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404). They found that complexity especially in hierarchical organizations strongly determines success of design choice outcomes, especially when endogenous adaptation in different modules delivers "local performance improvement" (Ethiraj and Levinthal, 2004, p. 404). This is based on H.A. Simon's 1962 model of organizations, products and technology as complex, evolving systems where some choices constrain decision-making in the lowest levels, and also "near-decomposability" (Ethiraj & Levinthal, 2004, p. 404), the argument that intermodular interaction becomes clustered over time between "isolated subsets of interactions" (Ethiraj & Levinthal, 2004, p. 404). Specific units interact more than others, i.e. partnering is not uniform across all departments.
Thus arise multiple, unique interactions within the complex firm that allows for complex evolution (Simon, 1962, ctd. In Ethiraj & Levinthal, 2004, p. 404). This becomes problematic to predict, as an empirical phenomenon that develops organically. Numerous researchers had described possible designs of various complexity, but choosing which…
Predictions from transaction cost, resource-based, and real options theories. Journal of Management 29(6), 937 -- 961. doi:10.1016/S0149-2063(03)00085-0
Nickerson, J.A. And Zenger, T.R. (2002). Being efficiently fickle: A dynamic theory of organizational choice. Saint Louis: John M. Olin School of Business, Washington University, 1-40. Retrieved from https://news.wustl.edu/Documents/vacillation.pdf
Rajan, R.G. And Zingales, L. (2001). The firm as a dedicated hierarchy: A theory of the origins and growth of firms. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Aug. 2001. Retrieved from faculty.chicagobooth.edu/luigi.zingales/papers/research/hierarchy.pdf
The separation of these aspects of programming in turn to lead higher level of data independence between applications and data sets. This separation of data sets and programming logic allows for more efficient management of individualized programming events as well.
Graphical User Interfaces
The essence of a graphical user interface is the organizing of applications throughout the visual workspace of an operating system or application. The concept of being able to managing multiple workflows and processes throughout this visual workspace is highly dependent on the level of ergonomics completed prior to their design (Grudin, 2006). The continued development of tactile-based user interfaces used on Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and cell phones provide an excellent example of how graphical interfaces have transformed from the initial Microsoft Windows editions to the use of interfaces on the Apple iTouch, iPod and iPhone series of models (Ishii, 2008). Graphical user interfaces have been heavily…
Jens Dietrich, Nathan Jones, Jevon Wright. (2008). Using social networking and semantic web technology in software engineering - Use cases, patterns, and a case study. The Journal of Systems and Software, 81(12), 2183
Jonathan Grudin. (2006). The GUI shock: computer graphics and human-computer interaction. Interactions, 13(2), 46-47.
Hiroshi Ishii. (2008) The Tangible User Interface and Its Evolution. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 51(6), 32.
Nicolas Serrano, Juan Pablo Aroztegi. (2007). Ajax Frameworks in Interactive Web Apps. IEEE Software, 24(5), 12-14.
Structure and Function of a Military Model and the Sociological Aspect of the Military
The objective of this work is to describe and discuss the structure and function of one of the six military models and analyze the military as a social institution explaining the relationship impact of social institutions.
The military model that will be reviewed in this work in writing is the Institution/Occupation Model reported to be the model, proposed first in 1977 by Charles C. Moskos. This model involves the identification of "a set of polarized empirical indicators…ranging from an Institutional to an Occupational format of military organization." (Caforio, 2006) In the first proposal of Moskos, there are two "ideal types of armed forces & #8230;defined that can be considered mutually exclusive to some extent." (Caforio, 2006) The original proposal or Moskos was revised and such that made the provision of a "new interpretation that considered the…
Andersen, M.L. And Taylor, H.F. (2007) Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society. Cengage Learning, 2007. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=UILcQZS6Bi4C&dq=military+as+a+social+institution&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Alpass, F. et al. (1999) Moskos Institution-Occupation Model: Effects on Individual Work Related Perceptions and Experiences in the Military. BNET. Retrieved from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3719/is_199907/ai_n8832340/
Caforio, G. (2006) Handbook of the Sociology of the Military. Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. Springer, 2006. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=Iep9WSMEzS8C&dq=six+military+models&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Ford's most accomplished novel, the Good Soldier, was published when he was forty-two. This famous work features a first person narrative and tells the story of two couples, the English Ashburnhams and the American Dowells. John Dowell is the narrator, through whom we learn of Florence and Edward Ashburnham's affair, which culminates in the suicide of the former, John's wife (Edward is the "good soldier" of the title.) it is through the rambling, textured narration of John that the author attempts to forge a literary corollary to actual thought - quite similar, actually, to the Impressionist painters' experiments with capturing nature on their canvases:
You may well ask why I write. And yet my reasons are quite many. For it is not unusual in human beings who have witnessed for the sack of a city or the falling to pieces of a people to desire to set down what they…
Armstrong, Paul B. The Challenge of Bewilderment: Understanding and Representation in James, Conrad, and Ford. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987.
Beckett, Samuel. Molloy. New York: Grove Press, 1994.
Bender, Todd K. Literary Impressionism in Jean Rhys, Ford Madox Ford, Joseph Conrad, and Charlotte Bronte. New York: Garland, 1997.
Brettell, Richard. Modern Art 1851-1929: Capitalism and Representation. Oxford:
Question: How might current models of academic organization and governance better adapt to these voices?
Today, universities around the nation have omen's Studies and African-American studies programs and departments, and Latino and Gay Studies departments in some institutions of learning as well. Undergraduate and graduate organizations advocate for these interest groups. Yet one critical shortfall remains that has a seismic, often silent impact upon the representational nature of the university -- financial aid. ere more scholarships available, the diversity of most colleges would increase exponentially. Yet except for a few select, well-endowed institutions such as Harvard that can offer children from families with incomes of less than $40,000 full scholarships, schools often can extend little financial support than access to the increasingly dry well of credit (Harvard announces new initiative aimed at economic barriers to college, 2004, Harvard Gazette). Students from poorer backgrounds may fear burdening themselves with debt…
Harvard announces new initiative aimed at economic barriers to college. (2004).
Harvard Gazette. Retrieved March 20, 2009 at http://www.hno.harvard.edu/gazette/daily/0402/28-finaid.html
Edmond Halley solved the case of comets which kept appearing on the sky at an approximately 76-year interval. After having analyzed the situation, Halley came up with the idea that there was only one comet which kept orbiting the earth. Consequently, the comet did appear at the approximate time that he predicted that it would show again and it is now called the Halley Comet.
Due to the fact that people did not always posses the proper equipment to learn more about earth and the universe, there had been several mistakes when regarding the appropriate measurement of distances. One of the most notable cases in which man wrongfully calculated distances is the case of Columbus, with the Genovese explorer failing from reaching Asia, which he assumed had been much closer than it actually was.
ith the coming of the 20th century, astronomy had been more popular than ever and people…
People in Astronomy." Windows to the Universe. 2000. 25 November, 2008. http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/the_universe/uts/people.html
The Age and Composition of the Universe." Infoplease All the knowledge you need. 2007. 25 November, 2008. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0908644.html
The Structure of the Universe." INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova. 25 November. 2008. http://www.pd.astro.it/E-MOSTRA/NEW/A9002STR.HTM
After the horseplay, he and his companion Mooney are left bereft of joy and "the sun went in behind some clouds and left us to our jaded thoughts and the crumbs of our provisions." (4) The boys soon encounter another man, who, like Father Butler, is learned, but whom takes a liberal view of sexuality and promotes the value of a diverse array of reading materials. The protagonist feels dimly awakened by this encounter with an individual, and more importantly experiences a refreshing attitude he has never encountered before, and is not likely to encounter again in his daily, routine existence. He is offered another path between that of Catholicism and the wild boisterous and occasionally cruel play of Mooney, and the order that he returns to is infused with a new, more positive consciousness and sense of his place in the world.
"Araby," likewise takes an orderly protagonist into…
Joyce, James. "An Encounter." Dubliners. http://www.bibliomania.com/0/0/29/63/frameset.html
Joyce, James. "Araby." Dubliners. Bibliomania. http://www.bibliomania.com/0/0/29/63/frameset.html
The author tries to make the occasionally confusing plot line, back story, and the many characters less so by titling the different chapters by location and when the events are taking place, like "Istanbul, Saturday, September 5th Ten p.m." (Sheldon 1). This also creates a sense of excitement, as things seem to be evolving on a moment-by-moment basis at times, while at other times taking leisurely detours into the past. hen there are more extended scenes these scenes seem to increase in weight and importance, such as the scene in which Elizabeth learns that she has been left the majority of her father's stock in the company.
Although the reader identifies with all of the characters, there is a certain distance as well, that creates a cool tone in this page-turner, because of the third person omniscient point-of-view that Sheldon uses. Sheldon tells a surprising amount about the characters, however,…
Sheldon, Sidney. Bloodline. New York: Grand Central Publishing, 1998.
structure organization choosing. Provide organization chart top levels organization Word, Excel, a .pdf format preparing organizational chart. (20 marks). As part evaluation, assess appropriateness method departmentalization (20 marks), implications authority (20 marks) job design (20 marks).
Wal-Mart is the largest retailer in the United States and it has even increased its presence within the international market place. Throughout the past recent years, when numerous economic agents went bankrupt or were forced to downsize and restructure, Wal-Mart continued to thrive and followed and ascendant path in revenues and profits (Website of the Wal-Mart Stores, 2012).
The success of the corporate retailer is based on a multitude of strategies that form its overall business model, such as the emphasis on cost reduction, on the provision of the lowest price or the generation of scale economies and the adherent advantages. Still, at this level, it is also important to reveal the…
Freeman, R.E. (2010). Strategic management: a stakeholder approach. Cambridge University Press
Greenwald. R (2005). Wal-Mart: the high cost of low price. Documentary Hitt, J; (2008). The organizational structure of Starbucks, Unilever and Wal-Mart. Yahoo. http://voices.yahoo.com/the-organizational-structure-starbucks-unilever-1495147.html accessed on September 17, 2012
Wal-Mart. (2012). The Official Board, http://www.theofficialboard.com/org-chart/wal-mart-stores accessed on September 17, 2012
Departmentalization. Syfes. http://www.syfes.com / accessed on September 17, 2012
The major portion of the organization's it infrastructure is outsourced to EDS, a worldwide it outsourcer who also owns Sabre, Inc., which is one of the major ticketing resources major airlines use to issue tickets to passengers. EDS has had to downsize thousands of jobs after U.S. Airways claimed bankruptcy a second time, because EDS is one of the airline's largest unsecured creditors. This is not to say that U.S. Airways does not have an internal it department with its own infrastructure. The internal it department coordinates workings between EDS and U.S. Airways. The company also maintains an internal Help Desk, and maintains their own it security development and monitoring. The it department is based in the Arlington, Virginia headquarters. Within the it infrastructure, there are code sharing agreements with other airlines that allow passengers to use mutual airport clubs, and participate in simplified ticketing and baggage procedures. The agreements…
" Rather than endlessly musing upon his father's death, like a drumbeat Thomas simply repeats that his father must not "go gentle into that good night." ith every tercet, the repeated lines take on a different nuance. Reading the poem is like hearing a favorite song sung in a different way, again and again -- every time, a different shade of meaning is brought forth in the refrain of the poem. It is all too easy for a free verse poem to say the same thing in different ways: Thomas uses the same words again and again to convey different shades of emotion: good men, wild men, grave men, all for different reasons, he states, have not borne the inevitability of death with meekness.
The reader comes to understand that repeated words are a paradox -- Thomas tells his father, begs his father, to do what is futile -- to…
Briggs, John. Fire in the Belly. Red Wheel 2000.
"Poetic Form: Villanelle." Poets.org. Published by the Academy of American Poets.
February 10, 2010. http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/5796
Structure Systems Drive Workers Managers
Steven Kerr's article "On the folly of rewarding A, while hoping for B" is as entertaining as it is insightful. The author's thesis is that far too often, the system of rewards existent in organizations and in basic societal structures are counterintuitive to the results that organizations and those structures claim to want. The author states that most times "the types of behavior rewarded are those which the rewarder is trying to discourage, while the behavior desired is not being rewarded at all." This thesis can play an integral role in how to properly structure systems that drive workers and managers to improve safety performance -- which can logically result if this type of behavior (improving safety performance) is rewarded.
In most instances, however, improving safety performance is not a primary goal of organizations. Usually organizations are focused on making money, which may require successfully…
The innovative solution to resolving the conflict would have been to create a mixed working team between the two teams, with the common objective of coming up with a solution that would take the best out of the two solutions the teams had proposed. Such a solution to the problem would have had several advantages. First of all, it would have allowed the two teams to interact and communicate in the scope of reaching a coming objective rather than each of them working out separately to obtain the implementation of its own solution.
On the other hand, it would also have likely created the best technological solution out of the two proposed by bringing together more resources to debate the best alternative.
3. What practices of or observations about managing conflict do you find offered by your leader - Carly Fiorina? How would they react to the concept of "healthy…
There have been numerous attempts to intervene in determining the target groups for such video games by the policy makers. More precisely, legislative acts have been undertaken in several states that would limit the purchase of video games by minors (Thierer, 2003). However, such initiatives are against the First Amendment of the Constitution and were therefore rejected. Despite the fact that such an option may have reduced the number of video games purchased by minors, it may not have had the desired results largely because not all video games are violent. Indeed additional care should be provided to limit violent video games from influencing children and young adults, but the total ban of video game purchasing by minors would not have reached the desired result. Minors could have requested an adult to purchase such video games and it would have only pushed children of thinking of different methods to acquire…
Gentile, D.A. (2007). Violent Video Games as Exemplary Teachers: A Conceptual Analysis. Institute of Science and Society. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.
Rudon, T. (2011). 10 Benefits Of Video Games. Retrieved from SelfGrowth.com: http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/10_Benefits_Of_Video_Games.html
Thierer, A.D. (2003, Jan 23). Regulating Video Games: Must Government Mind Our Children? Retrieved Sept 4, 2011, from Cato Institute: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=11521
Command and Control Structure and Organization: Operation Toenails
Operation Toenails, also called Operation A and the New Georgia Campaign, was part of Operation Cartwheel, in turn a series of offensives by the Allied forces against the Japanese in the South Pacific during World War II (Miller 1970). This campaign was undertaken in the New Georgia group of islands at the central Solomon Islands from June 20 to August 25, 1943. Its purpose was to isolate Rabaul, a critical Japanese base, to protect Australia and to pave the way for succeeding initiatives (Miller).
The Question of Command
The Army and the Navy were in heated disagreement over a unified leadership in the entire Pacific (Miller 1970). The initial sentiment was for a joint leadership and mutual cooperation between General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral William Halsey. This idea was, however, rejected . The Joint Chiefs came out with a directive on July…
Miller, John Jr. Cartwheel: the Reduction of Rabaul. Paperback. Office of the Chief of Military History: Department of the Army, 1970.
structure of Jann_2411( DUF14790) from Jannaschia sp at 1.45 A resolution reveals a new fold ( the ABATE domain) and suggests its possible role as transcription regulator"
The purpose of this study was to resolve the structure of the protein Jann_2411 and relate its structure to the functional properties of the protein. The researchers determined the structure using the method of x-ray crystallography (multiple wavelength anomalous diffraction) and structural analysis of the protein revealed it to be a putative stress-related transcription factor.
Jann_2411 has a molecular weight of 20.7 kDa (residues 1-187) and a calculated isoelectric point of 6.6 and its crystal structure was determined using the semiautomated high-throughput pipeline of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics. Structural analysis revealed a two domain organization with the N-terminal domain consisting of a new fold called ABATE (Alpha-beta hairpin and Alpha TandEm) domain and the C-terminal domain forming a treble-clef zinc finger…
Bakolitsa C. et al. (2009) The structure of Jann_2411(DUF14790) from Jannaschia sp at 1.45 A resolution reveals a new fold ( the ABATE domain) and suggests its possible role as transcription regulator. Structural Biology and Communications.
This leads to a high degree of autonomy for some subcommittees, while other subcommittees have only limited autonomy. Those with a high degree of autonomy will play a more direct role in legislative issues.
In addition to the committees, Congress has an entrenched leadership system. The highest rank is the Speaker of the House. Each party also has a Leader and a hip. The leader runs the party's activities in the House. The hip keeps track of legislation and works to make sure that party members vote in the manner desired by the party leader. The Speaker is the leader of the majority party; while the Majority Leader is second-in-command of the party. The Minority Leader is the leader of the minority party.
Leadership of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States. The party leaders have more power, however. Each party has a leader, as well as…
Heitshusen, V. (2007). Committee Types and Roles. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 13, 2009 from http://www.rules.house.gov/archives/98-241.pdf
Then, he must be able to convince the management that the change is in the best interest of the company. He has to come up with the strongest arguments in order to support his statement. Ergo, I strongly agree with the role of the evangelist and the first phase of the change process.
The second phase points out the role of the autocratic leader. He must be respected and, to a limited extent, even feared by the employees. This is also extremely true since a friendly and permissive manager, whereas cherished by the employees, is not always respected and often encounters difficulties in implementing new strategies. Hence, I once again strongly agree with the opinions forwarded by Lawrence, Dyck, Maitlis and Mauws.
The third stage of the implementation of change states that regardless of the qualities of the leader, he will need the support and assistance of technological applications. And…
Lawrence, T.B., Dyck, B., Maitlis, S., Mauws, M.K., the Underlying Structure of Continuous Change, MIT Sloan Management Review, Volume 47, Number 4, 2006
structure the research, to show how all of the major parts of the research project -- the samples or groups, measures, treatments or programs, and methods of assignment -- work together to try to address the central research. Creating an effective research design is likely to be one of the most difficult and eminently useful tasks in drafting a proposal. An effective research design links abstract and stylized concepts and questions with the empirical world's complexities and challenges.
A research design must at once be specific and highly flexible. It must be expansive enough to adapt these very complexities while still pointing you towards relevant data. The methods you use should be extensions of your substantive question and epistemological orientation. Contrary to some disciplinarians' claims, there is no single research model that one can or should follow. Numerous alternatives must always be considered and choices made.
By the time you…
structure of ancient and modern dramas to highlight their differences and similarities. The paper also shows how drama evolved over the centuries with references to Greek, Elizabethan and Modern plays.
MODEN AND ANCIENT DAMA: A COMPAISON
Drama has an inherent ability to adapt itself to the thinking and wishes of the society in which it takes birth. Therefore modern drama with all its intensity, relevance and eloquence is certainly more popular among modern audiences than its ancient counterpart. Still we cannot deny the importance of ancient dramatic concepts, models and devices in the development and evolution of modern drama. While ancient plays are mostly remembered for their grandeur and myths, close analysis reveals that there is more to them than meets the eye. All ancient Greek tragedies contain some similar elements, which set them apart from tragedies of later eras. While they basically concentrated on highlighting the significance of myths,…
Aristotle The POETICS Book XIII: 350 BCE Translated by S.H. Butcher Online version:
Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman, 1949 Penguin USA, 1 edition, October 6, 1998
Arthur Miller, "Tragedy and the Common Man," from The Theater Essays of Arthur Miller (Viking Press, 1978)
structured analysis of an experimental study by Buller et al. (2004), which describes a randomized statistical trial of two types of medication that were used to treat a blood disorder. The two types of medication used were called Fondaparinux and Enoxaparin. The blood disorder being treated was called Symptomatic Deep Venous Thrombosis. We will be analyzing the 2004 study to highlight the experiment's use of selected statistical methods that are commonly taught in introductory Statistics. These include (in sequence) measures of central tendency, measures of variation, the standard normal distribution, and a review of the study's conclusions. The term sample may be used interchangeably with the term data set, to refer to a limited number of values or measurements that have been taken from an overall population.
The primary methods of central tendency employed in statistics include three parameters known as the mean, median and mode. The mean, or average,…
Buller, H.R., Davidson, B.L., Decousus, H., Gallus, A., Gent, M., Piovella, F., Prins, M.H., et al. (2004). Fondaparinux or Enoxaparin for the Initial Treatment of Symptomatic Deep Venous Thrombosis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140(11), 867 -873.
Structural Organization of Proteins
There are different protein structures, and these correspond directly to the kinds of functions that the proteins address. While many people feel that protein is all the same, this is not the truth. With a number of different kinds of proteins and a wide array of uses for them, it stands to reason that the structural organization of proteins will be different based on each one of those proteins and what type of function it has (Murray, et al., 2006). However, all proteins are similar in that they fold in three dimensions. The structure of the proteins are organized in a hierarchy that begins with the primary structure and moves through to the quaternary structure. Motifs and domains are the higher-level structures (Murray, et al., 2006). The primary structure services the polypeptide chain, and is a sequence of various residues (Van Holde & Matthews, 1996). That…
Murray RF, Harper, HW, Granner, DK, Mayes, PA, & Rodwell, VW (2006). Harper's illustrated biochemistry. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill.
Tooze, BC (1999). Introduction to protein structure. New York: Garland Pub.
Van Holde, KE, & Matthews, CK (1996). Biochemistry. Menlo Park, California: Benjamin/Cummings Pub. Co., Inc.
The line breaks in this poem are sudden and create a mood of suspense because the reader must move to the next line to read the rest of the story. hen the poet begins counting, we have a sense of something dreadful about to occur. The rhyming in this poem is also effective in that the rhyming words are strong and visual. In the last stanza, the words "luck" (Housman 5) and "struck" (8) are powerful in that we can almost hear the clock tower striking the hour. Unlike the rhyme and rhythm in "e Real Cool," this rhythm is slow and contemplative. The poet wants us to read his slowly so we can identify with the man awaiting his death. Both poems utilize structure to establish a mood and tone that we can relate to the subjects of the poems.
Brooks and Housman illustrate how structure, rhythm, rhyme, and…
Brooks, Gwendolyn. "We Real Cool." The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Vol. II. Lauter, Paul, ed. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1990.
Housman, a.E. "Eight O'Clock." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Kennedy, X.J., ed. New York: Longman. 1998.
In these scenes, the Chorus adds something significant to the play.
The Chorus encourages us to use our "imaginary forces" and create the "might monarchies./hose high upreared and abutting fronts/the perilous narrow oceans parts asunder" (Prologue.21-3). In addition, the Chorus tells us to "Think when we talk horses that you see them/Printing their proud hoofs i' the receiving earth;/for 'tis your thoughts that now must deck our kings" (Prologue. 27-9). Here, the Chorus has an extended role in many ways because it is telling the audience how to use their imaginations where the stage is limited. The Chorus also apologizes for the crowded constriction of time we find in the last act. Members of the audience told:
humbly pray them to admit the excuse
Of time, of numbers, and due course of things,
hich cannot in their huge and proper life
Be here presented. (V.0.4-7)
The Chorus serves…
Abrams, M.H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. "The Sixteenth Century." New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986.
Barnet, Sylvan, et al. "A Note on the Elizabethan Theater." An Introduction to Literature. 8th Ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. 1985.
Harrison, G.B. Introducing Shakespeare. New York: Penguin Books. 1983.
Shakespeare, William. King Henry V. Bartleby Online. Site Accessed September 26, 2003. http://www.bartleby.com/70/index29.html
ugby -- a Lot More Complicated Than You Might Think
It would be the rare Australian who has not seen a rugby game. Indeed, it would be the rare Australian who has not seen dozens of rugby games. But most of the time when a person is watching a game, s/he is concerned with the score along with how well one's favorite player is doing. but, if one steps back a pace or two, rugby takes on a range of meanings: ugby is an important part of the culture of Australian and therefore worthy of serious analysis as a way of understanding the national culture.
Culture does not refer simply to was gets put into a museum or acted out on the stage, although these are certainly examples of culture. ugby is culture in the sense that those who study society define it: It is a complex set of behaviors…
The chosen career is investment/financial advisor. This position involves working within the context of a bank or financial services firm, as a broker serving a set group of clients. When determining investments for clients, there is information that should go into the decision, provided by both the client and the company that you work for, as well as by companies in the markets. The investment decisions that you make for/with the client are supposed to reflect this information. That said, many people do not use rational, informed decision-making when they make their investments.
structured decision with respect to building an investment portfolio would follow the format laid out in the text. The initial phase is the intelligence. n investment advisor would already have performed intelligence with respect to the different types of investments, and have a set list of favorites. But there needs to…
An unstructured decision might involve which potential customers to pursue -- each advisor builds his/her own book of business and must make this decision at the outset of the marketing process. Some hard data might be used -- demographics, income levels, geographic or psychographic targeting, but a lot of this decision could be the result of happenstance or randomness. An advisor could buy a list of phone numbers and have a team of callers to dial those people. Which potential clients to pursue will still be influenced by the decision-makers experience and judgment, based on experience at finding the best areas of potential new clients. Some information is used to help refine this decision, but this decision is actually one of the areas where there is a large discrepancy between advisors, and where many gain much of their competitive advantage.
Laudon, K. & Laudon, J. (2006). Chapter 10: Improving decision-making and managing knowledge.
Structure of Animals
Two animal phyla that can be compared and contrasted are Nematoda and Annelida. Nematoda are roundworms. There are more than 15,000 known species, with scientists estimating there may be as many as half a million species yet to be discovered (Waggoner, 2009). Nematoda have a worm-like appearance outside and a simple internal body structure. The phylum Annelida includes earthworms and their relatives, leeches, and a large number of mostly marine worms known as polychaetes (Waggoner, 2006). Annelids are characterized by their segmented bodies. They also have bristles on their bodies. It is estimated there are approximately 9,000 species of annelids today.
The Animal Phylogenetic Tree ("Mastering Biology," 2012) is a useful visual learning aid that is helpful in demonstrating the similarities and differences between these two phyla. The first diagram shows eight phyla, of which Nematoda and Annelida are two. Only one of the phyla, Porifera, is…
"Mastering biology." (2012). Retrieved from http://media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc_campbell_
Waggoner, B. (2009, January 21). Berkeley. Retrieved from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.
The partners are directly responsible financially for the obligations of the business. Therefore, in case of loss or debts, the owners suffer the risks and losses since they have liability for the business. In terms of complexity and flexibility, the partnerships remain appropriate for the partners. The issue of raising finance is shared between the partners; however, they cannot get loans for the business independently. Therefore, they are not suitable for the two partners who wish to set their business.
The third venture is a corporation, which is a separate entity from the persons that establish the business. Therefore, in financial terms, they are easy to raise capital as members contribute, and can borrow finance independently. Like the limited liability partnership, they are legally bound and hence the liability is limited. They eliminate the issue of personal liability. The tax returns are similar to those of partnerships and are taxed…
Graubner, M. (2006). Task, firm size, and organizational structure in management consulting an empirical analysis from a contingency perspective. Wiesbaden, Deutscher UniversitSts-Verlag. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10231907 .
Spadaccini, M. (2007). Business structures. Irvine, CA, Entrepreneur Press.
Douglas, a. (2009). Partnership working. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, by Routledge. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10258056 .
Grandori, a. (2006). Corporate governance and firm organization microfoundations and structural forms. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
market structures in detail and analyses the pricing strategies that the firms have to undertake when they operate in different regimes. The case study on Toyota is considered next, which indicates that firms competing in various structures does not only have to focus on price and quantity ceteris paribus, they also have to consider external and internal variables that have a bearing on these decisions.
Introduction to Market Structures
Market structures are important parts of economic theory as they model market behavior that can help economists explain activities in industry with ease. Market structures, hence are basically models that define market behavior with respect to certain criteria so that it becomes simpler to compare events in real life to the postulated scenario as described in theory in order to be able to determine casualties and to define optimal strategies that firms operating in different market structures can use.
Bennett, D., Hagiwara, Y., & Kitamura, M. (2011, September 5). Toyota Bets on Japan. Bloomberg Businessweek, pp. 70-73,. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=fbe40510-c02e-4a4c-afc8-b21dbb1445c3%40sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=10&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=60477158
Cusumano, M.A. (2011). Technology Strategy and Management Reflections on the Toyota Debacle. Communications of the ACM, 54 (1), 33-35.
John Petersen (2011). Bernstein and Ricardo Report: Cheap Will Beat Cool in Vehicle Electrification. Retrieved from http://www.altenergystocks.com/archives/2011/11/bernstein_and_ricardo_report_cheap_will_beat_cool_in_vehicle_electrification.html
Lipsey, R.G., & Chrystal, K.A. (2007). Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=HgXWV8JMC10C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Economics+lipsey&hl=en&sa=X&ei=qPIuT9DdPM7wrQeQ_LzYDA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Economics%20lipsey&f=false
firms, the organizational structure will have an impact on how well they are able to achieve operational objectives and increase profit margins. In the case of Southwest Airlines, they have redefined the way carriers are interacting with customers and the kinds of services that are provided. This is illustrating how the kind of structure will influence the way a firm is able to reach out to stakeholders. To determine the kind of model that Southwest is utilizing requires looking at: the organizational structure, how it functions and the design. Together, these different elements will show how Southwest Airlines is able to use them to increase revenues and meet the needs of various stakeholders.
Describe the organizational structure of Southwest Airlines. Compare and contrast that structure with two different organizational structures.
The organizational structure that is used by Southwest Airlines is a hybrid model. This is where the firm is utilizing…
Organization Structure and Design. (2009). Slide Share. Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/mubeena/org-design
Organizational Structure of Southwest Airlines. (2010). Word Press. Retrieved from: https://tortora.wordpress.com/2010/04/15/organizational-structure-of-southwest-airlines/
Southwest Airlines. (2012). The Official on the Board. Retrieved from: http://www.theofficialboard.com/org-chart/southwest-airlines
Writing, A. (2012). Different Types of Organizational Structures. Chron. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/different-types-organizational-structure-723.html
" (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2000 P. 3). In the United States, the average bridge deck in a snow-belt state generally shows the spalling shortly after 7 to 10 years of construction, and requires rehabilitation after 20 years of construction. Typically, the repair of the damaged caused by corrosion is invariably expensive. A crack is one of the major damage caused by corrosion. Although structural cracks could be attributed to pure tension, torsion, pure bending, bond failure, and concentrated load, however, non-structural crack is attributed to the chemical process that occurs within the concrete or steel structure, and the damage include shrinkage, expansion process, and thermal movement.
Mackechnie & Alexande, (2001) argue that corrosion could lead to a distress in a concrete capable of causing spanning and cracking to the surrounding concrete. The expansion associated to hydrated oxides is that the steel may swell ten times of its original position…
Arya, C. & Wood, L.A. (1997). Relevance of Cracking in Concrete to Corrosion of Reinforcement. The Concrete Society. Technical Report, No 44.
Atkins, C. Brueckner, R. & MacDonald, M. (2013).Corrosion Monitoring. Technical Note No: 14. Corrosion Prevention Association.
Koch, G. H, Brongers, M.P.H. Thompson, N.G. et al. (2001). Corrosion Costs and Preventive Strategies in the United States. FHWA-RD-01-156. 2001. Springfield, VA, National Technical Information Service.
Lambert, P. & MacDonald, M (2013). Reinforced Concrete-History, Properties, & Durability. Technical Notes No: 1. Corrosion Prevention Association.
Systems Structures Presentation
Electronic health records are common in the modern era of globalization and high technology. Electronic health records can be defined as a collection of health information, in digitized form, of individuals as well as populations. The objective of having health records in digital form is to make them accessible across different health care settings. This enables the patients as well as physicians to obtain health information from their relevant health care facility by simply requesting it to be sent over from the electronic health records that were held at the previous health care facility where the patient had been checked up. The health care facilities today are connected through a variety of network-connected enterprise-wide information systems. These can easily transfer information regarding any patient from one health care facility to another, given that they are connected via the network.
Electronic health records consist of not only technology…
In the United States of America, as a ruling in the form of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the implementation of electronic health records in clinical settings was made compulsory with around $27 billion were allocated to the cause. This was a part of new health care reforms whose aim was that by 2015, there would be "meaningful use" of the technology made available to improve the quality of patient care available. The federal incentives being offered to hospitals and clinics in order to update to the electronic health record structures have all the physicians and nurses on their toes.
Nurses, as a result, are closely monitoring the effects and consequences of the use of the electronic health record structure systems on their ability to improve patient care. There have been admittedly some benefits. The availability of extensive up-to-date information on the patient and his medical condition and history, allows for measureable improvements from the treatment and care given to patients with chronic diseases as well as those patients which are on preventative medicine. It has been proved via a study conducted by the University of Pennsylvania that nurses that work in hospitals and other clinical set-ups with the electronic health care structures in place tend to report a greater deal of improvement in their patients than the nurses working in hospitals that are devoid of such technology. However, there is the task of the nurses learning to use and manage the electronic health record structures. Unless the nurses have had training or been provided transition time from the implementation of the electronic health record structure, they cannot get any meaningful use out of it. For the electronic health record structure to be effective, the user of the technology should be aware of how to mine for the data, the treatment plan to be followed and how to retrieve the meaningful data from the abundance of information available on the individual. Currently, there are also problems with the present infrastructure at hospitals for the proper implementation of the electronic health record structure.
In the future, if the administrators as well as the implementers of the health reforms seek to extract meaningful use from the electronic health record structures technology, they need to gear up and tackle a few issues beforehand. Step must be taken to ensure that the structure works according to the purpose it is meant for. The clinical integration across clinic-settings and hospitals should be made tighter and stronger. The nursing administration must prepare their staff for the upcoming implementation of electronic health record structures in terms of training, and also be prepared for the resistance that would come from the nursing staff during the implementation of new technology. There should also be preparation for the slowing down of the productivity when the system is first implemented. The main goal here is to measure the impact on the patient care and whether improvements in the quality of patient care is present or not.
Corporation business structures
Preference of Corporation Business Structure Over Other Known Structures
In this paper, we will choose the corporation business structure as an ideal choice for the firm McDonalds in order to carry out its operations. We will define the merits which a multinational firm like McDonalds can take advantage of if because of this structure, also we will have an in-depth look on other structures such as sole proprietorship and partnership and focus on their strengths and weaknesses.
eview of Sole Proprietorship and Partnership
Let's review the structure of sole proprietorship first, it is regarded as one of the least expensive and easiest way to start any business as compared to corporative and partnership structure. Here the overall business as well as the business owner is viewed legally as a same entity. This however has its own disadvantages which in our chosen case of McDonalds could…
Swann, P. (1993). Corporate Vision and Rapid Technological Change. New York: Routledge.
organizational structure type from chapter 6 of the class text. The author is also asked to select an organization that uses such a structure. It is to be explained why the structure works, why it does not work and what can be done to improve the structure. The traits of the selected department including the population protected and the resources it has will also be looked at. The New York City police department is very massive and has a huge amount of resources available to it but they must be vigilant and prudent in how they manage those resources.
As noted in the introduction, the selected agency being looked at today is the New York City police department. Also as intimated by the introduction, they enjoy a regimented line structure that is based on chain of command and structure. This department protects the city of New York City,…
Boundless. (2013, November 8). Line Structure. Boundless. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from https://www.boundless.com/business/organizational-structure/models-of-organization-structure/line-structure/
NYCLU. (2013, November 8). Stop and Frisk Practices. New York Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from http://www.nyclu.org/issues/racial-justice/stop-and-frisk-practiceshome.shtml
NYPD. (2013, November 8). NYPD - Official New York City Police Department Web Site. NYPD - Official New York City Police Department Web Site. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/html/home/home.shtml
al-Mart Organizational Structure
The most successful companies have something to teach us. al-Mart has proved its successful business approach by adapting with changes throughout the years while maintaining a certain organizational system. The purpose of this essay is to examine al-Mart and its organizational structure methods. I will specifically analyze three different organizing functions for this company. I will evaluate the organizational structure of al-Mart and compare it to other forms of structuring. Next, this essay will evaluate al-Mart in terms of its organizational functions. Finally, I will demonstrate how al-Mart's organizational design suits its business model.
According to al-Mart's corporate web site, this company serves over 200 million customers a week providing consumer items including groceries, clothing, electronics and more. al-Mart sells its goods to customer through various outlets including retail, online and mobile devices. al-Mart employs more than 2 million people throughout the world and its…
Gereffi, G. & Christian, M. (2009). The Impacts of Wal-Mart: The Rise and Consequence of the World's Dominant Retailer. Annual Review of Sociology, 2009, 35: 573-91. Retrieved from http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115947
Hartung, A. (2012). Wal-Mart's Wrong-Headed Reorganization. Forbes, 30 Jan 2012. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/adamhartung/2012/01/30/wal-marts-wrong-headed-re - organization/2/
Wal-Mart Corporate Web page. "Leadership." Viewed on 25 Jan 2013. Retrieved from
Legal Structure and Management of a National Level Sporting Organisation
Sports activities in the world today are becoming more popular and are attracting huge crowd. This is one of the reasons that have made sponsors to come in so as to help such clubs that are not able to support themselves financially. Through sponsoring, the sponsor is able to market and advertise its products within the stadium where the club is playing among other benefits. It is worth noting that sports are viewed as a means of income to each stakeholder including the players. Essendon football club has made Australia to be known worldwide because of the good performance the club has exhibited over the years.
Essendon Football Club is rated as a dynamic world class club in the Australian sporting arena. The success and competitiveness of the club is dependant on its set legal structure and proper management that…
Books, H. 2011. Articles on Essendon Football Club Including: List of Essendon Football Club, Honours, Anzac Day Class. America, AM: Hephaestus Books.
Bools, L., & LLC, G.B. 2010. Essendon Football CLub: Essendon Football Club, List of Essendon Football CLub Honours. United States, U.S.: General Books LLC.
Clark, T. 2007. Stick This in Your Memory Hole. Doncaster East Victoria, VIC: aduki independent press.
Devaney, J.P. 2009. Full Points Footy: Encyclopedia of Australian Football Clubs. Lincoln, LN: Lulu.com.
The market structure of the retail industry is that of monopolistic competition. As its name suggests, monopolistic competition is an environment composed of a large number of firms each with a portion of the market. The firms in this type of market structure have similar products but they are differentiated in some way. Nordstrom's for example has private brands that only Nordstrom's can carry. These brands include Hotel Collection sheets, Martha Stewart cookware, Psycho Bunny for men, INC brand clothes for women, and much more. Even though these product offerings may be similar to competitors in regards to color or value proposition, they are differentiated by the fact they are only offered at Nordstrom's locations. Furthermore, there are many firms competing within the retail environment. For example, Nordstrom's must compete with JC Penny, Target, Wal-Mart, Dillard's, Sears, internet stores, and many other outlets. All of these competitors…
9) Thau, Barbara. "Macy's Doubles Down on Its 'Omnichannel' E-Commerce Future." DailyFinance.com. 23 June 2011. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. .
10) Wahba, Phil. "Sears Closing More Stores as Holiday Sales Slide." Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 27 Dec. 2011. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. .
11) Kaplan, Stephen. "Capital Ideas - The Evolution of U.S. Corporate Governance." The University of Chicago Booth School of Business - Business School, Full-time, Part-time, Executive MBA Programs. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. .
Health Structures in Government Levels
Health at different Government Levels
Health Structures at Government Levels
Health at Government Levels
A national government has a task in ensuring quality health assurance standards across its region are up-to-date. Similarly, increased rates of unexpected epidemics have put governments under the surge of dealing accordingly with factors that can affect the nation directly and indirectly. Different governmental levels of health are identified and objectified in various agency websites. In this context, I have identified with a state level website; Illinois Public Health Institute website. Information presented to the website articles prioritizes in reducing and preventive, curative diseases, complementing health policies and championing for environmental changes.
Website Article eview
The Illinois Public Health institute articulates its review and implication to health quality through partnership programs. The website has supported state-oriented health involvement in ameliorating health levels, in Illinois. The institution has show-cased partnering programs with…
Baum, F and Kahssay, H.M. Health development structures: an untapped resource. World Health Organization. Vol 1 Issue 1. Pg 96-114.
Ladeia, M.L., Jacob, P., Borges, M.C., Rogero, M. M and Ferreira, S.R.G. (2011). Studies of Gene variants related to Inflammation, Oxidative, Stress, Dyslipidemia and Obesity: Implications for a nutrigenetic approach. Journal of Obesity. Vol 1, Issue 1. Pg 1-31.
5th March 2012. Illinois Public Health Institute. Retrieved from URL http://www.iphionline.org / Accessed on 27th March, 2012.
Human esponse to Physical Structure:
Environmental psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on explaining human behavior in relation to the physical environment. In this case, the physical environment basically incorporates plants, animals, and material objects that have a significant impact on behavior at various levels. However, this branch of psychology does not focus on the interactional procedures among people as emphasized on other branches of psychology. In analyzing human behavior, it adopts a systems approach that has become the main approach in modern science.
Impact of Physical Structure on Human Behavior:
According to various theories, the physical environment or structure affects human behavior at various levels with instant behavior acting as a function of settings with which it happens (Matthew, n.d.). The individual personality traits of people within a specified country are largely influenced by the nature and type of physical environment that these individuals are subject to…
Goode, J.P. (n.d.). 'The Human Response to the Physical Environment.' The Elementary School
Teacher, 4(5), pp. 271-282. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/992499.pdf?acceptTC=true
"Importance of Sustainable Architecture in 21st Century." (2010, June 21). Architecture Student
Chronicles. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from http://www.architecture-student.com/sustainable-design/importance-of-sustainable-architecture-in-21st-century/
Although advertising costs can be substantial, it is essential that companies place significant amounts of funding into advertising. Such funding is necessary because it provides companies with a competitive advantage. According to Doraszelski & Markovich, (2007)
"Practitioners know very well the value of advertising to achieving their long-term market share and profitability goals. A survey of senior executives in 1999 reveals that 82.9% somewhat or strongly agree that good advertising can provide their company with an edge over the competition in the marketplace. Furthermore, 86.8% somewhat or strongly agree that advertising is a long-term investment that contributes to the financial growth and stability of their company (American Advertising Federation, 1999; Doraszelski & Markovich, 2007)."
The authors also explain that firms believe that advertising has the capacity to give them a sustainable competitive advantage over other firms (Doraszelski & Markovich, 2007). Nevertheless, dynamic models of advertising competition, assert that the opposite…
Bagwell, K. (2005) the Economic Analysis of Advertising. http://ideas.repec.org/h/eee/indchp/3-28.html
"Brand Value." http://dictionary.bnet.com/definition/brand+value.html
Doraszelski U., Markovich S. (2007). Advertising dynamics and competitive advantage. RAND Journal of Economics Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 557 -- 592
Grullon G., Kanatas G. And Kumar P. 2006. The Impact of Capital Structure on Advertising Competition: An Empirical Study.
A preview of capital structure issues
In regards to the overall business environment, capital structure has profound implications of the business, irrespective of its industry. For one, a firm's capital structure is then the composition or 'structure' of its liabilities. For example, a firm that sells $40 billion in equity and $160 billion in debt is said to be 20% equity-financed and 80% debt-financed. The firm's ratio of debt to total financing, 80% in this example is referred to as the firm's leverage. This leverage has implications on the entire firm. For example, leverage in many respects is a double edges sword. On one hand, leverage can amplify gains for firms. However, if used incorrectly, leverage can also amplify loses. As such, firms must be cognizant of its capital structure as complacency can hinder overall business performance. Debt and equity financing, can have a profound implications on the…
1) Myers, Stewart C.; Majluf, Nicholas S. (1984). "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have." Journal of Financial Economics 13 (2): 187 -- 221
2) Baker, Malcolm P; Wurgler, Jeffrey (2002). "Market Timing and Capital Structure." Journal of Finance 57 (1): 1 -- 32.
3) Lyandres, Evgeny and Zhdanov, Alexei, Investment Opportunities and Bankruptcy Prediction (February 2007) Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=946240
4) Timmer, Jan (2011). Understanding the Fed Model, Capital Structure, and then Some.
An organization's structure affects many aspects of the organization. Kanter (1999) notes that people within an organization tend to operate in line with the messages that they are receiving, so structural elements do affect culture and vice versa. An organizational structure reflects how the people at the top of the organization view how the organization works. So if you have, for example, few new products, you might just work with a geographic structure, and that would encourage people in the company to adopt a transactional mindset, building stability within a tightly defined context. However, if products are the basis of the organizational culture, this might have people working on a specific product become more oriented towards growing that product. The orientation of the company is different so the way that people within the company see themselves and their roles is also going to be different. Buhler (2011) also…
Buhler, P. (2011). Changing organizational structures and their impact on managers. Supervision. Vol. 72 (2) 24.
Kurtzman, J. (1999). An interview with Rosabeth Moss Kanter. Strategy & Business. Retrieved April 19, 2014 from http://www.strategy-business.com/article/19494?gko=df950
The company finances foreign operations with debt from a number of different countries. It does this on the basis of the parent company's credit rating, which illustrates that the implicit understanding with respect to the parent company default guarantee of subsidiary debt holds across different debt markets (Stern & Chew, 2003, 394).
There are also times when the capital structure is determined more by strategic considerations than any other. Many firms operate foreign subsidiaries as joint ventures, for example, because this gives the firm greater access to foreign capital markets and usually reduces the country risk and market risk associated with the subsidiary, when compared to a greenfield subsidiary. There is evidence that firms using this tactic do so in part to reduce the costs associated with foreign market entry, including financing costs. Hennart's (1991, 483) study of Japanese subsidiaries in the United States showed that transaction costs played a…
Desai, M.; Foley, C. & Hines, J. (2003). A multinational perspective on capital structure choice and internal capital markets. Harvard Business School. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://www.people.hbs.edu/ffoley/capstructure.pdf
Gropp, R. (2002). Local taxes and capital structure choice. International Tax and Public Finance. Vol. 9 (1) 51-71.
Hennart, J. (1991). The transaction costs theory of joint ventures: An empirical study of Japanese subsidiaries in the United States. Management Science. Vol. 37 (4).
Stern, J. & Chew, D. (2003). The revolution in corporate finance. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Benefits and Limitations of Mechanistic and Organic Mgmt. Structures the benefits of the mechanistic structure include clear lines of authority, a definite command-and-control structure for making decisions, and very clear role definitions. This organizational structure is excellent for business models where variability is costly and there needs to be a high degree of conformity of processes overall. The downside of this organizational structure is the lack of agility and flexibility, the tendency to limit employee's initiative and creativity, and lack of opportunity to rise on intelligence and creativity instead of seniority. Examples of companies with mechanistic organizational structures include process-goods manufacturing including steel, textile and chemical processing. In addition, armed forces are highly driven by mechanistic structures.
Organic organizational structures have the advantages being very flexible and agile in response to opportunities and threats an organization faces, in addition to support for multi-directional communication and flexibility in job and role…
Deborah Dougherty. (2001). Reimagining the differentiation and integration of work for sustained product innovation. Organization Science, 12(5), 612-631.
Robert Waldersee, Andrew Griffiths, & Jessica Lai. (2003). Predicting Organizational Change Success: Matching Organization Type, Change Type and Capabilities. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 8(1), 66-81.
Catherine L. Wang, & Pervaiz K. Ahmed. (2003). Structure and structural dimensions for knowledge-based organizations. Measuring Business Excellence, 7(1), 51-62.
Resolution often needs to be imposed from above.
A third type of communication problem at firms operating a matrix structure is that of corporate culture clash. In the case of Spectrum, the regional head office may wish to impose upon the different product functions the head office corporate culture. Each of the functional firms, however, may have its own culture and may find that it benefits from certain cultural differences. These differences, however, can cause communication problems and discord.
ithin the multidivisional structure, one type of communication that can occur is that the company only shares some types of information well, but not others. hen Apple reorganized into a multidivisional structure, some groups communicated very well, but ultimately the results did not generate any congruencies or economies of scale advantages -- the wrong people were communicating about the wrong things (Grant, 2002).
Another form of communication problem that can occur…
Kerzner, H. (2009). Project management: A systems approach to planning, scheduling and controlling. Wiley p. 109
Hoskisson, R. (2008). Strategic management -- concepts and cases: Competitiveness and Globalization. Cengage, p. 318
Grant, R. (2002). Contemporary strategy analysis: Concepts, techniques, applications. Wiley. p.207
This differs from the more static view taken by Mehrotra. There are a couple of reasons for this key difference. One is that Mehrotra only studied spinoff firms. These firms are easier to study because the managers must choose a capital structure for the new firm. However, this makes for an imperfect survey.
Barclay on the other hand has studied a much broader basket of companies. This forced the use of proxies, but it also provided a more accurate view of corporate behavior with respect to capital structure on a day-to-day basis, rather than simply on a special event basis.
The more credible paper of the two in addressing the rationale behind capital structure is that of Barclay. Both papers used empirical tests, but the methodology behind the Barclay paper was more broad-based, meaning that it can be applied outside of the specific spinoff situation. Barclay has made some determinations…
They do this by supporting the different functions and subgeographic groups such as those outlined in Exhibit C. Exhibit B. illustrates the role that each of the different functions plays - they are on a par with Ground Operations in the structure, but perform a staff function.
c. The organizational design at FedEx best serves the company's needs. Despite the company having operations around the world, there is little need for matrix structure. There are several reasons for this. One is that the company's core Express operation requires close coordination globally. The company presents a face to the consumer that is united globally, a function of the global nature of the service. Therefore, it is logical that each operating company be run from one head office, with operations managed at the regional level, because all areas must be working closely together within a given operating company.
Another reason is that…
Some corporate information from Reuters. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/companyProfile?symbol=FDX.N
2008 FedEx Annual Report. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/FDX/491475030x0x223284/b51e2e11-6edc-44a3-bcad-e5379c70a765/FedEx08ar.pdf
Though programming can involve complex algorithms and high-level mathematics, and ultimately of course all programming languages depend on complex interfaces with the circuitry and hardware of the computer as well as the complexities and machinations of the source code, not all or even most features of common programs are actually all that complex or difficult to design, create, and implement. There are many parts of programs that are fairly simple architectural features, and even though these features can be quite complex in the ways in which they can be linked together and used to derive specific actions or results, they are ultimately fairly basic in their design and their operations (Dunphy 2011; Schmalz 1997). The term "control structures" refers to a variety of such architectural chunks that re used to tell a program where to go and what to do next, as very few programs function in a…
Dunphy, I. (2011). Iteration. Accessed 26 February 20111. http://www.slideshare.net/ldunphy/iteration
Scmalz, M. (1997). PASCAL Programming: § 4: Selection and Iteration Structure. Accessed 26 February 2011. http://www.cise.ufl.edu/~mssz/Pascal-CGS2462/ifs-and-loops.html
Soulle, J. (2010). Control structures. Accessed 26 February 2011. http://www.cplusplus.com/doc/tutorial/control/
Strath, A. (2011). Control Structures: Iterations. Accessed 26 February 2011. http://www.infis.units.it/fortran/controls.html
Sears Organization's Strategy And Structure:
Sears Holdings is regarded as one of the most significant broadline retailers with more than 4,000 full-line and specialty in America and Canada. The organization is the leading retailer of home appliance, consumer electronics, tools, automotive repair and maintenance, and lawn and garden. One of the major features of this organization is that it operates through its subsidiaries like Sears, Kmart Corporation, and oebuck and Co. The company is committed to enhancing its customers' lives by providing quality products, services, and solutions resulting in trust and development of long-term relationships. As part of its organizational culture, Sears and its associates value positive energy, integrity, and teamwork.
Sears Organizational Strategy and Structure:
In attempts to improve its satisfaction of customer needs, Sears recently transformed its organizational structure in various ways. The company adopted a more flexible structure that embraces change in line with the various elements…
"The Strategy-Structure Mismatch." (2008). Willamette University. Retrieved from Willamette
University website: http://www.willamette.edu/~fthompso/MgmtCon/Strat&Struct.html
Thomson, G.S. (2007, October). Organization Behavior Evaluation -- Sears Holdings Co.
Retrieved November 2, 2011, from http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=grace_thomson&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.co.ke%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3Dsears%2520organizational%2520strategy%2520and%2520structure%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D1%26ved%3D0CBgQFjAA%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fworks.bepress.com%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D1016%2526context%253Dgrace_thomson%26ei%3DYWuvTp6VONG7hAeI-7zQAg%26usg%3DAFQjCNHoNYAhQyzQsNjKyG9yr6ZYxxXDvw%26cad%3Drja#search=%22sears%20organizational%20strategy%20structure%22
Army Structure; from 3-Brigade Division Units to Units of Action
At the Pentagon, briefings routinely begin with the old adage that
"the only thing constant today is change." Since the age of the Cold War, the United States Army has faced change at home and abroad, experiencing not only a massive transformation in technology and infrastructure, but also in the worldwide approach to warfare. As the end of front-line battles gave way to urban streets and insurgency, the Army transitioned its structural paradigm to mirror the rapidly shifting needs, abandoning the Three Brigade Division Units for Units of Action.
This organizational shift had roots in Capitol Hill politics and dissent internal to the Pentagon, but was a desperately needed restructuring to meet the needs presented by the Iraq War, vastly different than those experienced during the Cold War history. In the early 1950s, the Soviet forces overwhelmed many of the…
, 2010). Where there is the sale of shares, there is also a great potential that the existing owners will have little control over who the shares are subsequently sold to, especially in a quoted company. The firm will also be subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), which was also known as the "Company Accounting eform and Investor Protection Act," in the Senate (Libby et al., 2010).
Decision for the Business
As the business is a new idea, and will initially only involve a single person, the idea of a partnership may be eliminated. This leaves sole proprietorship and corporation. If there is to be only one owner the S-corporation may be used, as this may accommodate a single shareholder. This structure may be attractive as the business will be a separate entity, especially as the owner will not carry any personal liabilities for the business debts. However this…
Clarkson, Kenneth W; Miller, Roger LeRoy; Cross, Frank B, (2010), Business Law: Text and Cases - Legal, Ethical, Global, and Corporate Environment, Cenage Learning
Libby, Robert; Libby, Patricia; Short, Daniel, (2010), Financial Accounting, McGraw-Hill
Weygandt, J, J; Kieso, DE; Kimmel, PD, (2011), Financial Accounting, Wiley
The business idea has been set up in a manner which can be easily changed by the student, without impacting on the rest of the paper.
Multidivisional Organizational Structure
Organizational Structure of Large Corporations
Effective management of any organization is a function of keeping track of the details. hen the day was over, a profitable enterprise is one which can answer the questions of how much was produced, spent, sold, what kind of problems occurred along the way, and what the organization is doing to solve the problems in order to remain on the path toward profitability. hile this list may appear overly simplistic, everything that a business does can be mapped along a path begins by purchasing raw materials and ends at selling a finished product at a significantly higher price. hether the company sells paperclips, pomegranates, or purple SUV's, their purpose is to buy and sell at a profit while satisfying the needs of the consumer and working community which they serve.
During the last century, as businesses morphed from corner stores and family…
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They might have a different structure at higher levels where more innovation and creativity is required, but at the lower levels everything is based on a machine-like system -- that system is what the franchisees pay for.
Another type of organization is the professional bureaucracy. This type of organization also has a high level of bureaucracy to its nature, but differs from the machine bureaucracy in that there is also a high degree of specialization. Organizations that rely on knowledge workers often have this strategy. While there are a lot of rules and procedures, the actual output is produced by highly-trained professionals, not unskilled labor. An example of this type of organization is a hospital or university (Mantkelow, 2014).
For any given company, there might be differences in the optimal structure. Many industries will gravitate to one structure over the others because it best suits firms in that business. Other…
Davoren, J. (2014). Functional structure organization strengths & weaknesses. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/functional-structure-organization-strength-weakness-60111.html
Mantkelow, J. (2014). Mintzberg's organizational configurations. MindTools. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_54.htm
atson and Crick
The fact that James atson and Francis Crick were able to discover the structure of DNA is, in retrospect, somewhat shocking. By the early 1950s, it had become clear that the riddle of DNA's structure would be solved through X-ray crystallography, while atson admits in the fourth chapter of The Double Helix that "I knew nothing about the X-ray diffraction techniques that dominated structural analysis" (atson 31). Moreover, some of the best scientists who did have a knowledge of X-ray crystallography -- like Linus Pauling in America and Rosalind Franklin in the UK -- were consciously working on the structure of DNA at the same time that atson and Crick got involved. Additionally, atson was extraordinarily young at the time of the discovery. Although Crick was "thirty-five, yet almost totally unknown" at the time of their collaboration (atson 7) but atson was born in 1928 and in…
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Soliciting funding for a company investment is normally an uphill task for the company. The ideal company must convince the investors that it can repay the money. For this reason, there is a necessity to determine the company's capital structure. Capital structure guides the company agitation on funding. In fact, through the capital structure, the company achieves debt capital, equity capital, and other hybrid securities like vendor financing. The commencing report will examine Microsoft Capital structure. The report will prove that Microsoft can achieve a coherent financial liberation if it pursues capital-funding mechanisms that are investment conscious.
Microsoft Capital Structure
Microsoft capital structure comprises of residual distribution model in practice. Berg Aspelund and Sorheim (2008, pp. 33) joins this analysis by arguing the residual distribution facilitates determination of estimates returns and investment. Microsoft assesses its opportunities assessed on the average for the next five years. In addition, the…
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Porteous, B.T., & Tapadar, P. (2008). The Impact of Capital Structure on Economic Capital and Risk Adjusted Performance. ASTIN Bulletin, 38(1), 341-380.
Wang, S. (2010). An Application of Fuzzy Set Theory to the Weighted Average Cost of Capital and Capital Structure Decision. Technology and Investment, 01(04), 248-256.
Accepting Client Assignments
Outstanding client service begins with a full understanding of the client organization, its business needs and the position to be filled. An AESC member should:
Accept only those assignments that a member is qualified to undertake on the basis of the member's knowledge of the client's needs and the member's ability to perform the specific assignment.
Disclose promptly conflicts of interest known to the AESC member and accept assignments only if all affected parties have expressly agreed to waive any conflict.
Develop an understanding with the client that, among other things, makes clear the organizational entity that is defined as the client organization, the fees and expenses to be charged, and any ongoing assurances or guarantees relating to fulfillment of the assignment.
Agree with the client concerning any "off-limits" restrictions or other related policies that govern when and how the member may recruit from the defined client…
Atkins, B. (2006) "Corporate Social Responsibility: Is it irresponsibility?," the Corporate Governance Advisor, pp.28-29.
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The structure of the organization plays a key role and ING's organization has sustained it and helped in its expansion this far. Basically then it can be assumed that the current structure is functional with some problems. The views regarding the typical system can be explored first so that the INGs system can be placed better. In the basic framework it seems to be working, and it is better to leave the structure which is working till there is found a very sure alternate. Some things that would be essential to understand would be what work specialization is, chain of command and span of control. These are the basis of any system.
Traditional and Contemporary views of work specialization, chain of command, and span of control
The span of control relates to the number of managers needed at each level of the system, in other words the…
Allen, Thomas J; Morton, Michael Scott (1994) "Information Technology and the Corporation of the 1990s: Research Studies." Oxford University Press: New York.
Daft, Richard L. (2009) "Organization Theory and Design"
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Assessing the Effectiveness of Channel Structures, Global Advertising Campaigns and Sales Promotions on Profitability
The synchronization of channel structures, global brand management and advertising campaigns, and sales promotion all must be continually strengthened over time for companies to stay on course to their objectives. Best pr5actices in multichannel management in both B2C and B2B contexts is predicate don keeping these three attributes coordinated, tightly integrated and moving together towards a common objective (Bellin, 2006). The intent of this paper is to evaluate which factors most influence channel structures and strategies of global markets, define how global brands and advertising campaigns benefit a company, and define the role of sales promotion in the marketing mix, analyzing how they vary between industrial and consumer products.
Of the many factors that influence channel structures and strategies that are available to global marketers, the most prevalent are those that have to…
Howar Bellin. (2006). Best Practice Channel Management: The Channel Management Framework. Journal of Marketing Channels, 14(1/2), 117.
Anders Bengtsson, Fleura Bardhi, & Meera Venkatraman. (2010). How global brands travel with consumers: An examination of the relationship between brand consistency and meaning across national boundaries. International Marketing Review, 27(5), 519-540.
Dogan, K.. (2010). Consumer Effort in Promotional Incentives. Decision Sciences, 41(4), 755.
Eyal Gamliel, & Ram Herstein. (2011). To save or to lose: does framing price promotion affect consumers' purchase intentions? The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 28(2), 152-158.
Legal Structure of McDonald's Corporation
There are many different categories of business in the world today. McDonald's brand franchisees operate as part of a corporation. The company, comprised in part of restaurants run by independent entrepreneurs, is currently considered one of the worlds most successful and largest franchising companies every created. Seventy percent of McDonald's restaurants are owned and operated by independent owners.
This corporate business structure has resulted in substantial opportunities for individual business owners and for the corporation as a whole. The legal structure of McDonald's is discussed below, as well as the advantages and disadvantages McDonald's corporation has over other legal business entities. Though McDonald's corporation operates slightly differently than other corporations in the world today, it remains one of the world's leading retailers, a testament to its strong legal structure.
Legal Aspects Of A Franchise
McDonald's successfully operates as a franchisee corporation. There are many legal…
"McDonald's Corporation." FranshiseOpportunities.com. Retrieved Sept 1, 2005:
"McDonald's Owners Operators." Retrieved Sept. 5, 2005:
Legal Structure of Business
For a McDonalds franchisee, there are three options. The franchise can be operated as a sole proprietorship, a partnership, or a corporation. The real issue is not that there are options, but which option should be chosen. It is not always possible to make that determination easily, since there are many factors that have to be considered in each choice. A sole proprietorship is operated by one person. That person is solely responsible for the business, and there is no complex legal structure. That person can reap all the profits and rewards, but he or she also shoulders all the liability for any lawsuits or other issues that might go wrong. In a partnership, the profits and the liabilities are shared between two people. There can be some adjustment as to which person is "more" responsible for specific issues, or it can be a completely 50-50…