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Here, the dependent variable is identified as the proclivity toward suicide. The researchers identify four independent variables due for measurement. These are identified as psychological distress, hopelessness, drug abuse, and relationship discord. (Kaslow et al., p. 13)
The study collected data using interviewing techniques that would occur within a 24 to 72 window of the subject's hospital admission. Findings would be measured in the categories of Psychological Risk Factor Variables and Interpersonal Risk Factor Variables. These would rely, respectively, on the 53-item Brief Symptom Inventory author by Derogatis & Spencer (1983) and the Locke-allace Martial Adjustment Tests (1959).
Multivariate Analysis would ultimately prove an appropriate strategy for statistical assessment for its capacity to incorporate a wide range of measurements into a single analytical discussion. According to the study, "A multivariate logistic regression model was con- structed that included the significant univariate risk factors (three demographic variables, four psycho- logical risk…
Kaslow, N.; Thompson, M.; Meadows, L.; Chance, S.; Puett, R.; Hollins, L.; Jessee, S. & Kellerman, a. (2000). Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts Among African-American Women. Depression and Anxiety, 12, 13-20.
Lincoln, K.D.; Taylor, R.J.; Chatters, L.M. & Joe, S. (2012). Suicide, negative interaction and emotional support among black Americans. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology,
Neelman, J.; Wessely, S. & Lewis, G. (1998). Suicide acceptability in African- and white Americans: the role of religion. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 186(1), 12-16.
Walker, R.L.; Lester, D. & Joe, S. (2006). Lay Theories of Suicide: An Examination of Culturally Relevant Suicide Beliefs and Attributions Among African-Americans and European-Americans. Journal of Black Psychology, 32(3), 320-334.
Suicide in Jails and Prisons
Incidence of suicide in prisons
According to the World Health Organization, suicide is the most common cause of death in jails and prisons. The rate of suicide in penitentiaries is also high. These correctional facilities also have a role to play in ensuring their inmates are healthy and safe. This is the reason why a plan for prevention of suicide in correctional facilities is essential. Characteristics available from various sources suggest that certain populations have higher risk of committing suicide. These are young males at the age of about 15 to 49 years. Elderly inmates, specifically elderly males also have higher-than-average risk of committing suicide. The other groups are indigenous people, persons with issues relating to abuse of alcohol, drugs or other substances, and persons with mental illnesses. A report by the State of Montana Department of Corrections also suggests that having previously attempted…
Adams, K. (1992). Adjusting to Prison Life. Crime and Justice, 16, 275-359. doi: 10.2307/1147565
Alison, F. (2008). Deaths in Custody. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 336(7649), 845-846. doi: 10.2307/20509494
Alison, L. (1999). Prison Suicide and Prisoner Coping. Crime and Justice, 26, 283-359. doi: 10.2307/1147688
Conacher, G.N. (1996). Management of the Mentally Disordered Offender in Prisons: McGill-Queen's University Press.
ates of suicide for adults between 35 and 64 years in the United States
According to date from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC&P), suicide rates among adults aged between 35 and 64 years are on the rise. The period from 1999 -- 2010 saw an annual age-adjusted rate of suicide in this age bracket increase by slightly over 28%. The findings also show that the three leading methods of committing suicide are use of firearms, poisoning and suffocation. In suffocation, hanging was the predominant method while in poisoning drug overdose was the most predominant method. Findings from this period show that the greatest increase in suicide methods was in hanging which saw an 81% increase while poisoning and firearms saw a 24% and 14% increase respectively Sullivan, Annest, Luo, Simon, & Dahlberg, 2013()
According to the report, men were 2 -- 3 times more likely to…
Bearman, P.S. (1991). The Social Structure of Suicide. Sociological Forum, 6(3), 501-524. doi: 10.2307/684516
Booth, N., Briscoe, M., & Powell, R. (2000). Suicide in the Farming Community: Methods Used and Contact with Health Services. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57(9), 642-644. doi: 10.2307/27731384
Flavin, P., & Radcliff, B. (2009). Public Policies and Suicide Rates in the American States. Social Indicators Research, 90(2), 195-209. doi: 10.2307/27734783
Jr, T.E.J. (1999). The Clustering and Contagion of Suicide. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8(3), 89-92. doi: 10.2307/20182569
Suicide Prevention Consultation Design: CASE, Suicide Prevention Triangle, and Individual-Family-School-Work-Community Links for Effectiveness
The objective of this study is to design a suicide prevention consultation. The student will describe the consultation model and level of intervention based on current research. Suicide is described as the "ultimate mental health crisis" and one that is all too common among children and youth. There are approaches designed based on proven scientific methods that best deal with the individual who is contemplating suicide.
The CASE Approach
One of these is the CASE approach which holds that the "art of suicide assessment is composed of three tasks and the first two of which are information gathering, first in terms of information related to the risk factors for suicide in the client and secondly, in regards to the suicidal ideation and planning of the patient. The third task relates to clinical decision making applied to these…
American Evaluation Association (2012) Retrieved from: http://www.eval.org/
CDC Evaluation Working Group (2012) Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov /eval
W.K. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Handbook (2012) Retrieved from: http://www.wkkf.org/Documents/WKKF/Evaluation Handbook/default.asp
National Mental Health Association -- Effective Prevention Programs (2012) Retrieved from: http://www.nmha.org/children/prevent/effective.cfm
An "immense need" exists for technical assistance and general consultation that is specific to community healthcare needs (Walker, Louton, Walker & Frizzel, 2006, p. 40). A suicide prevention consultation strategy should first identify risk factors specific to the community and target population. For example, job or financial loss might be identified as a core risk factor in the community. Then, individual risk factors can be identified and used in a comprehensive consultation and intervention strategy. elying on empirical research, the suicide prevention consultation is also designed in accordance with state laws and/or organizational policies. Appropriate prevention strategies are outlined, and intervention strategies are designed to meet the specific needs of the individual within the target population. Finally, the suicide prevention consultation strategies are implemented according to best practices.
Consultation services should be as multidisciplinary as possible, allowing for the treatment of individuals in a diverse community (Gutierrez, Brenner,…
Columbia Care Service (2010). Suicide prevention consultation. Retrieved onling: http://www.columbiacare.org/Page.asp?NavID=111
Cutter, F. (n.d.). Suicide prevention triangle model and theory. Retrieved online: http://www.suicidepreventtriangle.org/Suichap4.htm
Gutierrez, P.M., Brenner, L.A., Olson-Madden, J.H., Breshears, R.E., Homaifar, B.Y., Betthauser, L.M., Staves, P., Adler, L.E. (2009). Consultation as a means of veteran suicide prevention. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 40(6), Dec 2009, 586-592.
Meyers, J., Meyers, A.B. & Grogg, K. (2004). Prevention Through Consultation: A Model to Guide Future Developments in the Field of School Psychology. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation15(3-4). p257-276 2004
It steals their youth and murders their laughter, if not robbing them of life itself. The crowd, openly smug but secretly sneaking home, wilfully refuse to acknowledge the pain and senselessness, because this would be to acknowledge their own part in creating the war.
The poem as a whole both juxtaposes and compares general society with the suffering of the soldiers. Society as a whole ignores the suffering of war, but in this very act lies its own suffering. The senseless suicide is ignored only because society is not able to handle the full extent of the horror that led to it. The young solder was filled with "empty joy." In many ways, the joy society feels when their "heroes" are hailed upon their homecoming is similarly empty. It is a joy that understands the suffering that underlies it. When the suffering overtakes the joy, a young man commits suicide.…
Campbell, Patrick. Siegfried Sassoon: a study of war poetry. Jefferson, North Caroline: McFarland & Company, Inc. Publishers, 1999.
Gomez Minguez, Sandra. "Suicide in the Trenches" 2006. Retrieved from http://mural.uv.es/sangomin/Sassoon.html
Gordon, Lois G. Nancy Cunard: heiress, muse, political idealist. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.
The natural end of every person life on earth is dying. A lot of people, for motives that have never been fully comprehended, want to take their own lives. This action is what is called suicide, which means exactly "self-killing." For all doubt that has become a part of the wonder of suicide, this assessment of the problem is surely as detailed as any. The individual, in apparently crucial battle with the world, makes the decision to end their existence in what sums up to be a final assault toward a group that can no longer be endured. In that way, the person tries to reach a final vengeance on everything and everyone that have caused their positions of depression.
The researcher's basic understanding of suicide is that it is a growing issue in the United States. I have learned that until recently suicide among young women and men…
Beautrais, A. (2003). Suicide and serious suicide attempts in youth: A multiple-group comparison study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(6), 1093-9.
Caron, J., Julien, M., & Huang, J. (2008). Changes in suicide methods in quebec between 1987 and 2000: The possible impact of bill C-17 requiring safe storage of firearms. Suicide & Life - Threatening Behavior, 38(2), 195-208.
Hawton, K., & van Heeringen, K. (2009). Suicide. The Lancet, 373(9672), 1372-81.
Links, P., Heisel, M., & Quastel, A. (2005). Is suicide ideation a surrogate endpoint for geriatric suicide? Suicide & Life - Threatening Behavior, 35(2), 193-205.
Suicide Prevention Training Project
Today, suicide is a major public health problem, accounting for more than 36,000 deaths in the United States each year (NYC guide to suicide prevention, services and resources, 2011). If fact, deaths from suicides cause as many fatalities as AIDS and homicide combined (NYC guide to suicide prevention, services and resources, 2011). Moreover, the overwhelming majority (90%) of people who commit suicide each year suffer from a diagnosable mental health condition, but fewer than 30% seek treatment for their problems (NYC guide to suicide prevention, services and resources, 2011). To determine how middle schools administrators can help prevent suicides by young people, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning suicide prevention in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Background and Overview
The statistics concerning youth suicides are truly alarming. Every year, 33% of the…
Hisgen, J.W. (2011). Issues in mental health: Suicide prevention grades 6-8. Madison, WI:
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction.
NYC guide to suicide prevention, services and resources. (2011). New York: The Samaritans of New York, Inc.
O'Connor, R.C. & Platt, S. (2011). International handbook of suicide prevention research, policy and practice. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley.
The survivors might even be annoyed with a society which disgraces them. Anger is an important segment of the interrogation procedure, a procedure which is extremely important to the survivors. (ubel, 1999)
The psychological effect of death by suicide might persist for years. Family members would also start the mutual blame game and be alienated due to persistent disagreement which appears to have no outcome. When a dear person is at the verge of death, it is vital that family and acquaintances make their peace. When in situations of deaths due to suicide, instead of having closure and a determination of peace, the survivors suffer with open abrasions which show no signs of curing. The acquaintances of the surviving family members are at a loss to understand regarding what needs to be done or speaking to the survivors. They are at a loss to find words. It is hard to…
Barbara Rubel, (1999) "The Grief Response Experienced by Survivors of Suicide" Retrieved 18 October, 2007 at http://www.griefworkcenter.com/newpage3.htm
Ceglia, Lisa; Pfeffer, Cynthia R. (1999). "Artists Representations of the Impact of Family
Suicide during Childhood and Adolescence" Journal of American Academy of Psychoanalysis, vol. 27, no. 3, pp: 625-656.
Cvinar, Jacqueline G. (2005) "Do Suicide Survivors Suffer Social Stigma: A Review of the Literature" Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, vol. 41, no. 1, pp: 14-21.
The finding should alert those who attend to older persons to take extra care and caution that there will be no further attempts. Researchers surveyed the records of 1,206 patients suffering from depression with melancholia or psychosis. The patients were followed up after 50 years. In that span of time, 116 of the 1,206 patients committed suicide. Of the 116, 16 were excluded as their depression was alcohol-related. Of the remaining 100, 60 attempted suicide 133 times, mostly close to hospital admission. Most of them took an overdose of pills. The research found that suicide attempts decreased with age (Anderson).
Some studies suggested that middle-aged women who stopped taking or never took hormone replacement therapy are more susceptible to depression (usko 2008). aby boomers are thus at a higher risk for drug abuse and depression as well as to increasing prescription drug abuse (usko).
Most middle-aged White women committed…
Abrams, Robert C, et al. Preference for Fall from Height. 95 (6): 1000-1002, American
Journal of Public Health: American Public Health Association, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/507337
Anderson, Pauline. Predictors of Completed Suicide Differ by Sex in Older Individuals.
Medscape Medical News: BMC Psychiatry, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/709842
Suicide involves the taking of one's own life. As articulated by a prominent suicidologist: "the common stimulus to suicide is intolerable psychological pain. Suicide represents an escape or release from that pain." (Suicidology.ORG, 2003) It defines suicide rates as: (number of suicides per group/population of group) x 100,000. The AAS list suicide as the 11th highest cause of death -- cardiovascular disease being the first; homicide however, ranked 14th. 1.2% of deaths in the United States are due to suicides.
People usually attempt suicide to block unbearable emotional pain, which is caused by a wide variety of problems. It is often a cry for help. A person attempting suicide is often so distressed that they are unable to see that they have other options: we can help prevent a tragedy by trying to understand how they feel and helping them to look for better choices that they could make. Suicidal…
Breitbart, W. "Cancer Pain and Suicide." Advances in Pain Research and Therapy. Ed K.M. Foley. New York: Raven Press, 1990. 399-412.
Suicide Risk and Pain in Cancer and Aids Patients." Current and Emerging Issues in Cancer Pain Research and Practice: The Bristol-Myers Squibb Symposium on Pain Research. Eds. C. Richard Chapman and Kathleen M. Foley. New York: Raven Press, 1993. xvii, 441.
Bruera, Eduardo, and Russell K. Portenoy. Cancer Pain. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Carr, Daniel B., and Ada Jacox. Acute Pain Management: Operative or Medical Procedures and Trauma. Clinical Practice Guideline. 1992. Retrieved March, 4 2003
Suicide Among outh and Elderly
Type of Diagnosis
Contrary to overall trends, the suicide rate for youths 15 to 19 years old has increased over the last few decades. Suicide was still the third leading cause of death for young people 10 to 19 years old in 1998. (MoScicki, 1994)
Suicide is extremely rare in young children, and lower among 10-to-14-year-olds than older teens.
In 1998, white males accounted for 61% of all suicides among youth 10-19. White males and white females together accounted for over 84% of all youth suicides. However, the suicide rate among Native American male youth is exceedingly high in comparison with the overall rate for males 10 to 19 (19.3 per 100,000 vs. 8.5 per 100,000). African-American males ages 10 to 19 - more than doubling from 2.9 per 100,000 to 6.1 per 100,000 from 1981 to 1998. In…
Youth suicide protective factors can include an individual's genetic makeup, behavior and the environment. Other voluntary protective factors are learned skills in problem solving, impulse control, conflict resolution, and nonviolent handling of disputes. Family and community support is very important; as is access to effective and appropriate mental health care A scientific approach to preventing suicide involves describing and monitoring the problem, understanding risk factors and causes of suicidal behavior and protective factors, developing and implementing interventions and prevention strategies in the context of evaluation research, and disseminating information about effective strategies. The research is focused on promoting overall mental health among school-aged children by reducing early risk factors for depression, substance abuse and aggressive behaviors and building resiliency. Another approach is to detect youth most likely to be suicidal by confidentially screening for depression, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation. Efforts should be made to develop and implement strategies to reduce the stigma associated with accessing mental health, substance abuse, and suicide prevention treatments. Additionally, efforts to limit young people's access to lethal agents -- including firearms and medications -- may hold great suicide prevention value. Persons deemed at risk for suicide should then be referred for additional mental health services. (NIMH, 2003)
People involved with children and youth like parents and school personnel should be aware of the warning signs such as loss of energy or "making negative comments about oneself, behaviors.
Suicide disproportionately impacts the elderly. In 1998, the elderly represented 13% of the population, but suffered 19% of all suicide deaths. Firearms (71%), overdose [liquids, pills or gas] (11%) and suffocation (11%) were the three most common methods of suicide used by persons aged 65+ years. It is estimated that 20% of elderly (over 65 years) persons who commit suicide visited a physician within 24 hours of their act, 41% visited within a
Suicide by Cop
Trying to commit suicide has been happening since long, as also attempts to slay police officials. But, the mishmash between the two is a development that exposes the police officials to risk. Literally, "suicide by cop" indicates a police official who takes his own life; ideologically it pertains to someone who gets himself executed by an official. At times it can imply the two. The intention of somebody trying "suicide by cop" is to put police officials in a predicament in which they should murder. The trauma on officials is normally the remorse they tolerate due to the cause of becoming the demise of someone else. This misfortune is the one of the greatest moment of ordeal and upsetting event in the life of a police official. (Fleischauer, 2004)
Sadly, this trend is increasing. Specialists are in pursuit of finding out the most fitting expression to illustrate…
Fleischauer, Eric. (January 5, 2004) "Suicide-by-cop'- A trend: Experts say time vital in protection" Decatur Daily News. p.5
Brice, Pamela. (November 28, 2003) "Suicide by cop' - A Tragic Phenomenon" The Enterprise. p.3
Campbell, R; Collinson, D. (1988) "Ending Lives" Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Cyr-Martel, Laurie. (2003) "Responding to Emotionally Disturbed Persons: A Manual for Law Enforcement Personnel" Staggs Publishers.
Suicide is a serious issue for concern, as it is a major cause of unnatural death throughout the world. A death may be classified as a suicide if an individual has died as a direct result of a deliberate act with the intention of causing one's death (Australian Government Department of Health and Aging, 2007). Approximately two-thousand Australians commit suicide every year, which has a devastating effect on the families, friends, work places and communities around them (Australian Government Department of Health and Aging, 2007). esearch demonstrates that suicide rates in Australia have declined steadily since the late 1990s among males, while the suicide rates among females have remained constant (Australian Government Department of Health and Aging, 2007). However, the rates for males are still high, accounting for approximately 78% of total suicide deaths, and suicide accounted for about 20% of all deaths among young men in the age category…
Australian Government, Department of Health and Aging (2007). Fact sheet 3: statistics on suicide in Australia. Living is For Everyone. Retrieved November 22, 2010 from http://www.livingisforeveryone.com.au/IgnitionSuite/uploads/docs/LIFE-Factsheet3.pdf .
Kostenuik, M. & Ratnapalan, M. (2010). Approach to adolescent suicide prevention. Canadian Family Physician, 56(8), 755-60.
Milner, A. & De Leo, D. (2010). Suicide research and prevention in developing countris in Asia and the Pacific. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 88(10), 795-6.
Milner, A., McClure, R., & De Leo, D. (2010). Socio-economic determinants of suicide: an ecological analysis of 35 countries. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, (Epub ahead of print). Retrieved November 22, 2010 from PubMed database.
Suicide: Duty of Care vs. Self-Care
Social Work and the Duty of Care
The social work profession aims at promoting social change, solving problems in human relationships, empowering and liberating individuals in order to enhance well-being (IFSW 2004). Social work intervenes at points where individuals interact with their respective environments through appropriate theories of human behavior and social systems. Principles of human rights and social are the fundamental guides of the practice and profession. Social workers are bound by these responsibilities in relation to the society and the people with whom they work (IFSW). The Australian Association of Social Workers now has a membership of 6,000 nationwide (AASW 2011). It is committed to the principles of justice, the enhancement of quality life and the realization of the full potential of every individual, group and community it serves (AASW).
American negligence law recognizes the duty of reasonable care of others in…
AASW 2011. 'Public.' Australian Association of Social Workers.
Current Nursing 2011. 'Dorothea Orem's self-care theory,' Nursing Theories: Current
Department of Communities 2008. 'Responding to people at risk of suicide,' Queensland
NASP. (n.d.) Preventing Youth Suicide -- Tips for Parents and Educators. http://www.nasponline.org/resources/crisis_safety/suicideprevention.aspx
The site is created for parents and educators by the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). The page itself contains very handy tips for identifying risk factors and detecting warning signs. Specific risk factors include family stress or dysfunction, while warning signs include threats to commit suicide. The page also includes information about how to handle a suicidal young person. The role of the school is described, which is paritcularly relevant. The site indicates that it is very important that educators and parents work together in cases where thoughts and plans of suicide are suspected.
In addition to the helpful information on the page itself, the site also includes links to further NASP resources, along with links to sources beyond NASP. These are offered at the end of the page. To the left of the page, several…
Firestone, L. (2009). Teen Suicide Prevention: Teachers and Educators. Psychalive. Retrieved from: http://www.psychalive.org/2010/03/teachers-and-educators/
After a brief description of the role teachers play to prevent suicide among their students, the site offers the national suicide prevention lifeline number, followed by links to articles and documents providing advice about suicide. This is followed by several videos, Websites and books that offer various kinds of advice about suicide.
The site also offers links to relevant articles, along with a form for feedback. To the left of the page, links to the site's Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Google+ accounts are displayed. While there is relatively little information written in the page itself, the varied sources provided and the relevance of these sources are impressive indeed. It offers an extremely helpful range of resources that teachers can use for their own information or to incorporate as part of their lessons.
Ophelia is devastated when Hamlet turns her away and tells her that he does not love her.
Queen Gertrude claims that Ophelia drowned in the river by accident, but perhaps the queen knew more than she was letting on. It could be possible that the queen did in fact love her son in a manner she should not have and that removing Ophelia from the picture was the only answer.
Did Hamlet know of the poison on the sword and in the goblet? Maybe Gertrude knew of this too and that is why she drank from the poisoned goblet? Some critics claim that Hamlet committed suicide in a sense. It seems that once he got his revenge, he died immediately afterwards. In the end of this play, no one wins and they are all dead, leaving the kingdom under completely new rule.
Hamlet is definitely a very complex love tragedy…
Jones, Ernest . "The Death of Hamlet's Father." The International Journal of Psychoanalysis 29 (1948): 174-176. Print.
Preston, South G.. The Secret of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. St. Louis: Abbey Press, 1901. Print.
For the narrator, this disappointment is even worse than bad grades, because there is no hope of ever changing her status. While she can't see the light at the end of the academic tunnel, we as the readers know that this situation could change. No, things do not come easy for the author, but it's probably doubtful that she has sought real help for her academic woes. Her parents would likely be ashamed, unwilling to pay the price of an "A" with a tutor. However, there is no remedy for her being a girl -- she could possibly give her parents the 4.0 average they are looking for, but she can never be their son. The narrator imagines the utopia that would exist if only she were a son: I would swagger through life muscled and bold and assured/Drawing praises to me (17, 18). This stanza is absolutely heartbreaking; that…
Homelessness remains a problem in San Francisco because of the lack of affordable housing, incomes below subsistence levels, and behavioral, mental and physical problems (SFDPH).
Racial disparities are another social determinant of health (SFDPH, 2003). While White households in the subject State of the report earned more than $75,000, African-American and Latino households earned less than a quarter of that level. According to the California udget Project, a family with 2 children needs to earn more than $50,000 to live in modest comfort in San Francisco. Transportation is another social determinant to health. Traffic and commuting safety, pollution by air or noise, social isolation or interaction, a substitute for exercise, and time pressure are among the ways transportation affects health. Tabulations show that most people in San Francisco traveled by car, truck or van alone (SFDPH).
According to the California Health Interview Survey conducted in 2001, about 28.8% strove to…
CDC (2012). Suicide: risk and protective factors. National Center for Injury Prevention
and Control: Centers for Disease and Control and Prevention. Retrieved on March 5,
2013 from http://www.cdcl.gov/ViolencePrevention/suicide/riskprotectivefactors.html
Mattas-Curry. L. (2000). Eight factors found in assessing suicide risk. Vol. 31 # 2
Marilyn Monroe, Ernest Hemingway, George Sanders, and Virginia Woolf- what do all these people have in common? Death by suicide. Hard as it may be to swallow, the fact remains that these very famous people who were viewed as successful and had the world at their feet, took their own lives in a fit of depression, anger, melancholia and out of sheer hopelessness. But this phenomenon is not exclusive to celebrities, people from all walks of life continue to succumb to pressures of life and commit suicide. Tens of thousands of people die in this manner every year in the United States alone, not to mention the thousands who die in other parts of the world. The National Institute of Mental Health (2004) reported that in 2000 around 29,350 people committed suicide in the United States and it was ranked the 11th leading cause of death.
Suicide is probably…
Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1967), p. 1020.
Douglas, J.D. (1967). The social meaning of suicide. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Emile Durkheim, Suicide: A Study in Sociology (Glencoe, IL: The Free Press, 1951), p. 66.
Etkind, M. (1997). Or not to be: A collection of suicide notes. New York: Riverhead Books.
After the first four months, the intervention group rates of suicide ideation declined 12.9%, the article reports, compared with a 3% decline in the control group. At eight months, the intervention group reflected a 70.7 decline in suicide ideation, compared with just 43.9% in the control group. This clearly shows that when the health care industry takes a special interest and provides helpful intervention techniques, elderly people begin to feel more like living than dying.
The Journal of Counseling and Development reports that many older people who seek treatment for depression do not get that treatment, and "most treatment fails to meet reasonable evidence-based standards of care" (Zalaquett, et al., 2006). It is generally accepted among medical researchers that psychosocial interventions for treating depression in older adults falls short of meeting..." their needs; but beyond that, people living in poverty "...were nearly 4 times as likely to experience chronic depression…
Bruce, ML. (2004). Care Managers reduce suicide risk in older people. Nursing Standard
18(32), 10, and Journal of the American Medical Association (292(9), 1081-1901.
Curran, Joseph. (2006). Deliberate self-harm in the over 60s. Mental Health Practice, 10(1),
Fitzpatrick, Joyce. (2005). Signs of silent suicide among depressed hospitalized geriatric
My cousin, 37, had died. She left a daughter, 15. She was a nurse and a true friend. At her funeral, tons of flowers arrived, every seat filled. She had so many friends and people in her life who cared for her. Our remaining question is Why? There was not a single warning sign.
The next step is to answer the questions that remain. With the knowledge gained from such statements as the one from the family above the activities to be conducted during the study can begin. First and foremost, the study will begin by investigating the lives of five families in Flint, Michigan, and see how these particular individuals were affected by the events that had happened. In order to do this, the researcher must formulate at least ten questions to be tailored to a family's experience, and be very careful as to how one proceeds. Furthermore, it…
"Grief after Suicide." (2011). Caring for the dying and bereaved. Retrieved July 20, 2011, .
"Ranking America's Mental Health." (2011). Mental Health America. Retrieved July 20, 2011, .
Families.com discussion forum. (2011). Retrieved July 20, 2001, .
Practicum Project Evaluation
This paper offers a brief summary of my work over the past two semesters based on a strong picture of suicide and uncovers the link between chronic illness and suicide. Patients with Chronic ailment are especially helpless against self-destructive conduct because of the emotional misery from debilitation, social avoidance, money related pressure, and dejection ascending from a drawn-out interminable condition (Pederson, 2018). The investigation involves a few constraints. The paper covers existing writing on suicide cases and perpetual sickness. The investigation involves writing a literature review as opposed to restorative testing that may not give adequate proof. Future examinations need to investigate broad meta-analysis survey to set up the need for the research. It will concentrate on executing a suicide hazard evaluation apparatus in the medicinal records for health appraisal in a progress unit and investigate steps and additional activities that will distinguish all people in…
Albert, N. M., Barnason, S., Deswal, A., Hernandez, A., Kociol, R., Lee, E., & White-Williams, C. (2015). Transitions of care in heart failure: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation: Heart Failure, 8(2), 384-409.
Andersen, E. S., Grude, K. V., & Haug, T. (2009). Goal directed project management: effective techniques and strategies. New York: Kogan Page Publishers.
Goldberg, J. (2017, 02 02). Coping With Chronic Illnesses and Depression. Retrieved from WebMD: https://www.webmd.com/depression/depression-caused-chronic-illness#1
Joshi, P., Song, H. B., & Lee, S.A. (2017). Association of Chronic Disease Prevalence and Quality of Life with Suicide-related Ideation and Suicide attempt among Korean Adults. Indian J Psychiatry. 59(3):352-358. doi: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_282_16. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29085096
O’Connor, E., Gaynes, B.N., Burda, B.U., Soh, C., Whitlock, E.P. (2005). Screening for and Treatment of Suicide Risk Relevant to Primary Care: A Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services. Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 1(158):741–754.
Pederson, C. (2018). The Importance of Screening for Suicide Risk in Chronic Invisible Illness. J Health Sci Educ 2: 141. DOI: 10.0000/JHSE.1000141 J Health Sci Educ. 2(4): 1-5
Pederson, C., Gorman-Ezell, K., & Mayer. G. (2018). Assessing Depression in those who are Chronically Ill. Counseling Today, 60 (9) 38-43.
Schall M., Coleman E., Rutherford P., & Taylor J. (2012). How-to Guide: Improving transitions from the Hospital to the Clinical office Practice to reduce avoidable Rehospitalizations. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvements.
Advocating for Social Change: Techniques and Tools
According to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), on average, about 20 veterans commit suicide every day (Suicide among veterans, 2016). The transition from active military service to civilian life frequently exacerbates any existing mental health disorders, and far too many veterans fail to seek the help they need to cope. In this regard, Albright and Borah (2017) emphasize that, “Mental health concerns such as posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression can be significant problems for these populations which lead to increased risk for suicidal ideation, attempts, and completed suicides” (p. 11). Although this population is 50% more likely to commit suicide than the American population at large, those who do seek help are far less likely to commit suicide (Spiva, 2019).
What is especially troubling about these alarming statistics, though, is the fact that many Americans are unaware of this social…
IS PATH WARM is an acronym that is utilized as a mnemonic device created by the American Association of Suicidology. This mnemonic assist counselors and the general public to remember the warning signs for suicide. The acronym is outlined below:
I = Ideation
S = Substance Use
P = Purposelessness
A = Anxiety
T = Trapped
H = Hopelessness
W = Withdrawal
A = Anger
R = Recklessness
M = Mood Change
The acronym was developed in 2003 by a group of suicidologists as an evidence-based set of near-term signs of immediate suicide intent and risk. Juhnke, Granello, and Lebron-Striker (2007) posit that suicide is the 11th leading cause of death among Americans, there was a need to have a method for identifying the risk factors of suicide and methodologies that counselors could use to help reduce the rates of suicide. This acronym can also be used by other…
Juhnke, G., Granello, P., & Lebron-Striker, M. (2007). IS PATH WARM? A suicide assessment mnemonic for counselors. Professional Counseling Digest, 3.
Whiston, S. C. (2012). Principles and applications of assessment in counseling (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Suicide rates are remarkably high worldwide and nationally, making suicide one of the leading causes of death (Schwartz-Lifshitz, Zalsman, Giner et al, 2012; Tillman, 2014). Although most suicides do not occur in the hospital setting, psychiatric disorders—especially mood disorders and psychotic disorders—are risk factors that increase the likelihood of a suicidal event (Appleby, 1992; Sarzetto, Delmonte, Seghi, et al, 2017). Suicide not only affects the patient, but reverberates throughout the patient’s family and social circle, also causing distress and potential performance issues among clinical staff (Tillman, 2014).
Therefore, it is important that psychiatric nurses understand how to recognize risk factors, and establish a clinical practice environment that prevents suicide. Minimizing suicidal tendencies requires different types of treatment interventions individually tailored for at-risk patients, as well as implementing best practices for creating a clinical environment that reduces risk. Best practices may also include preparing, teaching, and training nursing staff, especially when…
There is a gradual move in considering that the combination of both these explanations is what should be the actual position to take on the issue of alcoholism and drug addiction. This mode of thinking suggests the acceptance of the gene explanation on one side in that the research does confirm that genes that are inherited goes a long way in explaining the behavioral pattern of the individual with regard to alcoholism and drug addiction, yet at the same time it also suggests that the lifestyle pattern that is adopted by the individual could also be a major factor in the behavioral pattern of the individual with regard to alcohols and drugs. (Frequently Asked Questions)
This means that not only is a hereditary factor only a predisposition but the behavior of the individual in social situations where the consumption occurs and the maintenance of control on these situations. This also…
Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Men" Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/mens/men.cfm?page=110&mtitle=alcoholAccessed on 20 March
Balch, Burke, J; O'Bannon, Randall, K. "Why We Shouldn't Legalize Assisting Suicide"
Retrieved form http://www.nrlc.org/euthanasia/asisuid1.html. Accessed on 20 March 2005
Frequently Asked Questions" National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
This sampling technique will allow the researcher to quantify the items that represent the greatest stress for soldiers in the field. Quantitative methods are useful when the data can be transformed into a single data point, as in this study. Results will be analyzed using frequency distribution to determine which factors soldiers consider to be major stress factors in the field.
This study will help to identify factors that could be used to help improve the mental health of soldiers and lower suicide rates among troops. The results of this study will help to identify those factors that would have the greatest impact on soldiers' mental health in the combat zone. Although, it is recognized that many of the factors that will produce stress that are beyond control. However, by focusing on those things that can be changed, one could hope to make a soldier's life tolerable and tom…
Macnamara, Bob. High Suicide Rate for Iraq War GIs. January 29, 2004. CBS Evening News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/01/29/eveningnews/main596755.shtml . Accessed October 22, 2008.
Zoroy, Gregg. Army Probes Soldier Suicides October 13, 2003. USA Today.. www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-10-13-army-suicides-usat_x.htm. Accessed October 22.
Suicide and How it Impacts Military Families
Description of the Case or Problem
As the number of suicides amidst the U.S. Armed Service members have constantly increased in the past decade, so has the rate of survivors affected by military suicide, leading to loss of life. Whenever a loved one loses their life as an outcome of suicide, the resulting trauma and shock might compromise the survivors' physical and mental health. This leaves the victims more susceptible to a more agonizing and intricate grief process. Those individuals bereaved by suicide are at an increasing danger of also committing suicide. Peer encouragement, a recognized recuperation method from addictions and sickness, has been clinically monitored to be broadly used by the suicide loss survivors. esearchers have given minimal interest to effective interventions for the victims of suicide loss in the general U.S. population; less is recognized regarding the efficiency of peer support…
AFSP. (2014, August 8). President Obama Announces Executive Actions to Address Veteran and Military Suicide. Retrieved from American Foundation for Suicide Prevention: https://www.afsp.org/advocacy-public-policy/policy-news-updates/president-obama-announces-executive-actions-to-address-veteran-and-military-suicide
American Association of Suicidology. (2010). Survivors of suicide fact sheet. Retrieved from American Association of Suicidology: http://www.suicidology.org /c/document_library/get_file?folderId=232&name=D
American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. (2010). Survivor research: AFSP and NIMH propose research agenda. Retrieved from American Foundation for Suicide Prevention: http://www.afsp.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.viewpage&page_id=2D9DF73E -BB25-0132-3AD7715D74BFF585
Cerel, J., Padgett, J. H., Conwell, Y., & Reed, G. A. (2009). A call for research: The need to better understand the impact of support groups for suicide survivors. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 39(3), 269-281.
The influence of social disconnectedness upon adolescent suicide is also manifested in one study which found that adolescents who moved frequently were significantly more at risk of attempted suicide (Qin, Mortensen, & Pedersen 2009). It should be noted that this risk factor was "attenuated, but still significant, after controlling for the child's own psychiatric morbidity and loss of a mother or father, as well as parental psychiatric history," indicating that some adolescents may be inherently more vulnerable to this type of environmental stressor (in other words, some adolescents may be more socially adept at coping with the inevitable social problems that occur with frequent moving) (Qin, Mortensen, & Pedersen 2009: 628). isk of suicide has genetic and epigenetic components, but social difficulties as a risk factor cannot and should not be ignored. The association of frequent with moving suggests that positive peer relationships can act as a counterbalance to risk…
Biddle, V.S., Sekula, L.K., Zoucha, R., & Puskar, K.R. (2010). Identification of suicide risk among rural youth: Implications for the use of HEADSS. Journal of Pediatric Health
Care, 24(3), 152-167. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedhc.2009.03.003
Qin, P., Bo Mortensen, P., & Pedersen, C.B. (2009). Frequent change of residence and risk of attempted and completed suicide among children and adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(6), 628-632. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.20
Schilling, E.A., Aseltine, R.H., Glanovsky, J.L., James, a., & Jacobs, D. (2009). Adolescent alcohol use, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(4), 335-341. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.08.006
suicide has been of interest from the beginning of Western civilization. For philosophers, clergy and social scientists, the subject raises myriad of conceptual, theological, moral, and psychological questions, such as What makes a person's behavior suicidal? What motivates such an action? Is suicide morally permissible, or even morally required in some extraordinary circumstances? Is suicidal behavior rational? How does suicide affect those that remain? The fictional books Virgin Suicides and Norwegian Wood address some of these topics, only to find, as in real life, that each situation differs and the ones who are left must find a way to personally resolve their confusion and move on.
The definition of suicide is confusing. People have long looked at suicide in a negative fashion, although someone who dies to save others is more likely to be seen in a better light than someone who has done so to relieve mental or physical…
Amundsen, D."Suicide and Early Christian Values." Suicide and Euthanasia: Historical and Contemporary Themes, Ed. B. Brody. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1989.
Curtin, J. Sean. Suicides in Japan: Part 10-Youth and Rural on Rise. Glocom Platform
14, November 2005. http://www.glocom.org/special_topics/social_trends/20040813_trends_s78/
Fairbairn, G. Contemplating Suicide: The Language and Ethics of Self-Harm, London: Routledge, 1995.
The attack which claimed Tsar's life was by a member of Narodnaya Volya, ignacy Hryniewiecki, who died while consciously exploding the bomb during the attack. udolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff projected to assassinate Adolf Hitler by suicide bomb in 1943, but was unable to complete the attack (oger Moorhouse 2006).
Once we start discussing suicide bombers, there emerge some religious units that are never far behind. esearchers have proposed several theories to elaborate on why others would give their lives to take those of others. A study by Ginges brings about a variety of religious people from different religion back grounds and it has come out that across the board, people's deportment on martyrdom had absolutely nothing or if there is very minimal to do with their religious attachment or a specific religious group.
Bloom, Mia. Dying to Kill. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005
Beevor, Antony. Berlin:…
Bloom, Mia. Dying to Kill. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005
Beevor, Antony. Berlin: The downfall 1945, Penguin Book, 2005
Evan Thomas, Newsweek 10/15/2001
Hafez, Mohammed. Suicide Bombers in Iraq. Washington: U.S. Institute of Peace Press.2007
Culture of Martyrdom," David Brooks calls suicide bombing " the crack cocaine of warfare," (1). As a drug-like substance, suicide bombing is addictive and therefore "transforms the culture of those who employ it," just as drug addiction changes one's personality (Brooks 1). To prove the point, Brooks traces the use of suicide bombing historically, starting with Hizbollah. Although the Quran expressly forbids suicide, suicide bombing became associated with jihadist movements. Suicide bombing became the ultimate symbol of martyrdom, which is why it is now an ends as well as a means, according to Brooks. Brooks's argument is disturbing but valid and credible, as the author relies on a multitude of sources and logical, rather than emotionally wrought, discourse.
Suicide bombing reached its hundredth monkey moment, so to speak, after Arafat walked out of the Camp David peace talks. The "psychology shifted" at this moment, because the prevailing ideology was no…
Brooks, David. "The Culture of Martyrdom." The Atlantic. Retrieved online: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/print/2002/06/the-culture-of-martyrdom/302506/
Furthermore Search volumes for the terms "suicide" and "depression" were highly correlated with each other, as were "teen suicide" and "depression." McCarthy eventually concluded that "a connection between suicide and internet search activity has been supported, suggesting internet searches for suicide-related terms may predict actual self-injury and death."
This is very important for forensic psychologists who are looking for more predictive behaviors to deter suicide. Google, as a predictive tool, can now be used to understand cycles and trends within the high-risk groups that may be contemplating suicide. This article suggested that many demographic relationships can also be spotted using Google Trends. This is by no means a panacea for forensic psychologist, but this method can be used to hone in on more specific variables such as location or age, and use them to help pinpoint a more specific trend.
Although seemingly very simple, Google can really help provide quick…
McCarthy, M. (2010). Internet Monitoring of Suicide Risk in the Population. Journal of Affected Disorders, 2010 May, 122(3): 277-279. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2847052/
Just because a person does not react the same way to the college experience or to stress as you do does not make them wrong, it simply means they are human and have their own ideas. Do not judge your friends, but try to help them instead.
In conclusion, student suicide is a growing problem in our country today, for a variety of reasons. Students are under more pressure than ever to perform, fit in with peers, and get good grades, and many come from broken or abusive homes, that can add to the pressure and lead to depression and thoughts of death. Finally, some, like the shooter at Virginia Tech, are mentally unbalanced, and have shown signs of suicidal and violent thoughts that could have been acted upon if only they had been recognized. The Washington Post reporters continue, "Because Cho did well in school, his mother did not…
Caruso, K. (2007). College student suicide. Retrieved 20 Dec. 2007 from Suicide.org Web site: http://www.suicide.org/college-student-suicide.html .
Cho, D. & Gardner, a. (2007). An isolated boy in a world of strangers. Retrieved 20 Dec. 2007 from the Washington Post.com Web site: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/20/AR2007042002366.html.1-4 .
Davis, J.M., & Brock, S.E. (2002). Chapter 13 Suicide. In Handbook of crisis counseling, intervention, and prevention in the cchools, Sandoval, J. (Ed.) (2nd ed., pp. 273-297). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Duane, E.A., Stewart, C.S., & Bridgeland, W.M. (2003). College student suicidality and family issues. College Student Journal, 37(1), 135+.
Importance of Physician Assisted Deaths
My Ethical Position on Physician Assisted Deaths as a Nurse
The Legal isks for Nurses
The Opposing View
Summary of Arguments in Favor of My Position
Importance of Physician-Assisted Deaths
Careful reflection is needed for physician-assisted deaths and euthanasia as they often always involve complex issues related to the family, the physician and the nursing staff. The critical question is about ethics that a nurse needs to follow when a patient asks for physician-assisted death. Also important are issues related to the personal professional values of the nursing staff. Though made legal in Canada, physician-assisted deaths still involve careful evaluation -- both medically and ethically, while deciding to agree to be a part of physician-assisted deaths. While there are several perspectives and often conflicting arguments to physician-assisted deaths, most agree that the issue of ethics is of prime importance while deciding on physician-assisted…
Chochinov, H. (2016). Physician-Assisted Death in Canada. JAMA, 315(3), 253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.17435
Downar, J., Bailey, T., & Kagan, J. (2014). Why physician-assisted death?. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 186(10), 778-779. http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.114-0048
Landry, J., Foreman, T., & Kekewich, M. (2015). Ethical considerations in the regulation of euthanasia and physician-assisted death in Canada. Health Policy, 119(11), 1490-1498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2015.10.002
Paterson, C. A History of Ideas Concerning Suicide, Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1029229
Speaking Truth to Health Policy: Helping Veterans eadjust
Every day, at least 20 combat veterans commit suicide in the United States, or one veteran every 65 seconds (Shane & Kime, 2016). This alarming trend is attributable in large part to the symptoms that many people suffer from after experiencing traumatic episodes in their lives. Drawing on the sources of power enumerated by Mason, Gardner, Hopkins Outlaw and O'Grady (2016).This paper provides a current description concerning the health policy adopted by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in response to this nation-wide problem to determine how the situation could benefit from having nurses speak truth to power. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning this issue are presented in the conclusion.
The condition currently known as posttraumatic stress disorder is certainly not a new construct. In World War I, the condition was termed "shell shock" and in World…
Bare, S. (2015, June 2). The truth about 22 veterans suicides a day. Task & Purpose. Retrieved from http://taskandpurpose.com/truth-22-veteran-suicides-day/ .
List of nursing organizations. (2016). Nurse.org. Retrieved from http://nurse.org/orgs.shtml .
Miller, J. (2013, May-June). Veterans on trial: The coming court battles over PTSD. Military Review, 93(3), 92-94.
Shane, L. & Kime, P. (2016, July 7). New VA study finds 20 veterans commit suicide each day. Military Times. Retrieved from http://www.militarytimes.com/story/veterans/2016/07/07/ va-suicide-20-daily-research/86788332/.
CANADA'S ABOIGINAL PEOPLE
Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People
Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People
The aboriginal people of Canada have faced injustices perpetrated through colonization, cultural prejudice, and forced assimilation among many other social injustices. The perpetrators, who include the Canadian dominant population, did this without considering the aboriginal people's well-being. Therefore, in an attempt to reduce the social problems they faced, the aboriginal people taken part in habits such as alcoholism, violence, and suicide. The aboriginal youth remain the most affected, mainly because of the development of suicidal thoughts, which have driven them to commit suicide (Kirmayer, & Valaskakis, 2009). To make it worse, the aboriginal people are denied access to healthcare services, which has contributed to lack of identification of suicidal youths.
The social problems they face result to depression, and some of the people opt to take part in some life-threatening habits, for example, suicide (Lavelle & Poole,…
Baskin, C. (2011). Strong Helpers' Teachings: The Value of Indigenous Knowledge in the Helping Professions. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholar's Press.
Blackstock, C. (2009). The Occasional Evil of Angels: Learning from the Experiences of Aboriginal Peoples and Social Work. First Peoples Child and Family Review, 4(1), 28-37.
Hart, M., Sinclair, R., & Bruyere, G. (2009). Wi-cihitowin: Aboriginal social work in Canada.
Halifax: Fernwood Pub.
Social Media and Suicide
Internet has become a gadget of everyday use for people of 21st century. As it is offering many benefits to the users in terms of information communcaition, interaction, entertainment, socialization and earning livelihhod, there are certain dark factors related to it. The dark factors are as severe as forcing people to commit suicide. It is no exaggeration to mention that Intenet is used as a medium to harass people and get undue benefits from them.
Social media today is playing major role in enabling people and organizations to communicate and share ideas, views and knowledge with other people. The traditional methods of communication have been modified through social media platforms like chat rooms, social networking sites (Facebook, My-Space, Twitter, Google+ etc.), video sites (YouTube), discussion forums, video chat, text messages, blogs etc. (Lexton et al., 2012). The most well-known social networking website Facebook had…
Biddle, L., Donovan, J., Hawton, K., Kapur, N., Gunnell, D., 2008. Suicide and the Internet. British Medical Journal, 336, 800-802.
"Cyberbullying Does Not 'Cause' Teen Suicide," 2012. Retrieved from http://www.science20.com/news_articles/cyberbullying_does_not_cause_teen_suicide-95444
"Facebook Statistics," 2011. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics
"Facebook statistics by country," n.d. Retrieved from http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics
Suicidal behaviors among teenagers remain a national menace. It has been found from large scale national survey data that about 20.5% teens harbored suicide thoughts within 12 months while about 7.7% attempted suicide at least once within this period (Centers for Disease Control, 1998a), suggesting that a large number of youths stand the risks of being prone to suicide. his is most applicable for young boys. A good example is the 1995 data which showed that the number of boys that committed suicide whose ages fell between 15 and 19 were about five times more the number of girls who committed suicide (Kramer Gould, 2001)
Researches carried out on American high school students showed that the total number of teens having suicide thoughts and considering suicide as a solution to their depressions reduced significantly between 1991 and 1997, but a notable increase was recorded on students who attempted…
This study was guided by the primary hypotheses. (1) Feeling socially isolated as an adolescent exposes youths to psychological imbalances such as symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, and behaviors that suggest suicide thoughts. (2) Protective factors like family ties, school ties, and academic accomplishments have the tendency of increasing the relationship between social isolation and risks of psychological ill health.
School-Oriented Support and Intervention programs for Youths
According to (Cooper $Clements, 2001), their studies and reviews on extant literature have shown that social scientists and educators have adopted the high school-based preventive measures for a very long time and still use it today to fight this problem. However, studies that prove observed effectiveness of this method are rare. High school-based preventive
Suicide," an act of suicide is defined as an event when "an otherwise healthy victim has, without any outside pressure, willfully arranged the circumstance that brought around his or her death." The process of clearly defining circumstance and actions that constitute suicide is essential to medical providers, mental health workers and many social service and public providers who are charged with caring for the health and safety of other individuals. Without a clear definition of suicide it can be difficult, if not impossible for these providers to fulfill their ethical and professional obligations to care for sick individuals or prevent crisis or emergency situations that may result from that which is truly suicidal behavior.
Doctors, nurses, social workers, and psychologists in health clinics, hospitals, and outpatient settings are expected to care for their patients and make efforts to safeguard their health and wellness. These providers are often required to protect…
School esponse to Student Suicide: Postvention
The emotional impact on family and friends following an adolescent suicide - and the school's response to a suicide - has not been the subject of the same level of intense research as have: a) the causes of suicides; and b) programs to prevent suicides. However, there is now an emerging body of solid research on what protocol a school can put into place, to be more prepared in the unfortunate circumstance of a teen suicide. Indeed, on the subject of tragedy, in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many schools and communities re-tooled their crisis/response plans for dealing with such threats. And yet, in many ways, the sudden, inexplicable death of a student can cause serious psychological ramifications to fellow students on a part with the shockwaves following an attack by terrorists. And hence, this paper analyzes literature that…
American Association of Suicidology (2003). Remembering Our Children:
Parents of Suicides, A Memorial to Our Precious Sons & Daughters. http://www.angelfire.com/mi2/parentsofsuicide/page1.html
Bratter, Thomas Edward (2003). Surviving Suicide: Treatment Challenges for Gifted, Angry, Drug Dependent Adolescents. International Journal of Reality
Therapy, XXII, 32-36.
death: suicide, euthanasia and the death penalty. Looking at certain aspects of each and discussing the issues concerning society. Also providing a sociological out look and economic basis for the arguments.
Death: Three Chances
Suicide is not a new phenomenon it has been around as long as mankind. The causes of suicide have been discussed on many occasions, and different theories have merged regarding the reason for which someone would commit suicide. There have been many studies undertaken in order to understand the phenomena in greater detail. Certain social factors were identified as being causal or contributing to this phenomenon, and suicides was broken down into different types, with different causes.
Henslin just as Durkheim before has looked at suicide, which Durkheim defined as any action which, leads subsequently to the death of the individual, either through positive action, such as hanging oneself or shooting oneself, or by way of…
Conwell Yeates, MD; Caine Eric D., MD 'Rational Suicide and the Right to Die: Reality and Myth' (1991 Oct 10); The New England Journal of Medicine, pp 1100-1103
Callahan J 'The ethics of assisted suicide' (1994 November);Health and Social Work, Vol. 19, PP. 234-244.
Donchin, Anne Autonomy, interdependence, and assisted suicide: Respecting boundaries/crossing lines. Bioethics. 2000 Jul; Vol 14(3): 187-204.
Haralambos and Holborn, (2000), Sociology; Themes and Perspectives, London, Collins.
Another compelling component that confirms Dukheim's consensus is the fact that despite more women than men experiencing depression, the number of male suicides is consistently larger. (Ibid)
In Light of Suicide's Darkness In light of suicide's darkness, along with the contention that Durham's explanation of anomic and egoistic suicides is a valid reflection of social reality, several patterns of suicide that might be observed in contemporary American social life include:
Greater incidents of suicide may be probable in individuals who have experienced the loss of their family, as Durkheim noted that family life protects an individual from suicide.
Less incidents of suicide are anticipated overall (and among Jews in the U.S.) as the U.S. is currently engaged in war and Durkheim contended that:.".. peacetime suicide rates > wartime suicide rates among Protestants > Roman Catholics > Jews." (Pickering and alford 180).
Greater incidents of suicide may occur in work environments…
Blackman, Jerome S. 101 Defenses: How the Mind Shields Itself. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Durkheim, Emile. The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, http://www.bartleby.com/66/48/18048.html,1996 .
Pickering, W.S.F., and Geoffrey Walford, eds. Durkheim's Suicide: A Century of Research and Debate. London: Routledge, 2000.
Santayana, George. The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved 14 July 2006 at http://www.bartleby.com/66/52/48152.html,1996 .
Males are not only stronger than most of their female counterparts, the methods of suicide tend to be more lethal as well. According to research, "the higher male suicide rank is explained in part by males' more frequent use of lethal methods (e.g. firearms and hanging), but surely that cannot be the entire explanation," (Maris et a. 2000:75). This is true. There is a whole array of explanations lurking within the mental state of the individual, as well as the external world.
In face, gender differences found within the context of society itself can also be attributed to the increased risk for males. Within most of the world, men are considered the providers. Thus, there is lots of social pressure to succeed and become a provider, which the female is not expected to do. This pressure can then build up, and with social pressure to act like a man and…
Larson, Ruth. (1998). Lithium prevents suicides. Insight on the News. 14(18):39-40.
Leibling, Alison. (1992). Suicides in Prison. Routledge Press.
Weaver, John C. & Munro Doug. (2009). Country living, country dying: rural suicides in New Zealand, 1900-1950. Journal of Social History. 42(4):933-937.
I am unhappy, why not kill myself?' An anomic suicide might say, 'the old gods have been shown to be false, so their prohibitions against suicide are also false, why not kill myself since I am unhappy?' ("Individual and society," Sociology at Hewett, excerpted from Coser, 1977:132-136).
These are the most common types of suicide, although Durkheim also gave some other examples of the social causes of suicide, such as altruistic suicide, which is the opposite of anomic suicide -- altruistic suicide is caused by too much social regulation, including as individuals who commit suicide to avoid dishonoring their family, or in extreme cases, because social conventions compel them to commit suicide like the Hindu practice of the ritual suicide of widows or Japanese harikiri, where samurai warriors kill themselves if their lord is dishonored ("Individual and society," Sociology at Hewett, excerpted from Coser, 1977:132-136).
Individual and society."…
Individual and society." Sociology at Hewett. Excerpted from Coser, 1977:132-136. Retrieved 8 Oct 2007 at http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/CURRIC/soc/durkheim/durkw2.htm
Lived Experiences of African-American Women who have lost a male child to suicide
he lived experiences of late-adolescent female suicide survivors: 'A part of me died' by Willem a. Hoffmann; Chris Myburgh; and Marie Poggenpoel.
Explain how the study tested the constructs of the new theory.
Over the years there have been two precise sampling strategies used by numerous researchers. hese two strategies are the probability and a non-probability sampling strategies. he main distinction between these two strategies is that the former is more casual and does not have a specific target or segment of the population in mind; whereas the non-probability sampling procedure is very official and very purposeful in its choice of who the researcher studies and why. he researcher used non-probability purposive sampling to hand pick students. More specifically, the research participants were five female late-adolescents (aged 17 -- 22 years) who were recruited by means of…
The researcher points out that there is a paucity of research on suicide survivors and even fewer studies exist on African-American suicide survivors. He conceptualizes suicide survivors as individuals who have lost a family member to suicide. Furthermore, he illustrates that although suicide is a relatively rare event, particularly among African-Americans, the recent dramatic increase in suicide among African-American youth makes it critical to understand this phenomena.
Subsequently he signifies the phenomenon of suicide survivors by highlighting various facts. For instance, he highlights that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), between 1980 and 1995, rates for African-American youth aged 15 to 19 increased 128% compared to 19% for Whites. Furthermore, he argues that although there has been a recent decline in the suicide rates among African-American youth, suicide continues to be the third-leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old African-Americans (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2004).
He conceptualizes that bereavement with regards to suicide and points out that it has many emotional complexities that may evoke such symptoms as anxiety, difficulty concentrating, sleep disturbance, and depression. Lastly, he conceptualizes the awareness o suicide figures amongst African-Americans and points out that unfortunately, some African-Americans continue to deny that suicide is a problem within the Black community; this view is buttressed by the fact that suicide is a relatively rare behavior among all ethnic groups. Lastly, he linked grief and suicide strongly and argued that grief when associated with suicide differs from grief from other forms of death because of the emotional complexities that go along with losing someone this way.
If someone returns a questionnaire with identifying personal information, then it will not be used in the study and will be destroyed. The questionnaires will also be constructed so that there will be no questions that could potentially violate the participants privacy in any way. For instance, there will be no questions asked about the particulars of the child's suicide, where the mother works, what particular community she's from and what church she is a member of, etc. Questions such as these could deter the target audience from responding because of fear that their privacy could be jeopardized.
The introductory letter sent with the questionnaire plays an important role in weeding out any ethical issues that may arise. The letter will clearly define the survey and discuss why the prospective participants were chosen. They will know that none of their personal information was used in order to send them the…
That is a perfectly valid reason not to engage in the practice, at least in the case of any person who makes that decision because of his or her religious beliefs and values. However, the very same concept of religious freedom means that no person should ever have his or her rights defined against his or her will by the religious beliefs and values of other people. In this country, the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution expressly prohibits the state from imposing religion on any individual; yet that is exactly the situation to the extent that legislators ever oppose euthanasia on "religious" grounds. Incidentally, the exact same principle applies to abortion to the degree that the issue involves religious beliefs about when human life "begins."
Supporting the right of the individual to choose euthanasia does not mean that there should be no safeguards to protect mentally unstable patients…
Physician Assisted Suicide in Patients With Unbearable Suffering or the Terminally Ill
One of the most hotly debated issues today is physician-assisted suicide. ecently, California became the fifth state to legalize physician-assisted suicide, and there is an increasing likelihood that other states will follow suit in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this study is to determine if the factors chosen have any bearing on those who choose to end their life with physician assisted suicide. In support of this purpose, the objectives of this study were as follows: (a) to research scholarly articles regarding physician-assisted suicide and gather pertinent information into a comprehensive profile; (b) to research whether unbearable suffering is the dominant motive to request physician-assisted suicide; (c) to research whether the race and level of education of the patient are contributing factors when physician-assisted suicide is requested; and, (d) to research whether the type of terminal illness…
Bauer-Maglin, N. & Perry, D. (2010). Final acts: Death, dying, and the choices we make. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Biller-Adorno, N. (2013, April 11). Physician-assisted suicide should be permitted. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(15), 1451.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Boudreau, J. D. & Somerville, M. A. (2013,April 11). Physician-assisted suicide. The New England Journal of Medicine, 385, 15.
Buddhist and Christina Ethic on Suicide and Euthanasia
The ethical issues associated with suicide and euthanasia are often viewed through the secular eyes of our modern world, yet many of the issues that are a part of the reasons why an individual might be for or against suicide and euthanasia are based almost entirely upon religious ethics. In this work a comparison will be drawn between the Christian and Buddhist views of the ethics of suicide and euthanasia. Comparing these two faith's standards and moral guidelines regarding these two issues will demonstrate a greater understanding of the ethics and standards associated with the modern secular moral stand on the issue in a political and personal way. The Christian and Buddhist ethic on suicide and euthanasia demonstrate a historical perspective of a very ancient ethical dilemma and the similarities and differences of the outgrowth of social and cultural responses to it…
Becker, Carl "Buddhist Views of Suicide and Euthanasia," June 14, 2004 http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/cf_eng.htm.
Coward, Harold G. "Memory and Scripture in the Conversion of Augustine." Essays on Augustine. Ed. Meynell, Hugo Anthony. Calgary, Alta.: University of Calgary Press, 1990. 17-27.
Eliade, Mircea ed. Encyclopedia of Religion New York, NY: G.K. Hall and Co.
Adolescents at isk of Suicide
Today, alarming numbers of young people are contemplating taking their own lives, and many follow through on their suicide ideations to actually kill themselves or to make an attempt. In sum, suicide represents the second-leading cause of death for people aged 15 to 34 years and is the third-leading cause of death among young people aged 10 to 14 years (Suicide facts at a glance, 2015). To gain some additional insights into these issues, this case study provides a description of hypothetical 14-year-old runaway Caucasian adolescent, "Jane," who as referred from a homeless shelter with suicide ideations to determine what screening and testing should be performed, a discussion concerning current recommended treatment protocol, drugs and non-pharmacological interventions, and a description of expected treatment outcomes including a corresponding time frame and follow-up plan. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning adolescents such as…
Horwitz, A. V. & Wakefield, J. C. (2007). The loss of sadness: How psychiatry transformed normal sorrow into depressive disorder. New York: Oxford University Press.
Interventions for suicide risk. (2017). Zero Suicide. Retrieved from http://zerosuicide.sprc.org/ toolkit/treat/interventions-suicide-risk.
King, K. A. & Price, J. H. (2009, April). Preventing adolescent suicide: Do high school counselors know the risk factors? Professional School Counseling, 3(4), 255-257.
Maris, R. W. & Berman, A. L (2000). Comprehensive textbook of suicidology. New York: Guilford Press.
Stress and Suicide in Law Enforcement Populations
The paper is an understanding of what stress could have on law enforcement officials. The factors which cause stress for law enforcement officials are varied ranging from personal life issues, the pressures of work, the public response towards police job, the entire criminal law system and the entire rules and procedures involved in the law system. If this stress is not alleviated then the officers start reacting in negative ways. The biggest stress on most police officers is suicide. The numbers of police officers that face death by committing suicide are very high when compared to those who are killed when they are on duty. During 1934 and 1960 the suicide rates of the police officers were nearly half of the general population. But then from 1980 to the current date this situation has changed so drastically that the death rates as to…
Durkheim and the Study of Suicide
Emile Durkheim was primarily interested in how societies could remain coherent and integrated in present times when shared religious and ethnic background can no longer be relied on (Wikipedia 2005). Along with Herbert Spencer, he set the first scientific approaches to social phenomena that focused on social facts, instead of individual motivation. Durkheim suggested that social phenomena existed apart, independently and more objectively of individual actions and that these phenomena could be explained by other social facts other than society's, for example, climatic or ecological adaptation. This belief later came to be known as functionalism (Wikipedi).
His work, "The Division of Labor in Society," published in 1893, examined the different types of society, particularly the division of labor and how this division different between traditional and modern societies (Wikipedia 2005). He suggested a view that reversed the order of evolution among societies from a…
1. Elwell F.W. (2003). Emile durkheim's sociology. Rogers State University. http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Durkheim
2. Gingrich, P. (1999). Social factors and suicide. University of Regina. http://uregina.ca/~gingrich/626199.htm
3. Hewlett School (2005). Durkheim's anomie. Crime and Deviance. http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc/crime/anomie.htm
4. -- . Emile durkheim: the person. http://www.hewlett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc/dukheim/drukper.htm
University Suicide Prevention
A local university in a mid-size city in the upper Midwest is concerned about the dramatic increase in the rates of attempted suicides and suicides. The university's health center and local health department enlisted the help of the university's student advocacy group and St. Joseph Medical Center to help identify the cause of this problem and probable solutions to it. Following a comprehensive and organized healthcare needs assessment, the LGBT community in the university is identified as the most affected group. Based on reports from the institution's health department and mental health division, increased rates of suicide attempts and suicides occur among the LGBT student community. Additionally, most of the requests in the student advocacy center for information regarding STDs, suicide, and depression have come from this community. These reports are indicators of the university's apparent failure to meet the needs of this community and require suitable…
Haas et al. (2011, January 4). Suicide and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Review and Recommendations. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(1), 10-51.
Sweet, M. (n.d.). Depression and Anxiety in LGBT People: What You need to Know. Retrieved May 14, 2017, from http://www.mattsweet.com/lgbt-anxiety-depression-guide.pdf
Zeno, T., Warren, K. & Snyder, J. (2015, June 19). Outreach and Enrollment for LGBT Individuals: Promising Practices from the Field. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services website: https://aspe.hhs.gov/basic-report/outreach-and-enrollment-lgbt-individuals-promising-practices-field
physician-assisted suicide. Specifically, it will show why I disagree with physician-assisted suicide. Physician-assisted suicide is too much like playing God. When people die should be up to their bodies and God, not a doctor who is not involved with them or their families.
In many religions, suicide is a sin, and if you commit suicide, you will go to Hell. This refers to any kind of suicide, even physician-assisted suicide. "As unrepentant simmer, suicides were denied burial in consecrated ground and expected to end in Hell" (Van Den Haag 136).
Even if it is not a sin, it is not normal. Normal people do not commit suicide; they have something wrong with them mentally or physically, and cannot deal with it, or deal with the pressures of life. People who commit suicide with the help of a physician because of a terminal disease are no different from anyone else. They…
Physician-assisted suicide, or physician-assisted death, refers to “the process that allows terminally ill adults to request from their physician, receive from their pharmacist, and take a lethal dose of medication to end their life,” (Death with Dignity, n.d.). Although seemingly similar to euthanasia, physician-assisted death is different in that it tends to refer to situations where the patient does not act with autonomy. Physician-assisted death is still controversial and is illegal in most states. However, Oregon, Washington, Vermont, California, and Colorado have legalized physician-assisted death, and several other states have pending legislation to do so as of 2018 (Quill & Sussman, 2018). The medical community itself is divided on the practice of physician-assisted death. Arguments for physician-assisted death include the rights of patients to self-determination. Arguments against physician-assisted death include the obligation of the physician to heal, not kill, the potential for ambiguous situations where there is some risk…
Is physician-assisted suicide ethical if the patient requests medical assistance in terminating his or her own life?
In the U.S., the Supreme Court ruled in Washington v. Glucksberg (1997) that physician-assisted suicide is not protected by the Constitution. However, in other parts of the world, physician-assisted suicide is accepted socially and legally; and in the U.S., a patient who is terminally ill may engage in assisted-dying procedures, which are legal in six states and are legally differentiated from suicide (Buiting, Dieden et al., 2009). If one sets aside the legalistic parameters differentiating physician-assisted dying from physician-assisted suicide, can one say that the former is more ethical than the latter?
In other words, is physician-assisted suicide ethical if the patient requests medical assistance in terminating his or her own life?
In spite of what is permitted under the auspices of physician-assisted dying procedures, this paper will argue that…
This has sparked many debates in social and political arenas in regards to personhood, self-determination and human autonomy.
Any time a person wants to intentionally end his or her life, it is considered suicide. Suicide, in itself is now legal (Manning, 1998), but proponents of euthanasia argue that suicide may not be an option for the terminally ill, the hospitalized or physically disabled. These people may not have the strength or the means to end their lives alone, therefore, they cannot exercise the option of suicide and consequently are being discriminated against (Gifford, 1993).
I personally agree with those on the pro-euthanasia side of the camp, who believe that suicide is not an appropriate term for this issue because suicide is often associated with desperate emotion whereas euthanasia is based on a "cogent and deliberate form of relief from a painful and hopeless disease" (Adams, 1992). As opposed to suicide,…
Adams, Robert. "Physician-Assisted Suicide and the Right to Die With Assistance." Harvard Law Review 105:2021-2040, 1992
Gifford, Edward. "Artres Moriendi: Active Euthanasia and the Art of Dying." UCLA Law Review 40:1545-1583, 1993.
Manning, Michael, MD, Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Killing or Caring? Paulist Press, Mahwah, NJ, 1998
Olen, Jeffery & Barry, Vincent. Applying Ethics: A Text With Readings (6th ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1999.
(1999) formed the basis of the survey. (Vermeiren et al.)
The study found that that the older age groups and those who had previously experienced abuse were more prone to suicide as a result of the exposure to violence. In essence, the study also found in this sample of communities that exposure to violence in European inner cities is frequently experienced. Furthermore the findings.".. demonstrate that suicidal risk is increased in youths exposed to community violence, and that this risk gradually increases with the level of exposure" (Vermeiren et al.).
Another important finding is that, as was hypothesized from the literature, there is a marked and significant difference in relation to gender. Suicidal ideation was reported by 15.3% of girls and 9.5% of boys..." (Vermeiren et al.).
The authors underline the importance of this area of research in that suicide is one of the major health risks among adolescent youth.…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000845647
Vermeiren, Robert, et al. "Exposure to Violence and Suicide Risk in Adolescents: A Community Study." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 30.5 (2002): 529+.