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S. Law." Stem Cells at the National Academies. 2008. March 27, 2008. http://dels.nas.edu/bls/stemcells/ethics.shtml
Thomson, James a., et al. "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Somatic Cells." Science Express. Vol. 318. no. 5858, pp. 1917-1920: November 20, 2007.
Yamanaka, Shinya, et al. "Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts by Defined Factors." Cell. 131: 1-12.. November 30, 2007. March 27, 2008. http://images.cell.com/images/Edimages/Cell/IEPs/3661.pdf
hat are the potential uses of human stem cells?" National Institute of Health: Stem cell information. February 20, 2008. March 27, 2008. http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics6.asp
Cells that have the ability to develop into other types of cells are called pluripotent cells.
The 'adult' stem cells can be derived from children as well as adults. The term 'adult' refers to the mature stage of their development when the unspecialized cells have transformed into specialized cells which are designed to perform specific functions.
Very recent research has shown that…… [Read More]
This Technology Should Be egulated and Controlled by Government
There is not really much argument that stem cell research, regardless of its origin as embryonic or otherwise should be controlled to some degree by the government as the development of this research demonstrates a potential for abuse that is startling and could essentially be highly abused. The abuse of this type of research would likely be sourced in the desire of scientists to make more rapid breakthroughs in the development of treatments for diseases and injuries that human kind has found particularly devastating and extremely hard to treat with any real success. Yet, it is clear that a rush to breakthroughs has often caused devastating effects in and of itself and that controls are needed, to create at least a moderate ethical consensus to control the potential pitfalls of progress. Though as has been noted previously there is much…… [Read More]
In utilitarianism, the focus is on outcomes, or the ends of an action; in deontology the actions themselves must be ethical and moral, or the outcome is moot. Deontology argues that there are norms and truths that are universal for all humans; actions then have a predisposition to right or wrong, moral or immoral. Kant believed that humans should act, at all times, as if their individual actions would have consequences for all of society. Morality, then, is based on rational thought and is the direction most humans innately want. Roughly, deontology is "the means justify the ends" (Kamm).
Thus, one must ask first if the definition of human life begins at conception, and if those groupings of cells constitute legal and moral protections. Then, depending on the answer, one must decide; do the tremendous benefits already proven by science constitute a reason to continue research -- the alleviation of…… [Read More]
Unlike any specific adult cell, embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to form any adult cell, and can proliferate indefinitely in culture (Embryonic pp). Using fourteen blastocysts obtained from donated, surplus embryos produced by in vitro fertilization, James Thomson and a group of University of isconsin biologists established five independent stem cell lines in November 1998, the first time human embryonic stem cells had been successfully isolated and cultured (Embryonic pp). The embryos used in the work were originally produced to treat infertility and were specifically donated to the project with the informed consent of donor couples (Embryonic pp).
Embryonic stem cells are of greatest interest due to their ability to develop into virtually any other cell produced by the human body, thus in theory, "if stem cells can be grown and their development directed in culture, it would be possible to grow cells of medical…… [Read More]
This means that while there are tremendous amounts of promise. The preferred method of embryotic cells is still the most utilized approach. However, in the future this could change dramatically. The reason why is because scientists have been aggressively pursuing this method. This is based on the fact that there are no ethical issues when conducting this kind of research and there is a possibility of having a major breakthrough. In the future, this will lead to many scientists focusing on this approach over using embryos. The biggest reasons are it does not have the controversy and it can deliver the same results. Once this happens, is when there will be shift in the debate about ethics among both sides. (Yidrim, 2011, pp. 11 -- 17)
How New Techniques can Avoid Ethical Debates
There are a number of techniques that will allow scientists to conduct stem cell research without violating…… [Read More]
" He argues that it is wrong to use these embryos even though they will just be discarded and wasted anyway. For this reason, people with grave diseases and disabilities argue that Bush needs to change his stance.
Stem cell research is incredibly important and should be fully examined so that we can do as much as possible to find cures and alleviate human suffering (Feinstein, 2004). It is important that the government make every effort to expand the current policy so that federal funds will be available for more embryonic stem cell lines.
Basically, the controversy over stem cells involves just one specific type of research -- research using stem cells from human embryos (Fox, 2005). Currently, these types of stem cells are taken from frozen embryos left over in fertility clinics, but they can also be made using the same cloning technology that created the infamous Dolly…… [Read More]
Protecting the rights of the one and sacrificing the lives of many is a sensitive subject, especially when the sides cannot even agree upon whether or not the one should have rights or not. It would seem that the establishment of researching guidelines that prevents the harming of a subject, for research purposes, has set a precedent, and that this violates right to know laws, as there is no informed consent from the embryo. This protocol is completely absent.
The promises of embryonic stem cell research are great though.
However, would science be able to live up to these promises? At what point is it playing at God? At what point are doctors doing no harm? At what point do physicians and scientists waiver the rights of what may or may not be human beings? At what point is the cure of disease so great that the moral scales tip…… [Read More]
The recent discovery of stem cell usefulness in helping cure persistent disease and medical problems presents an interesting dilemma for society and those interested in exploring this technology. efore rushing into using this tool, it is my opinion that the defining terms of this topic should be fully understood. The difference between adult stem cell and embryonic stem cell applications are differing along with the moral and ethical implications that accompany these terms. In order to truly understand this problem this distinction needs to be addressed before answering the question of its value in general terms.
Understanding the differences between these two parts of the discussion has led me to take a stance against using embryonic stem cells for research purposes. The use of adult stem cells and the full range of applications that this more humane and kindly approach utilizes seems to best suit the human situation…… [Read More]
o this end, scientists are studying the fundamental properties of stem cells, including:
determining precisely how stem cells remain unspecialized and self renewing for many years; and identifying the signals that cause stem cells to become specialized cells ("Stem Cell Basics").
his research will allow them to help the multitude of people afflicted with a variety of diseases.
Stem Cell Application:
his is perhaps the most important potential application for human stem cells - the generation of cells and tissues that can be used for cell-based therapies. Approximately 25.6 million Americans currently have diagnosed heart disease ("Heart Disease"). Stem cells may be utilized to generate healthy heart muscle cells, for patients with chronic heart disease. "Preliminary research in mice and other animals indicates that bone marrow stem cells, transplanted into a damaged heart, can generate heart muscle cells and successfully repopulate the heart tissue ("What are the Potential Uses").
hose…… [Read More]
In a talk delivered to the Johns Hopkins Medical Center he stated, "...we don't want to let politics, philosophy, and theology intrude on science." However, he goes on to qualify, "science qua science cannot set its own ends... Scientists left to themselves may not always make the best ethics decisions (Nizza, 2004)."
Here, Fukuyama alludes to another angle that is less often mentioned -- that is that scientists and doctors alike can at times put their own personal interests foremost in any ethical issue, including this one. Further, this is often financially motivated, "with a possible personal financial stake in a biotech company to worry about, for example (Nissa)." However, he also chides those who imagine that "government" or in the case of the United States, Congress can or should regulate stem cell research, saying "by and large most Congressmen know nothing about science...(Nissa)."
Instead, many on the front lines…… [Read More]
Patients are instead at the mercy of their insurance companies for determining the extent of care they receive and where they receive it. Any patient who wants a procedure or a medication not covered by their plan and any patient whose insurance company denies coverage of certain procedures is forced to foot the bill themselves. In most cases the bills are outlandish and only the very wealthy could afford to avail themselves of desired services.
Global competition makes medical procedures and pharmaceutical interventions available for a wider range of people. The lower price tags on medications and the cheaper surgeries offered by doctors in foreign countries has encouraged patients to seek medical attention abroad rather than in the United States. Because physicians in foreign countries are frequently well-trained, even trained in the United States, patients are becoming more open to medical tourism. Global competition has yet to affect American healthcare…… [Read More]
In fact, the Senate in general is more strongly in favor of expanding federal funding for stem cell research. If the current bill passes in the House of Representatives, it will likely not receive the two-thirds majority that would permit an overturning of a Presidential veto. Prominent Republicans, including senator Orrin Hatch of Utah, are strongly in favor of the bill, in direct opposition to the President's position.
Although embryonic stem cells can become any human cell or tissue, permitting cell and tissue regeneration, they are harvested from human embryos. It is a small step in the wrong direction to permit taxpayer monies to be diverted to such controversial research. Permitting an expansion of stem cell research sends the wrong message and creates an ethically ambiguous society. President Bush's assertion that embryonic stem cell research is morally wrong is an admirable stance, especially given the divisiveness the measure is causing…… [Read More]
More research has to be undertaken for increasing our understanding of the tissue growth factors, translation protocols and control parameters to harness the full potential that stem cells therapy has to offer. This, it is hoped, would be realized in the near future with the rapid strides in the biotech field. While embryonic stem cells, considered to be the potential panacea for many deadly diseases is steeped in ethical controversies and awaits further research for its safety, the successful therapy with umbilical cord stem cells is already considered a huge victory. Further, the promising possibility of a new and novel method of stem cell generation such as Induced pluripotent Stem cells (IPSC) opens an entirely new dimension for stem cell research offering researchers a source of stem cells which does not have any ethical or moral stigma attached to it. Stem cell therapy could very well change the face of…… [Read More]
According to statistics, almost everybody today is affected by cancer either directly or indirectly, and everybody knows someone who is suffering from cancer, diabetes, or Alzheimer disease. How about if it was possible to successfully treat these diseases and save lives of our loved ones? Yes, it is now possible as medical researchers have found out a way to solve these medical conditions. The solution lies with stem cell technology. The most important feature for stem cells as it concerns stem cell therapy is that, they are cells that have not yet been differentiated into a specific type of cell (Hu et al., 2013). This therefore means there is the potential for doctors to use these cells as replacement for defective cells. Despite the promise that this technology holds for the medical field, it is still at its infancy and successful application is very limited. This paper presents a…… [Read More]
Race and gender issues can influence medical treatment as many researchers have shown. The study by Benjamins and Whitman (2014), for example, showed that ethnic and racial discrimination is found in health care settings and results in health care services being limited to certain groups. The study surveyed 1700 individuals of white, black, Mexican, and Puerto Rican descent and found that 1/4th of respondents stated that they had experienced health care discrimination, and the skew showed that the discrimination was race-related. The types of discrimination cited by the respondents included not receiving the care they required, and not receiving quality of care.
Another study, this one by Grace, Kara, Kennedy and McDonald (2014), found that racial disparities exist in pediatric kidney transplantation. The study took place in New Zealand and focused on what types of patients were most likely to be receive a kidney transplant before others in the same…… [Read More]
Stem Cell Differentiation
The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of…… [Read More]
Stem cells are a hot topic for the media today because our understanding of them has potential for incredible scientific advances in the field of biotechnology, yet we struggle because there are questions of morality raised by the methods by which they might be used. While in centuries past, it was commonly accepted within the scientific community to vivisect the mentally insane or criminally convicted for the purpose of scientific knowledge, today religious groups are concerned about the fate of single stem cells being used in experiments. Stem cells have paved the way to cloning and bioengineering of humans, allowing scientists to "bring... A sperm and ovum together to create an embryo, harvesting the cells, and then discarding the embryo." (Celia) The concern for many people is that working with embryonic stem cells especially may somehow he breaching the rights of people and taking science to a point where it…… [Read More]
Stem Cell Ethics
Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells
The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…… [Read More]
Analysis of the Issues: The ethical concern for the rights and welfare of viable infants is certainly a legitimate concern, but the central ethical analysis that pertains to stem cell research revolves around the issue of defining human life appropriately. Objective criteria like anatomical development, cognitive awareness, and above all, sentience of any degree and in any form are all legitimate bases for the definition of life and for identifying the period of gestation corresponding to the earliest conceivable safeguards necessary to prevent suffering.
On the other hand, purely subjective doctrinal claims without objective criteria of any kind are wholly inappropriate bases for defining scientific concepts like when life begins. The fact that human development varies among individuals and that it may be impossible to know exactly where sentience and other elements of "humanness" first begin in the fetus does not mean that it is impossible to identify periods of…… [Read More]
This controversial decision drew all kinds of reactions from different groups on each side of the issue. Some adversaries of hESC research expressed admiration for the decision limiting research to existing cell lines, while others said that no research should be allowed under any circumstances. Advocates of hESC research, meanwhile, generally praised the president for allowing some research to go forward, but criticized the restriction to existing cell lines as too strict, questioning whether enough research would be allowed.
Current U.S. Stem Cell Policy under President Obama
The March 9, 2009 EO changes the way the National Institutes of Health (NIH) can support and conduct human stem cell research. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the NIH Director, is required to review existing NIH and other widely-recognized guidelines on human stem cell research and issue new NIH guidance within 120 days of the date of the EO…… [Read More]
Study of human embryonic stem cell will lead to major advances in human biology, specifically:
Embryonic stem cell research will provide critical insights into mechanisms of cell differentiation, growth, and death (Young, 2006).
Understanding stem cells may provide keys to why people age (Young, 2006).
Scientists are interested in stem cells because they have the potential to become very practical in a way that any other kind of cell in the body might be used to replace tissues that have failed (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3144925.stm,2003).
And lastly, scientists believed that if they become successful in finding cure for lymphoma, and leukemia with this study, there is a great possibility that they can also cure diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, diabetes among others in the near future (http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt,2006).
Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521
Young, ise. Morality of…… [Read More]
Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,
"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).
The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord lood, 2010).
Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…… [Read More]
Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of eligion and Public Life 25+.
Patel, K., & ushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.
Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982
Shapiro, .S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell esearch Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
Stem Cell Basics." (2006). Stem Cell Information from the National Institute of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/
Wagner, C.G. (2007, January/February). Values Conflicts in Stem-Cell esearch: Governments Struggle with Bioethical Issues. The Futurist, 41, 8+.
Precursor cells are also known as pluripotent cells, i.e., having the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells that make…… [Read More]
ithout a doubt, one of the most controversial topics of popular discourse is stem cell research. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to peruse the newspaper or magazine stand without encountering some reference to the global stem cell debate -- but what, exactly, are stem cells, and why are they so controversial?
Stem cells intended for use in human applications are harvested from humans, umbilical cords and embryos. The reason these cells are so valuable is because of their capability to produce or "become" other cell types -- for example, brain cells, heart cells, skin, etc. In short, these are "master cells," holding the ability to divide in cultures, and to be manipulated allowing it to transform into any type of cell. Of course, this is extremely important due to the fact that scientists can use this capability to either create organs (thereby helping to meet the tremendous…… [Read More]
Unfortunately, a tremendous amount of valuable research has been put on hold ever since the ban of federal funding for stem cell research. In the United States, the vast majority of medical research of all types that eventually lead to cures for disease are funded by the federal government. The federal ban on stem cell research does not completely prohibit it, but the effect is nearly the same, just as it would be if the federal government withdrew funding for cancer or diabetes research.
The main opposition to stem cell research comes from the Religious Right who believe that any form of research using fetal stem cells is wrong, because according to their religious views, every fertilized human egg should be considered as much a human being as any living person, even a microscopic zygote consisting of nothing more than four cells of human tissue. Certainly, the concept of religious…… [Read More]
However, we can immediately see that their purposes are distinct from one another.
From a design standpoint, one grievance with Sanford Burnham is the shortage of active links to immediately usable information. First and foremost, it is of note that in a page with several eye-catching graphics pertaining to particular site destinations (the Center for Nanomedicine, Sanford Burnham's blog) none of these photographs is used as an active link. This is a missed opportunity for site usability that may be perceived as being of marginal importance but in reality can have significant impact on how long a visitor remains on a site and how many pages said visitor is inclined to click-through. This is a shortcoming easily resolved but does impact the site's relative dynamism.
The importance of such a matter is highlighted in a comparison between the two sites, with Research America ultimately compiling a site that is a…… [Read More]
The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found." (Info 2006)
Adult stem cells are replicators in such a way that they are able to duplicate a variety of different cells. "Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body, serving as a sort of repair system...they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cell...each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell." (Info 2006).
Researchers tout the belief that a manipulation of stem cells can be beneficial in curing many diseases as well as helping in creating or developing new life, which could be part of the reason why such…… [Read More]
Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations
Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.
How are Stem Cells Formed?
When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells…… [Read More]
stem cells. It will consider the current moral discourse on the issue of stem cells and at the same time look at the basics or the foundation of stem cells themselves. How these cells can be utilized to conduct studies in cloning will be dwelt upon as well.
The pertinent issue on the floor of the U.S. congress in the deliberations on stem cell studies on humans is how to handle embryonic stem cell research (ESR), a kind of research that may generate crucial lifesaving therapies, which demands the damaging of embryos. Present national government regulations and policy documents tackle this issue basically via the limits on federal funding allocated to ESR (Aylesworth, 2010). The U.S. Department of Human Health Services is not permitted to spend any money on making human embryos for studies whereby the embryos will be damaged, thrown away, or intentionally be exposed to risks such as…… [Read More]
Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.
Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…… [Read More]
Stem Cell Research / Parkinson's
Since Barack Obama has become president, the field of stem cell research has been given new life. One of Obama's campaign pledges
was to allow deeper research -- including the use of federal research funds -- into the use of pluripotent stem cells in order to find solutions for some of the terrible diseases Americans suffer from. Among those medical problems is Parkinson Disease (PD). This paper reviews and delves into the literature in terms of the potential of stem cell interventions into Parkinson Disease (also called "Parkinson's Disease").
ho is the leading authority on stem cell research?
There is no one "leading authority" reflected in the literature; however there are renowned scientists that are considered pathfinders in this field. Dr. Diane S. Krause, Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Associate Director of Stem Processing at Yale University is "…one of the discoverers of previously…… [Read More]
However, there would also need to be an extended period of longitudinal analysis of the effects of the therapy on the experimental group mice's health to see if the improvement continued and did not produce damaging side effects.
The MSCs in the liver therapy are not derived from human embryos and thus the objections to discarding human embryos are not a factor in the ethical discussion about the therapy. In fact, "the number of MSCs that can be obtained from a donor is significantly lower than the number needed for tissue regeneration. Therefore, MSCs are expanded ex-vivo in media supplemented with growth factors" and created in a lab ("MSC growth factors," R&D Systems, 2013). The main ethical objections to the use of MCSs revolve around the question of scientists' right to create new organs and the possible risks involved. The Japanese research team "relied on a 'cocktail' of so-called induced…… [Read More]
The authors did a comparison study of 682 adults with acute leukemia. All these patients received a hematopoietic stem-cell (HSC) transplant from a donor that was unrelated to them. The authors compared them to patients who received UCB instead of HSC. One of the important characteristics of UCB is that it does not have to match the donor, which makes it much more flexible in leukemia and other treatments.
The study covered two groups of people. The authors note, "98 received cord blood and 584 received bone marrow. The transplantations were performed from 1998 through 2002 and reported to Eurocord and the European Blood and Marrow Transplant Group" (ocha, V., et al., 2004. p. 2276). They traced participants' ages, weights, level of severity of the disease, and other influences to discover what treatment worked best in treating adults with leukemia. They found that rates of mortality and relapse were very…… [Read More]
While freedom of religion absolutely guarantees the right to refrain from choosing to submit to stem cell-based treatment, the same freedoms and the concept of separation of church and state absolutely preclude religious beliefs about when life "begins" (or about anything else) from dictating laws that affect other people who may not share those particular beliefs (Dershowitz, 2002).
Beneficence and Non-malfeasance
Certainly, both the concept of beneficence and non-malfeasance absolutely prohibit the use of fetal stem cells from any fetus that is sufficiently developed to be considered a "person" as well as from any fetus that is sufficiently developed to sense pain. Medical authorities may debate where the exact point is where "personhood" first becomes an issue, but in principle, that characterization must be a function of objective criteria and never subjective beliefs of laypeople, especially based in religion (Dershowitz, 2002).
Both beneficence and the duty to avoid malfeasance prohibit…… [Read More]
That is not to suggest that scientific criteria can necessarily pinpoint any specific instant or moment in time when a developing fetus can logically be considered a living human being, but only because such precision is impossible.
In principle, there is no doubt that medical science can identify the various stages of fetal development associated with the biological structures and processes that make us human. Likewise, they can identify the point where suffering becomes possible because neurological development produces the ability to perceive pain (Levine, 2008).
Therefore, the appropriate use of scientific criteria would be to link ethical concern for the fetus to sentience, and simply to err on the side of caution where pinpoint identification of sentience is impossible to know with certainty.
In principle, science (the discipline) is strictly objective; in practice, scientists are susceptible to human failings such as malice, egoism, and greed. The field of ethics…… [Read More]
Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).
Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…… [Read More]
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…… [Read More]
3.3 Data Collection
Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.
Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.
4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations
The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…… [Read More]
Do patients understand what it means to donate tissue to science? Not only that, but use of EG cells confuses stem cell research with the debate over abortion, bring up the risk of biasing emotions (McDonald 7).
So, while stem cell research is an exciting new field that holds much promise, ethical problems arise to delay research, discovery of benefits or dangers, and involve many who have no knowledge of the complexities of the field. Though controversies usually accompany new discoveries in science, this biotechnological process involves manipulating the basis of life itself in embryonic stem cells. But the field is rapidly changing. hat is true today may be outmoded tomorrow. A neutral substitute for stem cells may be discovered that will prove to be the answer to these ethical questions.
Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil…… [Read More]
People with family histories of blood disease, for example, could benefit greatly from a private supply of compatible blood cells. Mixed-ethnicity children could also stand to benefit, since this population often experiences difficulty finding genetically compatible donors for organs or bone marrow (Peterson 56).
The sad reality is that despite its many benefits, the use of stem cells from umbilical cords is hampered by a lack of supply. There are private banks that extract and store a baby's umbilical stem cells for private use, but the costs are too prohibitive for most families. For many private banks, parents have to pay $1,300 up front for the extraction, and an additional $95 each year for storage. Also, many parents are simply unaware of the importance of umbilical stem cells. Sprage, a beneficiary of a cord stem cell transplantation, finds it disturbing that "most cord blood ends up as medical waste." (Peterson…… [Read More]
Moral and Legal Questions of Stem Cell Research
Stem cell research is an experimental, and research-based study as to methods of repairing the human body. y introducing stem cells into a damaged, or degenerating area of the body, the medical profession hopes to prompt the body to regrow healthy tissue, and repair the damage. Degenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, or macular degeneration of a patient's eye retina are conditions in which the healthy tissues cease to function properly. There is no overt damage. There is not a disease which has physically destroyed the affected body part. ut for varying reasons, such as old age, wear and tear, or reasons medical science does not yet understand, the affected body part simply ceases to function properly. Stem cells are the type of cells, which are more numerous in, but not limited to, human embryos. They are the building blocks of the…… [Read More]
To date, adoptive T-cell therapy have used peripheral blood, tumors, malignant effusions, and drained lymph nodes as sites for injecting the T-cells for adoptive transfer. Those are routinely used are allogenic bone marrow transplantation and peripheral blood stem cell infusion. It is possible that the bone marrow might be a good place too. It is also arguable which precise T-cells are the best to transfer, since T- cells are differentiated into many subsets.
Furthermore, in order to produce enough effectors T-cells, specific T-cells from peripheral blood or tumor specimens are isolated and generated in vitro, and these are then clonally expanded using various approaches. The T-cells are then reinfused into the patient with the expectation that they will then target antigens. There is much evidence that this approach works, although it also seems that this can be engineered in vivo under certain situations.
For most effective T-cell therapy, it has…… [Read More]
legislation introduced topic stem cell research. You find Library Congress website helpful research thomas.loc.gov. Pick a piece legislation interest give a summary bill.
The H.R.2433 -- 113th Congress (2013-2014) emphasizes the need for the U.S. To play a more significant role in achieving technological advancements in STEM-cell research. The act was introduced in June 19, 2013. The legislation relates to the idea of changing the Public Health Service Act with the purpose of introducing research processes that make use of human stem cells. The legislation is particularly interesting because of its studies in the field of stem cells involving human embryos.
Although the legislation bring forward problematic ideas because of the difficulty associated with actually coming in possession of human embryonic stem cells, the fact that there are numerous individuals willing to donate such resources with the purpose of promoting scientific advancement makes it possible for experts to progress in…… [Read More]
All living things are complex organisms that are made up of cells. Some are made up of a single cell while others comprise of numerous cells working together. Cells are the basic functional and structural units of living organisms and are known to be the building blocks of life. In humans it is from a group of cells that tissues are made and from tissues that organs are made which enable beings to live.
Cells obtain food and oxygen through their membranes and each membrane has a specific area which can serve contents of only a given volume. Any increase in volume of the cell requires that the area of the membrane increases. Basically, when cells grow the membrane becomes insufficient in aiding the movement of substances in and out and thus to maintain a favourable surface area to volume ratio, cell division must take place. Furthermore, cell…… [Read More]
Cell is important because it is the building block of the body. It is a replicating organism that has proteins and cytoplasm and nucleic acids inside a membrane Alberts (2002). Cells are in everything from humans to plants, though each representation of life has its own particular cells. Cells are very small and impossible to see with a microscopic lens. That is why the cell was not actually noticed until such technology came along in the 17th century. Indeed, the name cell, which means small room in Latin, comes from the discoverer of the cell, who thought they looked like the small rooms that monks in the medieval era used to live in, which were called cells (Karp, 2009). Essentially, all living organisms are made up of cells and if there were no cells there would be no life. So the cell is very important.
What do cells do? That…… [Read More]
Only if the cell can take in nourishment and excrete waste can the other components of the cell like the mitochondria engage in their essential tasks. hen a cell can take in nourishment and excrete wastes, this is the surest first sign of independent life
The problem is that the Cell-u-life Corporation wants an artificial cell that can do more than nourish itself. It wants a cell that can take the place of living stem cells and reproduce, and it is not certain of aerogels can do this. Thus another possibility is trying to create lipid-like structures to make cell membranes in the lab from fat cells in the body that do not come from human sources such as embryos but can reproduce like fat cells.
Team receives grant to study artificial cell membranes."(24 Aug 2005). Stanford News:
Press Release. Retrieved 3 Jun 2007 at h ttp://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2005/august24/aerogel-082405.html… [Read More]
When DNA is damaged, cells can react through cell cycle checkpoints which allows repair to begin before further division can occur. There is also the prokaryotic SOS response which changes gene expression in bacteria as a result of DNA damage. This response is regulated by the production of certain proteins. Moreover, eukaryotic cells also react to DNA damage through producing proteins that begin the process of DNA repair.
8. Mice are often the favored mammalian in the testing of aging interventions. This is often because of the fact that there are many mice easily available for testing but also the fact that "generation time is short" (Yuan et al. 2011). Essentially, the aging process and testing in interventions can be done on a much shorter time scale then with tests using monkeys.
9. Enzymes may change the transcription patterns of a cell by adding chemical groups to histone proteins. This…… [Read More]
"Given the rising prevalence of obesity with age in both childhood and adult life, the prevalence of adult obesity cannot be predicted from childhood data, but increasing childhood obesity heralds a greater health burden in adult life"(James & al 2001, p. 232S). Thus, the future focus is on child obesity and how it can be treated to bring well-being for the adult.
esearch for adipose cells is not at the beginning, but has become increasingly intensive in the last years. Obesity is rapidly spreading across the globe but all the scientific breakthroughs won't do magic in the presence of disinterest and neglect towards the human body, so the first step should come from each individual.
Albright, AL & Stern, JS 1998, "Adipose Tissue," Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science, vol. 15
Bosello, O & al. 1980,"Adipose tissue cellularity and weight reduction forecasting," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33,…… [Read More]
STEM and STEAM in the classrooms
Purpose and Major Components
Many countries are currently putting much emphasis on the need to prepare students for higher education and equip them with the necessary skills and knowledge needed in this 21st century. To achieve this goal, learning institutions have adopted the STEAM approach, where they nurture students around the subjects of Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Math. This has gained popularity with all the players in the education sector, including educators, students, parents and even the US president. STEAM is viewed as a means to create a long-lasting interest in arts and sciences right from an early age. The subjects categorized under STEAM are somewhat similar, in that they all involve creative processes in the investigation of the subject matter. It is very important to teach such skills to students so as to prepare them for innovation in this ever-evolving world. This…… [Read More]
The disease stems from toxic reactions to structures of the ear, including the cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals and otoliths. Drug-induced damage to these structures of the auditory and balance system can result in hearing loss, tinnitus, disequilibrium or dizziness (yback 2007).
The propensity of specific classes of drugs to cause ototoxicity has been well established and over 100 classes of drugs have been associated with ototoxicity. Hearing loss can be temporary but is usually irreversible with most agents. Generally, antibiotic-induced ototoxicity is bilaterally symmetrical, but it can be asymmetrical. The usual time of onset is often unpredictable, and marked hearing loss can occur even after a single dose (Ishiyama 2006). Additionally, hearing loss may not manifest until several weeks or months after completion of antibiotic or anti-neoplastic therapy (Dille 2003). Vestibular injury is also a notable adverse effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics and may appear early…… [Read More]
How long this process takes and whether it will prevent the loss of seeded cells probably depends to a significant extent on the surrounding tissue and therefore represents another unknown.
HIF-1? And VEGF are also involved in osteogenesis, so the influence of these growth factors on the differentiation choices being made by the seeded stem cells is unknown (Polzer 7). The impact of prolonged hypoxic conditions on the seeded cells is another. Although Polzer and colleagues examined the timing of cell seeding relative to prevascularization, they discovered that the artificial scaffold rapidly filled with connective tissue. This process effectively clogged the matrix and prevented efficient seeding.
By comparison, researchers conducting spinal cord injury research into the efficacy of regenerative medicine techniques have been producing promising results (Sykova et al. 1113-1114). Hydrogels seeded with mesenchymal stem cells or bone marrow stem cells have produced positive results in both animal models and…… [Read More]
Hello, my friend. I am truly sorry and sympathize as much as I can regarding your traumatic car accident and subsequent spinal injury. I appreciate that you have kept me abreast of your treatment options. Your team of physicians agree that you would be a fine candidate for treatment specifically with stem cells. Most people have heard of stem cells and are aware of the scientific and ethical controversies surrounding them, but not as many people have performed productive research to find out what they really are and what the possible medical applications (and pitfalls) that come with stem cells. I have taken it upon myself to do some research for you, so that you are in a better position to make a more informed decision regarding this option for treatment of your spinal cord injury. In the next couple of pages, I will do my best to…… [Read More]
Implications for ongoing research into genetic therapies and side effects/later developments are discussed at length.
Yannaki, E. & Stamatoyannopoulos, G. (2010). Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization strategies for gene therapy of beta thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1202: 59-63.
Though the clinical trial these two researchers are involved in does not yet have results that are ready for publication, the review of the risks they provide regarding the use of stem cell mobilization with G-CSF in patients with sickle cell is highly useful information. So, too, is the practice of pre-treating patients with hydroxyurea before administering the stem cell treatment, which the authors describe in detail and which forms the basis of the related clinical trial. Potential reduction of risks appears to be quite promising, though final results from the clinical trial and other supporting evidence will of course be required.
Ye, L.,…… [Read More]
this is, of course, never the case, anti-stem cell research activists
affiliate this issue as a slippery slope with the abortion issue.
However, to my perspective, this is an incredibly inhumane
politicization of a prospect which could save many lives and reduce much
suffering. Obstruction to advancement in this field are short-sighted and
cruel. The condition of cystic fibrosis is a good example of a condition
where the effective use of embryonic stem cell research would be considered
a means to reducing much pain in its sufferers. Here, the dysfunction of
the secretory glands creates excessive mucous production and can result in
life-shortening respiratory and developmental issues. If embryonic stem
cells are differentiated and transplanted to produce healthy, functional
secretory glands in the sufferer, this serious and distressful condition
could be diminished in presence.
This denotes the potentially broad-based benefits to pushing forward
with research, in spite of the…… [Read More]
Obama endorsed an Illinois handgun ban while he was serving in the Illinois state legislature and also supports a ban on semi-automatic weapons. However, the current President professed his support for the Second Amendment, stating that he supports restrictions to keep guns out of the wrong hands, not a full prohibition. In Illinois he co-sponsored a 2000 to limit consumer purchases of firearms to one gun per month -- although he also supported 'conceal carry' laws for retired police officers ("Gun control," on the Issues, 2008).
The spike in gun sales has more to do with political posturing than reality: gun owners wish to demonstrate their opposition to Obama's system of values, as conceptualized in the red-blue divide that currently exists in the United States. In this polarized media positioning, Obama represents urban elitism and government control, despite his actual policies. The NRA and the gun industry has used this…… [Read More]
Cellular Function and Aging
Tumor Suppression Protein 53 and Effects on Cellular Function and Aging
The concept of aging has many intrinsic and extrinsic factors that act as markers on an individual organism. Ignoring mortality associated with external environmental factors, very few organisms can be said to have cellular immortality with no decrease in cellular function or repeat division in normal diploid cells. Cellular senescence is a normal process that halts cellular division after a set of cycles of replication. Senescent cells can remain completely functional but lose the programmed process of replication. The normal pathway for senescent cells is either aging with metabolic pathways continuing for the cell or programmed cell death which is known as apoptosis that occurs when cellular function changes, a specific lifetime is reached for the cell or the cell is damaged. The multicellular cnidarians known as a Hydra has been shown to have a…… [Read More]
B and T. Lymphocytes
The Biology of B. And T. Lymphocytes and the eactions between Them
The Biology of B. Lymphocytes
B lymphocytes originated in 1960s and 1970s era through experiments conducted in animal models, clinical evaluation of patients having immune system diseases, and the nascent technology of cell surface molecule characterization. In fact, the origin of B. And T. lymphocytes took place simultaneously. The differentiation of the haematopoietic stem cells gives birth to the formation of common lymphoid progenitors, which actually generate B. lymphocytes. They are generated and developed in yolk sac, fetal liver, and the adult liver present in the body (Austyn & Wood, 1994). B lymphocytes are present in areas that come in close contact with foreign substances. They act as defensive mechanism against invading microorganisms, viruses and parasites and play a vital role in humoral immune response. Since these cells originate in the Bone marrow, they…… [Read More]
stem cell research has been controversial for years. What are stem cells and why do they entail so much interest? Stem cells may be derived from embryonic, fetal, or adult cells and tissues. Potentially, the embryonic stem cells can serve as the machinery to repair, regenerate, and/or replace tissues and organs. In other words, they could prove invaluable in eradicating all illnesses and incurable conditions. Following an ethical perspective, the doctrine of Utilitarianism supports stem cell research.
Utilitarian theory proposes that the desirable consequences of an action justify it for the greater good, and for its short or long-term benefits (osenstand). In the matter of stem cell research, the desirable long-term consequences are those of scientific advancement within the healthcare domain, improved health value for all human beings, and financial preservation for all citizens of the world, that would no longer spend so much currency on medicines if they were…… [Read More]
For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."
Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.
Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…… [Read More]
ith the production of Dolly, we also entered a vast technological frontier of possibilities. The cloned sheep "was born after nuclear transfer from a mammary gland cell, the first mammal to develop from a cell derived from adult tissue." Taking a cell containing 98 per cent of the DNA, or its genetic blueprint, from the udder of a six-year-old adult sheep, they fused it to the egg of another sheep to produce a lamb that is virtually an exact copy." (Marsh, 1) Equally as groundbreaking as the creation of the world's first clone was the implication of its process, which indicated that there is a way to employ adult cells, already differentiated and specialized to their own organic functions, in order to fabricate new, un-differentiated genetic material. For researchers battling such diseases as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and paralysis all around the world, such a possibility began to hint at countless opportunities…… [Read More]