Summative Essays (Examples)

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What Approach Should Be Used

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44536831

CKD - Design

Designing a study that evaluates an intervention must take several items into consideration in order to be determined as both reliable and valid; even if the study is in reality a health promotion goal, it is still necessary to treat it the same way a study would be treated. Determining what is reliable and what is valid therefore is an important step in both including those two objectives in a study, and achieving them as well. Study reliability is determined when the researcher can expect the same results time and time again by replicating research procedures. If a study is set up to determine results, and those results can be replicated, then the researcher can determine that the results are reliable. hen the researcher is attempting to show reliability, the researcher wants an independent observer to be capable of replicating results of the study using the same…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jenkins, J.O.; (2010) A multi-faceted formative assessment approach: Better recognizing the learning needs of students, Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 35, Issue 5, pp. 565 -- 576

Joughin, G.; (2010) The hidden curriculum revisited: A critical review of research into the influence of summative assessment on learning, Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 35, Issue 3, pp. 335 -- 345

Schmitz, C.C.; Chipman, J.G.; Yoshida, K.; Vogel, R.I.; Sainfort, F.; Beilman, G.; Clinton, J.; Cooper, J.; Rejhsen, T.; Sweet, R.M.; (2014) Reliability and validity of a test designed to assess combat medic's readiness to perform life-saving procedures, Military Medicine, Vol. 179, Issue 1, pp. 42 -- 48
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Studied Constantly With Many of

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50370792

Patton states a new evaluator must know. Patton said that the evaluation situation provides the evaluator a chance to "focus an evaluation by appropriately matching the design, methods, measures…to the situation" (Patton). Daniel Stufflebeam agrees with Patton's assessment. He states that the new evaluator must know a number of different things, including "the meanings of formative and summative evaluation" (Stufflebeam).

Knowing the differences between a formative and summative evaluation is not the only thing that a new evaluator should know, the evaluator should also understand when to use a formative or a summative evaluation and when to employ a certain methodology. Michael Scriven tells the new evaluator that knowing how to validate empirical claims is by employing different methodologies is only a small part of the knowledge needed by a new evaluator, but an equally important piece of the puzzle is to know what device or tool to use as…… [Read More]

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Percussion Teacher in Forty-Five Hours of Teaching

Words: 2493 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80280279

Percussion Teacher

In forty-five hours of teaching percussion, I have learned to apply various learning theories to my work. I believe a greater understanding of these theories has improved my pedagogy and enhanced communications and interpersonal connections with my students, who are both male and female and range in age from child to adult. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on my own learning experience as a teacher, including application of learning theories, effective communication techniques, use of formative and summative assessments, and incorporating language literacy and numeracy in the lessons. By reflecting on the teaching experience, I hope to gain insight that will inform my approach in the future and help me better meet the needs of all my students.

Learning Theories

For many of my students, I use the London College of Music series that has a graded course (1-8) for drum kit. Each handbook includes…… [Read More]

References

Cook, G. (1988). Teaching Percussion, New York (USA): G. Schirmer.

Criswell, C. 2009, 'Drum circles and the national standards', Teaching Music, vol. 16, no. 4, pp.

49-51.

Fidyk, S. 2010, 'Percussion: Adapting drumming for students with special needs', Teaching
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Supervision and Evaluation Public Education

Words: 1651 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93373142

He has found that in his experience, this method works best.

Grossman, Pam and Loeb, Susanna. (2010). Learning from multiple routes. Educational Leadership, 67(8), 22-27.

Grossman and Loeb talk about how alternative routes to becoming a teacher have grown throughout the past few decades. The necessity for teachers is mainly in urban areas as this is where most teacher shortages occur. They discuss how subjects such as math and science are in high demand and people with backgrounds in either area usually are successful at taking an alternative route. The authors make a point to note that not all alternative programs are the same. They praise the Teach for American and New York City Teaching Fellows programs as being top rated and highly selective, thus garnering the best candidates. Teach for American and New York City Teaching Fellows programs generally recruit applicants from competitive schools which is why both programs…… [Read More]

Kaye, Eileen Beverley. (2004). Turning the tide on marginal teaching. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision. 19(3), 234-258.

In this journal article, Kaye discusses what she calls marginal teachers and the best methods to assist teachers falling into this category. Her definition of marginal teachers are those whose teaching practices are borderline unacceptable. She favors the collaborative approach which requires input and goal setting from both the teacher and the supervisor. Going a step further, she looks at the formative and summative methods of evaluation to find out if either or both approaches would be helpful for teachers falling into the marginal category. Kaye also looks at factors that may cause marginal teaching. She notes that certain supervisory methods could be the blame and says that all areas should be examined.

She favors the formative approach in dealing with schools having a large number of teachers that fall into this category. Kaye feels that when there are several teachers not performing well, the programs should be examined for ways to improve them instead of placing the blame on the teachers.
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Supervision When to Use Directive Control Behaviors

Words: 3005 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64622522

Supervision: When to Use Directive Control Behaviors

This paper is about many different aspects of effective supervision, training and evaluation, but the main concern here is control. It can be assumed that the supervisor has control over the supervisory situation, but this would be an oversimplification of the relationship between a line employee and their direct boss. Control is a shared entity because though the supervisor may determine the course an employee must take, the employee decides whether they will follow that direction or not. Thus, the supervisor must prove to the employee that they are competent in the job before they can expect the employee to follow direction.

This is the stance taken by directive control behaviors. A supervisor who uses directive control behaviors has to be a subject matter expert. If they cannot claim an expertise in the elements that the job entails then they are less likely…… [Read More]

Pistole and Fitch (2008) examined the role of attachment in supervision. The findings in this study were much like those of the cultural study. Two factors influenced the role attachment played in the supervisory relationship: a culture that valued attachment, or a person who did not feel confident in the job that they were doing. The second type of employee seems to thrive under the vertical, directive style of leadership and have productivity decreases when forced to complete a task with little direction (Pistole & Fitch, 2008). This meshes well with other research which suggests what the appropriate role of directive control behaviors are.

Directive control also calls for a leader who is charismatic enough to generate the trust necessary for the directive relationship to succeed. The worker must be able to see that the supervisor has confidence in their skill level before that leader will be accepted. Einstein and Humphreys (2001) looked at how directive leaders were perceived by their subordinates. The most important part of the relationship, according to the research, was the belief by the employees that the leader was an expert. This led to a belief that the direction that was being received was appropriate to meet the set goals. The researchers did find that a leader must be willing to move from "directive to persuasive to involving to inspirational styles of leadership" as the competency and confidence of the employees increased. If the supervisor remained in a directive role for too long then productivity of the employees would decrease.

These studies bear out two points that are important for understanding the role of directive supervisory behavior. First, there are certain groups of people that will generally feel more comfortable when the supervisor takes a more directive role. Second, directive leadership has a very specific window of success. It needs to be used in the correct situations.
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Instructional Effectiveness Many Scholars Claim

Words: 1604 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43779153

Time to develop and use assessments effectively must be built into the teachers' work week. They are time-consuming, but worthwhile, and should not be administered as an afterthought. The results tell us a great deal about students and ourselves. It will be a challenge to make sure assessments are meaningful and are accorded the time they deserve.

When we think of assessments, we often think about formal assessments, whether they are teacher-created quizzes, chapter tests from a textbook, or standardized tests that compare students across the country. Assessment can, and should, include the informal observations teachers make in their classrooms on a daily basis. Because teachers spend so much time with their students, they are in a good position to see both struggles and progress. It may be one of the easiest ways to see what students need because it is immediate and requires no preparation. We can learn from…… [Read More]

References

Hur, J.W., & Suh, S. (2010). The development, implementation, and evaluation of a summer school for English language learners. The Professional Educator 34(2).

Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Sluijmans, D.M.A., & Jochems, W.M.G. (2010). Assessor's approaches to portfolio assessment in assessment of prior learning procedures.

Evaluation in Higher Education 35(1), pp. 55-70.

Rhodes, T. (2010). Since we seem to agree, why are the outcomes so difficult to achieve? New
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Secondary Literature and Primary Research

Words: 833 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60635630

Every educational institution and population presents unique characteristics and requirements that make even the most comprehensive prior research incomplete in terms of the actual advisability of implementing changes in that educational environment (Lloyd, 2005).

Summative Evaluation

Summative evaluation must begin from the moment of initial implementation (II, 2008). It should cover both the immediate apparent response of and effect on learners as well as the apparent efficacy and appropriateness of the operational approach implemented by teachers initially. The former allows teachers to gauge, in real time, the degree to which the new changes seem to be received by students and the degree to which they seem to benefit their teaching objectives and learning outcomes. Sometimes, that process allows educators to identify practical difficulties and complications in their chosen methods of delivery that might not have been anticipated prospectively. Other times, that process allows educators to identify problems, deficiencies, and complications…… [Read More]

References

Informal Reading Inventory (IRI): Assessment Procedures Manual Secondary (2008). St.

Paul Public Schools. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from:

 http://specialed.spps.org/sites/fc868fe7-9c90-4bf3-acf0-17baf5d1a572/uploads/Informal_Reading_Inventory_Procedures_Manual_Secondary.pdf 

Lascarides, V. And Hinitz, B. (2000). History of Early Childhood Education. New York:
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Special Needs Intervention

Words: 2579 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73391674

Special Needs Intervention

Client Profile

Brenda is a seven-year-old second grader that has been identified as dyslexic. She has significant delays in pre-literacy and numeracy skills have been identified through both formal assessment and performance in classroom activities. Work samples demonstrate that Brenda has difficulty sequencing and recognizing word phenomes and putting them together for reading and writing activities. Brenda does not demonstrate the ability to recognize phenomes in words. Brenda frequently reverses letters and/or the whole words when performing literacy tasks.

An interview with Brenda's teacher reveals that other than her problems associated with dyslexia, Brenda's development and functioning is on target with a majority of her peers. She tends to display shyness and introversion when called upon in class to perform activities associated with literacy and numeracy. She is polite and participates actively in class activities. She is a pleasant child and normally social with her classmates. She…… [Read More]

References

Adams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I. & Beeler, T. (2011). "Phonemic Awareness in Young

Children." Reading Rockets. Retrieved from  http://www.readingrockets.org/article/408/ 

Dyslexiaaustralia.com (n.d.). Dyslexia Testing Services. Retrieved from  http://www.dyslexiaaustralia.com.au/information-mainmenu-90/38-disability-discrimination 

Dyslexiasymptoms.net. (2011). Dyslexia Symptoms, Tests and Treatment. Retrieved from http://www.dyslexiasymptoms.net/page/2
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Working for International Peace

Words: 1293 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93243834

Mitigating Lawless African Acts

Problem Definition and Intervention Description

Boko Haram is a militant Islamist organization that it terrorizing large portions of Nigeria, since at least 2011 (Uhrmacher and Sheridan, 2106). Their methods are fairly typical of terrorists. These include suicide bombings, kidnappings, and attacks on everyday civilians. The crux of their methodology is that they are targeting civilians since they do not have the means to battle the largely Christian government via conventional warfare. Therefore, they have resorted to terrorist attacks to cause residents to flee and to attempt to gain territory in such a manner.

The principle means of intervening in this activity is to aid the Christian government of Nigeria with forces that are opposed to terrorism. This aid will include those marshaled and containing troops from the United States, Western Europe, and the United Nations in general. It is critical to supply the Nigerian government with…… [Read More]

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Vignette 1 Maria and Her

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99489621

Not all teachers are aware of the fact that formative assessments should be used to modify their own teaching approach, and not merely to see if students are doing their homework. Teachers should also be more willing to pool their collective knowledge and resources, so they can exchange ideas about using different forms of formative assessments besides quizzes.

3. Formative assessments are as much of a "check in" for me as your child. I am trying to "check" to see what he or she does not understand.

4. The overemphasis on standardized testing can cause teachers to focus too much on the stated goals of the lesson, and not enough on the process of learning. It is not possible to remove this impediment, however. Instead teachers should find ways to make formative assessment useful in meeting the goals set for the class. Students should be encouraged to use periodic formative…… [Read More]

References

Garrison, Catherine & Michael Ehringhaus (2011).Formative and summative assessment.

National and Middle School Association. Retrieved March 29, 2011 at  http://www.nmsa.org/Publications/WebExclusive/Assessment/tabid/1120/Default.aspx
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Comprehension of a Cours's Subject

Words: 494 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9121853

I would then draft the scenario with a script for the laboring patient to follow that precisely matches the signs and red flags from the curriculum. This would ensure that the nurses are thinking through and recalling both the problem and the proper steps to fix the problem.

For example, one problem that might arise is that the baby's head is not easily exiting the birth canal. According to the curriculum the nurse would then know that from that factor the mother is pushing the wrong position. The nurse would be required to lift the mother from a supine position and aid her into the natural squatting position, which is recommended most for expanding the pelvis and shortening the birth canal. Thus, the nurse determines the red flag and fixes the problem correctly.

This evaluation provides useful information on the amount of comprehension that the nurses are gaining from the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jordan, S. (2000). Educational input and patient outcomes: Exploring the gap. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(2), 461 -- 471.

Messner, E.R., Reck, D.L., & Curci, K.M. (2005). Effectiveness of a patient education brochure in the emergency department. Topics in Emergency Medicine, 27(4), 251 -- 255.
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Petco Workforce Planning Workforce Planning at Pet-Co

Words: 6529 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95579782

PetCo Workforce Planning

Workforce planning at Pet-Co

The Importance of Workforce Planning

Linking the Needs of Staffing With Workforce Planning

The Importance of Workforce Planning At Pet-Co

General information about Pet-Co

The Business Model Analysis of Pet-Co

The Pet-Co strategy

HM Considerations

Company Profile in a Nutshell

The Workforce Planning Model

Setting the Strategic Direction

Conducting a Workforce Analysis

The Demand Side of WorkForce Planning

The supply side of workforce planning

Workforce Demand Forecast

Workforce Supple Forecast

Conducting Gap Analysis

Develop Strategies

Implement Strategies

Monitoring, Evaluation and evision

Functional Considerations of Workforce Planning

The Application of Workforce Planning Model at Pet-Co

Conclusion

eferences

Abstract

Organizations today are formed on an on-going assumption, which emphasizes that a particular organization is formed with an aim to operate forever. Hence the organizations are well versed with the tactics and strategies that will facilitate their way to function profitably in the long run. In…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, M.W. (2004). The Metrics of Workforce Planning. Public Personnel Management, 33(4), 363+.

Helton, K.A., & Soubik, J.A. (2004). Case Study: Pennsylvania's Changing Workforce Planning Today with Tomorrow's Vision. Public Personnel Management, 33(4), 459+.

Horkan, N., & Hoefer, E. (2000). Workforce Planning at DOT. The Public Manager, 29(1), 13.

Jacobson, W.S. (2010). Preparing for Tomorrow: A Case Study of Workforce Planning in North Carolina Municipal Governments. Public Personnel Management, 39(4), 353+.
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Resource Management Is an Effective and Efficient

Words: 1963 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74661610

esource management is an effective and efficient way of deploying the resources within an organization. These resources include human skills, inventory, financial resources, production resources or even the information systems. For there to be success in any project there has to be effective management of resources when it comes to assigning them to the projects. This often includes hours of labor for those people who are assigned to the particular project. esource management also involves management of the labor hours of the people that are involved in subcontracts. Apart from the management of people, resource management also involves managing equipment that are to be used for specific projects and the materials required by people and the specific equipment that have been assigned to the projects. When it comes to project management there are techniques, philosophies, and processes can be developed in a bid to ensure that the best approach is…… [Read More]

References

Lock, D.(2007).Project management, Gower publishing limited.

Ready.(2010).Resource Management.Retrieved November 6,2013 from  http://www.ready.gov/business/implementation/resource 

Aiber, S, Gilat, D & Sela A.(2011).Business objective-based resource management.Retrieved November 6,2013 from http://www2004.wwwconference.org/docs/2p236.pdf

NetSuite Inc.(2013). Resource Management. Retrieved November 6,2013 from  http://www.openair.com/Resource-Management
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Parts of Curriculum

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2588844

Curriculum: A Puzzle of Learning

With an increased focus in literacy and assessment in education, the old curriculum, that is, planning the activities, then searching for resources, and finally deciding how to evaluate a student's achievement has been replaced with a new model. The new model begins with the evaluation, and then focuses on the resources that are available, and finally the tasks to teach the students are created. This model can be adapted to fit the school system philosophy and the individual school and students, but as a general practice, the new model of creating and presenting curriculum falls somewhere within this model. But how do all the parts of the curriculum fit together? Each piece, from the set outcomes to the different types of evaluation must work together to form a unified, understandable curriculum that is accessible to students and teachers alike.

The first factor that must be…… [Read More]

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Educational Situations

Words: 6837 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97521471

Educational Situations

Name four practices that commonly require written administrative procedures.

Memorandums that include school policy changes or important information for the staff are commonly distributed in writing so that the information is accurately conveyed and properly received and documented. Many staff communications to the administration, such as requests for new classroom supplies or for personal leaves of absence, are also communicated in writing. If disciplinary action of any kind is taken against a student, it is commonly recorded in writing in the student's permanent file, and a copy of this information may be sent home to parents. Finally, the recording of daily vital information, such as student attendance and test scores, are done in writing.

How would you know if you are complying with EQ policies and procedures?

A a) If I were not complying with EQ policies, I would receive notification or a warning of some kind from…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Graves, Bonnie & Michael. "Scaffolding Reading Experiences to Promote Success: A Flexible Approach to Fostering Comprehension." University of Minnesota.  http://education.umn.edu/carei/Reports/Rpractice/Winter95/comprehension.htm 

Education Queensland. Queensland Government.  http://education.qld.gov.au
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Being an Instructor Online

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39717579

Online Class

Being an online instructor

The current learning trends are becoming predominantly online based and many instructors find it more convenient adopting this mode of learning as opposed to the traditional classroom-based learning. It is not to say that the online-based learning should replace the traditional classroom setting, but there is need for adaptability of either modes where necessary. The following are the major areas that I will emphasize on in order to have an effective online class and effective interaction with the students as an instructor;

Assessing learning outcomes

One of the methods that I will use for assessing the learning outcomes will be the evaluation of the activeness of each student in the online class especially in terms of answering questions in the online forum. I will also post numerous assignments and use the frequency of reply or return of the exams from each student to gauge…… [Read More]

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Relationship Development Some Components Must

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79747693

For these to from part of the way of operating they are institutionalized at the end of every thing.

Looking at the permutations of relation development in business may have very little significance as with the summary of Hallen and Wiedersheim-Paul (1984) which may be considered to be the best since they deal with the four stages; pre-contact, initial interaction, development and maturity.

Pre-contact

Since the related parties have been apart, the perception on their sides rely much on second hand appreciations of the whole nation, hence the initiation of cultural affinity as a starting variable. In consistency with the previous work by Inglehart (1991) secondary information can provide the basis of determining the level of trust, which can impact significantly on the subsequent relationship. The existence of a positive attitude at this stage towards other culture can work as mitigation towards trust development. Communication is an important factor since…… [Read More]

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Old Economy Job

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9764266

Old economy job: Information available at

Wanted: Dynamic candidate for unique marketing job at one of Canada's premiere law firms

Do you have strong interpersonal skills? Can you work well in a team? Are you passionate about event planning and have experience working with MS Office Suite?

If you answer 'yes' to all of these questions, and are either-based or would like to relocate to Toronto, please read the following specifications.

Job title: Marketing assistant for a Canadian law firm

Location of job: Toronto, Canada

Possible salary bracket or range: $42,000-$52,000, commensurate with experience

Job description: This promotional job for a law firm requires "strong interpersonal and communication skills," the ability to multitask in a busy office environment, the ability to be a team player, and knowledge of MS Office Suite.

Job requirements or specifications: Five years of relevant experience; background in event planning preferred

Who to contact or where…… [Read More]

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Student Assessment What Is the Most Appropriate

Words: 1340 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26020345

Student Assessment

hat is the most appropriate way to assess student achievement? The commission of the National Middle School Assessment of student achievement suggests "authentic assessment refers to evaluation that makes use of real life tasks instead of contrived test items." (NMSA, 2000) In other words, rather than focus on testing students more, a greater interest and study of effective teaching practices are better employed in further research regarding education. The National Middle School Assessment Authentic assessment also suggests that while standardized testing may occasionally function as a rough means of evaluating all children, such as identifying children with possible special needs, assessment in a truly learner-centered classroom will vary. "Examples of types of assessment are performance tasks, portfolios, student self-assessment surveys and probes, peer assessments, journals, logs, products, and projects. Successful assessment improves learning, instruction and program effectiveness." (NMS 2000, citing Donald, 1997) In my own school district, located…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ellis, Edwin & Lou Anne Worthington, Martha J. Larkin. (2005) "Executive Summary of the Research Synthesis on Effective Teaching Principles and the Design of Quality Tools for Educators." Area of Teacher Education, Programs in Special Education University of Alabama Report. Retrieved 23 Oct 2005

http://idea.uoregon.edu/~ncite/documents/techrep/tech06.html

'Executive Summary." (2001) Child Left Behind Act' of 2001. Summary of research retrieved 23 Oct 2005

 http://www.ed.gov/nclb/overview/intro/execsumm.html
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Counseling Theories

Words: 2191 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31525156

Counseling Theory

Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. ecent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.

Existential Therapy

Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…… [Read More]

References

Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN:  http://ssrn.com/abstract=2051484  or  http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2051484 

Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.

Crocker, S.F. & Philippson, P. (2005). Phenomenology, existentialism, and Eastern thought in gestalt therapy. Chapter 4 in Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory and Practice. Sage.

Geller, J.D. (2003). Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology 59(5): 541-554.
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Differentiated Learning & Assessment -- PLC Presentation

Words: 1743 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47845156

Differentiated Learning & Assessment -- PLC Presentation

Differentiated instruction and assessment recognizes that the individual needs, strengths and weaknesses of students must drive learning (Wormeli, 2007). Changing the outcomes of traditional lesson plans to account for differentiated learning is a fundamental part of ensuring student success. Each student's readiness, interest and learning profile is at the core of this approach. Students are diverse; therefore, instructional and assessment practices should be as well, to improve student outcomes in all content areas.

Many teachers design lessons that have a set of specific learning objectives and standardized assessments for students. However, today's learning models ask teachers to adopt multiple objectives and use different levels of assessment for more individualized learning (Dobbertin, 2012). Differentiation of process, then, refers to the way in which a student accesses material (i.e., one student may explore a learning center, while another may conduct an online search for information).…… [Read More]

References

Dobbertin, C. (2012). Just How I Need to Learn It. Educational Leadership, 69(5), 66-70

Forsten, Char, Grant, J., & Hollas, B. (2003). Differentiating Textbooks: Strategies to Improve Student Comprehension & Motivation. New Hampshire: Crystal Springs Books.

Heacox, Diane. (2002). Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom: How to Reach and Teach All Learners, Grades 3-12. Minnesota: Free Spirit Publishing.

Painter, D.D. (2009). Providing Differentiated Learning Experiences Through Multigenre Projects. Intervention in School & Clinic, 44(5), 288-293.
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Harris M B & Franklin C 2009 Helping

Words: 3365 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19567135

Harris, M.B. & Franklin, C. (2009). Helping adolescent mothers to achieve in school: An evaluation of the taking charge group intervention. Children & Schools, 31. 27-34.

The article, Helping Adolescent Mothers to Achieve in School: An evaluation of the Taking Charge Group Intervention (Franklin & Harris, 2009) is a quantitative study. It uses a quasi-experimental design with a pre and post test for both the comparison group and treatment group, which is a quantitative design. Participants were all pregnant or parenting adolescent females. For ethical reasons, adolescents were not denied access to the initiative, rather, adolescents self-selected their involvement in the initiative. Those who chose to participate populated the treatment group and those who chose not to participate populated the comparison group.

The intervention at the Taking Charge Initiative is heavily based in theory. Social Learning Theory is the overarching theory that dictates the actions and workings of the intervention.…… [Read More]

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Creative Community Building

Words: 2192 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46951520

Adults, especially seniors need a place where they can learn new things and express themselves. Sometimes seniors go to a senior community arts program where they learn to paint and create things for themselves and for their loved ones. Art theory in the field of physical therapy is a very helpful and useful way of integrating varied learning and complex tasks all while promoting growth and renewal. For anything to flourish, especially a program like a senior community arts program, it needs to integrate lessons and objectives that promote the growth and learning of its participants.

Therefore, it is important to understand and analyze prior and current research that not only offers a different perspective, but also assures the teacher that what they are instructing has been proven to succeed and assists the people learning, to achieve certain pre-planned objectives. This paper is a literature review of six scholarly research…… [Read More]

References

Conlan, J., Grabowski, S., & Smith, K. (2003). Adult Learning - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from  http://epltt.coe.uga.edu/index.php?title=Adult_Learning 

Dzubinski, L., Hentz, B., Davis, K.L., & Nicolaides, A. (2012). Envisioning an Adult Learning Graduate Program for the Early 21st Century A Developmental Action Inquiry Study.Adult Learning, 23(3), 103-110. doi:10.1177/1045159512452844

Edwards, C., Gaden, C., Marchant, R., Coventry, T., Dutton, P., & Scott, J.M. (2011). Delivering extension and adult learning outcomes from the Cicerone Project by comparing, measuring, learning and adopting'. Animal Production Science, 53(8), 827-840. Retrieved from  http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AN11322 

Longenecker, C., & Abernathy, R. (2013). The eight imperatives of effective adult learning: Designing, implementing and assessing experiences in the modern workplace. Human Resource Management International Digest, 21(7), 30-33. Retrieved from  http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17100953&show=abstract
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Curriculum Evaluation Ornstein & Hunkins

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87158756

and, some teachers focus mainly on staff development issues related to changes in curriculum, measures and/or desired outcomes.

Of these various roles, I am most interested in how to change instruction so that it can meet desired standards and measurements. Ultimately, I believe that this is what makes the real difference in being able to achieve outcomes, particularly with the growing need for differentiated teaching strategies to achieve the same results for students with unique learning needs.

As I have mentioned, I am an advocate of summative and formative assessments because I believe they serve two very different, but complimentary purposes. That being said, I also believe there needs to be the right mix of the two. Currently, our school relies too much on summative assessments due to increased standardized test requirements by our district and state. This has affected every role that teachers play in our assessment process. This…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ornstein, a.C., & Hunkins, F.P. (2003). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Shavelson, R.J., Dylan, P.J. And Coffey, J. On linking formative and summative functions in the design of large-scale assessment systems. http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:DI8Y2NFddAUJ:www.stanford.edu/dept/SUSE/SEAL/Reports_Papers/on%2520Aligning%2520Formative%2520and%2520Summative%2520Functions_Submit.doc+%22curriculum+assessment%22+%22formative+and+summative%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=us

Swearingen, R, (2002). A orimer: Diagnostic, formative, & summative assessment  http://www.mmrwsjr.com/assessment.htm 

Thiel, T. & Feeny, M. Literature synopsis. http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:zAO6k54RBXEJ:www.education.gov.ab.ca/k_12/special/aisi/pdfs/Project_Evaluation_UniversityofLethbridge.pdf+formative+summative+Bhola&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=7&gl=us
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Constitutes Assessment Why Is Assessment

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15338758



"Summative assessments happen too far down the learning path to provide information at the classroom level and to make instructional adjustments and interventions during the learning process. It takes formative assessment to accomplish this" (Formative and summative assessments, 2010, NMSA). Yet summative assessment, such as midterms, finals, and standardized state tests, are a part of life that must be dealt with. These assessments are extremely important because of their influence on district funding, and also administrators and parents' perceptions that the tests measure whether the school is doing its job or not, and conveying a good education to students. It is difficult not to become obsessed with them, given that one's performance as a teacher and quality as an educator is viewed through the rubric of standardized assessment.

The challenge for a teacher is to prepare students for the summative, standardized assessments they must cope with as a part of…… [Read More]

Reference

Formative and summative assessments. (2010). National Middle School Association (NMSA).

Retrieved February 15, 2011 at  http://www.nmsa.org/Publications/WebExclusive/Assessment/tabid/1120/Default.aspx
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Teaching Allows Learning and Assessment for Those

Words: 2519 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97759434

teaching allows learning and assessment for those that are my learners, as a painting and decorating tutor with the view to self-develop and progress. e will learn how to make the most of and inspire learning and how diversity and fairness play a significant part for both teachers and learners.

Most would probably know that assessment is getting the measurement of the learners' reaction to understanding and competence in teaching instruction (Curzon pg 383). In the job as a painter and decorating tutor, assessment are very important and foremost, as in the way learners are measured against usual standards prior to exams and attaining combined standing. My proficient and personal thoughts upon assessments are that as a teacher we need to be able to utilize various of methods and skills that will be employed to inspire and really keep learners motivated while giving feedback that is constructive in allowing them…… [Read More]

Works Cited

APPLEYARD, N. a. (2010). Communicating with Learners in the LifeLong Sector. Glasglow: Learning Matters.

BLACK, P. a. (2010, May 13). Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment, Phi Delta Kappan. Retrieved from  http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kbla9810.htm 

COWLEY, S. (2008, March). Teaching Skills For Dummies. Atlanta: Cowans Publishing.

CURZON, L. (2006). Teaching in Further Education, an Outline of Principles and Practice. Oxford: 6th Edition. Continuum.
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Types of Evaluation Designs and 2 Types of Methodologies

Words: 2229 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35627993

criminal procedure and the idiosyncrasies of criminal practice vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction" (Jaros, 2010, p. 445). If what Jaros states is true, then it is probably true as well that evaluating the different circumstances surrounding the commission of crime is also widely diverse in its practice. There are a number of methodologies that are used in various research including studies relating to the study of criminal justice and different aspects of that arena; two of the more commonly used methodologies employ quantitative and qualitative methods of research.

The quantitative methodology is used by researchers who are seeking to quantify certain areas of study or the results of such studies. Quantifying involves numbers, percentages and numerically evaluated data. One of the benefits that can be derived when using quantitative evaluation is that such a method provides numerical data for comparative studies. Comparative studies show specific numbers calculated from participant…… [Read More]

References

Behavioral Sciences and the Law (2006) online accessed at Wiley Inter-Science on November 11, 2010, at www.interscience.wiley.com

Bhola, H.S. (1990) Evaluating 'literacy for development' projects, programs and campaigns: Evaluation planning, design and implementation, and utilization of evaluation results. UNESCO Institute for Education, xii

Bonta, J.; Wallace-Capretta, S.; Rooney, J.; McAnoy, K.; (2002) An outcome evaluation of a restorative justice alternative to incarceration, Contemporary Justice Review, Vol. 5, Issue 4, pp. 319-338

Chaiken, J.M. & Chaiken, M.R.; (1982) Varieties of criminal behavior, Santa Monica: Rand Publishers
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Construction of Created Rubrics of Checklists of

Words: 756 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79776036

construction of created rubrics of checklists of goals have become increasingly popular as a way of rending the educational process more effective and efficient. Student-directed assessment involves students actively in the process of assessment and achieves the dual goal of student empowerment as well as ensures that real learning has taken place. "Constructing or drawing up rubrics jointly with students prior to them undertaking the related lesson or task provides an even richer, more authentic, learner-centered and empowering authentic assessment experience than merely providing them with a teacher-designed rubric" the latter of which may not be meaningful to them (Litz 2007). This is often called "negotiable contracting" and reflects the belief that "students who are given a role in the assessment process and provided with the appropriate direction by their teachers are able to accurately evaluate their strengths and weaknesses and better pinpoint areas where they need to focus their…… [Read More]

References

Writing learning outcomes. (2013). AALNET. Retrieved from:

 http://www.aallnet.org/Archived/Education-and-Events/cpe/outcomes.html
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Tale of Excellence the World

Words: 1692 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91885098

Also, the students can graph his or her findings. The formative assessments is when different colonies are observed and shared with each other in class. The student's can ask questions based on their observation

Summative Assessment: Students will correctly answer teacher-created questions about their colonies. Students can graph the choices of their peers. The teacher will specify the accuracy rate desired for this task.

Formative Assessment: The teacher will observe students' discussion of their colonies. The teacher will gauge understanding by noting the types of questions students ask each other. The teacher will be looking for questions with factual answers and those that show higher-order thinking.

Money

Assessment: (Summative) the students will all choose a different country and write a description about those countries forms of money. They will do a show and tell in the classroom on their finding. (Formative) the student's observations of the different types of forms…… [Read More]

References

Aschenbacher, P., & Alonzo, a. (2006). Examining the utility of elementary science notebooks for formative assessment purposes. Educational Assessment 11(3 & 4), 179 -- 203.

Bejar, I.I. (2007). Considering the implications of assessment design decisions: Some lessons learned in the American context. Measurement, 5(1), p. 57-62.

Dodge, J. (n.d.). What are formative assessments and why should we use them? Scholastic Professional, http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3751398

Summary Table: Changes to the Lesson Plans for the World Around Us
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Teacher Performance Assessment

Words: 5549 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89356313

Teacher Performance Assessment

Lesson Title: Science

Central Focus of Lessons: What science is all about

State Standard(s) Addressed: 7th Grade on science, science methodology and famous scientists.

Lesson Objectives and Language Demands

• Content/Skill Objectives:

Students should state the definition of science

Students should discuss the various science methodologies

Students should name and discuss various prominent scientists

Students should be able to identify the application of science in day to day life

Language Demands: students are required to define and describe what science is. They should also be able to use this understanding of science to apply scientific knowledge.

Use scientific terms and language both in spoken and written presentations of scientific information.

• Key Vocabulary:

Science, scientists, famous scientists, scientific methods

esources and Materials

• esources: class text-books, handouts, charts etc.

• Materials: worksheets, games, projector, Smartboard, paper, pencils, art supplies, cards, post- its, etc.)

NOTE: Attach and/or embed…… [Read More]

References

Edelson Daniel (2001). Learning-for-use: A framework for the design of technology-supported inquiry activities. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Volume 38, Issue 3. Pages 355 -- 385.

Pappas Christoforos (2014). Instructional Design Models and Theories: Inquiry-based Learning Model.  https://elearningindustry.com/inquiry-based-learning-model
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Teacher Performance assessment

Words: 5567 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97655163

Lesson Plan

Grade Level: 7th Grade Subject: Science

Number of Students: 4 Date: Instructional Location: Classroom

Lesson Goals

• Lesson Title: Science

Central Focus of Lessons: What science is all about

State Standard(s) Addressed: 7th Grade on science, science methodology and famous scientists.

Lesson Objectives and Language Demands

• Content/Skill Objectives:

Students should state the definition of science

Students should discuss the various science methodologies

Students should name and discuss various prominent scientists

Students should be able to identify the application of science in day to day life

Language Demands: students are required to define and describe what science is. They should also be able to use this understanding of science to apply scientific knowledge.

Use scientific terms and language both in spoken and written presentations of scientific information.

• Key Vocabulary:

Science, scientists, famous scientists, scientific methods

Resources and Materials

• Resources: class text-books, handouts, charts etc.

• Materials:…… [Read More]

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Authentic Assessment Religion Studies in

Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5279592

Students should be graded upon 'deep learning' as well as factual retrieval in this final phase. Unlike formative learning assessment, in a summative assessment, the students must be fully engaged with the material at this phase and can use it in a non-directive fashion. Assessment learning principles stress the need for learning to be demonstrated in a 'real life' context and to apply those principles. Writing an essay about the gospel stories or explaining how the lessons of the various gospels might be useful in their own lives is two examples of how authentic assessment might take place in a religion classroom in a summative fashion.

The advantages of Grajczonek's process of authentic assessment are that it takes into consideration different learning styles. if, during the assessment for learning phase, students have difficulty visualizing the difference between the gospel narratives, a teacher might make a list of all of the…… [Read More]

Reference

Grajczonek, J. (2007). An authentic approach to assessment in the religion program. In M. Ryan & J. Grajczonek (Eds.). An inspired tradition: Religious education in Catholic primary schools today. Brisbane: Lumino Press.
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Kinesthetic Exercise Improves Learning

Words: 1818 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20952034

Autism Detection and Education

Exercise and movement can affect ones' learning environment and kinesthetic learners in a variety of positive ways. Firstly, these two things induce an element of dynamism in one's learning environment, which is beneficial to kinesthetic learners. Kinesthetic learners learn best via the sort of motion and feeling associated with touch, so movement is merely an extension of this sort of tendency for learning. Additionally, these learners can thrive in an environment in which they can actually move and experience learning through the process of such motion -- which can very well involve directly apprehending things, instead of merely reading or listening to them. In this respect, exercise is a part of the kinesthetic learning style.

Persevering and never giving upon on a student embodies the Christian walk of faith and how Christ loves and forgives us in a number of different ways. Firstly, it is indicative…… [Read More]

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Educational Assessment Research Bowen G L

Words: 1379 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79682554

Formative assessment gives teachers the opportunity to provide students with feedback in time to improve learning. Fluckiger, Vigil, Pasco & Danielson (2010) describe several techniques to provide formative feedback to students more frequently and to involve them more fully in the process. Although their techniques were developed specifically to enhance the learning experiences of postsecondary students across a variety of disciplines, teachers of students at all levels can adapt the ideas to their classrooms. Their goals are to "give feedback in time for revisions to occur, provide scaffolding for learners, inform instruction, and most importantly, involve students as partners in assessment" (Fluckiger et al., p. 140). The researchers believe their techniques result in improved instruction, enhanced student learning and better student products. Helping to build a productive classroom climate in which the emphasis is on learning, not grades achieved. Instructors can improve assessments by incorporating both formative and summative assessments…… [Read More]

Study Island. (2011). Retrieved from  http://www.studyisland.com/ 

Tasdemir, M. (2010). The effects of REAP reading comprehension technique on students'

success. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal 38 (4), 553-560.
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Instructional Design Models Including Elements Defining Ways

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10809582

instructional design models, including elements defining ways traditional methods encourage learner involvement. eferences required. A peer reviewed journal article, textbooks, and current journal articles credible websites.

Discuss the various instructional design models, including elements defining ways in which traditional methods encourage learner involvement.

The foundational instructional design model is called the 'ADDIE' model: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. During the analysis (planning) phase, the designer identifies the "learning problem, the goals and objectives, the audience's needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics. Analysis also considers the learning environment, any constraints, the delivery options, and the timeline for the project" (ADDIE Model, 2012, Learning Theories). During the design phase, learning objectives are further specified as the instructional plan takes shape. The development phase involves the actual creation of the content. The implementation phase is the execution of the instructional plan. During this execution phase, input is solicited from learners…… [Read More]

References

ADDIE Model. (2012). Learning theories. Retrieved:

 http://www.learning-theories.com/addie-model.html 

Clark, Don. (2010). Why instructional system design? Retrieved:

 http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/sat1.html
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Basics of Nursing Education

Words: 2989 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63290247

nursing program to a BSN program

Over the years, promotion of nurses' higher education has been a focus of national reports. One of several reasons for this is growing evidence tying improved performance with continued education. Another factor is that nurses taking Master's programs often focus on education; this ensures a good supply of nurse educators as well as clinical nurse specialists and midwives (Scott & Brinson, 2011).

Factors influencing the need for a BSN program.

Education

esearchers and policymakers continue to point out that education is a key determinant of nurses' performance in our medical facilities. Bachelor's degree programs provide more content than diploma programs do. They also tend to be more thorough. It has been noted that those institutions that have more baccalaureate degree registered nurses reported less fatalities. This inverse relationship shows that education level is a key determinant of performance and competency (Johnston, 2009).

Disasters, Violence…… [Read More]

References

Aliakbari, F., Parvin, N., Heidari, M., & Haghani, F. (2015, Febuary 23). Learning theories application in nursing education. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nih.gov:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355834/ 

Amerson, R. (2006). Energizing the Nursing Lecture: Application of the Theory of Multiple Intelligence Learning. Nursing Education Perspectives, 194-196.

ANA. (n.d.). Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. American Nurses Association.

Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, 3rd Edition. ASCD.
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Personalized learning assessment

Words: 876 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95668939

Since this personalized learning plan under construction is meant to be as practical as possible, it is guided mainly by two theories as previously mentioned; the Multiple Intelligence theory and constructivism. Constructivism theory in this instructional unit considers learning as an active and constructive process. On the other hand the Multiple Intelligence Theory in this unit will focus on logical-mathematical intelligence since students will use knowledge from the learning material to engage in reasoning and critical thinking for problem solving (Philips H., 2010).

The assessment will assume three main approaches; a pre-test, a formative check, and a summative assessment.

Pre-test assessment

This will aim at finding out what the students know and what they do not know in the mathematical application. It is a determination of pre-existing subject knowledge. This assessment will be done through administered test to the targeted students and observation of how they attempt to apply the…… [Read More]

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Net or From Social Work

Words: 866 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99358592

This tendency is reflected somewhat in the anti-oppressive practice paradigm because it involves personal self-knowledge factors that can lead to change.

3.

Write a list of all the different methods for collecting evaluation data you can think of. While doing this exercise think about individual sessions, groups or program evaluations you have been part of. Some of these methods will be qualitative and others quantitative. What does each method you identify measure best?

Table 2

Different Methods for Collecting Evaluation Data

Method

Best Applications

Surveys/questionnaires

espondent self-reports

Participant observation

Individual behaviors within an environmental context

Interviews

In-depth assessments

4.

Locate and record a definition of formative and summative evaluation.

A.

Formative evaluation: Formative evaluations strengthen or improve the object being evaluated -- they help form it by examining the delivery of the program or technology, the quality of its implementation, and the assessment of the organizational context, personnel, procedures, inputs,…… [Read More]

References

Marino, R., Weinman, M.L. & Soudelier, K. (2001). Social work intervention and failure to thrive in infants and children. Health and Social Work, 26(2), 90.

Trochim, W.M. (2006). Introduction to evaluation. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearch methods.net/kb/intreval.htm.
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Educational Technologies and Online Learning

Words: 1513 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60612633

There are varying educational backgrounds and levels in distance education and the delivery method must be in a way that is interactive using visuals, charts, graphs and other stimulating realia.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the Dick & Carey Model of Instructional Design and the Jerrold Kemp Model of Instructional design are both excellent models for developing both traditional and distance learning materials. However, the differences among the types of ISD Comparison 6 learners must be clearly identified and defined in order for either of these models to be successful. With technology changing the face of education, instructional design models will also need to change in order to best educate and meet the needs of the different types of learners.

eferences

Dick, Walter, & Carey, Lou. (1985) The Systematic Design of Instruction (2nd ed.) Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.

Kemp, Jerrold E. (1977). Instructional Design. (2nd Ed.) Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers,…… [Read More]

References

Dick, Walter, & Carey, Lou. (1985) The Systematic Design of Instruction (2nd ed.) Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.

Kemp, Jerrold E. (1977). Instructional Design. (2nd Ed.) Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers, Inc.

Brown, Frederick G. (1981). Measuring Classroom Achievement. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Dalton, William. Assessing Student Learning: It can be more than a survey. Retrieved May 25, 2006 at http://fie.engrng.pitt.edu/fie95/2c1/2c14/2c14.htm
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Web-Based Professional Development

Words: 12713 Length: 46 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88201524

oanoke County School System Faculty and Staff's Perceptions egarding the Use of Web-Based Professional Development

Educational Thesis

Implications for Improvement of Practice

Introduction (could be longer. Include mandatory teacher ongoing certification standards)

Ongoing staff development has long been a vital part of the educational environment. It is the means by which the faculty and staff of a school system are kept current in educational trends, technologies and philosophies. In a diverse society, social pressures felt in the classroom are continually making the teaching process more challenging.

In the past few years alone, the advance in computer capabilities and in-home computer gaming equipment has affected the attention span of the average student. Elementary and secondary education students have a different paradigm as to what is interesting. Thus the challenge in the classroom to grab, hold, and mold the students attention have changed. An effective teacher must be aware of these changes,…… [Read More]

References

Blackboard. (n.d.). Blackboard.com. Retrieved October 22, 2002, at  http://www.blackboard.com 

Blair, J (2001). Teacher-Training Programs Turn to Cyberspace. Education Week Online,. Retrieved October 26, 2002, at http://www.edweek.org

Charles, C.M., & Mertler, C.A. (2002). Orientation to Educational Research (4 ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Guskey, T.R. (2000). Evaluating Professional Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
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Loss and Grief the Loss

Words: 3131 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67987332



Art therapy is particularly useful with younger children. With children under the age of eight it can be difficult for them to grasp the concept of death, it can be equally as difficult for them to express the things they are feeling about the loss of a loved one (Shaw, 2000). Through the medium of drawing or painting a counselor may gain a better understanding of their patient's subjective experience of the loss as well as any unresolved emotions or unanswered questions remaining after the fact. Art therapy is also an effective means of determining the relative normality of a child's cognitive function following a traumatic event (Shaw, 2000).

Older children respond more effectively to client centered interviews (Shaw, 2000). A client centered interview is a psychoanalytic approach which encourages the patient to talk extensively guided minimally by questions or suggestions from the therapist. This approach might allow through the…… [Read More]

References

1. Tomita, T., & Kitamura, T. (2002). Clinical and research measures of grief: A reconstruction. Comprehensive psychiatry, 43, 95- 102.

2. Larson, D., & Hoyt, W. (2007). What has become of grief counseling? An evaluation of the empirical foundations of the new pessimism. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 347- 355.

3. Currier, J., Holland, J., & Neimeyer, R. (2007). The effectiveness of bereavement interventions with children: A meta- analytic review of controlled outcome research. Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology, 36, 253- 259.

4. Forte, a., Hill, M., Pazder, R., & Feudtner, C. (2004). Bereavement care interventions: A systematic review. BMC Palliative Care, 1-14.
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Formative Mathematical Assessments

Words: 4585 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84627369

Group Activities as Formative Assessment in Mathematics Classroom

The modern educational system is characterized by an increase demand for accountability and high-stakes testing. The demand for such accountability and testing is demonstrated in the quest for the use of summative assessments that provide a summary of the learning progress of students. Generally, the push for increased accountability and high-stakes testing has contributed to the use of different kinds of assessments that are administered at the state, district, school, and national levels. The use of these various kinds of assessments is not only geared towards realization of increased accountability but also act as a means for comparing and ranking students and schools. An example of the type of assessments that can be used in this process is formative assessments for various topics such as mathematics. Formative assessments are defined as systematic procedures of collecting evidence regarding students' learning to inform teaching…… [Read More]

References

Benjamin, A. (2013). Math in plain English: literacy strategies for the mathematics classroom.

New York, NY: Routledge.

Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998, March). Assessment and Classroom Learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 5(1), 1-65.

Callingham, R. (2010). Mathematics Assessment in Primary Classrooms: Making it Count.
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Evaluating Nursing Education Assessment Tools

Words: 2195 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47398683

Nursing Education Assessment Project

Coursework early in a nursing education program covers a broad range of topics and extensive amount of details must be committed to memory. Assessments that are directly tied to coursework are primarily formative assessments, which demonstrate the ongoing learning over the period of the course. Formative assessments generally take the form of quizzes and clinical demonstrations of a particular knowledge set recently covered in during a class or classes. ummative assessments are generally used at the end of a course to assess the overall learning that has taken place during the course; summative assessments include final exams or tests, practicum demonstrations, and capstone projects.

The focus of this assessment project is a formative criterion-referenced test of general, fundamental nursing education knowledge. The items used in the test are included in Appendix A -- Nursing Education -- Fundamental Concepts. Twelve individuals were approached to take the exam…… [Read More]

Self-knowledge

*Source:

Armstrong, P. (2015). Bloom's Taxonomy. Nashville, TN: Center for Learning, Vanderbilt University.
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Type II Diabetes Intervention

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32091993

Diabetic Intervention Planning

The intervention plan that I would create and attempt to implement to address the health promotion issue of Type 2 diabetes is one that is fairly standard for treating this malady. Quite simply, it would involve patients monitoring their blood sugar levels multiple times a day. Additionally, it would also require their self-administration of insulin (Ehrlich, 2013) in order to maintain patient-specific targets for their blood glucose values. This intervention plan would occur for a finite period of time -- for a one month period -- in order to properly evaluate its efficacy in helping patients achieve target objectives for maintaining acceptable and healthy blood sugar levels. Individuals would have a variety of options that they could select for injecting insulin. They could either choose to utilize an insulin pen, insulin pump, or the "long-acting basal insulin glargine" (Trask, 2014). Patients would be expected to measure their…… [Read More]

References

Ehrlich, S.D. (2013). Diabetes. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved from  http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/diabetes 

Trast, J.M. (2014). CE: diabetes and puberty: a glycemic challenge. American Journal of Nursing. Retrieved from  http://journals.lww.com/ajnonline/Fulltext/2014/07000/CE___Diabetes_and_Puberty___A_Glycemic_Challenge.23
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Rcsi Institute of Leadership Ponv

Words: 1395 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64786589

PONV was not seen at 24 hours significantly lower rates of PONV at four and eight hours were found in the septoplasty group in which pharyngeal packing was not used

Habib, et al. (2010)

prospective, double-blind, randomized study

104 Patients undergoing craniotomy

Patients were randomized to receive oral aprepitant 40 mg (or matching placebo) 1 to 3 hours before induction of anesthesia or ondansetron 4 mg IV (or placebo) within 30 minutes of the end of surgery.

comparison

Data were collected at regular intervals by blinded personnel for 48 hours after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's ranked sum test and ?(2) test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

n/a

n/a

n/a

cumulative incidence of vomiting at 48 hours was 16% in the aprepitant group and 38% in the ondansetron group (P = 0.0149). The incidence of vomiting was also decreased in the aprepitant group at 2 hours…… [Read More]

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ELL Curriculum Implementing a Unit

Words: 2422 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70556501

1)

Alignment Procedure

As Popham (2006) makes clear, choosing the best instruments for program is reliant on how well the instrument is aligned with the goals of the program and the school. To achieve this objective I recommend instituting a task forced charged with the responsibility of working with teachers to develop a set of both short-term and long-term goals.

In regard to alignment with long-term goals, our program evaluation designers and analysts need to be fully aware that their objectives must be fully attainable, fully supportive of national standards objectives, and consistent with the long-term objectives of the teachers and the school. Goal-setting by faculty does not mean that they can do whatever they want to do. The leaders of this evaluation process must remember that in the end they have the responsibility for ensuring that all objectives are consistent, and for approving their subordinates' objectives. This means being…… [Read More]

References

Fitzpatrick, J. Sanders, J. & Worthen, B (2003). Program evaluation: Alternative approaches and practical guidelines. (3rd ed.) Allyn & Bacon.

Garret, J.E. & Holcomb, S. (2005, Fall) Meeting the needs of Immigrant students with limited English ability, International Education 35, 49-62

Hays, D.G. (2008). Assessing multicultural competence in counselor trainees: A review of instrumentation and future directions. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86, (1), 95-101.

Krashen, S. (1985) Principles and practice in second language acquisition, Oxford: Pergamon
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Opportunities of a Problem-Based Learning

Words: 2989 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6887204

In addition, the classic version of problem-based learning "requires students to collaborate, formulate learning issues by determining factors that may contribute to the cause or solution of a problem, identify relevant content, and generate hypotheses. Most problem-based learning models also contain student reflection components as a means of self-evaluation" (Knowlton & Sharp, 2003, pp. 5-6).

Although the positive effects of using a problem-based learning approach have been documented in a number of studies, the findings of other studies have indicated that problem-based learning may not compare favorably with more traditional teaching methods with regards to student's knowledge base, technical skills, or the resources expended; however, Dadd (2009) suggests that the benefits of using a problem-based learning approach justify the additional resources this method requires. Moreover, Simons et al. (2004) report that students using a problem-based learning approach "tend to develop more positive attitudes toward learning than students in more traditional…… [Read More]

References

Alavi, C. (1999). Problem-based learning in a health sciences curriculum. New York:

Routledge.

Albion, P.R. (2003). PBL + IMM = PBL2: Problem-based learning and interactive multimedia development. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 11(2), 243-244.

Dadd, K.A. (2009). Using problem-based learning to bring the workplace into the classroom.
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Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests Including

Words: 498 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63977475

For example, at the end of a history class' unit on the Revolutionary ar, a summative test would asses how much the student had retained about this critical period in the nation's history. It would measure the student's effort and the teacher's relative success in imparting knowledge to the student.

In contrast, a formative assessment like a quiz measures what is currently being taught in class. It measures the student's learning as a work-in-progress, to show the teacher what the student does or does not understand. It functions as a potential wake-up call for the student, in terms of his or her present state of learning. In math or foreign language classes, it is essential the teacher knows if the student is uncertain about a particular concept, given how learning is scaffolded upon previous knowledge in these subjects. Formative assessments are particularly critical in these two areas of teaching.

Survey…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Types of tests. (2009). Education Oasis. Retrieved September 16, 2009 at http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/assessment/typestests.htm
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Learning Educational Psychology Multiple Choice

Words: 3789 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64594759



A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior

Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability

Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition

If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws

Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences

Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible

APA rules for research studies

Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject

Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions

Trace conditioning…… [Read More]

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Reporting and Giving Feedback on

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6011085

Some teachers require students to have their parents 'sign' or initial that they saw a (poor) grade. Parents are also asked to have conferences to discuss their student's progress on a regular basis. Teachers have a responsibility to the parent to ensure that the parent is kept informed about the child's needs and development over the course of the educational process.

These are the most direct methods to ensure that parents are aware of how and what their child is learning. Indirectly, encouraging parents to volunteer to chaperone field trips; to make contributions of their knowledge to the class if they have relevant experience in what is being studied (for example, if a parent is a doctor and the children are reading a story about doctors, the parent could be asked to come to give a short talk about his or her profession); and following up when there are concerns…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Essential learnings by the end of age 7. 2011. Queensland studies Authority (QSA).

Accessed: http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/downloads/early_middle/qcar_el_english_yr7.pdf [September 3, 2011]
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Transition Assessments an A-B-C Analysis

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71277124

Depending on the child's abilities and self-awareness, these could include avoidance of triggers, self-soothing strategies, and learning to process the feelings and choose more healthy alternative responses. Results of the -B-C assessment can be shared with other educators and parents and can assist in the planning of the next set of goals in the student's education plan.

second assessment strategy is monitoring achievement in the classroom. s shown in the short video available through the IRIS Center (http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/gpm/challenge.htm), test scores alone do not give teachers enough information about why their students are struggling and what kind of interventions would be effective in helping them. Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) on student progress can be used to inform instruction, estimate and then document student progress, and share information about student progress with parents and other educators.

The CBM process requires that the teacher first select appropriate tests (probes) for the students' grade and…… [Read More]

A second assessment strategy is monitoring achievement in the classroom. As shown in the short video available through the IRIS Center ( http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/gpm/challenge.htm ), test scores alone do not give teachers enough information about why their students are struggling and what kind of interventions would be effective in helping them. Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) on student progress can be used to inform instruction, estimate and then document student progress, and share information about student progress with parents and other educators.

The CBM process requires that the teacher first select appropriate tests (probes) for the students' grade and skill levels. As the school year progresses, students are given similar items on probes and should get more of these items correct as learning takes place. Probes must be administered on a regular basis, whether that is weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly, and must be scored the same way each time. In the third step of the process, the teacher graphs the results, providing a visual that is easy and quick to use, both for students and teachers. The graphs can also help with goal-setting, which is the final step in the process.

CBM serves as both formative and summative assessments. The formative aspect allows the teacher to change instruction in response to a student's needs. It allows students, educators and parents to focus on current achievements and deficits. The summative aspect allows student, teacher and parent to see what the student has accomplished over the entire year. It is an important component in goal-setting for the next academic year.
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Distinguish Terms 'Criterion -- Referenced Assessment' 'Norm-Referenced

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71777384

Distinguish terms 'criterion -- referenced assessment' 'norm-referenced assessment'.

obert Glaser's 1963 paper "Instructional Technology and the Measurement of Learning Outcomes" marked a watershed in psychometrics, the measurement of educational effectiveness. Glaser's innovation came through classifying two particular means of comparing test outcomes, and his definitions continue to drive controversial change in the provision of education across the United States to this day. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 represents the maturation of a very concrete and nationwide movement toward what Glaser termed "criterion-referenced measures" (Glaser 1963, p. 7), the measurement of individual student test results against absolute scores intended to demonstrate mastery of coursework, as opposed to "norm-referenced measures" (Glaser 1963, p. 8), which rank students' mastery of coursework relative to each other. Both types of measurement are used for different purposes at the same time, often with the same instrument (Popham and Husek 1969, p. 19), even…… [Read More]

Referenced Assessment

Critical appraisals of both norm- and criterion-referenced assessment are as diverse as they are strident (Camara 2007, p. 2). These criticisms arise on both macro- or meta-systemic levels in reference to federal efforts to harmonize proficiency across states in this country by 2013-2014 (California Department of Education 2010, p. 1) even while different states and districts within states measure for different outcomes beyond federal proficiency growth. Neil et al. outline a list of student-centric or what I will call
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Pedagoglical Theory Has Undergone a

Words: 1336 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41031383

Kids today are overwhelmed!" A parent recently wrote in an email to GreatSchools.org "My first-grade son was required to research a significant person from history and write a paper of at least two pages about the person, with a bibliography. How can he be expected to do that by himself? He just started to learn to read and write a couple of months ago. Schools are pushing too hard and expecting too much from kids" (ilde, 2011).

However, the homework paradigm affects more than just the student -- it affects parents, teachers, caregivers, and any secondary programs (sports, music, etc.) that children participate in. Some studies show that students are not, on average, doing significantly more homework now than in the past; while others say that there are far more "things" to learn, more avenues of learning, and with standardized testing, a greater push to complete a curriculum at a…… [Read More]

Wilde, M. (2011). Do Our Kids Have Too Much Homework? GreatSchools.org.

Retrieved from:  http://www.greatschools.org/students/homework-help/251-homework-is-too-much.gs 

Winch, G. (2010). How Much Homework is Too Much? Psychology Today. Retrieved from:  http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-squeaky-wheel/201110/how-much-homework-is-too-much
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U S President Foreign Policy Decision

Words: 8528 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55687351

The research, methods will seek to establish a common basement of the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process. Equitable regard will be accorded to the state of affairs that exist between the U.S.A. And Iran

Questionnaires

Questionnaires are samples of structured questions that will seek directive responses from the respondents in the field of study. In order to arrive at making decisions, there are several considerations that the president of the U.S.A. needs to know from the public and the secretary of state. Such questions will be included in the questionnaires. The questionnaires will be supplied to various respondents. These respondents are thought to have consistent information as regards the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process matters in the world. Questionnaires are relevant when it comes to exhausting on the exiting trends of management in the country.

Interviews

Interviews refer to face-to-face approaches of seeking to elicit information…… [Read More]

Reference list

Alterman, Eric. 1998. Who speaks for America?: why democracy matters in foreign policy.

Ithaca [u.a.]: Cornell Univ. Press.

Beisner, Robert L. 2003. American foreign relations since 1600 a guide to the literature.

Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.  http://ebooks.abc-clio.com/?isbn=9781576075302 .
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Gender Race and Religion on

Words: 3335 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23773721

The referent methods of collecting data are summative to the two key positions of the same sex in the society. Some of the methods used included sampling, interviews, issuance of questionnaires and used of printed or secondary data.

Sampling

Samples were collected from different members of the society. The samples collected were directed reactions to the issue of the same sex in the society. Most approaches of collection that were used aimed at establishing a common ground and avoiding bias from the concerned members. The samples were collected from a diverse society. The researchers ensured that the samples came from different members with regard to religion, race, social meanings and avenues, and social classes. Furthermore, the samples were collected from a diverse society in order to ensure that they were a true reflection of the real state of matter in the world as concerns same sex marriage.

Interviews

Interviews are…… [Read More]

References

Cantor, D.J. (2006). Same-sex marriage: The legal and psychological evolution in America.

Middletown, CT: Wesleyan Univ. Press.

Corvino, J. (1999). Same sex: Debating the ethics, science, and culture of homosexuality journal. Vol. 5, Issue 1, Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield.

Corvino, J., & Gallagher, M. (2012). The great debate: Debating same-sex marriage journal. Vol. 5