326 results for “Stamp Act”.
What role did the Stamp Act play in the American evolution?
The Stamp Act of 1765 was enacted by British Parliament as an attempt to raise revenue that would help to pay off the debt that Britain had incurred during the Seven Years' War, also known as the French and Indian War. The Stamp Act required that American colonists pay a tax on "every piece of paper they used" (Summary of the 1765 Stamp Act, n.d.). While American colonials were used to being taxed by the British Parliament as they were still English subjects, they were most upset by the principle of the Act. The passage of the Stamp Act by British Parliament helped to bring attention to how American colonials were unjustly and unfairly being governed and helped to provide a political platform that would justify revolution.
One of the major reasons that colonials were highly against…
No Taxation Without Representation. (n.d.). Accessed 11 November 2011 from, http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h640.html
The Sons of Liberty. (n.d.). Declaration of Independence. U.S. History. Accessed 11 November
2011 from, http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/sons.htm
A Summary of the 1765 Stamp Act. (n.d.). Colonial Williamsburg. Accessed 11 November 2011 from, http://www.history.org/history/teaching/tchcrsta.cfm
Forty-one years ago, President Kennedy had the occasion to honor Nobel Prize winners at the White House in late April. When giving the toast, he proclaimed: "I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever been gathered together at the White House...with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone." Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence was our third President and considered the greatest President in United States history. However, the Embargo Act of 1807-1809 caused him to leave office resented by many Americans. Many of these people believe him to have violated the individual liberty of American citizens that he had championed throughout his career. A successful study of his motives in initiating the embargo and its eventual manifestation is essential to understanding Jefferson and the early history of American trade and foreign policy.
Jefferson was a classical liberal and…
Columbia Encyclopedia: Embargo Act of 1807
Reginald Horsman. The Causes of the War of 1812; University of Pennsylvania Press, 1962.
Louis Martin Sears. Jefferson and the Embargo; Duke University Press, 1927
Also, this should be seen as a short-term solution for people who are temporarily out of jobs in the U.S. And not as a long-term means to living comfortably.
Social Security Benefits
Social security benefits help many elderly and disabled people to live a reasonable life. In 2010, more than 53 million Americans received social security benefits that amount to a whopping $703 billion. Out of these, 34 million retired workers accounted for $40 billion and $1.7 billion went to 2.9 dependents of retired workers at an average amount of $1,170 per month. The eight million disabled workers and their $1.9 billion dependents received an average of $1,065 per month and this amounted to $8.5 billion and $0.6 billion respectively. The remaining $6.3 billion went to 6.4 million survivors at an average monthly benefit of $1,129. (Social Security Administration USA, 2010).
The Social Security Administration of the U.S. estimates that…
USDA Food and Nutrition Service. (December 2010). State Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Rates in 2008. Washington, DC:Author. Retrieved from: http://www.fns.usda.gov/oane/MENU/Published/snap/FILES/Participation/Reaching2008.pdf
DeParle, Jason. (November 28, 2009). Food Stamp Use Soars and Stigma Fades. New York Times.
Social Security Administration USA (2010). Fact Sheets. Washington, DC:Author. Retrieved from: http://www.ssa.gov/pressoffice/factsheets/basicfact-alt.pdf
Trumball, Mark. (2011, January 17). The Retirement Workforce. Christian Science Monitor.
Against the Patriot Act of 2001
What is the Patriot Act of 2001? The Act was passed in order to unite and strengthen the United States of America by providing all the appropriate and the necessary tools with which to fight terrorism. The President George W. Bush signed the Act on October 26th in 2001, after the devastating terrorist attacks that occurred on the nerve center of the United States of America, the World Trade Center, on September 11, 2001. (USA Patriot Act) These terrorist acts were a cleverly coordinated series of attacks on the Pentagon, which is the Headquarters of the Department of Defense of the United States of America and holds more than 23,000 civilian as well as military employees, and also more than 3,000 non-defense personnel, and on the World Trade Center, which is the center of global commerce that is responsible for providing network access to…
Bergen, Jennifer Van. "The U.S.A. Patriot Act Was Planned Before 9/11" Truth out Editorial. (20 May, 2002) Retrieved From
http://www.truthout.org/docs_02/05.21B.jvb.usapa.911.htm Accessed on 25 November, 2004
Dinh, Viet. E. (1 June, 2004) "How the U.S.A. Patriot Act defends Democracy" A White Paper. Retrieved From http://www.defenddemocracy.org/usr_doc/USA_Patriot_Act.pdf
Accessed on 25 November, 2004
Patriot Act and Constitutional Freedom
Thomas Jefferson said: 'The price of freedom is constant vigilance.' Unfortunately in a large nation dedicated to the individual freedom and liberty of all its citizens, the only time when the nation learns that is has not been vigilant enough is when a person, or group of persons take advantage of that freedom, and abuse the liberty of others in order to further their own destructive purposes. The tragedy of 9-11 is the most recent case in point of how a nation can take its freedom and liberty for granted, which ultimately makes a doorway for others to tear down that which has taken over 200 years to build, protect, and defend.
When our country endured similar acts of threat or war, such as the bombing of Pearl Harbor, or the expansion of communism into the Western Hemisphere in Cuba, the government has oven reacted…
The Alien and Sedtion acts. (2001) Folwells Laws of the U.S. Early America.com Accessed 1 Jan 2004. Available from http://earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/milestones/sedition/ .
Dempsey, Jim. (2003, Jan 3) Cyber Security. Center for Democracy and Security. Accessed 1 Jan 2004. Available at http://www.cdt.org/security/000404amending.shtml
Henderson, N. (2002) The Patriot Act's impact on the government's ability to conduct electronic surveillance of ongoing domestic communications. Duke Law Journal, Vol. 52.
Japanese-Americans Internment Camps During World War II. Special Collections Department, J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah. Accessed 1 Jan 2003. Available from http://www.lib.utah.edu/spc/photo/9066/9066.htm
Though Jefferson played a major role in the development of the United States he preferred to be remembered for the things he gave the people and not the things the people gave to him. His final request was that his tombstone read: HERE AS BURIED THOMAS JEFFERSON, AUTHOR of the DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE, of the STATUTE of VIRGINIA for RELIGIOUS FREEDOM, and FATHER of the UNIVERSITY of VIRGINIA.
The Townsend Acts were a series of laws passed by the Parliament of Great Britain beginning in 1767. These acts were intended to raise revenue to pay the salaries of governors and judges, enforce compliance with trade regulations, punish New York for failure to comply with the Quartering Act, and establish a precedent that Parliament had the right to tax the colonies.
The Stamp Act of 1765 was a direct tax imposed by Parliament on the American colonies. The act required that…
"Brief Biography of Thomas Jefferson." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. Web. Accessed 31
"Short History of the University of Virginia." University of Virginia. Web. Accessed 31 March
What led to the Revolution War
This paper aims to discuss main ideas that led to the Revolution War as explained by Edmund S. Morgan in the third edition of his book "The Birth of the Republic' (993). This book was initially published in 956 and then republished another time in 977 and then in 993. It provided a tremendous overview of the major events of the history of America during the revolutionary period.
Morgan in the first part of the book examined the relationship between the 3 U.S. colonies and British Parliament. He emphasized primarily on the unjust taxation that was imposed on the colonies by the English and other violations of liberties committed by British Parliament. In fact, Sugar and Stamp Acts of 764-765 turned out to be a great shock to the colonists, that declared that in future additional taxes will be taken from the…
1. Explained by Daniel K. Richter, Before the Revolution: America's Ancient Pasts, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; First Edition, 2011, 500- 510
2. Quoted in Edmund, S, and Morgan. The Birth of the Republic, 1763-89 (The Chicago History of American Civilization), University of Chicago Press; Third Edition, 1993, 27
3. Explained by Edmund, S, and Morgan. The Birth of the Republic, 1763-89 (The Chicago History of American Civilization), University of Chicago Press; Third Edition, 1993, 52.
During the 18th century there was a fierce competition between the British and the French colonial empires which ultimately led to The Seven Years War. The final result of the conflict favored the English who, nonetheless, were forced to make appeal to the force of the American colonies in order to defeat the French. Following such an action, the opponents of the British rule over the American territories would later on recall and use in supporting the cause of independence the aid the Americans provided the British in tackling the French threat.
The British considered the Americans as being the closest political ally and colonial region. Moreover, the historical context determined such an approach. This special treatment protected the American colonies from any external and foreign threat; in return, the British sought to maintain a preferential trade connection with the American colonies who were, without a doubt, one of the…
They were seen as being more punitive than pragmatic. Certainly the British needed revenue after the French & Indian War to support their standing army in the colonies, but to tax the colonists in order to police them with multitudes of Redcoats, was absurd, and caused the colonists -- many of whom had tried to stay loyal to the King -- to become cynical, skeptical, and in the end, very angry.
FOUR: How did the colonists respond?
Certainly -- as the text reports on page 138 -- the colonists thought they were British subjects, and of course they were. But when the Sugar and Stamp Acts were handed down, many colonists it seemed unfair and "in deep violation of what they perceived to be their rights and liberties" as British subjects. In time, large street protests were helping to build the demand for new policies. One of the colonists' most…
George Robert Twelves Hewes was an interesting figure in the American Revolutionary period was born in oston, on September 5th 1742. The environment in which he lived saw many transformations throughout his life and Hewes also experienced more inward transformations as well. Hewes life can be defined by some of the more significant events that we personally witnessed and/or participated in. These events also happened to be defining moments in American History. One such incident that worked to transform Hewes as a person was undoubtedly the oston Massacre in 1770. During this period the city was occupied with a large concentration of ritish troops that were stationed in oston to enforce and collect tax obligations from the colonies.
Hewes worked as a shoemaker and one day he had made shoes for a soldier who claimed they were for the captain and then refused to pay for…
Young, A. The Shoemaker and the Tea Party. Beacon Press, 2000.
Many colonists had come to the new world in search of a lifestyle infused with greater freedom. The colonists' ideas about government differed greatly from their English counterparts. hile the English still focused on the power of the monarchy, the colonists had been holding popular assemblies since 1763 ("The American Revolution: First Phase"). They began to believe in rights that they saw the English and their stationed guards as there to violate. In addition, they believed that they, not a country across the ocean, should have the right to control or at least have a say in the political decisions that would affect their lives.
In addition to these highly popularized economic and ideological causes of the revolution, social causes also added fuel to the fire of revolution. As the 1700s wore on, More and more Americans came from European countries other than England. As these people began to immigrate…
American Revolution," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia
http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
The American Revolution: The First Phase." 2005. 9 December 2008. The American
These Acts, along with the Quebec Act, which extended the southern boundary of Canada into territories claimed by Massachusetts, Connecticut and Virginia, proved to be the last straw and hurtled the country into the Revolutionary ar ("Intolerable Acts").
Although it is still debatable whether the American independence from the British was inevitable, there is hardly any doubt that the required the series of legislation enacted by the British Parliament between 1764 and1774, outlined in this essay, served to greatly antagonize the American colonists. Almost all measures taken to tax the American colonies and tighten British administrative control met with resentment and, ultimately, open hostility. These measures proved to be a major reason for the Revolutionary ar, and eventual independence of America.
America During the Age of Revolution, 1764-1775." The Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/continental/timeline.html
British Actions After the French Indian ar." Multied.com. November 26, 2008. http://www.multied.com/Revolt/sugart.html
America During the Age of Revolution, 1764-1775." The Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/continental/timeline.html
British Actions After the French Indian War." Multied.com. November 26, 2008. http://www.multied.com/Revolt/sugart.html
Cogliano, Francis D. "Was the American Revolution Inevitable?" April, 2001. November 26, 2008. BBC Web site. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/american_revolution_01.shtml
Intolerable Acts." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. November 26, 2008. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761579222
This strategy also permitted the more speedy management of local dealings. Basically the purpose of this strategy was to centralize of colonial affairs; however, it simply solidified the idea that the colonies needed a system of self-governance that was not inclusive of the British government. Because of the behavior of the British government, the English colonies that revolted in 1776 had in common: "representative assemblies and this institutional affinity laid the foundations for the concerted resistance without which the American evolution would have been impossible."
It was under the auspices of the English government's attempt to control the colonists that the idea of American independence began to be viewed as necessary. The colonist felt that they had the right and the wisdom to rule and to develop a governmental structure that would be conducive with meeting the needs and the goals of those living within the colonies. The structure of…
Becker, Carl Lotus Schlesinger, Arthur M. The History of Political Parties in the Province of New York, 1760-1776. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, WI. 1960.
Declaration of Independence. Online Available at http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/charters/declaration_transcript.html
Miller, John C. Origins of the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown, 1943.
Priest, Claire. "Currency Policies and Legal Development in Colonial New England." Yale Law Journal 110, no. 8 (2001): 1303.
In his analysis of the American Revolution, Nash refers to the "enshrined, mythic form" the event has taken on in human consciousness (59). Like the creation myths of religion, the story of the founding of the United States of America has become what Nash calls a "sacralized story" that nearly deifies the founding fathers (59). Taught to children in schools and propagated beyond the borders of the Untied States, this version of the American Revolution in which a unified group of colonists rose up together against the mean British tyrants is little more than a "fable," (Nash 59). The real story behind the American Revolution is far more complex and nuanced, testimony to the already diverse and heterogeneous population dwelling throughout the colonies. Even when the emphasis remains squarely on the events taking place in Massachusetts that precipitated the Revolution, it is clear that there was no one…
"A Dialogue Between Orator Puff and Peter Easy," (1776).
Adams, Abigail. [Correspondence between Abigail and John Adams] 1776.
"Antislavery Petition of Massachusetts Free Blacks" (1777)
"Blacks Protest Taxation." 1780
As a result, the 1764 Currency Act was signed. The Act forbade colonies from issuing paper currency. The colonists found it extremely difficult paying their debts and taxes.
After the Currency Act had been passed, the then British Prime Minister proposed a stamp tax that obligated colonists to purchase government issued stamps for legal documents and other paper goods. When the bill was brought before the floor of the house it sailed through. The Parliament therefore had a duty to tax the colonies. The Stamp Act did not go down well with the colonies. In fact, the Virginia House of Burgesses passed a resolution that sought to deny the British Parliament the authority to tax the British colonies. ioters visited destruction on the house of stamp distributer in Boston. There were protests all over America.
The Stamp Act acted as a common cause that united at least 13 colonies against…
Age, M. (2010). From Revolution to Reconstruction. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/E/7yearswar/fiw03.htm
Department of State Office of the Historian. (2012). Milestones 1750-1775. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from http://history.state.gov/milestones/1750-1775/ParliamentaryTaxation
Whether it was the Spanish that fought to conquer lands in the south, or the Dutch that engaged in stiff competition with the British, or the French that were ultimately defeated in 1763, the American soil was one clearly marked by violent clashes between foreign powers. This is why it was considered that the cry for independence from the British was also a cry for a peaceful and secure future for the next generations. Thomas Paine argued that the time had indeed come for the colonies to be excluded from the continuous clashes that had defined their past. Thus, because of the British's traditional inclination towards war, such an objective was hard to reach under the Empire's constant control. Consequently, the time had come for the colonies to break apart and search their peace as an independent state.
Looking at the historical development of the events, it is easy to…
Aptheker, Herbert. 1960. The American Revolution, 1763-1783: a history of the American people. New York: International Publishers.
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. 1994. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier.
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. 1998. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses.
Carlyle, Thomas. 2004. The French revolution, New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. Vol. 2
American Revolution happened between 1775 and 1783 and to others it is known as the U.S. War of Independence while others call it the American Revolutionary War. It was not until the Seven Years' of War ended in 1783 that few colonists in the Northern Part of America gave objections to their position in the ritish Empire. The imperial system of the ritish people saw it reap many benefits and the costs linked to the system were few. Indeed, the American colonies had been left alone all along but in the early 1760s, the eruption of the Seven Years' War changed everything. Many Americans referred to this War as the War between the French and Indians, and the winning team was ritain, which had come at a great cost since the Empire had a staggering war debt that influenced many of its policies over the decade. The Americans tried to…
Bohannon, Lisa Frederiksen. The American Revolution: Chronicles of America's Wars. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Company, 2004.
Boucher, Jonathan. A View of the Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution. London: The Pennsylvania State University Library, 1797.
Guemide, Boutkhil. Revolutionary Massachusetts (1763-1775): History of the American Revolution in Massachusetts. New York: Editions Publibook, 2014.
Morrissey, Brendan. Boston 1775: The Shot Heard Around the World. USA: Osprey Publishing, 1995.
Therefore, for instance, the Stamp Act was justified through "granting and applying (of) certain stamp duties, and other duties, in the British colonies and plantations in America, towards further defraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the same; and for amending such parts of the several acts of parliament relating to the trade and revenues of the said colonies and plantations, as direct the manner of determining and recovering the penalties and forfeitures therein mentioned"(the Stamp Act, 1765).
Taking these legislative manners into consideration, the opponents of the Loyalists considered that the issue of trade as a reason for maintaining the British rule was by no means a viable solution. More precisely, they argued that the lack of representation in the British Parliament should not allow the British to impose taxes they do not agree or vote upon. From this perspective, it can be said that the Loyalists had…
Borden, Morton, and Penn Borden. The American Tory. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1972.
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
The New World. An ocean away...Trade in the American colonies. N.d. 5 May 2008. http://courses.wcupa.edu/wanko/LIT400/NewWorld/trade_in_the_american_colonies.htm
The Stamp Act, Great Britain: Parliament, 1765. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. 2005. 5 May 2008 http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/amerrev/parliament/stamp_act_1765.htm
Americanization of Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin played a major role in the American evolution and its history and his contributions changed the history of America as we know it.
One of the most interesting and influential characters in American history is Benjamin Franklin. Franklin was a brilliant man that contributed deeply to both the scientific and political community. Much of what there is to know about his life can be found in Gordon S. Wood's book titled "The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin." The purpose of this paper is to examine the life of Benjamin Franklin through the provided text in order to answer these significant questions:
How come Benjamin Franklin was an unlikely revolutionary?
What caused Franklin to join the revolution?
How can we compare and contrast Franklin's mythology with his reality?
Franklin Preferred London to Philadelphia and royal governments to democracy, why?
How come American colonists were suspicious of…
1) Wood, G. (2004). The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin. Penguin Books.
In 1775, Patrick Henry gave his famous speech ("give me liberty or give me death") to lawmakers in Virginia; he urges a citizens' army to defeat the British. The first shots of the Revolutionary ar are fired after Paul Revere rode his horse through Concord and Lexington to warn colonists that the British soldiers are coming. Also in 1775, George ashington is given command of the Continental army, and John Hancock is appointed president of the Second Continental Congress. In August of 1775, King George III makes a declaration that the colonies are in open rebellion against the British.
The Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia, by the Continental Congress. "e hold these truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal..." is the beginning of the declaration. Thomas Jefferson is given credit for most of the writing of the declaration, along with John…
Library of Congress. "Religion and the Founding of the American Republic." Retrieved 9 Nov. 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel03.html .
Public Broadcast Service. "Liberty! The American Revolution / Chronicle of the Revolution."
2005). Retrieved 9 Nov. 2006 at http://www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/index.html .
Public Broadcast Service. "Timeline of the Revolution." Retrieved 10 Nov. 2006 at http://www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/chronicle_timeline.html .
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
American History from the Origins of the evolution to the Close of War of 1812
In the 16th century, America, in its development as a new nation, had been colonized by the British government, and for a decade, Americans had shown little resistance against the British colonizers. However, a decade after their conquest, the British forces and government in America had met resistance from the people, and these acts of resistance were triggered by a number of events and policies that further illustrated the growing inequality and injustices of the British to the Americans. As the American evolution became successful, and America had finally achieved independence, the War of 1812 broke out, pitting the country once again against the British forces. The War of 1812 had also encountered problems that had happened before and during the development of the said war. These conflicts and major problems are essential to the…
An Outline of American History." An online book published by the U.S. Department of State International Information Program. Available: http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/history/toc.htm.
Merchants and Traders of the American Revolution
The American Revolution occurred during the 1700's as the early settlers underwent a period of change. During this time, settlers in the Americas gained religious freedom, became prosperous merchants, and established a more democratic government. However, during this time, the settlers were also controlled and taken advantage of by England.
The American War was fought from 1776 to 1778 yet the American Revolution started much before the war. John Adams summed up the sentiment of the American Revolution when he stated, "ut what do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was affected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people...This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people, was the real American Revolution."
The American Revolution was fought by the colonists, many of whom…
American Revolution. World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago:World Book Inc. 1997, pp. 270-274.
Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1967.
Goldfield, David etal. The American Journey: A History of the Untied States. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1998, pp. 130-153.
Gorn, Elliot J., Roberts, Randy and Blizhar, Terryt. Constructing the American Past: A Source Book of a People's History - Volume I. 3rd ed. New York: Longman, 1999.
Leadership Oforganizational Change
One of the most well documented efforts towards change in the United States is the transition from the original 13 colonies to the current inception of the United States of America. What is highly significant about this effort towards transformation is the fact that it adhered to a number of principles delineated in Hickman obinson's text, Leading Changes in Multiple Contexts. In fact, this particular example is preeminent among others for the simple fact that it is simultaneously demonstrative of the five contextual influences on leading change: organizational, community, political, social and global. Although formal leadership of this effort would not fully emerge until the transformation was complete and George Washington was appointed President, his involvement with the other Founding Fathers in the First and Second Continental Congresses and the efforts of other revolutionary groups such as the Sons of Liberty provided the essential leadership…
Hickman, G.R. (2010). Leading Change in Multiple Contexts. Boulder: Sage Publishing.
Turning Point in American History
The 1763 proclamation was created by the British Government for the purposes of prevention of the escalation of the fighting by settlers and Indians, which would have threatened western trade. The proclamation forbade settlers from advancing beyond the boundary line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains. The British government was forced to make such a policy because settlers and traders from English colonies were moving into the upper Ohio valley after the French departed, unsettling Indians leading to objections and the breakup of alliances like that made with the Ottawa Chieftain Pontiac. The policy was imposed by making Indian tribes cede land to white settlers, which was within the boundaries of white settlers, with the hope of preventing the colonists from advancing further. However, this move did not work as expected, since the colonist forced their way inland westward to control the fur trade and land…
Resistance in a political sense is put into play when people are offended or on a deeper level, oppressed or repressed by the actions of their government. In this context, when citizens are being harassed, or made to pay unreasonable taxes, or kept from participation in the activities of their government, they resist in various ways. This paper delves into resistance -- the how and why of resistance -- in the Middle East over the past several years.
Resistance to Unreasonable Government Actions
The Library of Congress (LOC) provides in-depth materials on the events leading up to the American Revolution. In their document titled "British Reforms and Colonial Resistance, 1767-1772," the LOC points out that even after the Stamp Act -- which was an unreasonable policy of taxation imposed on the colonists by the British Parliament -- was repealed, there were other "grievances" that called for colonial resistance. The Stamp…
Anderson, Kurt, Abouzeid, Rania, Ghosh, Bobby, Hauslohner, Abigail, Abend, Lisa,
Bhowmick, Nilanjana, Thottam, Jyoti, Kasissis, Joanna, Motlagh, Jason, Padgett, Tim,
Rawlings, Nate, Tharoor, Ishaan, and Shuster, Simon. (2011). Time, 178(25).
Library of Congress. (2009). The American Revolution, 1763-1783 / British Reforms and Colonial Resistance, 1767-1783.
England faced huge debts and the expense of maintaining a militia in America, after the costly Seven Years' War. The English parliament believed that the colonies should finance a significant portion of their own defense and thus in 1765 levied the first direct tax, the Stamp Act. Nearly every document, such as newspapers, legal writs, licenses, insurance policies, and even playing cards had to include a stamp proving payment of the required taxes. The colonists, like the barons, revolted against this economic control and the fact that they were never asked to vote on these taxes. It simply came down to "taxation without representation." They also disagreed with the condition that anyone who disobeyed could be tried in admiralty courts without a jury of peers.
The colonists condemned the Stamp Act, and when Benjamin Franklin and others in England powerfully argued the American side Parliament quickly repealed the bill. It…
Jones, P.M. 1987. How History's Great Minds Inspired the Framers. Scholastic Update. 120, 22-24.
Rosinksy, N.M. 2000. King John and the Royal English Family. Calliope. 10.8, 4
Slavicek, L.C. 2000. Feudalism in King John's England. Calliope. 10.8, 8
The truth is that the forefathers were actually quite surprised at the effect that the signing of the Constitution had created in America; at the democratic society and government that resulted after the ratification of the Constitution.
The ratification in itself was a long one, and it involved in essence the perusal of the written Constitution by each state for ratification purposes, for which each state was required to create an independent ratifying committee headed by special delegates. The discussions of the advantages and the disadvantages of the newly written constitution of America began almost immediately after it was signed, and the two opposing factions of the Federalists to whom the majority of the forefathers belonged, and the Anti-Federalists who formed the opposing group brought these forth. The situation in America at the time of the writing of the Constitution was that of pro-democracy. The political as well as the…
Encyclopedia: American constitution. Retrieved at http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/American-constitutionAccessed on 4 October, 2004
Encyclopedia: American Revolutionary War. Retrieved at http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/American-Revolutionary-War . Accessed on 4 October, 2004
Encyclopedia: Articles of Association. Retrieved at http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/Articles-of-AssociationAccessed on 4 October, 2004
Encyclopedia: Articles of Confederation. Retrieved at http://nationmaster.w2n.net/encyclopedia/Articles-of-Confederation . Accessed on 4 October, 2004
Minimizing Poverty Is a Government Initiative
The Progressive Era
Poverty reduction has remained a central debate in periodical democratic societies. Schemes have been established to enable citizens to be economically viable either at paid-employment or self-employment level. Activists, philosophers, and politicians have suggested technical, liberal, and legal approaches towards poverty eradication. In fact, most of the debate in relation to the field of poverty examines whether poverty is a natural phenomenon associated with human beings. As this report will identify, fighting poverty is a double-edged sword since, after all, poverty is not the only member of the league. Close players include capitalism and politics. The commencing research proves that reducing poverty is a sequential process that requires considerate participation from all stakeholders. The research will principally cite Darwin's Social Darwinism theory, the 1933-1936 national initiative New Deal and Johnson Lyndon Economic Opportunity Act.
Social Darwinism vs. Progressivism
Claeys, G. (2000). The "Survival Of The Fittest" And The Origins Of Social Darwinism. Journal of the History of Ideas, 61(2), 223.
Davies, G. (1992). War On Dependency: Liberal Individualism And The Economic Opportunity Act Of 1964. Journal of American Studies, 26(02), 205.
Hausman, W.J. (2007). Jason Scott Smith. Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933-1956. Enterprise and Society, 8 (2), 459-461.
Johnston, R.D. (2013). Review Class Unknown: Undercover Investigations of American Work and Poverty from the Progressive Era to the Present Pittenger Mark New York University Press New York. Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (1998), 106 (2), 347-349.
Patrick Henry the Man Who Started the American evolution
On December 1, 1763 a young relatively unknown lawyer stood in public for the first time and openly defended in court the rights of the American colonies to be free. He started his speech by stuttering and stammering, but that did not last long. And when he was done speaking, cries of treason went up from the crowd, however, his argument was so persuasive, that the jury sided with him on the legal case. The young lawyer's name was Patrick Henry, and while he may have started his speech roughly, by the time he had finished speaking, he had become one of the founding fathers of the United States of America. Patrick Henry is not known as a great warrior, but while he did fight a few battles with muskets and cannons, words were his most effective weapons. And his words,…
"Biography of Patrick Henry." Redhill- Patrick Henry National Memorial. Retrieved from http://www.redhill.org/biography.html .
Henry, Patrick. (1765). "Patrick Henry's 'Treason' Speech." Retrieved from http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1266.html .
Henry, Patrick. (1775) "Liberty or Death." The History Place: Great Speeches Collection. Retrieved from http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/henry.htm .
Maury, James. (1763) "The Parson's Opinion of 'The Parsons' Cause." Wikisource. Retrieved from http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Maury,_Reverend_James_vs_Henry,_Patrick
American Revolution after 1763
There are several factors leading to the American Revolution. During the 18th century, the ritish colonists in North America established themselves as a new nation. Increasingly, they had begun to see themselves as American rather than ritish. This new consciousness contributed to increasing resentment of any ritish attempts at control and influence in America. ritish action deemed unfair by American colonies, such as taxes on tea and sugar, contributed significantly to this problem.
Exacerbated American Grievances after 1763
The Stamp Act is one of the greatest ritish thorns in the American side when 1766 arrived (enjamin Franklin Testifies Against the Stamp Act, p. 3). The problem was that this tax had to be paid by order of a Parliament where the colonials were not specifically represented. Franklin in fact threatens the ritish with a loss of respect and "affection" from the colonials if this Act were…
"History 205 - Documents for Chapters 5&6.
Garraty, John A. & McCaughey, Robert A. The American Nation: A history of the United States. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.
1776: Adam Smith opposes Mercantilism (1776), p. 1
Morgan, Edmund S., Joseph
Birth of the Republic, which was written by the late professor Edmund Morgan, is extremely ambitious in scope. Its purpose is to recount the history of the initial founding of the United States -- which was originally envisioned as a republic. As such, the author covers the approximate 25-year period that began with the end of the French and Indian ar and which ended with the formulation and ratification of the Constitution. During this tumultuous time period which included the Revolutionary ar, the rise and fall of the Articles of Confederation, and the increasing dissatisfaction with the British government, the mores of the men who would found this country were exuded and tested. The author's central premise is that those mores were more than simple political rhetoric that disguised a need for personal gain, and instead represented a dedication to values that likely has not been…
Hattem, Michael. "Reconsidering Edmund Morgan's The Birth of the Republic, 1763-1789." www.earlyamericanists.com. 2013. Web. http://earlyamericanists.com/2013/03/13/reconsidering-edmund-morgans-the-birth-of-the-republic-1763-89/
Morgan, Edmund S., and Joseph J. Ellis. Birth of the Republic, 1763-89. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226923420.
The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant (Richard).
Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven-Year's War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history.…
But it certainly was a crucial step in he legitimation of free labor" (141).
eligion in general and revivals especially eased the pains of capitalist expansion in the early 19th century U.S. After Finney was gone, the converted reformers evangelized the working class; they supported poor churches and built new ones in working class neighborhoods. Finney's revival was effective since it dissected all class boundaries and united middle and working class individuals in churches. The middle class went to church, because of the moral obligation to do so; the working classes went, because they were concerned about losing their. Workers who did not become members of churches had more difficulty keeping their jobs. To succeed in ochester, it was astute for the employees to become active churchgoers.
In 1791, not much before the Native Americans began their trek across the country and ochester, New York, was changing its employee/merchant system,…
Gilje, Paul a., ed. The Wages of Independence: Capitalism in the Early American Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1997
Johnson, Paul E. A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, New York: Hill and Wang, 2004.
McCusker, J.J. And Menard, R.R., the Economy of British America, 1607-1789, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.
Slaughter, Thomas. R. Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution, New York, Oxford Press, 1986.
Patrick Henry is one of the most influential figures of our time. Henry played an instrumental role in the American Revolution and is regarded as a great orator and intellectual. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the life and times of Patrick Henry. We will begin by discussing his early life and education. Our investigation will then focus on his early adulthood and his life as a lawyer. We will then discuss the years that he spent as a leading politician in Virginia. The research will also focus on the oratory skills that Patrick Henry possessed. Finally, we will discuss the last days of his life.
Early Life and Education
Encarta explains that Patrick Henry was a patriot of the American Revolution and was born in 1736 in Hanover County, Virginia. ("Henry, Patrick") Henry was raised on a tobacco farm and was educated by his father and in…
American Rhetoric: Context and Criticism, ed. Thomas W. Benson. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1989.
Beeman, Richard R. The Old Dominion and the New Nation, 1788-1801. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1972.
'Henry, Patrick," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia
American Colonial experience and the Articles of the Confederation influence the content of our Constitution?
he American colonies existed as separate political entities. he only attempt to consolidate any of the colonies under one united government was that of the ill-fated "Dominion of New England," an attempt to reign in the independent colonies by a monarchy (that of James II) that was thought by many to want to 'catholicize' the Anglican church in the late 1680's. Administration had to be done at a local level because of the inferior condition of the roads. he advent of newspapers and printing presses in the mid-1700's was really the first non-commercial link between colonies; often colonies had been openly hostile to one another. For instance, dissenters that disapproved of the government of Massachusetts founded Conneticut, New Haven, and Rhode Island. he consolidation or division of colonies, when it occurred, happened by skillful diplomacy…
THE SUPREMACY DOCTRINE basically states that national laws have supremacy to state laws. This is why the Bush administration can tell California to 'reign in' their medical marijuana laws. Because national law is predicated on the dogmatic belief that marijuana has no medical uses, it is what is considered a 'schedule one' drug such as heroin or LSD.
c. In this context, JUDICIAL REVIEW is the power of a court to review a law or an official act of a State for the violation of basic principles of justice. If DEA agents or federal marshals were to arrest a pharmacist for selling marijuana, the case would ultimately represent the interests of California vs. those of the federal government and be taken to the Supreme Court, the highest court in the land. (no pun intended)
D. FEDERALISM is the idea that the national government should have jurisdiction over state or local governments. Whereas originally the central government derived its power from the States (people after the revolution would say 'the United States are,') currently administrative law is the law of the land; for instance, executive orders take precedence over even Constitutional law. In the context of the medical marijuana debate, California would not be able to maintain policies that violated federal law. In extreme examples such as that of school integration in the 1950's, the federal government has even sent federal marshals to uphold federal laws.
Lynne ithey prefaces her biography of Abigail Adams by noting that the first Lady was "a tiny woman ... with ... A forceful personality that belied her size," (ix). Abigail Adams was, as ithey describes her, a "maddeningly contradictory" individual who defied conventional gender norms during her time, waged fierce rhetorical political battles against what she viewed to be British oppression of the colonies, and was unmistakably at the heart of the changing social and political realities of revolutionary America. One of the proto-feminists in the United States, Abigail Adams also championed similar civil rights causes such as the emancipation of slavery, but like most in her time, often seemed to straddle the fence on both of these contentious issues. ith one foot in one world and one in another, Abigail Adams did defy definitions and deserves to be remembered as ithey portrays her: as a quintessential American…
Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster/Touchstone, 1981.
revolutionary the American evolution was in reality. This is one issue that has been debated on by many experts in the past and in the present too. The contents of this paper serve to justify this though-provoking issue.
American evolution-how revolutionary was it?
When we try to comprehend why the American evolution was fought, we come to know that the residents of the American colonies did so to retain their hard-earned economic, political and social order when the British had stated to neglect them. However, before we began to understand what The American evolution was all about, it is necessary for us to look at conditions of the colonies preceding the war. The economy of Colonial America were divided into three separate parts: New England, where the economy was commerce; the South, where cash crops were the major source of earning; and the middle colonies, a combination of both. [Account…
Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Harvard University Press, 1967).
Kurtz and Hutson (eds), Essays on the American Revolution (University of North Carolina Press, 1973).
Account of a Declaration 1, available at: http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/account/ , accessed on: February 11, 2004
American Journey, available at:
One of the most important events in the history of the United States is the American Revolution, which is regarded as more important in the country development that ideas, trends, and actions. The significance of the American Revolution in the nation's history and development is highlighted in the fact that it was one of the seminal instances of the Enlightenment. During this period, the political philosophy of the Enlightenment was established and utilized in creating an entirely new country that has developed to become the world's super power. However, the American Revolution was fueled by a series of several major events and incidents brought by various factors including rebellion by the American colonies and Declaration of Independence.
Overview of the American Revolution
As previously mentioned, the American Revolution is one of the most important and remarkable events in the country's history given its role in the birth of…
American Revolution History. A & E Television Networks, LLC. accessed November 30, 2015.
Hubley, Benrard. The History of the American Revolution, Including the Most Important Events
and Resolutions of the Honorable Continental Congress During that Period and also the Most Interesting Letters and Orders of His Excellency General George Washington, Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. New York, NY: The New York Public Library Reference Department, 1805.
African-American and Mexican-American
Civil Rights in Texas
This essay discusses African-American and Mexican-American civil rights in Texas. The goal is to discover what some of the key events was in each the African-American and the Mexican-American battles for their group's civil rights. The secondary objective is to see how these movements resembled each other and how they differed from one another and if one was more effective than the other. As the United States and its individual states like Texas become more racially diverse, all new criteria will arise that may be more closely linked to India's caste system than to what we understand and take for granted here in the United States. Economic barriers and not racial barriers are gradually becoming the underlying motivator of the civil rights movement. In other words, being black or Mexican will not matter in regard to civil rights. If the respective…
Arnoldo De Leon. (1982). "The Tejano Community, 1836-1900." Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Alwyn Barr (1973). "Black Texans: A History of Negroes in Texas, 1528-1971." Austin: Jenkins.
Michael L. Gillette. (1978). "The Rise of the NAACP in Texas." Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 81, April.
David Montejano (1987). "Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986." Austin: University of Texas Press.
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.
Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
The American tea party
The Tea Party is a populist movement that promotes several conservative values which include the following;
Limitations on the authority of the U.S. federal government
eduction of government spending and the national debt
eduction of personal and corporate taxes
This is a party that has been known over the historical moments to pull frustrated and concerned Americans together to protest against excessive government spending coupled with increased debt burden. This conservative group has it that the government's growing involvement in business and indulgence in individual freedom is a deviation from conservative values.
Since its inception to date, the mission of the Tea Party Coalition has been to organize and launch in a rapid response fashion special nationwide projects that will help to advance the goal of a return to a constitutionally limited government that does not go overboard, through whichever arm to disenfranchise the…
David W. Koeller, (1999). The Boston Tea Party 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/usa/teaparty.html
Eye Witness to History, (2002). The Boston Tea Party, 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/teaparty.htm
James L. Roark et.al. Eds. The American Promise: A History of the United States. Fourth Ed.
Vol I. Bedford/St. Martin's: New York.
War can be seen as a pillar of te American tradition. We are a nation born of war - our Revolution - and defined by war - our Civil War.
Tere were a number of circumstances tat led to te colonists' rebellion against England and te monarcy. Tensions began to rise wen King George III issued te Proclamation of 1763, banning Englis settlements west of te Appalacian mountains and ordering anyone in tose regions to return east.
In 1764, te Sugar Act was passed, increasing duties on imported good, and establised a court to deal wit custom matters.
Te Currency Act proibited colonists from issuing paper money as legal tender, tus, destabilizing te colonial economy, and colonists called for a boycott of Britis luxury goods.
Te Stamp Act of 1865 ordered colonists to pay tax directly to England and te Quartering Act ordered colonists to ouse and feed Britis troops.…
Prelude to Revolution -- Civil War. The History Place
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…
Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.
Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
The Short-Term Causes of the American Revolution
Essayist Colin Bonwick writes that a short-term cause from the British perspective was the loss of revenue from taxes generated by American businesses and trading companies. And the short-term legislative measures by the British government were called the "Intolerable Acts" (Bonwick, 2002). More on the Intolerable Acts later on this page, but from the prospective of the colonists, their short-term causes included their rage at the " . . . indebtedness to rapacious British merchants and of navigations acts requiring them to trade through Britain" (Bonwick, 70).
On the subject of the Intolerable Acts (also called Coercive Acts), the short-term cause was created by the anger and frustration the colonists felt when Britain handed down unreasonable laws, designed to pinch the colonists in their pocketbooks, and basically punish them for their drift towards independence. The Boston Massacre happened on March 5, 1770, when…
Battle of Lex and Conc
Define the Subject/Evaluate the Sources
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were fought on two fronts in Middlesex County, Massachusetts on April 19, 1775. Principle adversaries included the British armed forces and the colonial militia known as Minutemen. The night before the battles on April 18, British officials entered Concord, Massachusetts with the intent of both seizing an arms cache and also capturing key rebels including John Hancock and Samuel Adams. The colonists intercepted the message, and their being forewarned allowed the minutemen time and opportunity to intercept the British. The minutemen instigated a skirmish in Lexington and Concord simultaneously, and won decisively. The Battles of Lexington and Concord are therefore widely referred to as the starting point of the American evolutionary War.
esearch sources for studying the Battles of Lexington and Concord include books, journal articles, new media, and multimedia. Tourtellot's (1959) book is…
"Battles of Lexington and Concord." History. Retrieved online: http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/battles-of-lexington-and-concord
Fradin, D.B. (2009). Let it Begin Here! Walker.
Hamilton, S. (2014). Battles of Lexington and Concord. Minneapolis: Adobo.
"Lexington and Concord." U.S. History. Retrieved online: http://www.ushistory.org/us/11c.asp
American evolution was a political turmoil that occurred in the United States between 1765 and 1783 through which rebels in Thirteen American Colonies defeated Britain's authority and led to the formation of the United States of America. The rebels achieved this goal through their rejection of monarchy and aristocracy that was characterized by initiatives that were geared towards a revolution. This important event in the history of the United States was also brought by a series of political, intellectual, and social changes that took place in government, thought processes, and the American society.
The commencement of the American evolution can be traced back to 1763 when leaders from Britain started to stiffen imperial reins ("Overview of the American evolution," n.d.). The tightening up of imperial reins by British leaders was characterized by the enforcement of punitive and coercive laws on various colonies. One of the major reasons for the actions…
Magnet, M. (2012, April 22). The Americanness of the American Revolution. City Journal.
Retrieved from http://www.city-journal.org/2012/22_4_urb-american-revolution.html
"Overview of the American Revolution." (n.d.). Digital History. Retrieved from University of Houston website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/era.cfm?eraID=3
"The American Revolution." (n.d.). U.S. History - Pre-Columbian to the New Millennium.
There were a number of causes of the American Revolution, both short-term and long-term. The colonists were mainly of British descent, and so they had roughly the same culture as the ruling English, but over time there were enough differences and disagreements that ultimately would lead to the Revolutionary War. At the core of the disagreement was the economic status of the colonies and the people that lived in them. This was the primary long-run tension that led to the revolution.
Great Britain was the world's most powerful nation at the time, and was in the process of building an expansive empire, all over the world. The empire was still rising at the time of the revolution, and would only peak in the 19th century. Great Britain essentially saw its colonies as a source of wealth. The people that lived in those colonies were British subjects. Both Crown…
This bias permeates throughout social circles and businesses seeking qualified job applicants. Yet, oston's strong economy accommodates growth for anyone who is motivated to succeed.
Culturally, oston is no New York. but, for a city of 600,000, great cultural activities are available without the burden of dealing with an overwhelmingly large city.
The city's numerous theaters include the Cutler Majestic Theatre, oston Opera House, the Wang Center for the Performing Arts, Schubert Theater, and the Orpheum Theater. Performing arts groups are some of the best to be found in the country and include the oston allet, oston Symphony Orchestra, oston Pops, oston Lyric Opera Company, and the Handel and Haydn Society. Free summer concerts on the Charles River Esplanade are a joy with excellent acoustics and a festive atmosphere. oston also has several fine museums such as the Museum of Fine Arts, the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, and the Museum…
Banner, David. "The History of Boston, Massachusetts." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.searchboston.com/history.html
Boston: History." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/the-Northeast/Boston-History.html
Massachusetts Tourist Information. "Boston Area Information." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.masstourist.com/boston.htm
Wikipedia, "Boston Massachusetts." Retrieved from Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston,_Massachusetts
History Of the Media in America
Media America, a History
Media incorporates mediums such as advertisements, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and now -- the Internet. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it was only in the 1920s that people began to actually talk about 'the media,' and a generation later, in the 1950s, of a 'communication revolution,' however, the art of oral and written communication was actually quite important in ancient Greece and ome. It was studied in the Middle Ages, and with greater enthusiasm in the enaissance.
Until Johannes Gutenberg invention of the moveable type in 1450, information was spread primarily orally. That is, it was town criers, ministers from the pulpit, and bartenders who disseminated information or news. "Town criers, for example, broadcast royal edicts, police regulations, and important community events, such as births, marriages of princes, war news, and treaties of peace or alliance."
Less than a…
Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American
Independence. Oxford University Press, 2005.
Briggs, Asa. Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity; 3rd
(Early America, "hy the Loyalists Lost," 2005) Support for the American colonial control of local matters and taxation does not necessarily signify that we Loyalists advocate a division between the imperial powers and our own -- and does not mean we believe our tenuous support for greater local control means that the Revolutionaries are justified in seeking severance from the British power. Rather, it is an effective effort at a compromise.
Only when a king becomes a tyrant are the governed peoples not remiss in seeking revolt. In this case, although evident tensions exist between the colonies and King George III, this does not mean that the King's taxation to repair the costs the colonies have incurred upon the mother country are unjust in the sense that the taxes were imposed simply to enrich the king's own pockets -- such self-aggrandizing enrichment is the definition of tyranny, not simply disputing…
Why the Loyalists Lost." The Early America Review. Winter 2000. http://earlyamerica.com/review/winter2000/loyalists.html [6Mar 2005].
Ward & Trent, et al. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1907-21; New York: Bartleby.com, 2000 (www.bartleby.com/cambridge/).[6 Mar 2005].
Eventually, these deficiencies would lead to the adoption of the U.S. Constitution. But during the years that they 13 states struggled to achieve their independence, the Articles of Confederation accomplished what they had been intended to. Adopted by Congress on November 15, 1777, the Articles became operational on March 1, 1781 when the last of the 13 states signed the document (The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, 2009).
During the debates that took place regarding the adoption of the Constitution, the opponents argued that the Constitution would open the way to tyranny by the central government. With the memory of the British violations of their civil rights before and during the evolution, they insisted that a bill of rights be used that would spell out the protections of the individual citizens. During the state conventions that were held to ratify the Constitution, several states asked for these amendments (Bill…
Bill of Rights. (n.d). Retrieved June 13, 2009, from The Charters of Freedom Web site:
The Articles of Confederation. (2003). Retrieved June 13, 2009, from Ben's Guide to U.S.
Government Web site: http://bensguide.gpo.gov/9-12/documents/articles/index.html
Unlike the ideas of the ritish which stated that the sovereign was the king, in the Republican line of thought "there was no one sovereign, the people collectively were the sovereigns. In July 1776, immediately after the Declaration of Independence, spontaneous popular ceremonies were staged up and down the land. In several of them, royal crests and other emblems were broken into pieces and distributed among the crowd" (Cunliffe, 2003). Therefore, taking into account these signs of manifestation, it was clear that the U.S. colonies were no longer willing to accept a superior power other than that of the people.
In relation to the idea of the sovereignty of the people which is today described as democracy, the issue of the equality of rights stands out. In this sense, according to most beliefs, the rights of women were discussed and the mere mentioning of them underlines the need and desire…
Cunliffe, Marcus. Republicanism and the Founding of America - Republican Government May Be Seen as a Middle Path between Monarchy and Democracy. World and I. Volume: 18. Issue: 2. 2003. News World Communications.
From Revolution to Reconstruction. "Taxation without representation." An Outline of American History 2006. 29 April 2008. http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1990/ch2_p6.htm
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Republicanism. 2006. 29 April 2008. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/republicanism
On October 23, 1783, Deborah was honorably discharged "as a great soldier, with endurance and courage, something much needed in the military at that time" but was only granted a veteran's pension at the end of her life ("Deborah Sampson Gannett: American Patriot," American Revolution, 2007). "Sampson's superiors all agreed that she was an excellent soldier...it was her reliability, intelligence, and bravery that made it possible for her to go undetected for so long" (Saxon, 2004). She risked her life to save her country and to fight for her country, and even risked her life to remain a soldier.
Sampson's life "bears out a theory that Margaret R. And Patrice L.R. Higonnet developed to describe the effects of war and peace on gender. They imagined a system in which men and women are positioned as if they were opposing ribbons of a double helix, which, no matter the circumstances, always…
Deborah Sampson Gannett: American Patriot." American Revolution. 2007. 24 Jun
Henretta, James a. "Unruly Women": Jemima Wilkinson and Deborah Sampson Gannett
Biographies from Early America." Published in America's History. Ed. By James a. Henretta, Elliot Brownlee, David Brody, Susan Ware, & Marilynn Johnson. 3rd Ed., Worth Publishers Inc., 1997. Reprinted in the Early American Review. Fall 1996.
American politics took another turn with problems that would lead to
the Civil War, as the North and the South each had their own interests.
Tariffs to protect some Northern manufacturing interests greatly angered
the South leading to attempts to nullify acts of the federal government,
ultimately resulting in conflict between the powers of the states and the
federal Union. The result of this conflict led to the Civil War and
American political development became one in which decisions over slave and
free-states were the most prominent. America became increasingly partisan
and the Republican party emerged to compete along with Know Nothings and
Democratic Party. Ultimately the South seceded resulting in a Confederacy
that split from the Union as the debates over slavery reached an all-time
involving all aspects of political life.
The Civil War split America in two and then brought it back together
again. But the new America…
Nevertheless, there have been many decisions over the years that have tended to weaken the intent of the Framers. In 2001, in Zelman v. Simmons Harris the Supreme Court ruled that school voucher programs did not violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment. The decision represented a blow to the essentially secular nature of the American state and system. By allowing public money to be given to religious schools, the Supreme Court was permitting the violation of a more than two hundred year old principle. In reaching its decision, the Supreme Court chose to accept the argument that giving money to schools was not a case of advancing religion but rather one of who should have power over education - the state or individual parents.
Personal freedom was now being re-defined as something that included the right to government assistance if the government provided assistance in similar situations. Persons…
Bolick, Clint. "School Choice: Sunshine Replaces the Cloud." Cato Supreme Court Review 2001-2002. Ed. Robert a. Levy, James L. Swanson, and Timothy Lynch. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2002. 149-169.
Censer, Jack. "7 France, 1750-89." Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, 1760-1820. Ed. Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 159-178.
Champlin, Dell P., and Janet T. Knoedler. "American Prosperity and the "Race to the Bottom: " Why Won't the Media Ask the Right Questions?" Journal of Economic Issues 42.1 (2008): 133+.
Milner, Murray. Freaks, Geeks, and Cool Kids: American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption. New York: Routledge, 2004.
The shift Franklin made from a man dedicated to the alliance of England and America to a man who embraced the American cause has been a puzzle for historians for a long time, and Wood tries to provide some answers to the questions raised. He had entrusted his Autobiography and other papers to his friend Joseph Galloway when he had to go to France, but Galloway kept to the British side and fled to England, leaving the papers behind, which is how Abel acquired them. Other friends of like mind did much the same. Only Franklin from this group changed his view and adopted the American cause, in effect being Americanized.
Wood makes it clear that the choice was a difficult one for Franklin. He was loyal to England, and he would become fiercely loyal to America. The break with the one before the dedication to the other took…
Wood, G.S. (2004). The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin. New York: Penguin Press.
In 1638, among the crimes that were designated as "enormous offenses" in Maryland, Eldridge explains, were "scandalous or contemptuous words or writings to the dishonor of the Lord Proprietary of his Lieutenant General [Governor]..."
As repressive as that may seem, there was the case of Thomas Blatchley, who in New Haven in 1646, uttered allegedly seditious words and was punished when in court it was "proved" that he was guilty of "neglecting the image of God in magistrates." In other words, government officials were to be seen as not only being above the average citizen, but as being holy, touched by the grace of God himself. Thankfully, there are Constitutionally guaranteed freedoms today that prevent that kind of twisted connection between the Bible and common law.
Buranelli, Vincent. "Peter Zenger's Editor." American Quarterly 7.2 (1955): 174-181.
Eldridge, Larry D. "Before Zenger: Truth and Seditious Speech in Colonial America,…
Buranelli, Vincent. "Peter Zenger's Editor." American Quarterly 7.2 (1955): 174-181.
Eldridge, Larry D. "Before Zenger: Truth and Seditious Speech in Colonial America, 1607-1700.
The American Journal of Legal History 39.3 (1995): 337-358.
Olson, Alison. "The Zenger Case Revisited." Early American Literature 35.3 (2000): 223-246.
For years, historians had been writing that the American evolution was the virtuous reaction to England's curtailment of rights. Then, in 1967, Harvard history professor Bernard Bailyn added his additional theory of ideology. In his book, The Ideological Origins of the American evolution, Bailyn agreed that the settlers were principled. Yet that was not the main cause of the discontent. Instead, he said, the settlers had inherited the suspicion of dangers that lurked with power of one entity over another. ather than seeing England's actions as solely unintended slipups, the colonists were paranoid enough to read them as part of a political plot. Obsession, not principles, led to the revolution.
Four decades later, no one is surprised that Bailyn comes up with a different twist to history. "For the last five decades Bernard Bailyn has been the preeminent colonial American historian'1. According to Professor ichard Beeman of the…
Bailyn, Bernard Bailyn. "The Challenge of Modern Historiography." The American Historical Review, 87, No. 1 (1982): 1-24.
John Hopkins University. "The First Americans. A History of U.S.: Teaching Guide and Resource Book." Center for Social Organization of Schools Talent Development Middle Schools, 2001.
Rakove, Jack. "Bernard Bailyn: An Appreciation." Humanities, 19, No. 2. (1998): np
Shapiro, Edward. "A historian's historian, Bernard Bailyn, demonstrates once again why he is America's most trenchant historian." World and I, 18, no.7, (2003): 224.
He saw the colonists as civilized and living in a law-abiding and property-owning society in the way that Native Americans did not. Thus, even if Otis proclaimed the right of self-determination of the colonists in a way that was based upon natural rights and the natural integrity of all persons, regardless of the will of the British sovereign King George, the inherent rights of human beings to life, liberty, and property did not extend to the property claims of Native Americans upon the land who resided outside of the European legal system. Otis saw Indians through the lenses of past American conflicts, such as the French and Indian war, rather than as noble savages or potential sources of trade or missionary 'targets' like some of the initial European explorers.
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