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That assertion has been discredited by authoritative / independent sources subsequent to the American occupation of Iraq, but some members of the Bush Administration - and others who support the administration - still contend that Iraq (prior to the American occupation) was a state sponsor of terrorism.
In another article published by the Council on Foreign Affairs, the writer explains that Saddam Hussein's regime has provided training camps, operating bases, headquarters and other kinds of support to terrorists groups that were fighting against the regimes in Turkey and in Iran, both countries which border Iraq. Also, during the Gulf ar in 1991, it was explained in the Council on Foreign Affairs article, Saddam paid for several terrorist attacks on U.S. facilities, but those failed to be completed.
In the Bill Clinton Administration, there was a time when Saddam Hussein was accused of sponsoring (or planning, or providing support for) a…
Bergesen, Albert J.; & Lizardo, Omar. "International Terrorism and the World-System."
Sociological Theory 22.1 (2004): 38-52.
Clarke, Richard a. Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terror. New York: The Free
Terrorism has a long history on the international stage. It is the use of violence by specific groups looking to change the politics of a country or region. Starting with Guy Fawkes trying to blow up Parliament and the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, terrorists tended to be small groups of likeminded individuals, who received non-state support. The 1970s saw the introduction of terrorist groups funded by governments (Gareau, 2004). These state sponsored terrorists, were a covert method of governments to wage war and carry out their interests without international scrutiny. Today, while states are apprehensive of publicly supporting any sort of terrorist activity, it does exist. The Darfur conflict is a modern example of state-sponsored terrorism.
The conflict in Darfur started in 2003; the people of the Darfur region were growing dissatisfied with their political marginalization and chronic economic underdevelopment, along with elements of ethnic tension, which…
Gareau, F.H. (2004). State terrorism and the United States: From counterinsurgency to the war on terrorism. Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press.
Jackson, R., Murphy, E., & Poynting, S. (2011).Contemporary state terrorism: Theory and practice. London: Routledge.
At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and fear. They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful & terrified to go about their usual and routine activities.
War on Terror
War on Terror' is the phrase that has been used and abused since Americans were attacked on their soil on September 11 in New York's Twin Towers. Today America's foreign policy is defined by the term 'War on Terror'. The attack on twin towers made America vulnerable and they had…
The Washington Times. 2006. Defining Terrorism at the U.N. March 23.
The Washington Times. 2005. Defining Terrorism; Conferences Produce Meager Results. December 2,
Palti, L. December 2004. Combating Terrorism While Protecting Human Rights. UN Chronicle. 41 (4): 27+.
Leader, S. April 1997. The Rise of Terrorism. Security Management. 41(4).
Terrorism has a long and violent history and incidents of terrorism have been recorded from at least 2,000 years ago. Acts of terrorism have included political assassinations, violent political revolutions, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings intended to attract attention, shock, intimidate and instill fear. Before the 911 terror attacks the threat of terrorism, though always a potential danger, was of an episodic nature, and seemed to be under control. The devastating attacks on the orld Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, however, have brought terrorism to the center stage of world politics and exposed the vulnerability of soft civilian targets to a small but determined group of terrorists. The issue of terrorism and home security now dominates the foreign policy of most countries including the United States. The focus on terrorism has also forced people to think deeply about its root causes, which may have historical, cultural, political,…
Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Holy Qur'an." Translation in English. Wordsworth Classic of World Literature. UK: Wordsworth Edition Limited: 2000
Chomsky, Noam. "Who are the Global Terrorists?" Z-Net. May 19, 2002. April 22, 2005. http://www.zmag.org/content/ForeignPolicy/chomskyglobeterr.cfm
Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.
Hoffman, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. 2005. April 22, 2005. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564344/Terrorism.html
Chapter 10 of Jonathan . White's Terrorism and Homeland Security focuses exclusively on terrorism in Israel and Palestine. However, the author begins the chapter with the Six Day War to immediately discuss the rise of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). Factionalism in Palestinian terrorism, the rise and function of Hezbollah and Hamas, Jewish fundamentalism, and the controversial counterterrorism policies in Israeli domestic and foreign policy comprise the bulk of this chapter. Especially given the paucity of space dedicated to this complex topic, White does a good job addressing both sides of the conflict and does so fairly, accurately, and with a minimum of bias.
One of the only faults with Chapter 10 is that the author does not have enough space with which to properly engage the reader in the multilayered complexity of the issue. The chapter begins as if in media res, with the 1967 war as…
Barhoum, K. (n.d.). The origin and history of the PLO. Trans-Arab Research Institute. 17 May, 2014. Retrieved online: http://tari.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10:the-origin-and-history-of-the-plo&catid=1:fact-sheets&Itemid=10
"Hezbollah: History and Overview." Retrieved online: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/hizbollah.html
White, J.R. (2012). Terrorism and Homeland Security. Wadsworth Cengage.
'...and the "peace" they speak of, when translated correctly, means 'submission' or 'surrender.'" Thus, all nations must "surrender" to Islam.
Given their socio-political agenda and state-sponsored stand on terrorism, it would be difficult to believe that the government response was fair or reasonable in any way. That said, I would have difficulty defining it as terrorism in this particular case. However, ideological violence might fit the bill, given Dr. Schlorff's explanation of the true meaning of "peace" to the militaristic side of Islam. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad says 'the enemies of the nation' are fomenting post-election riots across the country." He is blaming the United States for causing the riots -- a country that, in the Islam mind, has not submitted to Allah and must therefore be forced to do so. Thus, the rioters, an extension of the U.S., must surrender to Allah.
According to Stefanie Olson (2001), the Act provides government with increased electronic surveillance, search and data gathering power. Under the guise of tracking down "potential" terrorists, the expansion of Internet eavesdropping technology provides the government with full viewing rights into any private life they choose. In this way, immigrants who enter the country and conduct their business in a perfectly legal manner are now targeted for such surveys (White, 2008).
Local and National Changes in Law Enforcement - the basic mission of law enforcement and foreign/defense policy in the United States has dramatically changed since the events of 9/11 and the subsequent "War on Terrorism." Since 9/11, policies across the United States and abroad have changed from being reactive to being intensely proactive. There, are, however, several challenges faced by law enforcement and the legal issues of defense and foreign policy regarding this new approach to terrorism (Simonson, 2006).
"After 9-11, Security Job Openings Abound," cited in:
Bergen, P. (December 5, 2008). "WMD Terrorism Fears are Overblown." CNN
Politics.Com. Cited in:
Law Enforcement Practice, Procedure, Training, and Administration Standards:
Local police departments range in size from those employing fewer than ten officers to those employing over 30,000 officers, as in the case of New York City's
NYPD, the largest local police agency in the country. With absolutely no existing national standardization for police training, state and local police department training ranges from six-month long, live-in police academies such as those of the largest state police agencies and much smaller, independent local police academies with much shorter training programs. At some of the smallest local sheriff departments, officers may still be sworn into their positions by direct Sheriff's appointment, without prior training of any kind. In between those two extremes, police training and certification in different states range from four-week long, self-sponsored community college certification programs to independently run police academy training programs run by municipal police departments themselves.
Just as pre-employment…
Chase, H.W. And Ducat, C.R. (1978) Corwin's the Constitution and What it
Means Today. Princeton: Princeton University Press
German, M. (3/6/05) an FBI Insider's Guide to the 9/11 Commission
Report GlobalSecurity.org; Retrieved February 26, 2007, at http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/report/2005/guide-iii.htm
Terrorism in elation to International Governance
The 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States highlighted the global threat of terrorism since it changed the ways in which the world views terrorism. Actually, the attacks demonstrated the evolution of the threat of terrorism that has become a major security threat across the globe. Given the global dimension of terrorism, state actors and the international community has become increasingly concerned and developed various ways to deal with the threat of terrorism from a national and international level. Domestic and international law has altered policy towards terrorism, leading to an evolution of counterterrorism efforts. However, the effectiveness of these counterterrorism efforts requires an understanding of what terrorism is, its impact on countries, and international laws. Since terrorism is a global concern, international response may be crucial to resolving such a troubling issue.
Description of the Issue
Terrorism has continued to evolve in recent…
Bachmann, S. & Gunnerisson, H. (2014). Terrorism and Cyber Attacks as Hybrid Threats: Defining a Comprehensive Approach for Countering 21st Century Threats to Global Peace and Security. The Journal on Terrorism and Security Analysis, 1-37.
Bogdanoski, M. & Petreski, D. (2010). Cyber Terrorism -- Global Security Threat. International Scientific Defense, Security, and Peace Journal, 59-72.
Ervine, P. (2010, November 15). Does Terrorism Pose a Real Threat to Security? Retrieved May 14, 2016, from http://www.e-ir.info/2010/11/15/does-terrorism-pose-a-real-threat-to-security/
Gaibulloev, K., Sandler, T. & Santifort, C. (2011). Assessing the Evolving Threat of Terrorism. Retrieved from Homeland Security Center -- University of Southern California website: http://create.usc.edu/sites/default/files/publications/assessingtheevolvingthreatofterrorism_2.pdf
shift of terrorism to the international level. It defines terrorism, the reasons it is carried out, and the parties involved in terrorist acts. It also discusses the reasons due to which, certain states are covertly sponsoring terrorism to fight against their rival states without starting a conventional full scale war, and saving huge costs. It highlights how the military actions involved in the global war against terrorism are fuelling the terrorist movements and strengthening their numbers.
War and Terrorism
War can be defined as an armed conflict between two states, where both the states' main focus is to impose their own will on the rival state. During the last two centuries, the conventional ways of fighting a war have changed immensely due to technological advancements, but the reasons to initiate and fight a war remains the same. A war is fought in order to occupy and control a piece of…
Hudson, R.A. (1999) The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Become a Terrorist And Why?. The Library of Congress. Retrieved on February 2nd, 2013 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
Payne, J.L. (2008). What Do the Terrorists Want?. The Independent Review, 13. Retrieved from http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_13_01_2_payne.pdf
Morgan, M.J. (2004) The Origins of the New Terrorism. Parameters. Retrieved on February 2nd, 2013 from http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/parameters/Articles/04spring/morgan.pdf
Treason, Terrorism and Wartime Crimes
Treason is the term legally used to describe different acts of unfaithfulness, treachery and betrayal. The English law was the first to make a distinction between high treason and petit (petty) treason in the Statute of Treasons (1350). It described petit treason as an act in which one's lawful superior is murdered by him/her. For instance, if an apprentice murdered his/her master, it was stated as a petit treason. On the other hand, high treason was defined by the English law as any grave threat to the permanence or stability of the state. High treason consisted of "attempts to kill the king, the queen, or the heir apparent or to restrain their liberty; to counterfeit coinage or the royal seal; and to wage war against the kingdom" ("treason," 2012).
Treason is regarded as both a prehistoric misdemeanor and an acknowledged epithet (Eichensehr, 2009). The…
Eichensehr, K.E. (2009). Treason in the Age of Terrorism: An Explanation and Evaluation of Treason's Return in Democratic States. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 42 (5), 1443+. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-215409561/treason-in-the-age-of-terrorism-an-explanation-and
Lawless, M. (2007). Terrorism: An International Crime. International Journal, 63(1), 139+. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1525193241/terrorism-an-international-crime
McGlynn, S. (2011). War Crimes. In The Encyclopedia of War. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444338232.wbeow678/pdf terrorism from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-terroris/terrorism treason from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-treason/treason
War Crimes. (2012). In BBC. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/war/overview/crimes_1.shtml
S. has to be active in supporting the International Law. He argues that our effort should not be to defeat a set of criminals, Osama in Laden, his Al-Qaeda network and a few like-minded groups, but we have to undermine the notion that any action is acceptable for a cause and slaughter of civilian is an acceptable political act.
The fight against terrorism has to be based not on destroying a certain group of terrorists but as a campaign of human rights. Geneva Conventions and international human rights law specifically establish that terrorism is not a legitimate act of war or politics. These rules specify that civilians should never be deliberately killed or abused, regardless of the cause. Mr. ush's refusal to condemn Israel's bombing of civilian targets in an impotent Lebanon may be politically expedient but it says that United States considers it all right to deliberately bomb civilian…
Reisman, W.M., International Legal Responses to Terrorism, Houston Journal of International Law, Volume 22, Issue 1, 1999
Grebinar, J., Responding to Terrorism: How Must a Democracy Do It? A Comparison of Israeli and American Law, Fordham Urban Law Journal, Volume 31, Issue 1, 2003
Roth, K., Misplaced Priorities: Human Rights and the Campaign against Terrorism, Harvard International Review. Volume 24, Issue 3, 2002
Charters, D.A. (Editor), The Deadly Sin of Terrorism: Its Effect on Democracy and Civil Liberty in Six Countries, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT. 1994
Terrorist Groups Are Aligning to Conduct Global Terrorism.
Terrorism used to be a topic limited to only certain sectors of the world, such as the Middle East or South Africa. However, in recent years, it appears that no one is safe in any part of the world. A growing number of countries must take measures to protect citizens and visitors from the threat of terrorism. The Unites States is the latest addition to this list. It has become evident in recent years that terrorism is not a localized event any more, but has become an increasing global problem. It has also become obvious that terrorism requires a global solution as well. Evidence has been mounting that terrorist groups are beginning to connect and form alliances. This gives them greater strength and greater resources. It seems that they are finding common ground and are beginning to coordinate efforts. This will be…
Office of the Secretary Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (OSOCC) U.S. Department Of State. 1994 April: Patterns Of Global Terrorism, 1993. Department of State Publication 10136. 1994. http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2000/2441.htm . Accessed December 2002
U.S. State Department (USSD) (1996) State-Sponsored Terrorism. 1995 Patterns of Global Terrorism. April, 1996. USIA Electronic Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, February 1997. Retrieved at http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0297/ijge/gj-9.htm. Accessed December, 2002.
United Stated Department of State (USDS) (1996a). Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1995. The Year in Review Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism. Department of State Publication. Embassy of the United States of America. Dag Hammarskjlds V g 31, SE-115 89 Stockholm. Released April 1996. Retrieved at http://www.usis.usemb.se/terror/ rpt1995/year.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Intenational Peace and Teoism
What changes to existing legal egimes may educe the incentive and make the law moe effective in peseving peace?
Teoist goups can be disupted and destoyed though continuous and diect legal actions. The focus includes the use of national and intenational elements of powe. Immediate focus should be on the teoist oganizations with global each as well as teoists o states sponsoing teoism activities. Thee ae attempts of gaining and using weapons of mass destuction o pecusos. The law defends the national inteests, the native people, and intenational goals. Achievements in this case ae deived though identification and destuction of peace theats pio eaching national bodes. While most govenments continually stive towads enlisting intenational community suppot, they do not hesitate to act alone whee necessay. The goals at stake include execising thei ights to self-defense though peemptive action against teoists. The actions pevent them fom inflicting…
references ultimately tie broader projects leading to generalized legal understandings, the goal is to have central strategies of disseminating such law.
Law promotes equity and respects for people. Law advocates treatment of all human beings as members of the family. Islam, Judaism, and Christianity share this value. Hinduism embraces divine spark for all human beings while Buddhism talks of the human race are having similar distinctions made by humankind from all other animal varieties. There are numerous species across board distinguishing their category based on fundamentalism. The teachings make emphasis on oneness in which people work towards common goals of perish together. International law plays a role in fostering cooperation. Law consists of sets of rules that ensured passive co-existence of nations. Today, the concept of world governance is moving towards active cooperation among all countries. The concerns about matters of human welfare, international travel, outer space, health, the environment, disaster relief, and transport, are addressed by international law. There is facilitation of the external and internal affairs for a given country.
In conclusion, international law promotes economic justice to equality practices. Law elevates conditions for impoverished nations as well as deprived world populations. Critics estimate that in the last five decades, there is more than four times the population of people dying in wars happening in the 20th century. Others die due to poor sanitation and hunger. Part of the underlying numbers did not have to die if their issues were subjected to relevant concentrated attention. The concept relates to the application of international law principles.
Local Police Response to Terrorism
The Council of State Governments
The council of State Governments is a body of representatives of all states, Territories within the ambit of the U.S. And Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. It is an organization that provides vital data and statistics towards excellence in running the matters of the state. It seeks to enable the three apex institutions, viz., legislature, judiciary and the executive with intellectual inputs with a national perspective, innovative technological tools grooming effective and quality leadership and maintaining the autonomy of the states at the same time. It provides as a base for resolution of intra and inter-sate conflicts and mutually beneficial action plans.
Terrorism is an illegal act of force or violence to exact on any public domain to put the government under duress and thereby extract social or political mileage and seek objectives for a particular community or group. Terrorism,…
Chapman, R., Baker, S., Bezdikian, V., Cammarata, P., Cohen, D., Ph.D., Leach, N., Schaprio, A., Scheider, M., Varano, R., Boba, R. (2002). Local Law Enforcement Responds to Terrorism Lessons in Prevention and Preparednes. The Police Foundation, Washington D.C.
Ed. Harris, (2001). (Director of emergency communications, Austin Police Department).Telephone Interview.
Flynn, Edward, (2001). (Chief of Police, Arlington County Police Dept.)Letter.Washington Post.
Gene Voegtlin and Jennifer Boyter. Legislative Alert -- State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Programs Face Cuts. International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved on 23rd September, 2014 from http://policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_arch&article_id=233&issue_id=32004
When looking at the principles of war theory, the moral distinctions made between state-sponsored warfare and terrorism by stateless nations may not always be justified. The examiner must consider both the jus ad bellum, or justification for going to war, and the jus in bello, or how the war is prosecuted. Some ethicists state that acts of war can only be justified when committed by one nation against another, and that groups within states cannot have that status. Therefore, any means such internal groups use to prosecute a war are by definition, wrong. However, by this standard, the United States exists because of acts of terrorism.
The question becomes, then, to define terrorism and then to evaluate acts of terrorism according to whether they are acts of a just war or not. If groups of people who are politically organized but do not have a nation of their…
The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks marked a moment in history that will forever change the way the world views terrorism. Because of the attacks, if one is labeled a terrorist in the present day, or is accused of an act of terrorism, these words carry far more severe consequences than it would have in the past. Along with altered responses to terrorism, domestic and international law has altered policy towards terrorism, leading to an evolution of antiterrorism efforts. But what defines a terrorist in the eyes of the world? What types of terrorism exist? Ultimately there are general causes and effects of terrorism. This essay hopes to understand such things and recognize terrorist activity in the present day. esearch will also highlight past and will help shed light on whether or not international response is necessary. Since terrorism is a global concern, international response may be crucial to…
Coolsaet, R. (2011). Jihadi Terrorism and the Radicalisation Challenge: European and American Experiences. Ashgate Publishing Group.
Jenkins, B., & Butterworth, B. (2015). Troubling Trends in Terrorism and Attacks on Surface Transportation: The Outlook Is Grim, but People Still Have a Great Deal of Control. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1153&context=mti_publications
Kucukaltan, D. (2006). Tourism and terrorism. New York: iUniverse.com.
Saul, B. (2012). Terrorism. Oxford: Hart Pub.
Even in the absence of a governmental agency, there is another method to control these covert operations, and that is public opinion. As the news of many government atrocities has become known, there has been a great public outcry against these occurrences, and at least some times, this has led to modification of policies and covert actions. For example, when the atrocities at Abu Ghraib prison became known, there was a moral outcry to stop the offensive practices and punish those who had participated in them. Obviously, covert actions are not going to become known overnight. However, as they do, the citizens can make their feelings known and cry out against these types of outrages, encouraging leaders to stop using these covert actions in the future.
Finally, we must enact legislation to ensure these types of covert operations do not occur. While anyone can find loopholes in legislation, without it,…
Kibbe, Jennifer D. "A Loophole for Covert Operations." Brook.edu. 8 Aug. 2004. 23 Feb. 2007. http://www.brook.edu/views/op-ed/fellows/kibbe20040808.htm
Wachtel, Howard A. "Targeting Osama Bin Laden: Examining the Legality of Assassination as a Tool of U.S. Foreign Policy." Duke Law Journal 55, no. 3 (2005): 677+.
Howard A. Wachtel, "Targeting Osama Bin Laden: Examining the Legality of Assassination as a Tool of U.S. Foreign Policy," Duke Law Journal 55, no. 3 (2005).
apan finds itself at a critical point in its historical development. The world's third largest economy, it also has the world's second-highest debt burden in proportional terms and the current triple disaster is going to have dire consequences on the nation's recovery from the current worldwide recession. Economic uncertainty, loss of faith in current political structures and leaders, loss of status in the world, betrayal by corporations that have also been a key stabilizing structure in the nation: This is a potent mixture for resistance against the state and its representatives. This resistance may be peaceful and democratic. Or it may be violent, arising from dark, dank pools of ultranationalism that may well be already feasting on the bodies of the uncollected dead.
It is entirely possible that various ultranationalist right wing groups in apan may produce or support recruitment of terrorists in the coming months. There are currently hundreds…
James Lewis. (1998). Japan's Waco: Aum Shinrikyo and the Eclipse of Freedom in the Land of the Rising Sun.
Motohisa Yamakage. (2007). The Essence of Shinto, Japan's Spiritual Heart. Kodansha International: Tokyo.
He had an engineering degree from the university of Swansea in ritain. He too participated in the afghan war and was a friend of in laden since the late eighties. He was the emissary of bin laden in Philippines and trained the Muslim fundamentalists there. He made his way into the U.S. without a visa and continued his stay there by seeking political asylum. He was a skilled expert in making chemical bombs. In 1995, Yousef was arrested by Pakistani authorities and in the next year he was sentenced to 240 years of imprisonment in the U.S. For his role in the WTO bombing.
Rex a. Hudson]
Terrorism has expanded into every nook and corner of the world today. A terrorist today, does not appear with a distinctive personality but rather blends with the society leaving security experts with little clue. While organized crimes are mostly economically motivated, terrorism…
Rex a. Hudson, "The sociology and psychology of terrorism: Who Becomes a terrorist and why?," Sept 1999, Library of Congress, Accessed 19th November 2007, available at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
BBC, "Profile: Mullah Mohammed Omar," Accessed 19th November 2007, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1550419.stm
Frank Bovenkerk, "Terrorism and Organized Crime," Accessed 19th November 2007, available at http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/law/2006-0803-203003/bovenkerk_05_terrorism_and_organized.doc
2006 Global Terrorism NIE
Like any intelligence product, the declassified Key Judgments of the 2006 National Intelligence Estimate "Trends in Global Terrorism: Implications for the United States" relies on certain explicit and implicit assumptions as a part of its analysis. Identifying these assumptions is crucial for evaluating the accuracy of any piece of analysis, and intelligence products in particular. Explicit assumptions may be identified by looking out for key words, while implicit assumptions require more in-depth consideration.
The explicit assumptions in the 2006 NIE are identified by certain key words which inform the reader that the following information is not verified fact, but rather based on an assumption, which itself may or may not be based on specific evidence. These key words include terms like "probably," "likely," "could," and "would," because all of these words signify that the statements being made are conditional, rather than definitive. In other instances, the…
Office of the Director of National Intelligence. (2006) Declassified key judgments of the national intelligence estimate "trends in global terrorism: implications for the United States."
Evolution of Terrorism
Terrorism has developed to become one of the major security threats across the globe in recent years because it's constantly changing. Adversaries have increasingly used terrorism as a tool to achieve their goals because of its impact on targeted societies. The early users or practitioners of terrorism did not have any doctrine or philosophy that guided their terrorist activities. However, the use of terrorism in the 19th Century was guided by two ideologies communism and anarchism. These ideologies embraced violent social change and promoted the total destruction of existing systems on the premise that unlawful rebellion and warfare in crucial to achieve their goals. While communism was centered on economic class warfare, anarchism relatively focused on rejection of nearly every system or form of governance. Anarchism has become the motivation for contemporary terrorism because it's largely attractive to violent extremists who focus on rejecting all forms of…
Jenkins, B.M. (2006). The New Age of Terrorism. Retrieved September 22, 2016, from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reprints/2006/RAND_RP1215.pdf
Sofer, K. (2011, September 9). The Evolution of Terrorism Since 9/11. Retrieved September 22, 2016, from https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/security/news/2011/09/09/10320/the-evolution-of-terrorism-since-911/
Global Efforts to educe Terrorism and Political Violence Been Effective in the Past Decade?
Conceptualizing Political Violence and Terrorism
Terrorism does not have an assigned definition. As a matter of fact, "few terms or concepts in contemporary political discourse have proved as hard to define as terrorism" (Weinberg, Pedahzur, and Hirsch-Hoefler, 2004). The authors further point out that from as early as the 1960s and 1970s, when terrorism as a subject first appeared (or made a reappearance), various professional commentators have fund it quite challenging to come up with an articulate definition of the term that could gain acceptance across the board. Essentially, terrorism is a contemporary form of political violence. Indeed, terrorism as Gurr (as cited in Ortlung and Makarychev, 2006) points out, it is a subset of political violence. For purposes of this discussion, the definition (and interpretation) AND assigns to terrorism will be adopted. This definition will…
Apaza, C.R., 2011. Integrity and Accountability in Government: Homeland Security and the Inspector General. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.
Gartenstein-Ross, D., 2012. Bin Laden's Legacy Why We're Still Losing the War on Terror. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons
Hoffman, B., (2010). A Counterterrorism Strategy for the Obama Administration. Terrorism and Political Violence, 21(4), pp. 359-377
Inbar, E. ed., 2013. The Arab Spring, Democracy and Security: Domestic and International Ramifications. New York, NY: Routledge.
Cyber Terrorism: The Greatest isk in the U.S.
Tremendous technological advancements have been made in the last few decades. Today, humans depend more on computer networks and information technology (IT) systems than on other means for information. From business to government, computer networks are relied upon to store, process, retrieve, and transfer critical information. Increased dependence on computer networks has, however, posed a major threat. Cyber terrorism is now arguably the biggest threat facing the U.S. (Harress, 2014; Thomas, 2016). Attacks against computer networks via computer viruses, worms, malware, and hacking have become increasingly common. The attacks are directed to information systems and infrastructures that support critical processes such as defense, transportation, banking, and energy production. This threatens the country's social, economic, and political stability. Nonetheless, there are often assertions that the risk of cyber terrorism is not as pervasive or substantial as often portrayed. Though there could be some…
Caplan, N. (2013). Cyber War: The Challenge to National Security. Global Security Studies, 4(1), 93-115.
Chen, T., Jarvis, L., & Macdonald, S. (2014). Cyberterrorism: understanding, assessment, and response. New York: Springer.
Geers, K. (2012). Strategic Cyber Defense: Which Way Forward? Journal of Homeland Security & Emergency Management, 9(1), 1-10.
Harress, C. (2014, February 2). Obama says cyberterrorism is country's biggest threat, U.S. government assembles "cyber warriors." International Business Times. Retrieved from: http://www.ibtimes.com/obama-says-cyberterrorism-countrys-biggest-threat-us - government-assembles-cyber-warriors-1556337
If seen from the perspective of law enforcement, racial profiling can be described as "government action that relies on the race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being, or having been, engaged in criminal activity" (Etienne, 2012).
Though racial profiling is practiced in almost every country of the world, United States is the best example to understand it and its pros and cons. The law enforcement agencies in the United States have often treated the minorities in the country rather unfairly. Before the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the U.S.A., the main victims of racial profiling were Blacks. However, since the occurrence of these terrorist attacks, the law enforcement agencies have primarily targeted Arabs and Muslims for profiling (Bah, 2006).
One can find several notable likenesses among the profiling…
Annabelle, L. (2007). What's Wrong with Racial Profiling? Another Look at the Problem. Criminal Justice Ethics, 26 (1), Retrieved August 4, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-202802842/what-s-wrong-with-racial-profiling-another-look-at
Bah, A.B. (2006). Racial Profiling and the War on Terror: Changing Trends and Perspectives1. Ethnic Studies Review, 29 (1), Retrieved August 3, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1154091261/racial-profiling-and-the-war-on-terror-changing-trends
Etienne, M. (2012). Making Sense of the Ethnic Profiling Debate. Mississippi Law Journal, 80 (4), 1523-1538. Retrieved August 3, 2012 from http://Mississippilawjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/12_Etienne_Final_Edit.pdf
Rudovsky, D. (n.d.). Racial Profiling and the War on Terror. Retrieved August 4, 2012 from http://www.pennumbra.com/debates/debate.php?did=5
Herein lies one of the political implications of cyber-warfare. Because cyber-warfare is trans-national, global efforts to prevent cyber crimes must be global in scope and cooperative in nature. Nations do have information warfare capabilities that can be harnessed preemptively as well as defensively (Knapp & Bolton 2006). However, to harness the capabilities of state-sponsored cyber warfare tools, the norms of neutrality need to be rewritten (Kelsey 2008).
Finally, the social impacts of cyber-warfare are in many ways similar to the impacts of terrorism. The nebulous fear from unidentifiable non-state actors has a tremendous impact on social life and how individuals use information technology. Consumers are concerned about the protection of private data, such as banking information. Cyber-warfare can potentially dismantle entire organizations, and disrupt essential services. Given the push to digitalize medical records, the health of human beings is also at stake.
Cyber-warfare offers potential for new and innovative strategies…
Kelsey, J.T.G. (2008). Note: Hacking into international humanitarian law: The principles of distinction and neutrality in the age of cyber warfare. Michigan Law Review.
Knapp, K.J. & Boulton, W.R. (2006). Cyber-warfare threatens corporations: expansion into commercial environments. ISM Journal.
Wik, M.W. (n.d.). Revolution in information affairs.
Media and Terrorism
Contemporary terrorism relies heavily on the media. The modern media has much to offer terrorist organization. Media coverage is used not only to convey the terrorist's objectives and political messages, but also to intimidate larger populations.
The media provides a relatively inexpensive and efficient method of relaying their goals. Further, it offers a forum to attract supporters, and a means of raising funds in an era of independent fund raising (Introduction).
The Munich Olympics in 1972 marked the true beginning of the exploitation of the modern media by terrorists. In those Olympics, terrorists first exploited the media to gain access to a global audience (Introduction).
However, the potential utility of the media on terrorist activities was well-known long before the events of the 1972 Munich Olympics (Fundamentals of Terrorism).
The first well-documented understanding of the role of the media in terrorism likely has its roots in the…
Fine, Janet. Arabian Knight Woos West. In: Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media.
Fundamentals of Terrorism. 14 November 2002. http://www.geocities.com/p_enn/a_terrorismengl_02.pdf
Introduction. Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media, p. 103.
Morrow, Lance. The Gleam of a Pearl. In: Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media.
Outline the Minneapolis Domestic violence experiment, cite its findings and discuss the results of its replication studies. Compare and contrast collective and selective incapacitation with suitable examples
The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment was an evaluation of how effective the Minneapolis police responded to various domestic violence calls. The experiment was conducted between 1982 and 1982 by Lawrence W. Sherman, and the Minneapolis Police Department. Funding was supported by the National Institute of Justice. From a pool of known domestic violence offenders who there was a possibility for arrest, the study required the officers to select randomly one third for arrest, one third for counseling, and one third for separation with their partners Buzawa and Buzawa ()
. From the three methods suggested for dealing with domestic violence offenders, arrest was found to be the most effective. Those arrested during the study had been deterred from committing the offence again. The…
Buzawa, E.S., and C.G. Buzawa. Domestic Violence: The Criminal Justice Response. 1 Oliver's Yard: SAGE Publications, 2003. Print.
Lab, S.P. Crime Prevention: Approaches, Practices, and Evaluations. Maryland Heights, MO 63043: Elsevier Science, 2013. Print.
Wilkinson, P. Terrorism vs. Democracy. Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4SB: Taylor & Francis Group, 2011. Print.
causes of terrorism have attracted huge concern among policymakers and the public given the increase in terror attacks across the globe in the recent past. The modern society has been characterized by the increased emergence of terrorist groups and organizations in various places in the world. These organizations have continued to use sophisticated methods to accomplish their goals due to rapid technological advancements. Some of the major examples of terrorist groups include Baader-Meinhof, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, and the alleged Iranian state-sponsored terrorism. Following my analysis of these groups, I have chosen as my theoretical framework, Margolin's argument that, 'much terrorist behavior is a response to the frustration of various political, economic, and personal needs or objectives' (Joseph Margolin, 1977, 273-4).
My discussion will involve analysis of three terrorist groups across three categories i.e. ideological, nationalist, and religious terrorism. I will use Baader-Meinhof gang, the Liberation Tigers of…
Brynjar, L. & Katja, S. (2000). Why Terrorism Occurs -- A Survey of Theories and Hypotheses
on the Causes of Terrorism. Retrieved September 21, 2014, from http://www.ffi.no/no/rapporter/00-02769.pdf
"Chapter 3: State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview." (2013, May 30). Office of the Coordinator
for Counterterrorism. Retrieved from U.S. Department of State website: http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209985.htm
Alpha 66 and Omega 7
Are Alpha 66 and Omega 7 Domestic or International Organizations?
After Fidel Castro's evolutionary movement overthrew the Batista regime in Cuba and declared his country a Socialist nation allied with the Soviet Union -- the principle enemy of the United States at the time -- many Cubans opposed to Castro flocked to the United States. Many of these refugees and exiles were wealthy businessmen who were committed to overthrowing the Castro regime. The anti-Castro opposition by Cuban exiles took different forms, some of them advocating dialogue or diplomatic opposition, while others taking a hardliner position, engaging in militant activities (Garcia, 1998). The Cuban exile organizations known as Alpha 66 and Omega 7 were among the latter, resorting to violent activities inside and outside the United States, attacking persons and installations belonging to the Castro government and its allies as well as those in the United…
Bohning, D. (2005) The Castro Obsession: U.S. Covert Operations Against Cuba, 1959-1965. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, Inc.
Didion, J. (1987) Miami. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Garcia, M. (1998). Hardliners v. 'Dialogueros': Cuban Exile Political Groups and United States -- Cuba Policy. Journal of American Ethnic History, 17(4), 3. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Herman, E.S. (1982) The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda. Boston: South End Press, 1982.
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
The advocator of the Iran Democracy Act incorporates the Iranian Monarchist groups, The American Israeli Public Affairs Committee -- AIPAC, and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs -- JINSA.
It also includes the well established organizations that may get sanctions under the Bill such as Coalition for Democracy in Iran -- CDI- which was formed by Morris Amitay of JINSA, ob Sobhani, President of Caspian Energy Consulting and Michael Ledeen of the American Enterprise Institute who were recognized as the staunch supporters of the change in the rule of Iran. Moreover, the advocators also put forth that the previous U.S. funding of opposition groups in other countries was important to promotion of democracy in such countries and Iran cannot be an exception to this. This necessitates the U.S. To include human rights and democracy on its agenda in respect of Iran. (Senator Brown Back Announces Iran Democracy Act with…
Afrasiabi, Kaveh L. Regional Obstacles to Democracy in Iran. 24 January, 2001.
Retrieved from http://www.payvand.com/news/01/jan/1144.html Accessed on 7 May, 2005
Chomsky, Noam. Promoting democracy in Middle East. Khaleej Times. 4 March, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle.asp?xfile=data/opinion/2005/March/opinion_March6.xml& ; section=opinion& col= Accessed on 7 May, 2005
Kazemzadeh, Masoud. Political culture and obstacles to democracy in Iran. The Iranian. 30
Sanctions in the OPEC World
What sorts of sanctions and punishments should an OPEC nation -- whose petroleum production bring riches almost beyond imagination, and hence is a player on the world's economic battleground -- receive if it launches programs aimed at acquiring nuclear weapons? That is the central question for this paper to review and critique. The best example for what would happen to an OPEC nation that works towards building a nuclear weapon can be viewed by examining what has happened to Iran and its fledgling nuclear program. This paper delves into the sanctions against Iran, and reports the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal consequences of the sanctions that are now being rescinded. This paper also projects what those painful economic and social / political realities would impose on other oil-producing nations planning a nuclear program. This narrative leads to a clear understanding of the question…
Aghazadeh, Mahdieh. 'A Historical Overview of Sanctions on Iran and Iran's Nuclear Program. Journal of Academic Studies. Vol. 56, 137-160, 2013.
Berliner, Uri. 'Crippled By Sanctions, Iran's Economy Key In Nuclear Deal." NPR. Recovered November 26, 2015, from http://www.npr.org . 2013.
Byman, Daniel L. 'Iran's Support for Terrorism in the Middle East.' Brookings. Recovered November 25, 2015, from http://www.brookings.edu . 2013.
Farshneshani, Beheshteh. 'In Iran, Sanctions Hurt the Wrong People.' The New York Times. Recovered November 26, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com . 2014.
Afterward, the soldiers dismembered her father in front of her. In another case, a woman reported repeated rapes in front of her nine-month-old daughter. When the daughter cried, soldiers beat her with rifles (Bureau of Democracy, 2004).
While there is no question about the humanitarian crisis in Darfur, we must now examine whether that crisis amounts to state terrorism. According to Oliverio (1997), state terrorism is "associated with the issues of control of territory and resources and the construction of political and ideological domination (52). There are two essential elements that terrorism require to term it state terrorism. First, the state must reinforce the use of violence as an effectual, practical, and extenuating factor for managing conflict of ideas. Secondly, this view must be reinforced by a "culturally constructed and socially organized process" (Oliverio, 1997, 53).
Prendergast (2004) classified the situation in Darfur as state terrorism based on these factors.…
AP. (April 11, 2007). Hundreds killed in attacks in eastern Chad. Retrieved December 6, 2007 from Washington Post. Website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/10/AR2007041001775.html .
British Broadcasting Company (BBC). (2007). Sudan's Darfur conflict. Retrieved December 6, 2007 from International Crisis Group. Website: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3496731.stm .
Bureau of Democracy. (2004). Documenting Atrocities in Darfur, State Publlication 11182. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt Printing Office.
Gollust, D. (March 20, 2007). U.S. angry over Sudan leader's denial of role in Darfur atrocities. Voices of America. Retrieved December 6, 2007 from Voices of America News. Website: http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2007-03/2007-03-20-voa85.cfm?CFID=168052565&CFTOKEN=11639285 .
globalization been a force for development or for underdevelopment?
Globalization and Development: An Uneven Exchange
Globalization is the network of international flows of goods, services, money, information, ideas and people. It is the force that helped nations developed into economic powers, becoming players on the international stage. Globalization while an instrument of positive change in many regions of the world it has also contributed to escalating levels of income disparity, environmental degradation, the eroding of state power on the international stage and the increase in activity and sophistication of trans-national criminal organizations. This paper demonstrates how globalization and the promotion of specific economic policies is a boon to specific countries such as South Korea while other nations are increasingly marginalized. Weak nation-states are subject to the influence of non-state international actors such as trans-national corporations and criminal organizations. These external factors destabilize a nation's central government and its authority therefore…
Bank for International Settlements. Foreign direct investment in the financial sector - experiences in Asia, central and eastern Europe and Latin America, 2004. Retrieved 12 December at http://www.bis.org/publ/cgfs25.pdf , 1-25.
Bergsen, Albert J., and Omar Lizardo. 2004. "International Terrorism and the World System." Sociological Theory 22: 38-52.
Cumings, Bruce. 2005. Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Evans, Peter. "The Eclipse of the State? Reflection on Stateness in an Era of Globalization," World Politics, 50 (October 1997): 62-82.
What all of the above makes clear is that, while Navy pilots may have played a smaller role in one-on-one combat than pilots from other service branches, naval support was critical to the victory in Gulf War I.
While it is easier to view war as a collection of nameless, faceless soldiers, the reality is that a war is really a collection of personal stories. On January 22, 1991, a downed American Navy pilot was rescued by an Air Force team. It was "the first successful such mission over hostile territory in the war with Iraq."
The pilot "had ejected after being hit by Iraqi ground fire, and had parachuted into a bleak, empty stretch of the Iraqi desert."
The operation to rescue him took eight hours, four of them in Iraqi territory. To rescue the downed pilot, members of the rescue crew had to destroy an Iraqi…
Atkinson, R. (1993). Crusade: the untold story of the Persian Gulf War: Chronology.
Retrieved October 3, 2009 from Frontline
Web site: http://www.pbs.org /wgbh/pages/frontline/gulf/cron/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
There is a little known revolution being conducted along the French and Spanish borders, where, until just before orld ar II, in 1937, Basque people lived in what was referred to as "Basque Country," perceived by them to be their country (Nunez Astrain, Louis and Stephens, Meic, 1997, p. 1). hile the Basque movement probably is one of the least known and reported on movements, it does occasionally make it to the papers when the level of violence is such that it draws widespread attention.
Basque attaches such importance to his language that he defines himself by his ability to speak it, that is to say, in linguistic terms. He does not refer to himself in terms of race or tribe, or religion, or geographical locality, but exclusively in relationship to his language. In the Basque language, in order to convey that someone is a Basque, one says that he…
Astrain, Luis Nunez. The Basques: Their Struggle for Independence. Trans. Meic Stephens. Cardiff, Wales: Welsh Academic Press, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97675920 .
Evans, Martin. The Memory of Resistance: French Opposition to the Algerian War (1954-1962). Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76801128 .
Counter Terrorism Operations
Counter terrorism incorporates techniques, practices and strategies that the governments, military or police departments within a country adopt in their attack on terrorists and their threats. The main tactic that is used against the terrorist is terrorism itself. Counter terrorism involves both the detection of potential acts and the response to related events.
can boast of successful counter terrorism on Afghanistan. The U.S. successfully invaded Afghanistan in a bid to prevent another terrorist attack in the U.S. that was eight years ago. This was successful since before the 9/11 al Qaeda managed to attack the U.S. three times only at their African embassies in August 1998; the U.S.S. Cole incident in October 2000 and finally the September 11, 2001 attack.al Qaeda however have failed to attack the U.S. On its soil. This is a great failure to the al Qaeda and victory to the effective worldwide counter…
The Washington Times, (2012). Counter-terrorism gains. Retrieved October 23, 2012 from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/oct/23/counter-terrorism-gains/?page=al
Calahan, A. (2005). Countering terrorism: the Israeli response to the 1972 Munich Olympic massacre and the development of independent covert action teams. Retrieved October 23, 2012, from http://www.fas.org/irp/eprint/calahan.htm
Middle East countries, and also former colonies around the world, struggled to find their freedom and independence from any imperial forces. Therefore, being once again in charge of their own natural resources became "paramount to the extent that dictators and human rights abusers were supported"(Shah, 2000). People were sensitive to radical messages and a violent, anti-foreigners speech. Dictators and terrorist groups speculated that "weak spot" and provided the right set of words. Concentrating their message on the fight for liberation and independence from the "invasive" West, cleverly giving it a religious and profound spiritual meaning, fundamentalist rulers became popular and managed to take control over countries like Iraq, Iran or Syria, sponsoring the planning and performing of terrorist acts against symbols of Western civilization. Terrorism cannot do without the help of dictatorial regimes in the region, or without the tacit approval of the people, explained by the common religious beliefs…
Global Connections -- the Middle East. (2002). Retrieved February 12, 2007, from PBS Web site: http://www.pbs.org /wgbh/globalconnections/mideast/questions/resource/index.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The proliferation of non-conventional weapons has contributed to the increase of the threat of non-conventional terror in the recent past. This has come at a time when there are various efforts towards the war on terrorism, which is a major security threat across the globe. Terrorists have now turned to non-conventional options because of the increased access to materials that enable them to develop chemical, biological or nuclear devices. These devices are in turn used to plan and carry out attacks that are aimed at killing thousands or millions of individuals or groups.
There are various types of non-conventional terrorism including Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), biotoxins, anthrax, germ warfare installations, chemical weapons, and gas attacks. The most difficult non-conventional terrorism to plan and to execute is Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). While WMDs have been used by several groups, warriors, and countries for several years, the likelihood…
Combs, C.C. (2012). The New Terrorist Threat: Weapons of Mass Destruction. In Terrorism in the twenty-first century (7th ed., Chapter 14). London, UK: Longman.
Lowther, A.B. (2008). Terrorism and the Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat to the United
States. Midsouth Political Science Review, 9, 95-118. Retrieved from http://www.arkpsa.org/MPSR%20articles/5%20Lowther.pdf
The international community can obviously respond by seeking to marginalize the Taliban and similar movements as extremists. However, it has become clear following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon that western governments have not been effective in infiltrating terrorist networks and pre-empting attacks. It has also become clear that there will be no shortage of people in the Islamic world who are willing to martyr themselves for as long as there are legitimate grievances against the U.S. And other countries. It is therefore in the interest of the Americans that actions are taken by its government that seek to address both the legitimate concerns of moderate elements within the Islamic world and American's own relative ignorance as to what is happening in the world beyond the U.S. (Marsden, 2002 pp. 153-155).
The Afghanistan military action of the U.S. wherein the Taliban regime was overthrown is…
Marsden, P. (2002) the Taliban, War and Religion in Afghanistan. London: Zed Books Ltd.
Rashid, a. (2000) Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven CT: Yale University Press.
Roy, O. (1986) Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rosenthal, J. (1991) Righteous Realists: Political Realism, Responsible Power and American Culture in Nuclear Age. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University.
esearch and development was encouraged for future developments as well to continue to make security a priority (Airport Security, 1989, p. 2).
Also in response to the bombing of Flight 103, the Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990 was passed. Senator Wendell H. Ford opened the proceedings with the statement: "The terrorist bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in December 1988 tragically demonstrated that something more is needed to be done to protect Americans traveling by air" (Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990, 1990, p. 1).
In later hearings on implementation, it was noted by Thomas C. Kelly, Vice President of Security for the Air Transport Association, that U.S. airports were much safer than foreign airports and that this fact should be noted when dealing with this legislation: "Our primary focus in the development of this legislation was to ensure that it would contain provisions imposing the same extraordinary procedures…
Airport security (1989). Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives.
February 9, 1989.
Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990 (1990). Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate. October 4, 1990.
Dorey, F.C. (1983). Aviation security. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
9/11 Terrorism and EMS
On 11th September, 2001, a total of nineteen al-Qaeda terrorists took control of four sky-borne airplanes, using them to carry out suicide attacks aimed at American targets. Two planes were guided directly towards the New York World Trade Center's twin towers, one struck the U.S. defense department's headquarters (the Pentagon), and one crashed into a Pennsylvanian field. Known worldwide as the 9/11 terror attacks, this day's events led to large-scale destruction and death, sparking numerous important projects on the federal government's part, aimed at battling terrorism; these efforts defined George Bush's presidential term. More than 3,000 individuals lost their lives to the Pentagon and Twin Towers attacks. Of these, over 400 were firefighters and law enforcement officials.
The invaders were identified as Arab (chiefly Saudi Arabian) Islamic terrorists said to be funded by Saudi Arabian runaway bin Laden's terror group, al-Qaeda. The attacks were apparently retribution…
Dwyer, J., & Flynn, K. (2005). "Prologue." 102 Minutes. Times Books.
Eisner, H. (2002, April). "Terrorist Attack At New York World Trade Center." Retrieved from Firehouse Magazine: http://www.firehouse.com/terrorist/911/magazine/harvey.html
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. (2016, October 14). Al-Qaeda Islamic Militant Organization. Retrieved from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.: https://www.britannica.com/topic/al-Qaeda
History.com. (2010). 9/11 Attacks. Retrieved from History.com: http://www.history.com/topics/9-11-attacks
Agbiboa, D.E. (2013a). Peace at Daggers Drawn? Boko Haram and the State of Emergency in Nigeria. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 37(1): 41-67.
Boko Haram technically started in 2002 but has been especially active since 2009. Since then, the organization has worked hard to discredit the Nigerian government and replace it with an Islamic state based on Sharia law. Boko Haram is inspired by international radical Islam, and has taken root in northeastern Nigeria. Violence is integral to the Boko Haram methods. More than 3500 people have died so far directly due to Boko Haram.
The Nigerian government has tried negotiations and offers of amnesty in exchange for peace, but mutual mistrust has stalled diplomacy. Both carrot and stick approaches have failed. Moreover, Boko Haram is relatively fragmented, and different cells have different approaches to the Nigerian government and different political philosophies. Ultimately, Boko Haram must be understood within its…
Governmental healthcare centers concentrate on providing primary care to individuals and to control and manage the spread of infectious diseases and to manage natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs from one country to another. This can be specifically applied in developed nations, where social, economic and political factors are most likely to influence public health policies and centers and their accessibility and availability (Christian et al., 2008). This research proposal concentrates on presenting an overview and detailed background of health centers in English-speaking countries. The countries selected are Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Governmental health care centers concentrate on the provision of primary care to individuals and on controlling and managing the spread of infectious diseases and managing responses to natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs --…
About NHS hospital services. (2013). National Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.
Christian MD, Devereaux AV, Dichter JR, et al. (2008). Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: current capabilities and limitations: from a Task Force for Mass Critical
Care summit meeting, January 26 -- 27 2007 Chicago, IL. Chest. Vol. 133(Suppl):8S -- 17S.
Perhaps the public has become somewhat desensitized by nuclear war, but the idea of unseen agents loosed in the water supply, or used to burn without fire, causes panic to a greater degree (Tucker, 2008, 112-15).
An interesting paradigm regarding the fear factor involved in chemical and biological terrorism may surround the psychological issues that have surrounded the possibility of nuclear fear for decades, almost desensitizing people to it -- and the thought that they would either be instantly vaporized, or at least face a quick death. With biologics and chemicals, though, the fear is more of slowly dying, sick, bleeding, etc. such as shown in the films Outbreak or the Andromeda Strain (Smithson, 2004).
hemical Weapons -- hemical warfare and weaponry is nothing new to the scene of terrorism and war, especially after the advances made during World War I. The destructive effects of chemical weapons are their toxic…
Chemical terrorism is terroristic warfare that uses weapons that are chemically based, such as gas, burning agents, or other liquid or gaseous compounds. Unlike the chemical warfare that so terrorized the soldiers in World War I, in which trenched troops shot poisonous shells into each other's trench cities, or gassed whole planes of battle, is it more systematic and targeted. It differs, too, from a military use of such agents against a human population, for example the use of poisons by Sadaam Hussein against his own minority populations. Chemical terrorism is similar in many ways to biological terrorism, but the agents and toxins used operate in a different manner -- chemically induced carnage from the outside of the body as opposed to bioligically induced destruction from the inside of the body moving outward (Taylor, 2001; Falkenrath, et.al., 1998).
Biological Weapons - a bioterrorism attack uses biological weapons (viruses, bacteria, or germs) that are released in a manner that will negatively impact either humans, flora or fauna in a given environment. The particular agents involved must be deliberately set upon a population and may be natural forms or genetically manipulated agents that are more virulent than naturally found in nature, or resistant to current treatment or detection. These deadly agents may be airborne, ingested in drinking water, or become part of the food chain. This is the crux of their popularity -- they are often difficult to isolate and detect and often are latent for hours or days prior to symptoms, allowing the terrorist to be far away from the specified population when it becomes clear a biological was used. Some of the most power (smallpox, etc.) can be spread from person to person, some (Ebola) are so virulent they often kill their host prior to recontamination and others (anthrax, for example) must be touched or ingested by the individual for the effect to occur ("Bioterrorism Overview," CDC, 2007).
Every society has suffered more from disease than warfare, even though one might argue that the first case of biological warfare was unleashed upon the Aztec and Maya by the Spanish Conquistadores. In fact, many experts believe that without the outbreaks of smallpox, measles, and venereal disease, there would not have been a Spanish victory (Diamond, 2005).
Kazakhstan's Largest Import Partners
Source: Based on tabular data in Kazakhstan at 4.
As can be seen in Figure 1 and 2 above, although the U.S. does not even occur as a blip on the CIA's economic radar as a trade partner, it is clear that the trend is upward as can be clearly seen from the statistical data below. Historic export data to Kazakhstan is provided by the United National Statistics Division in Table 2 and Figures 3 through 6 below.
Comparison of Exports to Kazakhstan: orld, Russian Federation and the United States (Millions of $U.S.)
Trade partner 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2003 2004 orld 5,226 5,896 6,486 5,206 5,871 8,788 8,619 12,926 19,938 Russian Federation 2,361 2,480 2,285 1,578 1,146 1,751 1,748 1,967 2,769 United States 43-59-139 70-81 209-159 98 265
Source: United Nations Statistics Division 2008.
Figure 3. Exports to Kazakhstan: Comparison…
Economic Reform. In U.S. Government Assistance to and Cooperative Activities with Eurasia. (2006, January). U.S.Department of State. [Online]. Available: http://www.state.gov/p/eur/rls/rpt/63175.htm .
Foreign Trade Division. (2008). U.S. Census Bureau. [Online]. Available: http://www.census.gov/ foreign-trade/statistics/product/enduse/exports/c4634.html.
Kazakhstan. (2008). U.S. Government: CIA World Factbook. [Online]. Available: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kz.html .
Monitoring Country Progress in Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia, 10th ed. United States Agency for International Development, 2007.
United States' task of setting policy with other countries is not always a difficult task. We have enjoyed productive and positive relations with Canada for nearly all of our country's history. While we started out our relationship with Mexico on hostile terms, both countries have worked hard to establish a positive relationship based on mutual interests and concerns. It isn't always as easy to identify the important issues when countries are farther away and when they are located in areas with long histories of turbulence and conflicting needs. Such is the situation we face with the Middle East, an area made up of several different countries, some of whom often war among themselves and where shifting allegiances have historically taken place. The Middle East has a particularly troubled past, and it is not possible for any one country to set policies that will be warmly accepted by all the Middle…
Barry, Tom, and Honey, Martha. 1999. "Turkey: Arms and Human Rights." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 4:16. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html
Le Gail, Michael, Ph.D. St. Olaf College, with Le Gail, Dina. 2000. Middle East. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.puhsd.k12.ca.us/chana/staffpages/eichman/Adult_School/us/spring/foreign_policy/3/middle_east.htm
Mark, Clyde R. 2002. U.S. Congressional Research Service, Clyde R. Mark Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Updated Nov. 14, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.uspolicy.be/Issues/MiddleEast/middleeast.htm
Zunes, 2000. Stephen. "The U.S. And the Israeli-Syrian Peace Process." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 5:3. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02.
U.S. National Strategy
What three United States national interests do you think will be at great risk over the next five years? Describe those interests and identify which instruments of national power can be leveraged to protect or advance those national interests and how those instruments can be used.
As President Obama stated in his addresses to Congress in February 2009, the most important problem that the country faced was the economy, which was in the worst recession since the 1930s. This affected both domestic and foreign policy, since the country would probably have to reduce military spending and its commitments overseas as it did during the Great Depression, so for the Obama administration economic recovery was the primary goal. He did promise that "the weight of this crisis will not determine the destiny of this nation" (Obama Address, 2009, p. 1). He promised that the government would deal with…
Address to Joint Session of Congress. Remarks of President Barack Obama, As Prepared for Delivery, Address to Joint Session of Congress, Tuesday, February 24th, 2009.
Comprehensive Regional Strategy on Somalia: A Strategy for U.S. Engagement Report to Congress, February 2007.
JP 3-0 Chapter I.
JP 3 Extract Chapter 2.
Globalization on Terrorism
The Impact of Globalization on Terrorism: esearch eport
Terrorism has been a serious global concern for decades, with researchers now warning that globalization has had a hand in fueling terrorist activities in the recent past. This text is intent on examining the impact of globalization on terrorism. It begins with a definition of terrorism, its drivers, and reasons for its increased incidence.
The Impact of Terrorism through Globalization
9/11 remains one of the darkest days in American history. On that day, two commercial passenger jets were hijacked by suicide bombers and flown into the World Trade Center in New York, killing thousands of innocent citizens. Multiple attacks of a similar nature have occurred in different countries across the world, with the most famous ones being the bombing of the American Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998, and more recently, the killing of 130 innocent citizens in…
Cronin, A. K. (2003). Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism. International Security, 27(3), 30-58.
Gomez, J. M. (2010). A Financial Profile of the Terrorism of Al-Qaeda and its Affiliates. Perspectives on Terrorism, 4(4).
Grothaus, N. (2011). Types of Terrorism. Hand of Reason. Retrieved February 5, 2016 from http://handofreason.com/2011/featured/types-of-terrorism
Guillaume, G. (2004). Terrorism and International Law. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 53(1), 537-548.
Policy ecommendation in Combating Terrorism
Policy Project Part 1: Project outline
In the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks, the U.S. government and the international community reviewed typologies for the financing of transnational terrorism and examined ways to combat such financing. Unfortunately, evidence indicates that al Qaeda and other terrorist groups apparently affiliated with or inspired by al Qaeda have worked quite economically, using low-budget methods to operate. After reviewing two typologies, this part of the paper discusses applicable legal mechanisms for preventing and prosecuting the financing of transnational terrorist networks and considers proposals for improving the effectiveness of efforts to combat foreign-affinity terrorist financing (euter & Truman, 2004; Carter, 2008).
The evolving effects of globalization and the transnational nature of terrorism have combined to create almost limitless possibilities for terrorists looking to finance operations (Sheppard, 2008). One problem with combating terrorist financing is that many forms of…
Alexander, Yonah, and Donald J. Musch, eds. (2012). Terrorism, Documents of International and Local Control. Vol. 35. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana.
Andreas, Peter, and Ethan Nadelmann. (2013). Policing the Globe: Criminalization and Crime Control in International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Carter, Barry E. (2008) International Economic Sanctions: Improving the Haphazard U.S. Legal Regime. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cesari, Jocelyne. (2009) Muslims in the West after 9/11. New York: Routledge.
Government Health Ctr
Government Health Centers: Research Questions and Hypothesis
Opportunities for public health vary considerably from one nation to another. This is even true of westernized and industrialized nations, where political, economic and corporate culture will have a determinant impact on how public health is pursued and how access is accommodated. The research proposed for a consequent dissertation would examine these distinctions as they concern the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada. Each of the four nations noted offers a variance of public and government-sponsored health centers, however the nature, accessibility and adequacy of these centers also vary considerably. As this dissertation proceeds with an examination of these variances, it will be with an emphasis on defining the differences in operational orientation, emergency preparedness, available funding and the demographics which require and benefit most from such centers.
Primary Research Question:
Research questions are framed in…
Terrorist Threat to California through Mexican Drug Trafficking
The immigration challenges across all the United tates borders often invoke varied responses from both the average citizens and the law enforcement agencies. The cross border migration that has been of greatest concern is the Mexico to UA migration due to the myriad challenges this migration presents to the U..A. The Mexican population residing to the outh of the U.. has had a strained relationship with its northern neighbor over a long period of time owing to the inconsistency of its immigration policies, the distinctly lower socioeconomic status afforded to Mexicans on both sides of the border and the ravages afflicted upon both sides of the border by the U.. sponsored War on Drugs. Though all of these aforementioned factors are relevant, it is the war on drugs that forms the central concern of this research proposal since it has proven persistent…
Astorga, L. (2003). Drug Trafficking in Mexico: A First General Assessment. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Online at http://www.unesco.org/most/astorga.htm
DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory. Online at < http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/mert_strain.html >
Imperial Valley News (IVN). (2008). Mexican Drug-Trafficking Organization Members Indicted in Operation Money Train. Imperial Valley News.
Jeffrey, T.P. (2009). Drug Cartels Control Crossings. The Washington Times.
In your explanation, compare and contrast domestic and international terrorism. Also, please indicate whether either type of terrorism is subject to defeat. or, in a free society such as ours, must we simply learn to live with the annoyance and tragedies of ideological, political, and/or religiously-motivated violence?)
Domestic terrorism is much more statistically common than foreign terrorism, as those who feel they have cause to be angry enough to act against anything are much more likely to act against something they see as wrong in their own environment, Opportunity and ease of access also plays a role in this observation. Though terrorist acts are exceedingly rare they do occur on a somewhat regular basis if definitions are kept broad and are more likely to be domestic in nature than foreign born. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Domestic and international terrorism are similar in some ways, they both experience the kind of…
Daniels, D.J. (2002, December). The Challenge of Domestic Terroism to American Criminal Justice. Corrections Today, 64, 66.
Hamm, M.S. (September 2005) Crimes Committed by Terrorist Groups: Theory, Research and Prevention Retrieved April 1, 2008 http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/211203.pdf
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Lewis, C.W. (2000). The Terror That Failed: Public Opinion in the Aftermath of the Bombing in Oklahoma City. Public Administration Review, 60(3), 201.
Noam Chomsky underlines the above point in a discussion entitled the New War on Terror. Chomsky alerts us to the fact that are many more forms of terror than bombing or direct violence that are often extremely devastating and morally indefensible. This in fact constitutes a form of terrorism in the moral sense of the terms. He notes for example that,
..there are 7 to 8 million people in Afghanistan on the verge of starvation. That was true actually before September 11th. They were surviving on international aid. On September 16th, the Times reported, I'm quoting it, that the United States demanded from Pakistan the elimination of truck convoys that provide much of the food and other supplies to Afghanistan's civilian population.
Chomsky refers to this as a form of "silent genocide." The existence of state-sponsored economic and other forms of terror is referred to by a number of…
Bergesen a.J. And Lizardo O. 2004, Terrorism and the World-System, Sociological Theory, Vol. 22, No. 1, Theories of Terrorism: A Symposium.
Bonanete L. 1979, Some Unanticipated Consequences of Terrorism, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 197-211
Burnham J. 1974, Antiterror Problems, National Review, vol 26.
Chomsky new War on Terror, viewed August 9, 2008, http://www.counterpunch.org/chomskyterror.html
How can police and law enforcement agencies best utilize resources to confront this new threat?
Briefly describe the important features of "new terrorism" as discussed in the readings. What is "new" about contemporary, international terrorism?
Identify the police and law enforcement resources most relevant or essential to the threat of terrorist attacks. Also identify any important gaps between resources and needs.
In contrast to the terrorists of the past, the most aggressive forms of modern terrorism have been religious, rather than political in nature (Morgan 2007: 32). Historically, as horrific as the actions may have been, earlier types of terrorists at least had a defined political objective which they wished to attain through the use of violence and drawing attention to their cause. Modern terrorists, however, tend to view themselves in an unending and relatively vague 'war with the West' and Western values. hey draw no line in…
The failure of the intelligence community to predict 9/11 has often been called a 'failure of imagination,' not simply a failure to respond adequately with military force. "Neither Bush nor his predecessor Bill Clinton understood the gravity of the threats posed by terrorists because the leaders could not imagine such attacks" (King & Quijano 2004). A common complaint is that today's leaders are always fighting the last war, and until 9/11 the 'war mentality' was a Cold War mentality which presumed state actors were the dominant threat with a relatively realistic, coherent agendas. To fight terrorism today requires leaders to get into the minds of terrorists and to understand their psychological and cultural motivations, which are not always rational.
The lack of information-sharing between police and law enforcement agencies was also a major contributor to the 'failure of imagination' to predict the events. Without an interconnected effort between the FBI, CIA, and local law enforcement agencies, it is literally impossible to 'connect the dots' of actions which broach domestic and international concerns. "The failure of the CIA and FBI to communicate with each other -- sometimes because of 'legal misunderstandings' -- led to missed 'operational opportunities' to hinder or break the terror plot" (King & Quijano 2004). For example, "The CIA did not put 9/11 hijacker Khalid Almihdhar on a 'watch list' or notify the FBI when he had a U.S. visa in January 2000 or when he met with a key figure in the U.S.S. Cole bombing" (King & Quijano 2004).
One critical component of engendering greater understanding of the population it is seeking to monitor is fostering greater cultural understanding of the nature of terrorist groups and the cultures that produces terrorism. With this in mind, hiring law enforcement officers who speak the native language of the group the agency is investigating and who can engage
However, just how one is supposed to recognize future threats is difficult to determine. After all, if one imagines that excessive support in intervention, arms supply, technology, and financial backing is a key factor, combined with a strong religious motivation of the recipient nation, group, or organization, Israel or at the very least the Israeli right wing may one day be as dangerous as any Islamic threat may pose today.
Although much thought can be devoted to the necessary international, political and military strategies employed by the United States as a world power, it remains clear that of foremost concern to American families is their safety at home. Of course, war is never easy, particularly for those deployed in battle, or for their families. However, when a nation is attacked on its own soil it not only faces a "real damage," but it also suffers greatly in morale (Schweitzer, 2003).…
Camarota, Stephen. "The Open Door: How Militant Islamic Terrorists Entered and Remained in the United States, 1993-2001." Web site. Retrieved on April 25, 2005
Causes crime & process change): Choose country (*Iraq Afghanistan) crime (*Terrorism) relevant country. Obtain statistics crime show crime trends a period 8-9 years (e.g. 1995-2009). Then explain, criminological theories (*Conflict Theory Lableling Theory), crime relevant country (context), occurred place (causal factors), increased decreased years (change).
There has been much controversy in the last two decades regarding the issue of terrorism in Afghanistan, given that numerous countries have changed their international policies as a result of acknowledging the terrorist threat in the Middle East. ith the Taliban political group holding power for several years before the September 11, 2001, events at the orld Trade Center in New York, terrorism has reached a whole new level. It is difficult to determine the exact factors that fueled the terrorism movement in the country, with some of the most influential of them being the drug industry, the concept of jihad, and biased interpretation of…
Brecher, Irving. "Terrorism, Freedom and Social Justice: the War in Afghanistan," International Journal 57.1 (2002)
Chesterman, Simon. "Tiptoeing Through Afghanistan: The Future of UN State-Building" International Peace Academy. 2002.
Donohue, Laura K. In the Name of National Security: U.S. Counterterrorist Measures, 1960-2000. 2001.
Dunne, Michele Durocher. Integrating democracy promotion into U.S. Middle East Policy. Democracy and the rule of Law Project. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. no 50, October 2004.
Policy Efficacy: Terrorist Activity since 9/
The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 changed the world forever. This one of the most successful and large-scale attacks in the history of transnational terrorism. These attacks sent effects and shockwaves into the everyday lives of Americans and New Yorkers for over a decade. This paper asks how the counterterrorist policies measure up? Are they working? How do we know if they are or not? The paper clearly defines the terms to be used and considered over the course of the discussion as a means to add transparency to an already vague and opaque topic. The paper concludes that counterterrorism tactics as they currently stand are ineffective for several reasons including lack of political, international cooperation and no standard by which to gauge policy efficacy.
esearch & Policy Efficacy: Terrorist Activity since 9/11
Criminology is a truly a science of the nature…
Adams, N., Nordhaus, T., & Shellenberger, M. (2011) Counterterrorism since 9/11: Evaluation the Efficacy of Controversial Tactics. The Science of Security, Breakthrough Institute.
Bacevich, A.J. & Prodromou, E.H. (2003) God is not Neutral: Religion and U.S. Foreign Policy after 9/11. Foreign Policy Research Institute, Elsevier Limited, 43 -- 54.
Hoffman, B. (2002) Rethinking Terrorism and Counterterrorism since 9/11. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 25(1), 303 -- 316.
Kunreuther, H. & Michel-Kerjan, E. (2004) Policy Watch: Challenges for Terrorism Risk Insurance in the United States. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(4), 201 -- 214.
Contemporary Political Issue: The War on Terror
On September 20th, 2001, President George W. Bush proposed the new Office of Homeland Security to help confront a new threat to national security in the first step of what became the War on Terrorism (Select Committee on Homeland Security, 2004). One week earlier, Congress had signed off on the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), allowing the president broad scope for using military force against countries or organizations who “planned, authorized, committed, or aided” terrorism (Ackerman & Hathaway, 2011). 17 years and more than $2 trillion later, the War on Terrorism continues with no sign of easing up (Amadeo, 2018). Though President Trump ran a campaign on getting American soldiers out of the Middle East and letting other countries handle the ISIS threat, the war on terror rhetoric out of the White House has continued unabated, with sights now set…