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Planning such an event when it has not been done before is very difficult and time consuming.
Mistakes can easily be made on cost, time, and other issues when people are unsure as to what they should do to create an event that is successful - which could happen because the promotion company is uncertain about putting on such a large event and has questions about many aspects of it.
Volunteers and Viability
Getting people to volunteer for a mega sporting event in elfast is possible, but it is not safe to assume that there will be plenty of volunteers without a closer analysis. How many people in elfast like sports? How many of them like a particular sport? These are the kinds of questions that must be answered, along with the availability of these people and what they actually have to offer when it comes to what they will…
Adorno, T. (2000). Problems of moral philosophy (T. Schroder, Ed. & R. Livingstone, Trans.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Backer, W. (1973) - Motivating workers. Johannesburg: McGraw-Hill: New York.
Beer, M., & Nohria, N. (2000) - Breaking the Code of Change. Harvard Business Review, May-June, 2000, pp. 133.
Bedeian, a.G. (1993). Management (3rd ed.). New York: Dryden Press.
The classes are designed to move at the speed and skill of each student.
Kids on the move Program
This would be a program geared more toward the overweight teen between the ages of 13-18. This will help obese teenagers lose weight and become fit. As kids' fitness instructors, their challenge will be to help children develop active, optimistic standard of living. Assimilating awareness and activity will help persuade these children that exercise is significant to their well-being.
Camouflage Fitness Program
This will be another fitness program for kids 5-12 years of age. Parents are able to plan their child's class. As the parents plan their child's classes, they will be able to in commercial health-related fitness mechanisms (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility and body composition/weight management) during the course of their lesson. Where will the parent be able to integrate these dissimilar components? Parents in this…
Imposing a Tax or Levy to Build a Sport Facility:
As previously mentioned, one of the major concerns that have emerged in the recent past is whether or not a community should impose a levy or tax to pay for bonds for a sport facility that would house a major league professional sport team. Historically, many taxation avenues have been used to pay for the development of a new sport facility. Since these avenues have included the federal, state, and local governments, they have effectively subsidized the professional sport franchises. Nonetheless, the arguments that have been raised in support of the existing tax policies have lost real credibility because actual studies have discredited exacerbated economic claims (Jensen, 2000, p.460).
In determining the most appropriate answer to this concern, several factors should be considered including the socio-political, economic, and finance dimensions as well as the current trends in financing the construction…
Hodgson, G. & Lefebvre, M. (2011, August). Who Should Pay for New Pro-Sports Facilities?
Retrieved from the Conference Board of Canada website: http://www.conferenceboard.ca/reports/briefings/bigleagues/briefing-7.aspx
Jensen, S.A. (2000). Financing Professional Sports Facilities with Federal Tax Subsidies: Is it
Sound Tax Policy? Marquette Sports Law Review, 10(2), 425-60. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.marquette.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1477&context=sportslaw
Sports in American History
There are so many themes that have influenced the formation and development of sport in America. Sports have always been a common and important theme that has really shaped our nation to what it is today. In the schoolroom, many examples from sports can clarify important events in American history and also assist in exploring explore how individuals in American society have contended with racial, ethnic, and local changes in our very assorted country. hether it is handing over a manuscript on Jack Johnson to exemplify the nationalization of white control throughout the Jim Crow age or consuming the film Cinderella Man -- about tough winner James Braddock, existing on assistance a year before taking the title -- to showing how much pressure American families were under during the Civil ar all the way up to the Great Depression, sports in American history is an extremely…
Gorn, Elliott J. "Gouge and Bite, Pull Hair and Scratch": The Social Significance of Fighting in the Southern." The American Historical Review, 90, no. 1 (1985): 18-43.
Hardy, Stephen. "Parks for the People": Reforming the Boston Park System,." Journal of Sports History 7, no. 3 (1980): 18-56.
Regalado, Samuel o. Viva Baseball. Chicago: University of Illinois Pres, 2008.
Strauna, Nancy L. "The Formalizing of Sport and the Formation of an Elite." Journal of Sports 13, no. 3 (1986): 11-21.
Sporting Activities or Gender Perspective
McKinney, Scott. "Student-Athletes Bring Billions, But hat Are They Getting?"
Mississippi Business Journal 22.37 (2000): 25. MasterFILE Premier. eb. 20 June
This article focuses on college athletes in relation to their contribution in bringing billions. According to the article, college athletes are crucial to the generation of billions within sporting fields through their talents and efforts. This research paper aims to outline benefits of participation in sporting activities by college athletes. It is clear from the article that student athletes enjoy free scholarships, accommodation, meals, and other associated benefits for their participation or skills in different games or leagues. The article is relevant to the research because it offers clear reason why student athletes do not obtain salaries for their talents or participation in the sporting activities. The article is reliable and valid since it constructs its arguments from extensive research. The article…
McKinney, Scott. "Student-Athletes Bring Billions, But What Are They Getting?" Mississippi
Business Journal 22.37 (2000): 25. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 20 June 2012.
Tracee, Hamilton. "In college football, everyone cashes in but the players." Washington Post,
The n.d.: Regional Business News. Web. 20 June 2012.
Sport Drink Facts and Fictions
Commercial sports drinks make many claims, such as giving athletes 'wings' (ed Bull GmbH, n.d.), "Seizing Every Advantage" (PepsiCo, 2013), or "Go Stronger for Longer" (Coca Cola Co., 2013). ed Bull's Energy Drink contains 320 mg of caffeine and 110g (11%) of sucrose and glucose per liter (ed Bull GmbH, n.d.). Gatorade Thirst Quencher contains 58.3 g (5.8%) of sucrose and dextrose per liter of beverage (PepsiCo., 2013) and Powerade contains 55.6 g (5.6%) of the artificial sweetener sucralose in the same volume (Coca Cola Co., 2013). This report will review what is known about caffeine and carbohydrate supplementation during intense physical exercise by reviewing three recent empirical studies addressing this issue.
Clarke et al. (2012)
Purpose: Both ed Bull's Energy Drink (ed Bull GmbH, n.d.) and Gatorade (Coca Cola Co., 2013) incorporate two different sugars into their drinks, which is probably based…
Clarke, N.D., Campbell, I.T., Drust, B., Evans, L., Reilly, T., and Maclaren, D.P.M. (2012). The ingestion of combined carbohydrates does not alter metabolic responses or performance capacity during soccer-specific exercise in the heat compared to ingestion of a single carbohydrate. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(7), 699-708.
Coca Cola Co. (2013). Powerade. Give your game some flavor. Powerade.com. Retrieved 3 Apr. 2013 from http://www.us.powerade.com/ .
Hulston, Carl J. And Jeukendrup, Asker E. (2008). Substrate metabolism and exercise performance with caffeine and carbohydrate intake. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(12), 2096-2104.
PepsiCo. (2013). G-Series. O2 Perform. Hydration to help replace what you sweat out. Gatorade.com. Retrieved 2 Apr. 2013 from http://www.gatorade.com/default.aspx?WT.mc_id=RMCPC_Google_S_GatoradeBrandModified_BrandElectrolytes_gatoradeelectrolytesreplacement&#gseries?s=gatorade-g .
The world will not be able to change if people such as Davis, and others like him, have to live in fear of rejection simply because they are different from other people.
However, the preceding quotation from Davis illustrates what is actually at the heart of the issue of social change represented by the NFL and sports in general in terms of tolerance and embracing diversity. The NFL is actually one of the modern incantations of ancient European gladiator sports. As such, there is a sense of hyper-masculinity that pervades it, whether one is examining the players, the nature of the game itself, or even the environments and surroundings in which the sport is watched and enjoyed. It is this degree of masculinity that makes coming out so difficult for NFL players (as well as the fact that players routinely see one another naked in locker rooms). And it is…
Blais, Michele. "The Way I See it: It's About What's There." The Morning Star. 9 March, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.vernonmorningstar.com/lifestyles/249069141.html
Davis, Wade. "How the NFL is Tackling LGBT Issues." NFL Player Engagement. 3 Feb, 2014. Retrieved online: https://www.nflplayerengagement.com/next/articles/wade-davis-how-the-nfl-is-taclking-lgtbq-issues/
"Kirk Cousins of Washington Redskins Says He'd 'Welcome' Gay Teammate: 'Nobody's Perfect." Huffington Post. 6 Mar, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/03/05/kirk-cousins-gay-teammate_n_4904441.html
Sports Sponsorships: Considerations and Configurations
The sponsorship of sports has become a highly visible and powerful variable in professional sports, and to a lesser degree, in scholastic sports. The field of sports sponsorship has evolved to such a degree that sponsorship strategies have been classified into benefits packaged identified by color: Gold, silver, and bronze. Selection of sponsorship packages has become de facto, which undoubtedly creates advantages for the sponsor. ecently, there has been a shift to more flexible sponsorship proposals that are referred to as tailored sponsorship arrangements.
Further complicating the sponsorship arrangement is that the public's response is not always predictable. Sponsors and sports organizations would do well to recognize the need for market research before they engage in costly or complex sponsorship agreements. Steinbach (2005) provides an interesting example of how sponsorship can go seriously awry. In May of 2004, Columbia Pictures and Major League Baseball (MLB)…
Obsniuk, S. And Smith, S.J. (2007). Big league deals: A descriptive study of sponsorship levels in grassroots U.S. baseball and softball programs. The Sport Journal, 1543-9518.
Crisp, B.R., and Swerissen, H. (2003). Critical processes for creating health-promoting sporting environments in Australia. Health Promotion International, 18 (2).
McCook, K., Turco, D., & Riley, R. (n.d.). A look at the corporate decision making process. Cyber Journal of Sport Marketing. Retrieved http://www.ausport.gov.au/fulltext / cjsm/v1n2/mcook.htm
Pruitt, S.W., Cornwell, T.B., and Clark, J.M. (2004). The NASCAR phenomenon: Auto racing sponsorships and shareholder wealth. Journal of Advertising Research, 44(3), 281-296.
It is also necessary for the state representatives to be able to identify and implement the most useful tools that safeguard their goals. "Unlike the final score for a game in which there is always one winner and one loser, winning at the negotiating table means sharing resources to achieve multiple objectives. The public sector is getting better at this game and, with some changes, can insure that they achieve their goals for enhanced economic development, tax revenues, and the intangible benefits of image."
3. Article Critique
Simply put, the general idea is that of agreeing with the thoughts of Mark osentraub and David Swindell. Here is why. First of all, it is true that the role of states in sports related fields is generally increased, and like many other elements, it has evolved from a stage in which it was only necessary for the state to offer the general…
Rosentraub,, M., Swindell, D., 2009, Of Devil and Details: Bargaining for Successful Public / Private Partnership between Cities and Sports Teams, Public Administration Quarterly, Vol. 33
Turkey, clearly has a proud and longstanding history with sports and sports enthusiasm. ports, as a cultural access point in fact is written into the Turkish constitution, as an aspect of cultural and personal growth goals for the entire nation.
Turkey is one of the rare countries in the world which has an article related to sports in her Constitution. Article 59 of the Constitution says, "The tate takes measures to develop the physical and mental health of Turkish citizens of all ages and encourages the spread of sports among the masses. The tate protects successful athletes." In recent years, with investments made in the field of sports, scientific research and the increase in importance placed by the tate on sports policy, sports in Turkey became a well-liked and interesting event both as a performance sport and for the utilization of free time. Activities are continuing for sports, which became…
Sports Business Daily April 23, 2008 "07 Sporting Goods Sales Up 3.0%; Sports Apparel Market Up 2.4% http://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/article/120302
Preet S. Aulakh, Masaaki Kotabe, and Arvind Sahay, "Trust and Performance in Cross-Border Marketing Partnerships: A Behavioral Approach," Journal of International Business Studies 27, no. 5 (1996) [database online]; available from Questia,
Sports Participation And
Summary of the literature framing history of the project, using 5 articles related to the problem
Gaps and/or deficiencies in prior research
Importance of present study
Why the study should be pursued
For whom is it important
Purpose of the statement
esearch design (experimental, quasi-experimental, or non-experimental)
Theory tested or described
Intent (describe, compare, relate)
Variables (independent, dependent, controlling, intervening)
esearch question(s) and hypotheses
Does sport build character?
Can sports participation result in positive character development?
Can the sport environment be modified or controlled?
Null and alternative hypotheses for each research question, including how each of the variables will be operationalized
F. Nature of the study
Design 1. Experimental, quasi-experimental, or pre/non-experimental
2. Specific design (e.g., pre-post test control group, time-series, etc.
See Campbell & Stanley 1963.)
iii. ationale for the design
Davidson, M.L., & Moran-Miller, K.E. (2005). character development in sport: An ethnographic study of character development in an elite prep-school basketball program. Journal of Research in Character Education, 3(2), 121+. Retrieved February 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5034944612 Doty, J. & Lumpkin, A.. (2010). Do sports build or reveal character - an exploratory study at one service academy. Physical Educator. Phi Epsilon Kappa Fraternity. Retrieved February 08, 2011 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1 221760010.html
Duffy, M. & Chenail, R.J.. (2008). Values in qualitative and quantitative research. Counseling and Values. American Counseling Association. Retrieved February 10, 2011 from HighBeam Research:
Providing scholarships for athletes is one of the best ways to fund athletic programs, because when the athletes are competing for that first scholarship, he or she will be determined to show his or her best athletic abilities to the coaches. One of high schools and colleges highest sources of budget increases is the talent and the physical abilities of the athletes on the athletic teams. However, this is not the only source of income that athletic programs depend on. In addition to budget increases, they also depend on fundraising, donations, advertising and sales to name just a few incidents, which increase the number and amount of the scholarship funds. Besides this, the entire image and pride of the educational institution depends on the success on the athletic teams. Although athletes may be perceived as academically non-competitive, and the majority of the student body and school officials may…
Train Wreck Called Title IX, News Week
Good Grades Pay For Star Athletes, Toronto Star
Every team has a full-time strength and conditioning coach. There are weight rooms, training assistants, blenders, packs of powder drinks for players. Teams thought that if they have to spend, they needed to do the best to get the most out of their players. ut some guys do not want to take the hard way of going to the weight room and learning from a strength tutor. They prefer taking performance enhancers and they get desired results. They make up only 5% and they talk about what they do to those who have a hard time making money or stretching their budget. These athletes also feel others are getting ahead and that they have to take something to catch up or get to their highest level of performance. When those who take the hard way get bigger and stronger, everyone assumes that steroids are behind the progress. The 5% who…
Brown, Edwin W. Steroid Use Not Always Improper. Medical Update: Benjamin
Franklin Literary & Medical Society, Inc., June 1996. Retrieved on April 27, 2009
Dobbins, Bill. What You Really Need to Know about Anabolic Steroids. Bill Dobbins.com, 2009. Retrieved on April 27, 2009 from http://www.billdobbins.com/PUBLIC/pages/coolfree/steroids/truth-steroids.html
since they are all based on hard work while using steroids is not; it is a short cut to gaining an unfair advantage.
Is it Ethical to Use Animals in Sports?
Another interesting ethical issue in sports is the morality of using animals in sports and whether it is right to use them in bloodsports such as cockfighting. In order to understand the issue we have to go back in time and examine the relationship between human beings and animals has been pondered over by philosophers since the ancient times. Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher and mathematician advocated respect for animals as long ago as the 6th century BC because he believed in the transmigration of souls between humans and animals. Other religions such as Buddhism and Jainism have also preached kindness to animals as part of their core beliefs. Yet these philosophies have not prevented man from exploiting and using…
Are Anabolic Steroids Addictive?" (2005). Medical News Today. Retrieved on March 31, 2007 at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=34928
Barbaro euthanized after lengthy battle." (2007). MSNBC. January 29, 2007. Retrieved on March 31, 2007 at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16846723/
Berger, J. (2003). "Capturing the Truth." Star Bulletin. Sunday, June 22, 2003. Retrieved on March 31, 2007 at http://starbulletin.com/2003/06/22/features/story1.html
Cockfighting Fact Sheet." (2007). The Humane Society of United States. Retrieved on March 31, 2007 at http://www.hsus.org/hsus_field/animal_fighting_the_final_round/cockfighting_fact_sheet/
Sports and Education
hile research has shown that participating in high school sports has a positive correlation with academic performance, these studies have missed key details regarding high school sports programs, thus skewing the results and portraying sports as far more beneficial for academic and personal success than the evidence actually dictates. Furthermore, these problems are exacerbated when carried into college, and a review of the literature regarding both high school and college sports programs reveals that sports are less effective at encouraging education and carry far more negative side-effects than other comparable, non-athletic extracurricular activities.
hen addressing the possible academic contribution of high school and college sports, it is important to investigate not only whether or not sports contribute to education, but whether or not they contribute to education more or less than other comparable extracurricular activities, and furthermore, whether or not sports carry with them attendant negative side-effects…
Anonymous. (2008). Report finds that most black colleges are not in compliance with title
ix. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 59, 20-22.
Aries, E, McCarthy, D, Salovey, P & Banaji, M (2004). A comparison of athletes and nonathletes at highly selective colleges: academic performance and personal development. Research in Higher Education, 45(6), 577-602.
Darling, N, Caldwell, L & Smith, R (2005). Participation in school-based extracurricular activities and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Leisure Research, 37(1), 51-76.
Does the flashing of a billboard sign make you want to see an advertised professional sports game? Do you feel an urge to buy sports memorabilia after seeing it advertised on a stadium billboard? And finally, do you get drawn to buying a certain advertised item after seeing it displayed in a sports program? These are all valid questions, one might ask themselves, when attending a sports game or when just pondering about the topic of sports advertisement. Sports teams spend money on advertisement in different ways and through different avenues. It is a part of the norm. For professional sports teams, today. Sports teams may advertise through billboards, stadiums, websites, television, banners, flying blimps or aerial banners, etc. How sports teams choose to advertise could affect their success. If a sports team chooses to use only one avenue to advertise their team, then they will likely not…
"Aerial banners, Inc." (2005). Retrieved June 18, 2005 from Aerial Banners, Inc. Web
Bast, J.L. (1998). Sports stadium madness: why it started, how to stop it. Retrieved from Heartland Institute Web site: http://www.heartland.org/article.cfm?artId=9474
'Fantasy sports stadium" (2004). Retrieved June 18, 2005 from Fantasy sports stadium
Commonly, the terms 'sports agent', 'player agent', 'sports or contract representative' and 'contract advisor' are used interchangeably (vill.edu). Each term, whether identifying a lawyer or a non-lawyer, depicts a delegate who performs basically the same service (vill.edu). It is the duty of these professionals to represent, counsel, advise and assist a professional athlete in the negotiation, execution and enforcement of the player's contract (vill.edu). As of April 1993, two hundred seventy three major league baseball players earned a salary of one million dollars or more and agents usually receive four percent of the player's salary as their fee (vill.edu). This has caused a dramatic growth in the number of persons desiring to represent athletes (vill.edu).
There are countless definitions of athlete representatives, but the bottom line is this, to be a good sports lawyer, one must first be a good lawyer (vill.edu). A sports lawyer is frequently a…
Bullets Sign Gugliotta." USA Today. 20 Oct. 1992: C5.
Garbarino, Robert. "So You Want To Be A Sports Lawyer, Or Is It A Player Agent, Player Representative, Sports
Agent, Contract Advisor, Family Advisor or Contract Representative?" Villanova Sports & Entertainment
Law Journal. 1994. Villanova University. 29 Nov. 2002. http://vls.law.vill.edu/students/orgs/sports/back_issues/volume1/issue1/soyouwanttobe.html.
Sports agering -- ho is Involved and hy?
Gambling and sports have gone together for over a century, according to a new book called Sports Ethics for Sports Management Professionals, so this is not a new phenomenon at all. But to quote from the book, "Gambling in sports is replete with unethical motives and practices"; and indeed the authors go on to point out that gambling "…is a form of cheating, an act through which the conditions for winning in a sports contest have been unfairly changed in favor of one participant over another" (Thornton, et al., 2010, p. 82). Thornton and colleagues are referring to the "odds" -- often determined by how much money is placed on an individual team or competitor -- but they go a great deal deeper into the issue of sports wagering. This paper covers the issue of sports wagering -- the how, where, and…
Beck, Howard, and Schmidt, Michael S. (2007). NBA Referee Pleads Guilty to Gambling
Charges. The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com .
ESPN.com. (2007). Rose Admits to betting on Reds 'every night'. Retrieved December 5, 2011,
From http://espn.go.com .
The Evolution in Sports Psychology
High-level performance in sports is, of course, highly contingent upon one's physical abilities. In order to compete at the collegiate, Olympic or professional level, one must both be blessed with a certain minimum threshold of natural athletic talents and be bestowed with the dedication and patience to achieve the consistency and improvement necessary to remain at these high levels of competition. However, even given these two virtues, the aspirant athlete may find this difficult path further beset by challenges of the psychological kind. Competition at this high level requires confidence, focus, clarity, even temperament and a host of other qualities that can at times be easily accessed, at other times difficult to summon and other times still seemingly impossible to locate. It is thus that the field of sports psychology remains in a state of constant evolution. For athletes at every level, it…
Edwards, S.D. & Edwards, D.J. (2011). A Report on Psychological Well-Being and Physical Self-Perception in Five Sports Groups. African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 17(1), 9-21.
Horn, T.S. (2008). Advances in Sport Psychology. Human Kinetics.
Johnson, U. (2006). Sport Psychology-Past, Present and Future: The Perceptions of Swedish Sport Psychology Students. Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of Sport Psychology.
Kumar, P. & Shirotriya, A.K. (2010). 'Sports psychology' a crucial ingredient for athletes success: conceptual view. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(1), 155-156.
The important point is to think about the comments and see if there is any substance in the comments. When there are some valid points, then action has to be taken. In such cases, negative thinking may provide useful leads. When rational thinking has been used to correct negative thinking, rational positive thoughts may also be prepared. Sometimes useful opportunities are provided through the entire process of thinking. (Thought Awareness, ational Thinking and Positive Thinking)
What are the important thoughts of an athlete before an important race? This answer may provide the answer to the performance of the athlete. It seems that more scientific discoveries about the power of thought are resulting in more knowledge about performances. It is not known that thoughts of an athlete or his talk just before a race can affect his result. These often lead to knowledge about his negative attitudes which may arise from…
Epstein, Robert. (May, 1999) "Helping Athletes Go for the Gold sports psychologist Richard
Suinn" Sports Psychology. Retrieved at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1175/is_3_32/ai_54504402 . Accessed on 23 July, 2005
Imagery - Mental stress management" Retrieved at http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTCS_04.htm . Accessed on 23 July, 2005
Imagery - Mental Stress Management" Retrieved at http://www.mindtools.com/stress/RelaxationTechniques/Imagery.htm . Accessed on 23 July, 2005
Through this plan, all people could get involved in sports and differentiation was no longer based on one's financial statue, but on his or her abilities.
The National Lottery brought great successes to sports development in England but it concomitantly destabilized the already weakened system, influencing poor people to return to their condition as individuals who were less able to access sports development.
pparently, 20% of England's citizens can be categorized as being poor, given that they are recognized by the government as individuals who have less access to particular privileges. Being excluded from sports and from social activities in general is extremely harmful for the physical, and respectively for the mental health of the individual.
The 2002 implementation of the Game Plan marked a change in the world of sports, as it seemed that poor people would be provided with their rights as equal citizens. The program is among…
Apparently, 20% of England's citizens can be categorized as being poor, given that they are recognized by the government as individuals who have less access to particular privileges. Being excluded from sports and from social activities in general is extremely harmful for the physical, and respectively for the mental health of the individual.
The 2002 implementation of the Game Plan marked a change in the world of sports, as it seemed that poor people would be provided with their rights as equal citizens. The program is among the most complex to be directed at decreasing the gap caused by financial background in sports. The Game Plan was expected to improve conditions in England by including poor individuals in sports development and bettering their chances to integrate society. Sport was no longer something meant to bring success to the country, as it became a method of helping poor individuals.
Poor people should not be subjected to social exclusion because of their condition and sport is essential for helping them in their endeavor to escape society's biased convictions. In order for fairness to exist, social equality needs to be present.
Ebert (July 22, 2005) writes in his review of "Murderball" that Zupan's answer is "...hard to believe, but from him, I believe it." The team Zupan plays for us Team USA; the biggest rival for Team USA is Team Canada. And this rivalry becomes a central theme in the film. These players on the two teams definitely don't like each other at all. And Joe Soares, who was a great player for Team USA for many years, was let go because of his age and his declining skills. The film interviews Soares at length and viewers are given a close look at an angry man whose pride has been severely injured. But Soares - like all the competitors that are featured in the documentary - does not give up easily, and never quits. This is another story within the story, and Soares moves to Canada to become the head…
Ebert, Roger. "Murderball: Mobile jocks smash cliches." Retrieved April 28, 2008, at http://rogerebert.suntimes.com .
McGrath, Charles. "A Film's Stars Are Tough Athletes. They Are Also Paraplegics." The New
York Times. Retrieved April 28, 2008, at http://www.nytimes.com .
Turner, Matthew. "Murderball." View London. Retrieved April 28, 2008, at http://www.viewlondon.co.uk/films/murderball-film-review-13656.htm .
Sports Specialist Profession
What do you see as the greatest challenge confronting the sports licensing specialists? How would you overcome the challenge?
As anybody who has ever attended an American sporting event can attest, the presence of merchandise, both of the licensed and unlicensed variety, is nearly ubiquitous. From the high school level up through the major four professional leagues, calling yourself a fan of any particular team or requires a tangible show of allegiance, with baseball caps, jerseys of all stripe and style, and basketball sneakers considered to be standard apparel for the vast majority of males, and a growing number of females, throughout the country. With hundreds of professional teams, along with thousands of NCAA and high school squads, all seeking to assure as rights holders that the logo-emblazoned T-shirt or jacket purchased in the stadium parking lot has been approved, with a portion of profits from any…
Belter, C.J. & Hanna, J.M. (2009, October 14). Turning a playmaker into a moneymaker: The business of sports product licensing. DRI For the Defense, 39-44.
Blackshaw, I.S. (2012). Sports marketing agreements: Legal, fiscal and practical aspects. The Hague, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Hasser Press.
One type of this kind of fan is the Bandwagoner. This fan hops onto the coattails of whichever team is in first place at the time. These fans don't invest their time and energy and passion in one particular team. Instead, they cheer only for the best of the best. One way to tell if a fan is a Bandwagoner is to look at where their favorite teams are from. They often have favorite teams in different sports that are from different states, because they have no connection to place, only to winning. The opposite of the Bandwagoner is the Left Behind Fan. This person hasn't followed the team since it was in its glory days, but still thinks he or she knows all about them. An example would be a fan who doesn't know any of the Denver Broncos' quarterbacks since John Elway played. This fan can be a…
Some sports fans have shifting loyalties, and unlike the HomeTowner and the Romantic, they do not always cheer for the same team year after year. One type of this kind of fan is the Bandwagoner. This fan hops onto the coattails of whichever team is in first place at the time. These fans don't invest their time and energy and passion in one particular team. Instead, they cheer only for the best of the best. One way to tell if a fan is a Bandwagoner is to look at where their favorite teams are from. They often have favorite teams in different sports that are from different states, because they have no connection to place, only to winning. The opposite of the Bandwagoner is the Left Behind Fan. This person hasn't followed the team since it was in its glory days, but still thinks he or she knows all about them. An example would be a fan who doesn't know any of the Denver Broncos' quarterbacks since John Elway played. This fan can be a great match for the Romantic.
Over and above all of the aforementioned fans are the super fans, the Network Fan and the Encyclopedia. The Network fan is tuned in to all of the major national and regional sports networks as often as possible. For them, if it didn't happen on ESPN, it didn't happen. These fans know a lot about the teams that the networks mark as contenders, or who have great TV contracts, but they spread their loyalties too thin. If you need to know a stat from 1986 or who someone was traded for, the Encyclopedia Fan is your best friend. Not only can they tell you exactly what is wrong with the current team, they have statistical analysis to prove it; deathly boring amounts of statistics. Don't ever try to prove the Encyclopedia Fan wrong, but do take him or her to trivia night at your local pub.
Next time you're at the game, or watching the game on TV at the sports bar, take a close look at the fans. Which ones fit into these categories? Is it easy to tell? Perhaps there are categories this essay missed -- feel free to make up your own. Most important, though, think hard about this question next time you turn on the game -- which type are you?
Therefore, I seize the opportunity to take some key shots in the rain, even while the players are drenched. By focusing a shot on glistening raindrops, I can capture the intensity of the game as the droplets mirror the sweat from the players' bodies. I would need a telephoto lens to capture the droplets while also including some key portions of players' faces or bodies in the depth of field. I might even consider swapping lenses for a wide-angle, in order to capture the entire gridiron as sheets of rain fall on the field.
3. In Brandi Chastain's photo, the feeling of victory is palpable. There is absolutely no question that she has just won a major sporting event. The aesthetic impression is one of simultaneous relief and triumph. She has slid onto the field, on her knees and is clenching her fists in glory. Having taken her jersey off,…
Sports Announcers are usually broadcasters who target the male segment of the society considering the male stamina for the sport. Hockey, Football and baseball announcers become names in their own rights as their penchant for violence, excitement and entertainment makes an already fast paced game even more exciting.
The paper discusses the various types of sports announcers. Sports Announcers can be classified on the basis of sports, media and type of commentary they offer. Here I will aim to present the classification on the basis of the commentary they offer.
Types of the Announcers
Sports Announcements can take the form of news, opinion, comment and editorial.
News announcements would be simple events that take place in the world of sports. The news announcement would be made by the lead anchor.
Opinion announcements would be commentary that took place with personal opinions given by the announcer. This could be during the…
hus, motives and motivational styles in coaches should be related to other personality attributes coaches possess, as well as to how they go about behaving within the coaching environment (Morrison, 1999)."
Consistent with the results of earlier research relating motivation to personality and behavior in sport (Frederick & Ryan, 1993; Goudas, Biddle & Fox, 1994), the present study predicted that coaches with high intrinsic-low extrinsic motives would show a more autonomous decision-making style, as well as show higher scores on the positive personality characteristics of warmth, liveliness, and openness to change (Morrison, 1999). High extrinsic-low intrinsic coaches were predicted to have higher scores on controlling decision making style and negative personality characteristics associated with extrinsic motivation, such as higher dominance, rule-consciousness, vigilance, tension and apprehension (Morrison, 1999)."
Using 137 coach participants with an average age of 45 years the study asked the participants to self report on many aspects of…
The article presented the material well and provided the reader with some scientific proof that management and motivation styles should be considered in the hiring and retention of any college athletic coach.
Morrison, Craig S (1999) Collegiate coaches: an examination of motivational style and its relationship to decision making and personality. Journal of Sport Behavior
Spectators and Event Staff:
By and large, the event staff does an excellent job of facilitating a positive fan experience. The ushers who stand by every seating section guiding fans to their seats are polite, friendly and always smiling. This is true of security and many of the concession workers two. There is a sense that workers enjoy the atmosphere and benefits of working at the stadium. This helps to stimulate an altogether more positive fan experience, where there is a feeling that one is truly treated like a customer rather than an 'event attendee.' For the latter, there can frequently be a feeling that event staff is detached from or disinterested in their expectations. Event Staff at Citizens Bank Park defy this tendency.
The only weakness would be in the demeanor of the wait staff at the stadium's indoor restaurant, Harry the K's. The system for seating and attending…
These different factors are important, in helping to provide information and to motivate everybody to spend more time on the site. ("Denver Broncos," 2013) (osenr, 2011) ("Chapter 9," 2013)
In the case of North Carolina Amateur Sports (NCAS), the site is providing select amounts of information. However, it is also ignoring critical factors which could enhance the user's experience. As far as individual involvement is concerned, the organization is offering more general knowledge to them vs. one that is customized to different demographics of people. Motivation is limited by failing to use tools that will enhance the persons experience online. The content is satisfactory through offering news, updates and important meeting dates. The design is very eye catching utilizing black, white, red, blue and green color schemes. The performance of the site is excellent with it quickly loading and the links are taking someone to where they want to go…
Chapter 9. (2013).
Denver Broncos. (2013). Denver Broncos. Retrieved from: http://www.denverbroncos.com/
NCAS. (2013). NC Sports. Retrieved from: http://www.ncsports.org
Rosenr, S. (2011). The Business of Sports. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Sports, Race and Social Issues in Friday Night Lights
Sports in general are a form of competitive entertainment where the participants enjoy the pleasure of displaying their natural talent and their skills, while the viewers are relegated to cheering on the team in which are interested in, many times in a very passionate manner. In most sports there is a clear cut line that separates the participating athletes from the fanatics in the crowd. The book Friday night lights contradicts this notion, this book presents an interesting dynamic which blurs the line between fans and athletes combining both to create an uncontrollable entity that consumes the whole town.
This entity uses the Permian Panther football as a means to express the true feelings and ideals that are shared by the residents of the town. Football is used as vessel that uncovers the sometimes ugly reality of a town that seems…
Bissinger, H.G. Friday Night Lights: a Town, a Team, and a Dream. [Cambridge, Mass.]: Da Capo, 2000. Print
3. Rosa Serra's sculpture "Handball Player" and R.Tait McKenzie's sculpture "Joy of Effort" both use the human form to demonstrate the power of physical movement. McKenzie's piece focuses on a repetition of the image of a man in three action-based poses, a technique which gives the figure the 'illusion of motion'. Additionally, McKenzie emphasizes the musculature of the human body, paying attention to the figure's rib cage, calve muscles, and tensed back and forearms to demonstrate that he is in the midst of physical activity. The figure's body position further suggests action, and the manner in which the figure is repeated gives the overall piece a sense of harmony and balance -- as if the viewer is able to see the motion from its start through to its finish.
Serra's "Handball Player" takes a different approach to physical movement, instead emphasizing the overall unity of the piece through the repetition…
Degas, Edgar. "Horses on the Course at Longchamp." Print 65.
Groth, John. "Tilting at the Ring." Print 23.
McKenzie, R. Tait. "Joy of Effort." Print 39.
Serra, Rosa. "Handball Player." Print 48.
26). The fan culture that sprouts up around MediaSports is a curious social phenomenon. While there were no doubt fans of ancient Greek athletes who booed for their most vilified opponents from the rafters, the obsession with sports in modern society is unprecedented. Hovden (2003) points out an even more potentially destructive facet of MediaSports: the "sexualization and erotization of women's sport and female athletes," (p. 11). The relationship between the media and women's sports is paradoxical. On the one hand, women are participating in what has been an almost exclusively male venue and reaping rewards. Female athletes provide positive role models for young girls, and competitive physical activity is no longer viewed as being the province of men only. As women take control of their bodies and their images, then, it is ironic to see how many female athletes are talked about because of what they wear, or how…
Hovden, J. (2003). From equality and justice - to difference and profitability. Paper presented at the Gender and Power in the New Europe, the 5th European Feminist Research Conference, Lund University, Sweden. www.iiav.nl/epublications/2003/Gender_and_power/5thfeminist/paper_576.pdf
Hughes, R., & Coakley, J. (1984). Mass Society and the Commercialization of Sport. Sociology of Sport Journal, 1(1), 57-63.
Jackson, S. & Hokuwhitu, B. (2002) Tribes, and Technology: The New Zealand all Blacks Haka and the Politics of Identity. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 26(2), 125 -- " 139.
McKay, J., & Miller, T. (1991). From Old Boys to Men and Women of the Corporation: The Americanization and Commodification of Australian Sport. Sociology of Sport Journal, 8(1), 86-94.
However, those activities are not sports. They are exercises. Sports incorporate rules of play, forcing participants to follow the rules or be disqualified. Referees are essential for ensuring that rules are not broken and players are not cheating. The referees must be familiar with all rules of play, and also serve as judges. Many sports involve an apparatus such as a ball, but not all sports involve them. For instance, track and field events pit one athlete against another and the clock; no ball or disk is involved. Geography is essential to sports, as the players as well as their apparati (such as the ball) must stay within a designated play area. Time is used differently in different sports. Some sports depend on the clock, whereas in others, game play can go on indefinitely until some score or scoring situation is achieved.
Their rules of play may differ, but all…
" (Council of Europe, nd) oone holds that it is the responsibility of the educators and training to understand that "intellectual dishonesty in exercise physiology weakens the integrity of the evolving profession. Central to membership in a professional organization is the moral balance and appreciation for ethically-based thinking." (2003)
In other words, first the integrity of the profession of teaching and coaching sports must be upheld by those professionals who are in the teaching and coaching initiative and secondly it is the responsibility of those teachers and coaches to instill the same ethics of fair competition in the minds of the athletes whose life they play a major developmental role. In conclusion the statement of oone is noted who states: "Frankly, I have never understood how values can be taught when athletes, winners or otherwise, are encouraged to take performance-enhancing supplements. It is a contradiction of sports ethics. Simply stated:…
Boone, Tommy (2003) Dietary "Sports" Supplements: The University Teacher's Role in Teaching Values? Professionalization of Exercise Physiology ISSN:1099-5682 Vol. 6 NO. 7 July 2003.Available Online at http://faculty.css.edu/tboone2/asep/TeachingVALUES.html .
Flanagan, Kelly E. (2005) Can Sports Management Stop Steroid Use? The Sport Supplement - A Supplement of the Sport Journal. United States Sports Academy Online available at http://www.thesportjournal.org/sport-supplement/vol13no4/flanagan.asp .
Teen Athletes and Performance-Enhancing Substances: What Parents Can Do (2006) Mayo Clinic CNN Special Online available at http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/SM/00045.html/.
Hitt, William D. (nd) Ethics and Leadership: Putting Theory Into Practice Online available at http://www.msu.edu/course/prr/370/HittIV.htm .
Unlike my mom, I grew up surrounded by sports on the media. Whereas my mom in Jamaica watched some soccer and the occasional American sporting event such as the World Series of baseball or the Super Bowl, my mother was not as inundated with media images of star athletes as I was.
My perception of sports and in particular of women in sports changed in relation to media portrayals of female athletes and female athletic events. Watching football on television was a regular event in my household. Every Monday night my relatives would come over to watch the game. We also watched basketball, baseball and hockey but usually during the playoff season only. None of the sports we watched on television, at least as a family, were female sports except some professional tennis matches. Therefore, I grew up predominantly with images of male athletes. Sports heroes were all men and…
Sport psychology is that branch of psychological consultation, which specially deals with the needs, emotional and mental development of athletes and sportsmen. With competition being extremely intense in the field of sports, athletes undergo serious mental and physical stress and 'burning out' is a persistent threat. For this reason, they regularly need to consult a psychologist who can help them put things into perspective and focuses on the enhancement of their athletic performance. However not every psychologist is capable of understanding the needs and goals of a sportsperson and therefore a unique branch of psychology exists which deals specifically with athletics-related problem and is known as sports psychology.
Sports psychologist or counselors are professionals with specialized degree in the field. These professionals concentrate on development of an athlete's personality, his mindset and attitude thus enhancing his performance on the field. They treat sports people as special section of…
Hinkle, J.S. (1989a, March). Sports counseling: The process and the product. In J.S. Hinkle (Chair), Sport psychology: Perspectives on sports counseling. Symposium conducted at the 35th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
Butt, D.S. (1987), Psychology of sport. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Millslagle, D.G. (1988). Visual perception, recognition, recall and mode of visual search control in basketball involving novice and experienced basketball players. Journal of Sport Behavior, 11, 32-44.
Burke, K.L. (1989, March). Counseling for performance enhancement. In J.S. Hinkle, Sport psychology: Perspectives on sports counseling. Symposium conducted at the 35th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
TM1: Outdoor enthusiasts
TM3: Parents and adult students (high school and college)
TM1: Consumer sales promotions should include coupons that can be redeemed during particular seasons in which outdoor enthusiasts are more likely to be motivated to purchase equipment for their outdoor activity. This will allow consumers to feel that they are making a good purchase at a good price.
TM2: Consumer sales promotions should include discounts/sales for seasonal sports equipment that correlates with the time just before when that seasonal sport will begin. This will allow sports players to obtain the materials they need to stat competitive while feeling incentivized to purchase from the store by the sale.
TM3: Consumer sales promotions should include a points program, so that continual shoppers can earn points on their purchases which can be redeemed for a future item once a target point goal has been reached. This will allow…
Case 2: Marketing Sports Equipment. (n.d.). Part 4: IMC Promotional Tools.
Kudo, M., Jae Ko, Y., Walker, M., & Connaughton, D. P. (2015). The influence of title
sponsorships in sports events on stock price returns. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 16(2), 37-56.
Athletics and Academics
In the current economic climate of the United States, public institutions are finding themselves having to make harsher and harsher budget cuts. Teaching positions are minimized, class sizes are increased, and fees are rising to nearly unaffordable regions. The English Department at a certain university or high school may drop from twenty-five professors to a dozen or so. It is the harsh reality of living in an era of economic downturn. However, even as the college school would lose more and more financial assistance from the government, athletic programs at schools continue to expand and provide more and more incentives for prospective recruits. This is symptomatic of a flawed philosophy in college institutions: the ability to perform athletic skills has more importance than the ability to think. This perspective not only jades the graduating classes but teaches the wrong principles for when a student needs to learn…
Larimore, David (2007). "Non-Economic Societal Impacts of Intercollegiate Athletics." The
Sport Journal. United States Sports Academy.
Meier, K.J., Eller, W.S., Marchbanks III, M.P., Robinson, S., Polinard, J.L., Wrinkle, R.D.
(2004). "A Lingering Question of Priorities: Athletic Budgets and Academic Performance Revisited. Review of Policy Research," 21(6), 799 -- 807. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
259). These authors assert that crowd management and crowd control constitute two additional vital issues that athletic facility management needs to address when hosting events at any stadium or venue.
Event managers also need to understand the type of event(s) they host and understand that variuos events draw different types of crowds, as no two crowds are alike and each crowd typically behaves in different manners. Abbott and Geddie (2001) warn: "Crowds can behave violently, resulting in destruction of property, personal injury, and, in extreme cases, death. Crowd management plans should be adjusted to meet the needs of the event and the potential crowd" (p. 260). Event managers need to prepare for the unexpected that might occur. They need to also realize that football game may require more security officers than a golf game.
Event managers also need to be aware of the surrounding location of the stadium or venue.…
Abbott, J. & Geddie, M.W. (2001). Event and venue management: Minimizing liability through effective crowd management techniques. Event Management. Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Vol. 6, pp. 259 -- 270. Retrieved July 10, 2009 from http://www.popcenter.org/problems/spectator_violence/PDFs/Abbott.pdf
Borkowski, R.P. (2006). When good facility go bad. Athletic Management. Retrieved July 12,
2009 from http://www.athleticmanagement.com/2007/01/15/when_good_facilities_go_bad/indx.php
One of the most pressing problems with the doping incidents is that punishment is so lax in many arenas. The WADA recommends a two-year ban from the sport, but increasing the time could reduce the number of doping incidents. An athlete might be less likely to turn to performance enhancing drugs of any kind if they knew they could face a ban for life, or a five-year or more ban from their chosen sport. Laws regarding the use of banned substances should be reviewed and updated so they are the same for each sport, and so they increase the culpability of the players involved. Since many of these athletes serve as heroes and role models to the children of the world, they owe it to them to come clean, stay clean, and support stricter enforcement in their specific sports. Lance Armstrong, in his comeback maneuver, could serve as a catalyst…
Editors. "Anti-Doping Expert Promises to Test Armstrong for 'Everything'." ESPN.com. 2008. 26 Sept. 2008.
Murphy, Austin. "Armstrong Returns With a New Team and a Winning Cause." Sports Illustrated.com. Sept. 2008, 26 Sept. 2008.
Prizes have always been a part of contests, a tradition that can be traced back for centuries. In Homer's the Iliad, Achilles hosts a contest in honor of the fallen Patroclus, "The first prize he offered was for the Chariot races -- a woman skilled in all the useful arts, and a three legged cauldron that had ears for handles, and would hold twenty two measures. This was for the man who came first," (Iliad).
Modern day athletes continue to receive prizes for their successes. They receive monetary compensation through endorsements and contracts for their participation in professional programs. The compensation is much more than a useful woman and a cauldron in recent times. The 2006 Top National Football League salaries reached insane heights. According to USAToday.com, Richard Seymour from the NFL Patriots earned a whopping $24,691,160. Another New England Patriot who is a household name thanks to his quarter…
Homer. The Iliad. Book xxiii. Found at: http://classics.mit.edu/Homer/iliad.23.xxiii.html . On Friday September 21, 2007.
Murphy, Arthur. The Works of Cornelius Tacticus with Essay on His Life and Genius.
Oxford University Press. 1935.
Shakespeare, William. Troilus and Cressida. Penguin Books. New York. 2000.
These are the topics covered on this site.
Brief History Employment
Important Terms Learning More
A Typical Day Summary
Pros and Cons Acknowledgments
The Association for the Advancement of Applied Sports Psychology, on the other hand, is a regularly updated website for professionals in this field. It covers a number of different types of information, including an overview of what is Applied Sports Psychology and the different areas of specialization within the field, common questions and answers, and terminology.
Another area covered is learning about certified consultants and how to find one. There is also a list of suggested consultants' websites, and they are still up and running when linking to them. Since this is an organization for Sports Psychologists, the emphasis is on the conferences and services that the organization provides for members. What is missing here that was helpful on the previous website was…
Association for the Advancement of Applied Sports Psychology. Website retrieved June 12, 2007. http://www.aaasponline.org/asp/index.php
Careers in Sports Psychology. Website retrieved June 12, 2007 http://www.wcupa.edu/_academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,
2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html
Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh
Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. etrieved September 21,
2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm
Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.
etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm
Witt, Jon. (2006). The…
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Slate.com. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
The research suggests that sport psychology is useful to athletes because it provides them with the tools needed to fully exploit their physical talents by controlling their mental processes. The research found that here are several techniques associated with sports psychology. These techniques include MPSE, thought stopping, mental rehearsal (imagery) self-talk, visuo-motor behavior rehearsal (VMBR) and establishing goals. All of these techniques can be used to assist the athlete in focusing on the goal that they are attempting to accomplish.
Arvinen-Barrow M., Penny G.,Hemmings B., Corr S. (2010) UK chartered physiotherapists' personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 (2010) 58 -- 66
"Careers in Sports Psychology." Retrieved February 16, 2010 from: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
De Petrillo, L.A., Kaufman, K.A. Glass, C.R. And Arnkoff D.B. (2009) Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE).…
Arvinen-Barrow M., Penny G.,Hemmings B., Corr S. (2010) UK chartered physiotherapists' personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 (2010) 58 -- 66
"Careers in Sports Psychology." Retrieved February 16, 2010 from: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
De Petrillo, L.A., Kaufman, K.A. Glass, C.R. And Arnkoff D.B. (2009) Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE). Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 2009, 4, 357-376
Dreyer, D. (2004). ChiRunning: A revolutionary approach to effortless, injury-free running. Retrieved February 16, 2009 from: http://www.chirunning.com .
In many cases, the sports that are largely ignored in the U.S. are equally deserving of national exposure and coverage, because they demand the same level of natural talent, skill, and expertise as those high-profile sports that enjoy extensive national coverage.
Especially in the wake of recent revelations and scandals arising in the major American sports involving use of steroids, violent assaults on women, driving under the influence of alcohol, and federal convictions for those types of crimes as well as for cruelty to animals have undermined the traditional reputation of professional athletes as role models in modern American society. To date, no such controversies have plagued any of the lesser-appreciated sports in the U.S. In that regard, surfing in particular is associated with health, vitality, and natural physical fitness that is not at all likely to fall prey to illegal or performance-enhancing drug use in the sport. Furthermore, unlike…
Many will lose income as a result of the event, as will media corporations and sports sponsors. The consumers of sports -- the viewers -- receive information about a political issue rather than a broadcasted game play.
The power of sports to alter political landscapes should not be underestimated. As Spector (nd) points out, the Internet assists boycotts because of the rapid way information is disseminated. Interestingly, sports allows for a type of political protest that protects the actual state government. The vehicle for the dissent is part of popular culture rather than foreign policy. Even when a conscious coalition of nations join into a concerted boycott of a major international event such as Olympics, the boycott remains a peaceful and populist movement. Within a country too, sports boycotts can inspire political activism on domestic issues.
Spector, J.B. (nd). Non-traditional diplomacy: Cultural, academic and sports boycotts and change in…
Spector, J.B. (nd). Non-traditional diplomacy: Cultural, academic and sports boycotts and change in South Africa. Retrieved Feb 1, 2010 from http://www.anc.org.za/un/conference/jbspector.pdf
Sports Center is a production of ESPN on cable television. It is a mixture of scores, game highlights, commentary, interviews and human interest feature stories. All of the people who are part of the ESPN broadcast team are, of course, intelligent, well-spoken, and attractive.
A lady by the name of Dana Jacobson was one of the primary anchors doing two of the three shows. She worked with one man named Mike Greenberg and another by the name of Dave Revasine. There were other females involved in the broadcasting, mostly as interviewers who also did a small amount of commentary related to what ever interview they did. There is, besides the gender mix, also an ethnic mix that is actually more diverse for women than men. There are Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic peoples represented by the women and Caucasian and African-American by the men. The gender ratio is approximately 3:1 males…
Sport Stadium Risk Assessment
Sport venue management face challenges in determining the level of a potential threat (Hall). Risk must be identified, measured, and evaluated to be effectively managed. It should include assessments for threats, vulnerabilities, and criticalities for information that helps to protect critical assets, physical and human, against terrorist attacks and other threats, such as fan behavior that can cause harm to others or physical assets. Protection measures can include access control, use of CCTV security cameras, adding lighting, performance of background checks, credentialing, checking backpacks, enhancing communication networks, as well as developing and updating emergency response and evacuation plans.
There are three types of risks that need to be assessed. Mission risk prevents the organization from accomplishing goals and missions. Asset risk can harm physical assets. And, security risks can potentially cripple actual data and people. These risks are identified by surveys, inspections, employee interviews, and the…
Hall, S., Marciani, L. Cooper, W.E., & Rolen, R. "Introducing a Risk Assessment Model for Sport Venues." The Sport Journal, 10(2), ISSN: 1543-9518 (2007). Retrieved from http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/introducing-risk-assessment-model-sport-venues .
Hall, S., Marciani, L., & Cooper, W. "Sport Venue Security: Planning and Preparedness for Terrorists-related incidents." The Smart Journal, 4(2) (Spring/Summer 2008). Retrieved from http://www.thesmartjournal.com/venues.pdf .
A partnership firm would be the best choice for Lou and Jose sports bar and restaurant business. To form a partnership, four criteria must be fulfilled: partnership must have two or more persons; the same persons must be caring the business, business must be for profit, and all persons must be co-owners. Lou, Jose, and Miriam will be co-owners for-profit business and Lou and Jose will be caring daily duties of a sports bar and restaurant. However, in a partnership control is shared by all the partners. Every decision is made on the understanding and agreement between all the partners. Lou and Jose will have general partnership while Miriam as an investor partner will not control business activities.
The reason a partnership firm would be the best choice is because neither of them have much money and Miriam is willing to be the investor who will not participate…
Limited liability partnership. (n.d.). West's Encyclopedia of American Law. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/limited-liability-partnership
Partnership. (n.d.). Encyclopedia of Small Business. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/partnership
Cheeseman, H.R. (2010). The Legal Environment of Business and online Commerce: Business
Ethics, E-Commerce, Regulatory, and International Issues. 6th ed. Prentice Hall
Although the coach may not work out with the client every session, he or she may be called upon to demonstrate many of the moves and to assist the client, depending on the nature of the session and the client's needs. For some coaches, the 'best' part of work -- the involvement with people committed to fitness -- may also be the worst part, because their schedules may make it difficult to find time to work out alone. Even then, the coach may be so exhausted from helping others he does not have the motivation to condition himself. But this is vital, so the coach can assist clients in an injury-free fashion.
A typical 'day in the life' of a sports and conditioning coach will vary depending upon the coach's practice setting. A private trainer might get up at 5:30am to go to the house of a busy executive he…
Kinesiology. (2011). University of Michigan. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://www.umich.edu/units_kines.php
Sports management. (2011). Syracuse University. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://falk.syr.edu/SportManagement/Default.aspx
Waehner, Paige. (2011). How to become a personal trainer. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at http://exercise.about.com/cs/forprofessionals/a/personaltrainer_2.htm
Sports & Nbsp;(general)
Fund raising Critque
Info: • the format will be according to APA style (typed double spaced) and in four
• parts. Written out as a paper.
is the identification of the article. What is important here is that you provide the reader with enough information about your article so that they will be able to locate the article.
• A Summary. List the main points that the author has tried to establish, i.e. 1, 2, 3 or first, second, third. There normally will be 3 to 5 main points. If you are summarizing a court case you should discuss: What provision of the law was at issue? Briefly state the facts of the case. What legal tests were applied? Were there any unusual elements in the case? Include all major key points of the author. If the author addressed any major concepts or methodology this should be…
Staurowsky, Ellen J. (1996). Women and Athletic Fund Raising: Exploring the Connection
Between Gender and Giving. Journal of Sport Management,10, 401-416.
Elliot, D.L., Moe, E.L., Goldberg, L., Defrancesco, C.A., Durham, M.B., & Hix-mall, H. (2006). Definition and Outcome of a Curriculum to Prevent Disordered Eating and Body haping Drug Use. Journal of chool Health, 76(2), 67+. Retrieved February 15, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5028537762
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In both the conflicts, the strong will of the athletes help them to overcome the obstacles or conflicts that they faced.
The aesthetic appeal was the main characters Lidell played by Ian Charleson and Abrahams played by Ben Cross. Both the actors had execute their role well and make a big impact on the viewers. The screenplay is also realistic and the story line is strong and powerful. This makes it an all-time great classic for viewers.
1. In this review, the critics felt that the movie was much slower than it should have been. But, they still liked the strong concepts and its underlying themes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/chariots_of_fire/
2. The critics in this review rate it as one of the best movies that is ideal for children aged ten and up. They critic it as a good family movie that can lay the foundation for kids to understand…
Koster, Olinka. (26 October 2007). Modern Day Hero runs away with Chariots of Fire Chellnge. Daily Mail. Retrieved from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-490027/Modern-day-hero-runs-away-Chariots-Fire-challenge.html
Mosher, Stephen David. (February 1982). Sport Movies Grow Up. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. Pp35-36.
Anti-discrimination laws are enforced and companies are rated by their policies of tolerance. Homophobia is gradually being extricated from the American consciousness and so is sexism. The media plays a major role in how the American consciousness changes and those changes have an indelible impact on the character of the American Dream.
Thomspon also notes that Thrice was well-loved by his teammates. The community rallied in support of Thrice and there was a general outcry after he died. Being American has always entailed appreciation for grassroots movements. The social and political realities that evolve depend on grassroots movements. Grassroots movements precede legislation and policy changes. America becomes more of a real democracy as grassroots movements offer a voice for the most disenfranchised elements of society. Grassroots movements prevent tyrannnies of the majority and enable minority opinions to make their way into public policy. The American government remains a government of…
The Declaration of Independence." Indiana University School of Law. Retrieved April 1, 2007 at http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/declaration.html
Library of Congress (2002). What is the American Dream? Retrieved April 1, 2007 at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/lessons/97/dream/thedream.html
United States Constitution: Fourteenth Amendment. Retrieved April 1, 2007 at
Sport Promotion Mix
Kotler's promotion mix consists of advertising, publicity, personal contact, incentives, and atmospherics as well as licensing, sponsorship, and community relations to represent the contemporary sport promotion mix (Irwin, 2008). The New York Yankees the contemporary promotion mix. They have advertising of ticket sales, news articles and videos as publicity, blogs for personal contact with fans, discounts on tickets as incentives, and atmospherics with a showcase of bleachers, licensing with team logo items, sponsorships with corporations, and community relations with donations and fund drives.
Advertising is done for ticket sales (Home Page) and team logo items (New York Yankees), such as t-shirts, hats, etc. The advertised items serve two fold in the promotion mix. Ticket sales contain incentives in 12-game and group packages that offer discounts to consumers. The team logo items are advertised for sale, but also contain the licensing of the team logo. The team logo…
Matt gave Ed two eggs on toast with half-a-grapefruit and orange juice for breakfast (Independent on Sunday, 2002). Ed took fish oils and multivitamins on a daily basis. These were immediately followed by a good fiber and protein meal in minutes or strength during his warm-up sessions. Matt gave Stu chicken, basmati rice, couscous and egg and Jaffa cakes for his "insulin." Matt's intention was to bring extra protein straight into Stu's tired muscles. He also served Stu with nuts for his snacks (Independent on Sunday).
Commercial high-carbohydrate electrolyte sports drinks fill the football player's need, especially within the first 15 minutes after strenuous activity. These drinks also appeal more than plain water while contributing their value (Mannie, 2001).
usiness Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. usiness Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.
Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from…
Business Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.
Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2004_Sept_8/ai_n6185691/?tag=content;col1
Independent on Sunday (2002). The programme. Independent Newspapers UK Limited
ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4159/is_20020922/ai_n1266483/?tag=content;col1
If the owner agrees, it discharges the debt under accord and satisfaction, as long as he takes the funds (cashes the check) knowing or with reason to know that it's consideration for discharging the debt. Even though it seems there's no new consideration here, there actually is; because it's a new promise to pay, given the fact that the owner would probably not be able to collect any funds otherwise.
As for the interest, if Mrs. Green disagrees with the calculation, she can recover under contract theory if she is proven correct. Unilateral mistake can be corrected in this fashion. If however, she knew of the error, then she would not be able to collect after the fact. Of course, she has to prove in a court that the calculation was incorrect.
Mary had contracted away her right to sue. A contract must have offer, acceptance and consideration (i.e., some…
This mechanism will ultimately save the firm money as it is more efficient with its resources. More important however, feedback insures that the strategic planning process remains focused on the metrics of success rather than diverging from its intended purpose. Sporting organizations need focus in order to maintain their funding constituency. This comes in the form of ticket, merchandise, and television ad sales.
Furthermore, performance measures are important in regards to the overall benchmarking process. Performance measures provide a means of evaluation of both personnel and the strategic plan itself. With these measures of success management can better identify performance relative to strategic planning benchmarks. Also, through the use of performance measures, coupled with appropriate feedback mechanisms management can better ascertain initiatives. If performance is a substantial departure from management standards, organizational leaders can better determine what areas need improvement and coach to those specific areas. Through performance measures, management…
1) Martin, D.C. & Bartol, K.M. (1998). Performance appraisal: Maintaining system effectiveness. Public Personnel Management, 27(2), 223-230.
2) Schweitzer, ME., Ordonez, L., & Douma, B. (2004) Goal setting as a motivator of unethical behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 422-432
The result is that even as changes and improvements have been made across the boards, schools continue both to decline infrastrucuturally and to experience a simultaneous failure to live up to opportunities now emergent.
As the text by Thompson et al. indicates, "the newest data argue that if unmet needs are vast in only the context of general upkeep and repair, they are staggering in the context of a fuller definition of total infrastructure and endorses costs of improvements associated with educational program adequacy." (Thompson et al., 260) This is the argument which is at the crux of the text, provoking the conclusion that proper financial allotment is required to produce positive academic results both generally and in the area of physical education.
Thompson, D.C.; Crampton, F.E. & ood, C.. (2008). Money and Schools. Eye on Education.
Thompson, D.C.; Crampton, F.E. & Wood, C.W. (2008). Money and Schools. Eye on Education.
The sportsmen and the team enter competition to win prizes and they end up as winners, runner ups, or other positions, which are crucial in sports; they come in first place or second place and yet score that many goals. The performances of the sportsmen are records to be remembered for years to come and these are all quantitative variables, rather than qualitative.
Also, at the level of the increased attention offered by the business community on sports and sporting events, the measures used are again quantitative ones. Some examples in this sense include the money brought in by the investors in the sports teams, the number of people attracted by a sports event, the commercial value of a sports events and so on; for instance, the Olympic games can also be measured in terms of the investments allocated to improve the infrastructure in the region, the increase in the…
Dunning, E. Coakley. J. (2000). Handbook of sports studies. SAGE.
Jones, I. (1997). Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods in sports fan research. The Qualitative Report, Vol. 3. No. 4. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR3-4/jones.html accessed on November 13, 2012
Toohey, K. Veal, a.J. (2007). The Olympic games: a social science perspective. CABI.
Qualitative and quantitative research: fundamental assumptions. The Bangor University. http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~pes004/resmeth/assumpmain.htm accessed on November 13, 2012