heat treatments apply heat to the exterior part of the body. Heat aimed at certain inner tissues through ultrasound or by electric current is deep heat treatment. Heat treatments are favorable before exercise, giving a limbering up result to the soft tissues involved. Heat treatment using conduction as a form of heat transfer in hot pacts is very common. Damp heat packs are easily available in most hospitals, physical treatment centers and sports teaching rooms.
For tissue heating many thermal agents are on…
Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G. et al. Acute lower back problems in adults. Clinical Practice Guideline, Quick Reference Guide Number 14. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, AHCPR Pub. No. 95-0643. December 1994.p.3-6
Biundo JJ Jr., Torres-Ramos FM: Rehabilitation and biomechanics. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1991 April; 3(2): 291-99
Fedorczyk J: The role of physical agents in modulating pain. Journal of Hand Therapy 1997 Apr-June; 10(2): 110-21
Grana WA: Physical agents in musculoskeletal problems: heat and cold therapy modalities. Instructional Course Lecture 1993; 42: 439-42.
Stuart's willingness finally to insert himself into the group with some vulnerability would demonstrate a legitimate step for which he would receive ample support from the group. The functionality of this process would be rewarding to Julius, who took it is with some comfort which had been scarce in the prior two weeks.
Still, Stuart's case remains a difficult one throughout the process, with his strong professional and intellectual capabilities often undermined or sullied by his disengagement. This causes some resentment from others in the group and results in Stuart associating many of the women in the group with his wife, who responds similarly to the sense that he stands passively aside and witnesses human interaction without ever fully partaking. From the perspective of Julius, this is a mixed-bag, with the group causing confrontations with Stuart that often force him to mediate through his emotions. On the other hand, as…
Yalom, I. (2005). The Schopenhauer Cure: A Novel. Harper Collins.
Shifting the Meanings and eliefs of Clients
Collaborative practice is variously and commonly referred to as conversational practice, social construction, postmodern, or dialogical, practice. It has evolved from assumptions in the wider postmodern movement in human and social sciences. It has also derived its elements from dialogue and social construction theories. Collaborative relations refer to the manner in which we orient ourselves; act, respond and be with another human so as to have them join in a therapeutic engagement that is shared and joint action (Shotter, 1984). This is also referred to as shared inquiry. In an earlier proposition, Shotter (1984) stated that all humans only exist in joint action; in meeting and interactive discourses with others in mutual fashion. He has lately opted to use ''relationally responsive'' notion (Shotter 2008). He implies that we are naturally relational beings with mutual influence on each other. Thus, the self cannot be…
Anderson, H. (2009). Collaborative Practice: Performing spontaneously. Finland Collaborative Practice, 1-24.
Andresen, R., Caputi, P., Oades, LG. (2000) Inter-relater reliability of the Camberwell assessment of need short appraisal schedule (CANSAS). Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 34: 856-861
Anderson, H. (1994) Good Mother, Bad Mother: A Dissolving Dilemma [Video File].
Multiple studies support the use of cognitive behavioral approaches in individual therapy combined with group therapy sessions to support self-care behavior, self-efficacy and positive patient outcomes (Van der Ven, et. al, 2005; Bernard & Goodyear, 1002; Alterkruse & ay, 2000). Altekruse & ay (2000) also support the notion that group therapy may be interchangeable with individual therapy to promote positive outcomes among patients.
esults of the studies reviewed suggest a new approach to group therapy should include individual and group sessions that encourage patients to focus on their successes rather than failures. At this time the evidence supporting group therapy over individual therapy is conflicting. Much of the research suggests that both approaches may be equally effective. egardless many therapists still advocate group therapy as a primary modality for overcoming patient issues.
Pre-group training sessions may help members of the group adopt a new attitudes toward therapy that enables…
Altekrsue, M. & Ray, D. (2000). "Effectiveness of group supervision vs. combined group and individual supervision." Counselor Education and Supervision, 40(1):19.
Bernard, J., & Goodyear, R. (1998). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (2nd ed.).
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Classen, C. (2000). "Group therapy for cancer patients: A research-based handbook of psychosocial care." New York: Basic Books.
afternoon, light rain falling and predictions of thunder storms on the way. Client was eight minutes late to his appointment. "It doesn't matter that you're a few minutes late, I am glad to see you -- but is everything going okay this afternoon?" he was asked by therapist.
Client seems defensive when no pressure at all is put on him. First he said his watch stopped, then he admitted he lost track of time because he was into playing a new video game. He asked if video games are a bad thing and was assured that entertainment was his choice.
"Oh, also," he added. "After I was in my car I went back to my apartment to get my umbrella." Client is trying to maintain a good relationship with the therapist.
The client was sweating when he sat down, and it was humid in the room so we agreed the…
Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study
K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed…
Bladek, M. (2014). Against memory: Acts of remembering in Jamaica Kincaid's My Brother. Retrieved from http://criticism.english.illinois.edu/2007%20Fall%20Documents/Affect%20Abstracts/Abstracts.htm
DeJong, P. & . Berg I.K (1998): Interviewing for solutions. Thomson: Brooks/Cole.
Drisko, J. (2014). Research Evidence and Social Work Practice: The Place of Evidence-Based Practice. Clin Soc Work J. 42:123-133 DOI 10.1007/s10615-013-0459-9
Freud, S. (1924) A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Boni & Liveright.
Gervaise et. al, (1999) point out that increasingly financial reimbursement restrictions from managed care agencies play a critical role "in the quality of patient care" (1). According to the researchers, "complicated contractual arrangements among multiple providers obstruct rather than facilitate provisions for continuity of patient care" (Gervaise, et. al, 1).
New Advances In Modern Care - Addressing Time Limited Therapy
In the short- and long-term it is likely that limits on therapy will remain. Thus new treatment models must be developed to ensure adequate care. New requirements and restrictions placed by managed care organizations necessitate change in the health care field. Much of the research available supports more training for psychologists so they learn techniques for succeeding using group therapy practices (Drotos, 1997; Kent, 2000; Joseph, 1997). Group oriented approaches enable successful time limited treatments and cost effective services that health maintenance organizations are more likely to support.
Ackley D.C. (1997). Breaking free of managed care. New York: Guilford.
Bistline, J.L, Sheridan, S., & Winegar, N. (1992). "Implementing a group therapy program in a managed care setting: Combining cost effectiveness and quality care." The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 73(1): 30.
Drotos J.C. (1997). "Upheavals in the land of the giants." Behavioral Health
Management, 17 (8), 39-40.
Experiential Family Therapy (EFT) is the central place of humanistic therapies and psychology. This therapy includes the works of Fritz Perls, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow, along with the communication theories and family systems of Paul Watzlavick, Don Jackson, and Gregory ateson. It is called a meeting place for all the theorists because clearly the experiential family therapy includes multiple systems used for therapy. The authors ecvar & evcar (2006) like to call these 'experimental approaches to family therapy' instead of 'experimental models'. Virginia Satir, one of the main predecessors of the experiential approach, is also considered to be part of communication approaches as well as experiential (Lester, 2009).
The family tree of the family system has three main parts: (1) the Communications approach of Virginia Satir; (2) the Gestalt experiential approach of Walter Kempler; and (3) the Symbolic experiential approach of Carl Whitaker (ecvar & ecvar, 2006). However, the…
Becvar, D.S. & Becvar, R.J. (2006). Family therapy: A systemic integration. Boston, MA: Pearson
Broderick, P., & Weston, C. (2009). Family Therapy with a Depressed Adolescent. NCBI, 32-37. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2719446/
Greenburg, L.S., Watson, J.C., & Lietaer, G. (1998). Handbook of experiential psychotherapy. New York: Guilford
Israelstam, K. (1988). Contrasting four major family therapy paradigms: implications for family therapy training. Journal of Family Therapy, 179-196.
theory make it the most appropriate for the client in the case study?
Ana lost her job and fears that she would soon have to be homeless because there is no money to support herself. Moreover her husband has been deployed in the war zone and she has to raise their son alone which overwhelms her. She also worries about her husband all the time resulting in stress and anxiety. Ana, is a determined and strong-willed woman who refuses to seek help from her rich family. Her main stress is the lack of support which has resulted in her losing ten pounds and loss of sleep. The Rational Emotive ehavior Therapy theory (RET) is appropriate for the client because it comprises of four factors that helps in the therapy of clients. The four elements ascribed in the RET theory: a) rational, b) emotive, c) behavior and d) therapy cover all…
Bandura, A. (1974). Behaviour Theory and the Models of Man. American Psychologist, 859.
Banks, T. (2012). Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Diverse Student Populations: Meeting the Mental Health Needs of All Students. Multicultural Learning and Teaching. Retrieved from Academia. Retrieved from: ttps://www.academia.edu/7361167/Rational_Emotive_Behavior_Therapy_with_Diverse_Student_Populations_Meeting_the_Mental_Health_Needs_of_All_Students
Dryden, W., & Branch, R. (2008). The Fundamentals of Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Dryden, W. (n.d.). What is Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT)?: Outlining the Approach by Considering the Four Elements of its Name. Goldsmiths University of London, 1-28. Retrieved from: http://www.windydryden.com/cms/files/rebt_4_elements_article.pdf
procedural versus declarative memory be interspersed chronologically or separated into distinct stages? Why? What order, if any, is likely to maximize learning rate? Why?
A combination of orders may be used to maximize the learning rate as studies show that both chronological and categorical (distinctive stages) ordering supports the development of procedural and declarative memory (Sandhofer, Doumas, 2008; Hemmer, Persaud, 2014). While both procedural and declarative memories function differently in the mind, they are parts of a whole process of memory recall. However, in a course that focuses solely on developing procedural memory, categorical ordering appears to be the best solution for maximizing the learning rate (Sandhofer, Doumas, 2008).
Procedural memory is that which is automatically recalled, such as the skill of riding a bike. Once the procedure is learned it becomes a fixture within the mind that does not have to actively recalled through any mental effort of the…
Hemmer, P., Persaud, K. (2014). Interaction between categorical knowledge and episodic memory across domains. Frontiers in Psychology, 5: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00584
Sandhofer, C., Doumas, L. (2008). Order of presentation of effects in learning color categories. Journal of Cognition and Development, 9(2): 1-28.
Sandkuhler, J., Lee, J. (2013). How to erase memory traces of pain and fear. Trends in Neurosciences, 36(6): 343-352.
Schonauer, M., Geisler, T., Gais, S. (2014). Strengthening Procedural Memories by Reactivation in Sleep. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26(1): 143-153.
Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.
Description and differentiation
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…
Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.
Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
A Practical Pastoral Counseling Model
Where Will Counseling Take Place?
oundaries for Safety and Security
God's Riches at Christ's Expense
A Practical Pastoral Counseling Model
This is an overview of the counseling position that I will take when working with clients/parishioners. I realize that this cannot encompass every eventuality that may occur during a counseling session, but it should be comprehensive enough to account for most of the possibilities that present themselves. I acknowledge that this is also the treatise of someone who is going to be practicing as a pastor first and a counselor second, therefore the relationship of a shepherd to his assigned sheep is the most important consideration in all of this. Also, the counseling relationship that a pastor enjoys with a parishioner is not as extensive as that between a patient…
Carlson, Dwight L. 2000. Overcoming hurts and anger. Eugene: Harvest House. ISBN: 0736901965
This book is a real help when dealing with anger. The author gives you steps on how to prevent your anger and deal with past anger in a Christian manner. He gives examples of mishandled anger, biblical principles about anger, and how to handle anger in a Christ-like way.
LaHaye, Tim and Bob Phillips. 2002. Anger is a choice. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. ISBN: 0310242835
However, they should also know what aspects of they reveal are confidential. An adolescent should know if he or she says that he 'hates his parents' that the therapist does not have a responsibility to 'tattle' to the client's parent, even if the parent is paying for the session
2b. Discuss 2 counseling situations where duty to warn would be necessary. What would be the ethical issues involved: If the client is likely to be harmful to others, such as if he or she threatens someone physically, the therapist must report the threats. Also, if the client is likely to be harmful to him or herself, such as threatening suicide or acting in a manner that is so severely delusional he or she is not competent to engage in basic self-care, the therapist may need to act. (Such as a patient engaging in severe self-harm or a patient with a…
Corey, G., (2009) Theory and practice of counseling & psychotherapy. (8th Edition). Belmont,
CA. Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Family systems. (2009). Genogram. Retrieved November 24, 2009 at http://www.genopro.com/genogram/family-systems-theory/
memory, classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. The paper also describes the effect of diversity issues on the learning process. In addition to that, the paper also summarizes the psychiatric disorders and their effect on learning and memorizing process. Lastly, the paper gives a comparison between various behavioral counseling approaches.
THEOIES OF LEANING AND MEMOY
Learning is an important topic in the field of psychology. Learning refers to a permanent change in the behavior and attitude of a person. The reason behind this change is experience and thus maturation or illness has nothing to do with it. This definition of learning as a permanent change and therefore it eliminates the temporary mood swings and illnesses from it. In this paper, we will be focusing on two types of learning: (Wood, 2010)
Instrumental Conditioning (Wood, 2010)
There are a lot of visuals and sounds that trigger certain emotions…
Cassidy*, S. (2004). Learning styles: An overview of theories, models, and measures. Educational Psychology, 24(4), 419 -- 444.
Cortiella, C., & Horowitz, S. (2014). The State of Learning Disabilities (1st ed., pp. 3-5). New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.ncld.org/images/content/files/stateofld2014/2014%20State%20of%20LD%20FINAL%20FOR%20RELEASE.pdf
Lutz, S., & Huitt, W. (2003). Information Processing and Memory: Theory and Applications (1st ed., pp. 1-5). Valdosta: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/papers/infoproc.pdf
Nelson-Jones, R. (2011). Theory and practice of counselling and therapy (1st ed., pp. 1-3). Los Angeles, Calif.; London: SAGE.
The stopping of treatment is the primary reason for this early intervention. This tactic has been extremely successful for many years and should be
Once the induction interviews are complete, the client and the social worker can move on to treating the patient. Once the treatment has started it is vitally important that the social worker pay careful attention to eliminating communication patterns that are counterproductive. Social workers have to be careful not to get stuck in unproductive type of communication that serve no purpose and do nothing to assist the client.
In addition if a social worker must examine the family functioning and diverse family and cultural contexts. This simply means that the social worker is responsible for examining the home situation of the client and assisting the client based on this environment. There are several different family structures that may be present including single family homes, blended families…
Glossary. Retrieved November 24, 2009 from: http: / / www. cmpmhmr. cog.pa.us / glossary.html
Hardcastle, David A. (2004) Community Practice: Theories and Skills for Social Workers. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press
Hepworth, DH Rooney, R.H., Rooney, G.D., Strom-Gottfried K., Larsen J. (2009) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. Cengage Learning, 2009
Ogrodniczuk, J.S., Joyce, A.S., and Piper W.E. (2005) Strategies for Reducing Patient-Initiated Premature Termination of Psychotherapy. Harvard Review Psychiatry Vol. 13 Issue 2, p57-70, 14p. March/April 2005
Rising Divorce Rates
The Need for and Purpose of the Project
Impact of Divorce on Children
Chapter 5-Conclusions, Summary and Recommendations,
The Need for and the Purpose of the Project
Divorce has become popular throughout the many years it has existed and divorce rates continue to increase. More than a million people a year get a divorce (Tucker-Ladd 35). Young couples are more commonly known to get a divorce, than those who have been married for two or three years (35). Forty percent of men and fifty percent of women are divorced before that age of thirty (35). About fifteen to twenty percent of people ages 35 to 55 are now currently divorced (35). About twenty percent of marriages last less than fifteen years (35). Recent statistics say that sixty-five to seventy percent of new marriages will fail (35).
There is one thing in…
Berry, Dawn Bradley. "The divorce recovery sourcebook." Los Angeles: Lowell
House, c 1998
Bienenfeld, Florence Ph. D, M.F.C.C. "Do It Yourslef Conflict Resolution for Couples." Franklin Lakes, NJ: The Career Press, 2000.
Cavin, Shelly Smith. "Personality Types and Interpersonal Communication."