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254). Evans wondered if in fact the two organizations have not heeded advice from the likes of Tzu: "…Can we be more proactive, anticipating and knowing what our 'enemies' are planning?" he wondered (p. 254).
Evans (p. 254) also wonders if Tzu has a relevant point -- "When it is advantageous move; when not advantageous, stop" -- and explains that perhaps his organizations would be better off if they realize "…the wall is solid and not passable" and hence "walking around the end of the wall is the better forward progress." Knowing what terrain to do battle on is part of the key in wartime maneuvers, according to Tzu, and Evans (p. 255) realizes the same is true for his national organizations. "The location where we will engage the enemy must not become known to them. If it is not known, then the positions that they must prepare to defend…
Boar, Bernard, 2007, 'Sun Tzu and Machiavelli On Strategy', Journal of Business Strategy, Vol. 16, Issue 1, 16-18 (originally published in the Journal of Business Strategy in 1993).
Evans, Gregory R.D., 2004, 'Sun Tzu's Art of War', Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 114, No. 1, 252-255.
Foo, Check Teck, 2009, 'Implementing Sun Tzu's Art of War, system of systems (SoS) thinking', Chinese Management Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, 178-186.
Handel, Michael I., 2000, 'Corbett, Clausewitz, and Sun Tzu', Naval War College Review, Vol. 53, Issue 4, 106-125.
" (XII) but even if employees are paid, they must still be loyal for other reasons, as quite often talented employees can just find a job elsewhere. "Therefore, "the arms with which a prince defends his state" must be "his own," counsels the author of the Prince still ads that "the chief foundations of all states, new as well as old or composite, are good laws and good arms; and as there cannot be good laws where the state is not well armed, it follows that where they are well armed they have good laws." (XII) Likewise a good product must deliver on its promised quality to the consumer, and no puffery or rapaciousness on the part of the leader can ensure a market permanently acquired by force alone, its claims must be backed up with some substance.
hen the enemy or competitor is finally engaged, Sun Tzu advises a…
An interview with Kaihan Krippendorf." Sonshi Management Website. Updated 2004. 29 Apr 2005 at http://www.sonshi.com/krippendorff.html
Machiavelli, Nicolo. The Prince. Full Text Online Edition. Updated 2005. 29 Apr 2005 at http / www.constitution.org/mac/prince12.htm
Tzu, Sun. "The Art of War." Updated 2004. 29 Apr 2005 http://classics.mit.edu/Tzu/artwar.html
If he is taking his ease, give him no rest. If his forces are united, separate them. Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where you are not expected. These military devices, leading to victory, must not be divulged beforehand." (Tzu)
But the true wisdom in this book is that it suggests constant preparation for all situations. "Now the general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his temple ere the battle is fought. The general who loses a battle makes but few calculations beforehand. Thus do many calculations lead to victory, and few calculations to defeat: how much more no calculation at all! It is by attention to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose." (Tzu)
There is a great deal known about Machiavelli and his famous work the Prince. The book was actually an attempt by Machiavelli to ingratiate…
Machiavelli, Niccolo. (1984). The Prince. Bantam Books.
Tzu, Sun. The Art of War.
Sun Tzu and Military Classics
Sun Tzu believed in freedom of action, mobility, surprise, deception and indirect attacks rather than frontal assaults. His method was always to "entice the enemy, to unbalance him, and to create a situation favorable for a decisive counter-stroke," while avoiding sieges and prolonged wars of attrition (Harvey, 2008, p. xlii). This was the opposite type of strategy from the commanders of the First World War or the American Civil War, who hurled masses of men against powerful defensive positions and inflicted mass casualties on their armies for no real purpose. Basil Liddell Hart, who was "horrified by the waste" of World War I, agreed with Sun Tzu that the indirect approach was superior, particularly using the mobility that tanks and air power provided (Harvey, p. xxxv). Most of the great commanders of history, like George Washington, Bernard Montgomery, Douglas MacArthur and George Patton have followed…
Harvey, R. (2008). Maverick Military Leaders: The Extraordinary Battles of Washington, Nelson, Patton, Rommel, and Others. New York: Skyhorse Pub Co Inc.
Sun Tzu. The Art of War. History.com http://www.history.com/topics/the-art-of-war
Art of War" by Sun-Tzu, and "On War" by Karl von Clausewitz. Specifically it will discuss how the two authors might have viewed and dissected war at sea. These two philosophers wrote of war at very different times in history, and yet neither of them wrote of warfare at sea. One, Sun-Tzu might not have even considered the possibility of war at sea, while the other may have simply dismissed it as not applicable to his book. However, war at sea is a vital consideration in warfare today, and has been for centuries. Which philosopher best deals with technologies and tactics applicable to war at sea? That remains to be seen.
Each of these two philosophers is certainly adequate to describe and support war at sea as well as war on land. In fact, throughout his book, author Clausewitz often uses the sea as a metaphor of description. For example,…
Clausewitz, Karl von. On War. Trans O.J. Matthijs Jolles. Washington, DC: Infantry Journal Press, 1950.
Sun-Tzu. The Art of War. Trans. Ralph D. Sawyer. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.
Karl von Clausewitz & Sun Tzu
Comparative Analysis of Karl von Clausewitz's theory and Sun Tzu's art of war
Civilization has evolved throughout history with numerous incidents of wars, conflicts, and destruction of territories and societies. The rise and fall of the Roman Empire was met with endless conflicts of warring tribes and cultures; war has become rampant through the years that, in the 20th century alone, we bore witness to three major conflicts: the First and Second orld ars and the Cold ar. Destructive as wars may seem, Karl von Clausewitz and Sun Tzu considered the concept of war in a different perspective. here war is synonymous to destruction, pillage, and suffering, Clausewitz and Tzu regarded war as a phenomenon that should be given more analysis than criticism.
In Clausewitz's "On ar" and Sun Tzu's "The Art of ar," both authors expound their view of the war. This paper…
Clausewitz, K. von. E-text of "On War." Available at: http://www.clausewitz.com/CWZHOME/On_War/ONWARTOC.html.
Tzu, S. E-text of "The Art of War." Available at: http://classics.mit.edu/Tzu/artwar.html .
Similarly, by realizing that the ultimate goal of war is peace and prosperity ("There is no instance of a country having benefited from prolonged warfare" -- para 6, Chapter II) Sun Tzu suggests the harmony of war and peace just as Taoism emphasizes the harmony of yin and yang. He also amalgamates the concepts of wuwei, yin and yang and harmony in universe by suggesting the path of least resistance ("...in war, the way is to avoid what is strong and to strike at what is weak." Para 29, Chapter VI) and proposing flexibility in action ("Water shapes its course according to the nature of the ground over which it flows; the soldier works out his victory in relation to the foe whom he is facing." Para 30, Chapter VI).
Daoism." (2007). Article in Encyclopedia Encarta Online, 2007. etrieved on February 7, 2007 at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761555647/Taoism_(Daoism).html
Daoism." (2007). Article in Encyclopedia Encarta Online, 2007. Retrieved on February 7, 2007 at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761555647/Taoism_(Daoism).html
Sun Tzu on the Art of War." (1910). Translated from the Chinese by Lionel Giles. Retrieved on February 7, 2007 at http://www.kimsoft.com/polwar.htm
Business Before Referencing
Tzu, Sun. The Art of War. Forward by James Clavell. New York: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd.,
What does an ancient Chinese classic about the nature of a now-obsolete form of warfare have to teach us, in modernity, about how to manage others and navigate the current business environment? A great deal, The Art of War's presence in many business class syllabuses would suggest. Indeed, certain aspects of The Art of War by Sun Tzu seem even more relevant today than in the past. How to combine moral authority with fierceness and tenacity in an increasingly competitive environment is a challenging question faced by many organizations.
One of the first principles stressed by Sun Tzu is the need for a leader to follow a moral law, what we might call a vision statement in modern business vocabulary. It is not enough for a leader to command and reward,…
By placing these lessons within the context of the battlefield, Sun Tzu provided thousands of years of audiences with a Taoist approach to conflict and to warfare.
Taoism is traditionally thought of as a peaceful, natural philosophy that avoids fighting much like Buddhism. But this is untrue. Taoism recognizes that life involves conflict, but that the wise man can mediate this conflict and control it so that it is least destructive and most productive. Thus, war is not an anathema to Taoists, merely a last resort. Sun Tzu concludes, "The art of war is of vital importance to the state. It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence under no circumstances can it be neglected" (Sun Tzu 9). Taoists would agree: conflict is an inescapable part of life, thus a deeper understanding of it such as Sun Tzu provides is the…
Cantrell, Robert L. Understanding Sun Tazu on the Art of War. Arlington, VA: Center for Advantage, 2003.
Evans-Campbell, Brent. "The Art of Strategy." 1999. 9 April 2007 http://www.langara.bc.ca/prm/1999/strategy.html .
Sun Tzu. The Art of War. Ed. James Clavell. New York: Delacorte Press, 1983.
Wilson, Jaret. "The Tao of War." 4 Literature.net. 28 July 2002. 9 April 2007 http://www.4literature.net/story/2002/7/28/114855/249.
Intelligence operation in cities will reveal, in addition to other things, the exact locations of the enemy. Once the locations have been pinpointed, the interagency task force can then besiege him with a combination of forces, surveillance, robotics, and media and combatants gas aimed at making the enemy's position untenable. With this in effect, the enemy is bound to be drawn out of their hideout and appropriate military action such as arrest or open fire taken.
In view of the suggestions presented, it is indeed a momentous time that military training be taken a notch higher. The reality of the 21st century leaves the defense forces with little choices, if any, as far as engaging terror groups in urban areas is concerned. The events in Mogadishu, where the U.S. military underperformed expectation, should serve as a revelation that the mighty of the forces does not necessarily guarantee success. Instead, intelligent…
Peters, R. (2001). Fighting for the Future: Will America Triumph? Washington, DC: Stackpole.
Leonhard, R.R. (2003). Sun Tzu's Bad Advice: Urban Warfare in the Information Age. ARMY Magazine - April 2003
Sun Tzu understood that if a country or a culture is to go to war against an enemy, then the leader of that country or culture must have the total support of his people and particularly of his warriors. He describes this phenomenon as the "Moral Law" which he asserts it the first of five "constant factors" in the art of going to war.
Do morality, ethics, or the moral law cause people to be enthusiastically supportive of their leader? First, the answer is yes to the question. Secondly, as to why this is a true statement, when the topic of "moral law" is raised -- in the sense that citizens (and soldiers) are in "complete accord with their ruler…undismayed by any danger" -- it should also be understood that there is another concept very similar to moral law. It is called "nationalism," and according to iconic author…
Dumm, Thomas L. (2006). George W. Bush and the F-Word. South Atlantic Quarterly, 105(1),
Lyon, Grant. (2011). Patriotism vs. Nationalism in a Post 9/11 World. HuffPost. Retrieved February 16, 2012, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
SourceWatch. (2008). Treating Dissent as Treason. Retrieved February 16, 2012, from http://www.sourcewatch.org .
Tzu argues that strategy is important in that a successful general or leader can and will adapt to changing conditions on the battlefield, and that the art of war is more about adaptability and the risks and opportunities that come with the constant and dynamic nature of warfare than it is about careful planning and preparation. This is not to say that the latter two actions are useless, by Tzu sees more value in flexibility and cunning than he does in immobility and inflexibility.
Both works illustrate how personal and social justice differ from each other. They also point out that personal order is often a concept that lacks true definition, at least as time goes by. A successful person, whether in war or in their family life, learns to adapt to changing situations and scenarios, putting aside social order and justice in favor of a much more relevant, functional…
Sophecles. (458 BC). Electra.
Tzu, Sun. (5th century BC). The Art of War.
The subject of terrain is covered exclusively in one of the thirteen chapters in Sun Tzu’s The Art of War. In fact, terrain is addressed throughout The Art of War, so critical is positioning to tactical advantage and strategy. For example, the fourth chapter on “Tactical Dispositions” addresses positioning prior to Sun Tzu’s more formal “Classification of Terrain” in Chapter Ten. Whereas “Tactical Dispositions” covers defensive options, and relative positions vis-a-vis the enemy, “Terrain” demonstrates how variations in terrain impact strategy and outcome. Therefore, “Terrain” offers an unparalleled level of detail on the subject of geography that is of tremendous use to military strategists. Sun Tzu extends his discussion on the importance of terrain in Chapter Eleven of The Art of War, showing how terrain impacts the nine main possibilities for battleground formation and how to address challenges and crises by using skilful means.
Introduction: Why Terrain?
un Tzu informs that we cannot punish people until they feel loyalty to us: namely, until they consider themselves members of our group.
10. Keep them guessing
This quality may be pertinent only to leaders of a business / corporation. Her un Tzu advises keeping one's strategies and plans concealed from one's competitor so that one retains competitive advantage.
The Art of War, maintains un Tzu, is "a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected." (pt. 2)
The same goes for the Art of Leadership. It is also "a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected" and its qualities need to be known and inculcated in order to have maximum success in the field.
'Leader' as term may be inchoate, but as many entrepreneurs have…
Bateman, T.S., & Snell, S. (2009). Management: Leading and Collaborating in a Competitive World, Eighth Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Kotter JP. 1996. Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harv. Bus. School
Schein, E. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. CA: Jossey-Bass.
Sun Tzu, (2001). The Art of War Wylie, TX: Pickard & Son, Publishers.
General James Mattis is one of the prominent military leaders and highly successful in his 40 years of service. This paper examines how General Mattis’ utilized strategies, styles, behaviors, and qualities that are comparable to those of past Maverick leaders. The analysis also demonstrates how General James Mattis adapted these strategies, styles, behaviors, and qualities to work in the contemporary operating environment. As part of this analysis, a discussion of the moral and ethical compass of General James Mattis is also included. As shown in the paper, the strategies utilized by Mattis include intellectual risk-taking and people-centered approach in commanding troops whereas the styles include combative approach and strategic thinking. On the other hand, General Mattis’ behaviors include extreme aggressiveness and interaction with subordinates while his qualities include intellectualism, positive attitude, and courage.
Comparing General James Mattis to Maverick Leaders of the Past
General James Mattis is recognized as…
In that sense, Wilkoff (1995, as cited by Weick & Quinn, 1999) reports on her attempts to intervene between two companies that had fused together in an unsuccessful mergence. The actors of the various companies persistently disagreed due to cultural differences in mindset, whereupon the consultant, recognizing this, changed her strategy. he began meeting with each actor separately and explaining the other's performance from his or her particular cultural assumptions. In this way, once each had understood the other, could both meet together and the mergence actually become effective. In a similar way, says chein, can change be best implemented when the leader is willing and able to looking into, work with, and attempt to understand other cultural patterns. History is change. Change necessitates working with and understanding the heterogeneity of cultures that constitute the world. A leader who does this becomes flexible to the change dynamic and can best…
Bartunek JM. 1993. The multiple cognitions and conflicts associated with second order organizational change. In Social Psychology in Organizations: Advances in Theory and Research, ed. JK Murnighan, pp. 322. 49. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Beer M, Eisenstat RA, Spector B. 1990. The Critical Path to Corporate Renewal. Boston, MA: Harv. Bus. Sch.
Brand, a. (1990). The Force of Reason: An Introduction to Habermas, London: Allen & Unwin.
Crawford, Amy. "The Swamp Fox." Smithsonian.com. (http://www. smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/biography/fox.html)
Andre Malraux's novel, Man's Fate reflects the human realities and costs of war that have been depicted throughout Chinese literature. In his depiction of characters like Ch'en, Ferral, Old Gisor, Kyo and Katov, Malraux gives life to the terrible realities of war that have been seen in humanity as a whole, and are represented in almost any time of war. Ch'en's struggles with the dehumanizing effects of war reflect the struggles of many men throughout history, as Kyo's unfailing patriotism reflects the Moral Law of warfare written over 2,000 years ago in Sun-Tzu's The Art of ar. Similarly, Chinese Poet Tu Fu's "Ballad of the Army Carts" describes the agony of losing loved ones that is seen again within Man's Fate.
In Man's Fate, Malraux expertly exposes human emotions and conflicts that are universal to any time of war. A powerful novel that depicts human loss, difficult decisions, and the…
Malraux, Andre. 1990. Man's Fate. Vintage.
Sun-Tzu. 1990. The Art of War. Vintage.
Tu Fu. Ballard of the Army Carts. Du Fu Poetry (Tu Fu). 25 May 2004. Available at http://www.chinapage.com/poet-e/dufu2e.html
Wikipedia. Andre Malraux. 24 May 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andre_Malraux
intelligence operations. What role would state and local police play in these operations? What are the limits on their role?
Intelligence operations can tremendously aid in the prevention of terrorist and criminal acts. The problem with intelligence gathering is not the efficacy of the data but how it is shared and used. When local and state police are involved in intelligence-gathering operations, concerns related to civil liberties might arise. Arguments against intelligence operations include concerns over surveillance as an infringement on civil liberties.
Given government exists as a social contract in which individual citizens willingly agree to surrender a few individual rights in favor of a broader common good, intelligence gathering makes perfect sense. Intelligence gathering allows the elected government to protect its citizens via the identification of risks, and the mitigation and responses thereto. Therefore, intelligence gathering is undertaken according to the libertarian values upon which the United States…
Contrasting this from a personal standpoint, only in the most emotionally charged and toxic personal situations are there feelings of this level, rejoicing in the failure of others. In personal relationships this is especially troublesome as the medium of exchange, unlike business using money, is emotion and what is left of trust in a relationship. That makes the wishing of failure in addition to winning the conflict especially toxic and even potentially dangerous. As one divorcee had on her license plate holder "Happiness is seeing your Ex-on a milk carton," the damaging aspects of this dynamic is dangerous in interpersonal relationships.
It is far more common in business where salaries, sales, and bonuses are seen as a direct reflection of the value of the managers involved, and the loss of these is seen as even greater victory for the person in the conflict.
Case: The Great Wall and the Firewall…
Financial Times (2007) - Chinese Military hacked into Pentagon. Demetri Sevastopulo. Washington D.C. Published: September 3, 2007. Accessed from the Internet on September 19, 2007 from location:
Change may be difficult for a company, but necessary if the company is to survive. An effective leader is one who is able to harness and negotiate this change so that the company is able to deal with it and survive.
ome limitations to overcome
A leader has to possess the following characteristics: Empowerment; Risk-taking; Participation; and Development (Eicher; online). In a practical sense, this translates into the following schema: I need to empower employees listening to their ideas regarding how the organization can work. I would need to also inspire the employees to work independently and to gain their own knowledge.
Thirdly, I would need to inspire an atmosphere of innovation so that employees and myself together can decide how to work through difficult situations, and this must be accomplished in a face-saving manner in a supportive rather than in an accusatory atmosphere. Finally, I must endeavor to foster…
Sales, A. (2006). Substance Abuse and Counseling: A Perspective The International Child and Youth Care Network,. Cyc-Online. http://www.cyc-net.org/cyc-online/cycol-0106-sales.html
Sun Tzu, (2001). The Art of War Wylie, TX: Pickard & Son, Publishers.
Wheatley, M. (2002). Silence is the Problem. Shambhala Sun. Retrieved on 5/18/2010 from http://margaretwheatley.com/articles/silenceistheproblem.html .
For a business or an organisation to be successful, there is a need for well trained and effective executives / leaders. An organization without proper leadership will find it very difficult to achieve sustainable success. Leaders help in drafting and disseminating information about new visions or directions and providing staff with the right motivation to boost productivity in this age of intense competition. Therefore, it is necessary for companies to continuously train their leaders so as to ensure that their skills are up-to-date and that their organisations are being led in the right direction (Gitlow, 2004). Based on these observations, this paper seeks to explore the finer issues of leadership through insights of an interview with an acknowledged leader, who trained to be a leader through experience and diligence he gained in different occupations throughout his career.
Throughout his life he has experienced various things that have…
Dmock, V., & McGree, K. (1995). Leading Change From The Classroom: Teachers As Leaders. Retrieved from http://www.sedl.org/change/issues/issues44.html
Gitlow, A. (2004). Being the Boss: The Importance of Leadership and Power. Beard Books.
Kadalie, D. (2006). Leader's resource kit: Tools and techniques to develop your leadership. Nairobi: Evangel Publishing House.
Sanders. (1967). Natural and Spiritual Leadership. Spiritual Leadership, 35-42.
Donald umsfeld's tenure as Secretary of Defense from 2001-2006 during the George W. Bush Administration provides a striking example of the exercise of leadership during a time of change in a highly charged political atmosphere. umsfeld was attempting to change the internal and external profile of an enormous organization that is under constant scrutiny from many stakeholders and outside interests, some supportive and others hostile. He wanted to change the way the department fights wars by leveraging the American military's technological advantage while other leaders in other areas of federal and international governance sought to influence the country's approach to foreign policy in more diplomacy-focused ways. Perhaps it was due to so much scrutiny and powerful opposition that the secretary exercised his leadership in such an enigmatic fashion, not in the sense of Sun Tzu's invisible hand kind leadership but in a smoke and mirrors manner better suited to…
Clement, R.W. (1994). Culture, leadership, and power: the keys to organizational change.
Business Horizons, 37(1), 33-39.
Donald (Harold) Rumsfeld. (2007). Almanac of Famous People. Detroit: Gale.
Leadership and organizational politics. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.alagse.com/leadership/l3.php.
Roxana as Tragedy
"Roxana" stands unique among Daniel Defoe's work in that it ends a tragedy. The work is a lot more than that, however. "Roxana" dispenses with the formalities associated with many texts and paints sex as a commodity from the very get-go. Roxana ends up a tragedy not so much because of what transpires at the end of the novel, but because Roxana herself cannot deal with her decision to prostitute herself: Roxana is a tragic figure because at the end she cannot reconcile her morals, her guilt and the fact that although she has been able to achieve wealth through her actions, through social upward mobility has eluded her, partly through her own eyes. In fact, her reliance on her beauty and body compound this desire for social upward mobility, and eventually result in a sort of manic race to delude not only her daughter, newest Dutch…
I went into commercial real estate in New York City in order to take over for my father's company, which is what he had always wanted and encouraged me to do. From the beginning, I was challenged in various ways -- often pulled between work and family as I tried to build the Winick Realty Group that my father had founded and carry on the labor of love that he had initiated. For me, however, I often wondered whether this same labor was a passion of mine or whether I was simply in it because it was indeed the "family" business. In spite of these obstacles and doubts, I helped to expand Winick Realty into new sectors, including landlord and building ownership, as well as opening offices in Miami and Los Angeles. I discovered that I was good at my job and was, in a sense, a "chip off…
Confucius. The Analects of Confucius. Internet Archive, Book 4 -- Le Jin. Web. 18 Dec
Machiavelli, Nicolo. The Pirince. Gutenberg. Web. 18 Dec 2015
Safdie, Moshe. "Building Uniqueness," TED, 2002. Web. 18 Dec 2015
Failure to Promise: An Uncommon Path to Professoriate is Dr. C. Moorer's self-help book that aims to motivate the reader and help to establish a series of self-analytical tools that will help the reader achieve his or her goals. As an individual pursuing a degree in aeronautical science, it is difficult to fully relate to Dr. Moorer's journey to become an engineer and professor because of the background that he describes in his book. However, it is interesting to see how Dr. Moorer, through his own experiences, has come to understand strategic concepts that are frequently taught in managerial programs and how many of his concepts can be traced back to theories that have been studied for centuries.
As someone that has worked hard and has been forced to overcome struggles, personally and academically, I find it difficult to take much of Dr. Moorer's struggles to heart because it appears…
The Economic Collapse. (2012). Retrieved 12 July 2012, from http://theeconomiccollapseblog.com/archives/tag/detroit
Moorer, C. (2010). From Failure to Promise: An Uncommon Path to Professoriate. Lexington,
Tzu, S. (n.d.). The Art of War. Retrieved 12 July 2012, from http://history.cultural-
However in those days, the progress was even slower and there was deeper concern about the possibility of complete transition. Samuel Huntington's path-breaking book, Political Order in Changing Societies (1968) has been by far the most well received and comprehensive book on the subject of civilian military relations. Huntington studied the conditions in Latin America and found that in underdeveloped countries, militaries were usually more powerful because society cannot access the government and hence support military's interference. Middle classes then "compel the military to oppose the government" and restore the status quo ante. Military may be powerful but Huntington felt that it was the organizational structure that can be blamed for coups but instead the social structure and thus "Military explanations do not explain military intervention," he argued.
By the end of the 1970s, even more literature appeared on the scene to explain civil military relations and to study the…
A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations
This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…
Allred, K., Mallozzi, J., Matsui, F., Raia, C. (1997). The influence of anger and compassion on negotiation performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 70(3): 175-187.
Andonova, E., Taylor, H. (2012). Nodding in dis/agreement: a tale of two cultures.
Cognitive Process, 13(Suppl 1): S79-S82.
Aristotle. (1889). The Nicomachean ethics of Aristotle. (Trans R.W. Browne).
Protective service operations are of the utmost importance when considering the impact that leadership and those who are being protected have upon the environment. The sacrifices made by secret service agents demonstrate the essence of teamwork, faith and dedication to the American way. Protective operations are complex however, and require some in-depth study to truly appreciate these practices that contribute to the general good.
The purpose of this essay is to explain the conducting of a protective service operation for an employee who is at high risk for targeting. This essay will describe in detail the specific 3 phases that are necessary to be successful in this procedure. The essay will first discuss phase I which includes the research, reconnaissance and counter surveillance operations contained in protective operations. Phase II will then be discussed which focuses on the planning aspect of the operation. Execution is the third phase of these…
Department of Homeland Security. (2008, October). Active shooter: How to respond. Retrieved from http://www.alerts.si.edu/docs/DHS_ActiveShooterBook.pdf
Fein, R.A. & Vossekuil, B. (1998). Protective intelligence and threat assessment Investigations: A guide for State and local law enforcement officials. U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.secretservice.gov/ntac/PI_Guide.pdf
The Free Dictionary. "Surveillance." Viewed 5 May 2014. Retrieved from http://www.secretservice.gov/usss_strategic_plan_2008_2013.pdf
Hayes, B. (2010). Protecting people at risk. Security, 47(12), 40-40. Retrieved from H-PU library Proquest criminal justice http://search.proquest.com/docview/846781971?accountid=136858
honored one, I offer this comment with grave regret that it shall even be received, for in his Excellency's well intentioned attempt to seek the advice of the more sagacious residents of Kyoto and Edo, he is playing into the hands of the barbarians whose own societies are marked with the spilled blood of noble rulers, instigated when words of dissent were expressed in writing. The Americans, whose black ships now dot the horizon in the Bay of Uraga, are presently ruled by the descendents of that generation that penned a doctrine of disloyalty and dissent in their effort to justify the chaos that gave them advantage in their homeland.
The subject before us is not one that should be given over to public scrutiny. This consideration of proper course is not an entertainment, not an exercise of intellect, as over time became the case of the Forty-seven Ronin. In…
Group Cohesion Within an Organization
We often hear much about "miracle" sports teams such as the 1986 New York Mets, U.S. Hockey's Soviet Union defeating team, and even this year's curse-destroying oston Red Sox. Long after the individual exploits of individual players are forgotten, the team effort and lore will remain. Sometimes, the team stories will even build over time. For instance, today baseball fans will remember the 1986 New York Mets as an underdog team that surmounted insurmountable odds to capture the World Series. In reality, the Mets were heavily favored that year, and had to be saved by the opposing oston Red Sox's errant play.
Why is the concept of team so powerful in history? ecause it means so much in the present. Specifically, the "chemistry" by which a team is brought together contributes to a team's success more than any other single factor. Group cohesion means more…
Blanchard, Ken & Muchnick, Marc. "The leadership pill." New York: Free Press. (2004)
Deming, Vasudha. "The big book of leadership games." New York: McGraw Hill. (2004).
Kellerman, Barbara. "Bad leadership." Boston: Harvard Business School Press. (2004).
Lencioni, Patrick. "Death by meeting." San Francisco: Wiley. (2004)
Anything that appears challenging or threatening in the external environment needs to be taken seriously and this is where management plays a key role.
Internal factors or forces on the other hand are more concerned with organizational culture, mission and values and human resource. While all managers are required to remain true to organization's culture and uphold its values at all times, a real manager is the one who knows when to mould the culture in such a way that it would remain close to its original values while at the same time also become more accepting of external changes. A manager who is blinded by his organization's culture and beliefs is likely to miss signs of external change. Management needs to understand that internal forces are within its control and thus can be used constructively for the benefit of the entire organization instead of allowing it to control the…
Lawton, P. (1995, September). Initiating and managing change in your organization. CMA Magazine, 69 28-32.
Anamnesis, A. (1996). The root ideas in dealing with change. Physician Executive, 22 41-45.
Basing on these stages, prior comprehension can boost the effort to dislodge the negative ideologies that the terror group could be trying to impart into people's mind-set. For instance, terrorist attacks targeting U.S. are based on the ideologies that U.S. is a general enemy to the Islam community. The objective of such propaganda is to unite the Islam community solidly behind their leaders in vilifying United States. However, the U.S. government's response to denounce the ideologies and insist that the war is against terrorists and not Muslim has been crucial in dismantling groupings such as Al Qaeda (White, 2002).
In my view, I totally agree with the statement that understanding the terrorist mind-set is essential in exploiting the weaknesses in the terrorist organizations. A fundamental mind-set that the terror organizations have developed is that attacking and killing an enemy of the people is the surest way of a better afterlife.…
Borum, R. (2003). Understanding a Terrorist Mind-Set. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. July 2003.
White, J. (2002). Terrorism: An Introduction, 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing
Strategic Planning for usiness
The objective of this study is to examine the importance of strategic planning for business. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of the literature in this area of inquiry.
Zuckerman (nd) writes that the concept of strategy 'has roots in both political and military history, from Sun Tzu to Homer and Euripides. The word 'strategy' comes from the Greek 'stratego', which means to 'plan the destruction of one's enemies through effective use of resources'." (p.5) Many of the terms that are associated with strategic planning including "objective, mission strength and weakness' are reported as having been developed by or used in the military." (Zuckerman, nd, p.5)
The work of Swayne, Duncan, and Ginter (2008) state that "strategic planning defines where the organization is going, sometimes where it is not going, and provide focus. The plan sets direction for the organization and -- through…
Lawler, JE (nd) The Importance of Strategic Planning. Practical Decisions. Retrieved from: http://www.practicaldecisions.com/strategic-planning.pdf
Business Planning Papers: Developing a Strategic Plan (2012) Planware.org. Retrieved from: http://www.planware.org/strategicplan.htm
Zuckerman (nd) Is Strategic Planning Still Relevant? Chapter 1. Retrieved from: http://www.ache.org/pubs/Zuckerman_Ch1.pdf
Accounting and Intrusion Detection
In a report issued by Paladin Technologies, Inc., entitled: "Security Metrics: Providing Cost Justification for Security Projects," 273 organizations were surveyed on the topic of security. The report illustrates in quantifiable terms the depth and reach of intrusion detection on the financial viability of the organization. The combined reported losses from the firms surveyed totaled $265.6 million in 1999. The highest loss categories were reported as follows:
Type of Loss
Estimated Dollar Value
Number of espondents
Theft of intellectual capital
The average annual financial loss of firms surveyed was estimated at $40 million. Forty three percent of respondents were able to quantify financial losses, and seventy four percent were able to acknowledge financial loss. Ninety percent detected cyber attacks within the most recent twelve-month period and seventy percent reported serious breaches other than viruses, laptop theft, and employee abuse of…
Risk Assessment risk assessment involves estimating the likelihood and severity of an occurrence, the relative impact of risk on the facility, information handler, processing, support, and the mission of the organization. Assessing the likelihood means determining the probability that existing controls will be skirted. Pfleeger has identified a series of steps for examining the likelihood of adverse occurrences:
Calculate the probability that the risk may happen, found in the observed data for the specific system.
Estimate the likely number occurrences in a given time period. The analyst gives a rating based on several different risk analysis methodologies, and then creates a table to hold and compare the ratings.
The Delphi approach: several raters individually estimate the probable likelihood of an event, combine their estimates, and choose the best one.
S. involvement in World War II.
Is it possible to have a general theory of war?
Perhaps the most well-known "theory" of war is articulated in Matthew 24:6: "You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. . . . Such things must happen" (New International Version 1984). Therefore, although it is possible to have a general theory of war, any such theory will be limited in its ability to explain the why's and how's of its occurrence. According to Gray (1999), in his seminal text, on War, Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz, set forth a modern general theory of war, but Sun Tzu's Art of War also addressed this issue. Clausewitz, though, is cited time and again in the relevant literature as having propounded a general theory of war. For instance, eid (2004) reports that, "In particular, he seeks to explain the methods to establish a general theory of…
Clausewitz, C.V. (1976) on War. Princeton, NJ.
Gray, C.S. (1999) Modern Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
-. The 21st Century Security Environment and the Future of War. Parameters, 38(4): 14-9.
Lichbach, M.I. (1989) "An evaluation of 'does economic inequality breed political conflict?'
Admiral's Advantage -- U.S. Navy Operational Intelligence in World War II and the Cold War
The Admirals Advantage
The Admirals Advantage is a book that is based on an Operational Intelligence (OPINTEL) 'Lessons Learnt' symposium that was held in 1998 at the National Maritime Intelligence Centre. It also borrows from studies conducted by the reserve units of the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) that were conducted in the period between 1994 and 2004. The book is written by Christopher Ford and David Rosenberg, who received assistance from Randy alano. Christopher Ford served as the Republican Chief Counsel to the U.S. committee on appropriations and among other previous roles; he had served as U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence's general counsel[footnoteRef:1]. He is also a graduate from Yale and Harvard. At the time the book was being written, David Rosenberg worked in the Institute for Defense Analyses as a professional staff…
Ford, Christopher and David Rosenberg, The Admirals Advantage: U.S. Navy Operational Intelligence in World War II and the Cold War Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2014
Corporate Social esponsibility Programs
Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) programs are effective forms of management that directly and indirectly impact the "social, environmental and economic environment in which" the corporation functions (Castka, Bamber, Sharp, 2005, p. vii). In this context, corporations are viewed by societies as influential in the development of a "better world" (Friedman, Miles, 2002, p. 1). By using an ethical foundation for a business model, corporations have gained substantial market share and public trust because they are viewed as being good for the environment and for communities (as well as delivering a good product) while other companies have come under fire and social pressure for not living up to an ethical standard (Pearce, Doh, 2005). The factors that affect the implementation of CS programs can range from governmental standards to stakeholder involvement to moral and ethical cultures (or lack thereof) within the corporate entity (AnyangoOoko, 2014). This paper…
AnyangoOoko, G. (2014). The environmental factors that influence implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in an organization. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(12): 95-102.
Castka, P., Bamber, C., Sharp, J. (2005). Implementing Effective Corporate Social
Responsibility and Corporate Governance: A Framework. UK: British Standards Institution.
De Maria, W. (2005). Whistleblower Protection: Is Africa Ready? Public
Both Taoism and Buddhism encourage meditation as a means by which to liberate the mind and achieve emptiness. One of the Buddhist practices that encourages emptiness is mindfulness meditation, or vipassana. However, there are numerous specific methods that be used during the meditation practice. Some are more Tibetan in origin as those espoused by Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche and the Vajrayana tradition. Other meditation practices are like those I learned at the Hsi Lai Temple, which combine Ch'an (Chinese Zen) Buddhism with Buddhist humanism. Taoism, unlike Buddhism, also offers ancillary spiritual practices such as Tai Chi and Chi Gung. The teachings of Buddhism and Taoism go neatly hand in hand.
Therefore, I am continually growing from becoming more open to spiritual teachings. The spiritual journey is like a flower blossoming. I do not believe that religious dogma or ideology are necessary, and in some cases they can be harmful. As Chogyam…
Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche. Cutting Through Spiritual Materialism. Shambala, 1987.
"Emptiness." Retrieved online: http://thebigview.com/buddhism/emptiness.html
"Humanism." Hsi Lai Temple. Retrieved online: http://www.hsilai.org/en/intro_subpages/intro_hsi_lai_human_Buddhism.html
There are three major religions that have established themselves in China: Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; and of the three, only Buddhism is not indigenous to China. Buddhism found its way to China along the Silk oad, brought by missionaries from India. For centuries, the three religions have co-existed with many Chinese adopting elements of each in their daily lives. Whatever similarities, or symbiotic elements each contains, the three religions have also competed with each other for prominence and prestige within Chinese society. At different times each has been the dominant religion, fully supported by the Imperial Court, however, Buddhism, since it's incorporation into Chinese society, has viewed itself as the superior religion. While most Buddhists are completely comfortable with the idea of other religious ideals in society, and even embrace certain aspects of them, they still feel that Buddhism is superior. One piece of Chinese literature, generally accepted as…
Hodus, Lewis. (2006). Buddhism and Buddhists in China. New Vision Publishers.
Qiancheng Li. (2004). Fictions of Enlightenment: Journey to the West…. USA:
University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books
Wu, Cheng'en. (n.d.). Journey to the West. Retrieved from http://www.chine-informations.com/fichiers/jourwest.pdf
In Lao Tzu's opinion, there is much more to Dao than just matter. In order to understand Dao people need to dispose of their previous concepts in relation to life and to their purpose on earth. Chapter fourteen gives instructions on how people should act if they actually want to see, hear, and touch Dao. According to Lao Tzu, one of the biggest mistakes made by people when they attempt to discover something is that they try to compare it to something from their daily lives.
As written in the Prehistoric Origins chapter, people constantly search for new theories to adopt and to follow for the rest of their lives. In contrast to that, Dao is not something that one could follow from a certain point in their lives, as it is something that people have always followed from the beginning of time. Unlike the sun that shines for only…
1. Correa, Nina. "MY DAO DE JING." Retrieved September 29, 2009, from the Dao is open Web site: http://www.daoisopen.com/BYNina.html
2. Lao Tzu. "Tao Te Ching."
An excellent example of this principle is the art of cooking. hen one cooks, they may follow a recipe. However, if they find in the middle of the recipe that the dish is cooking too quickly, they may have to exercise flexibility and make adjustments to avoid ruining the dish. They cannot follow the recipe without thought, but must make adjustments as they go along. Flexibility must occur spontaneously and must be integrated into what the situation requires (Fox).
Practicing the uwei produces a seamless dance in which the elements are not noticed of their own accord (Fox). hen the actions are appropriate to the situation and the proper amount of flexibility is applied, no one will notice the transitions that have taken place. If one turns down the flame on the stove, naturally, as if without effort, no one will notice. However, if one were to choose to follow…
Fox, a. Reflex and Reflectivity. Wuwei in the Zhuangzi. Asian Philosophy, Volume 6:1 (1996), pp. 59-72. http://www.udel.edu/Philosophy/afox/reflex.htm . Accessed February 10, 2009.
Goddard, D. & Borel, HLaotzu's Tao and WuWei.. 1919. http://www.sacred-texts.com/tao/ltw/index.htm Accessed February 10, 2009.
Kardash, T. Jade Dragon Taoism - the Wu-Wei Principle, Part 4. Online June 1998. http://www.jadedragon.com/archives/june98/tao.html . Accessed February 10, 2009.
Lawson, S. Wu Wei. http://www.crudeoils.us/shawn/write/WuWei.pdf. Accessed February 10, 2009.
Fire (the hottest element) and metal (the hardest) both are associated with yang. Nevertheless, the Blue Dragon that symbolizes wood is a principal symbol of yang, while the hite Tiger that symbolizes metal is a principal symbol of yin. This kind of reversal turns up frequently in the I Ching..[Newborn, 1986]
The I Ching is based on the principle of a broken line, representing yin, and an unbroken line, representing yang. There are eight trigrams: The I Ching [Y" Jing1] uses the trigrams by combining pairs of them into 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams reuse the trigrams by combining pairs of them into 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams represent states of affairs, and the I Ching is consulted through the construction of a hexagram to answer one's question. The construction is carried out either through a complicated process of throwing and counting yarrow stalks, or by throwing three coins. The obverse (head)…
Hooker, Richard. Chinese Philosophy. Confucianism. Undated 6-6-1999. Accessed February, 2002. http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CHPHIL/NEO.htm
Newborn, Sasha ICHING: The Book of Changes. Bandanna Books.1986
Ross, Kelley L. Ph. D. Confucius. 2000. Friesian.com.
Accessed February, 2002. http://www.friesian.com/confuci.htm
Confucianism promotes the "ideal of the scholar, who cultivates virtue in oneself and shares it through service in government, teaching, and daily life," Canda explains on page 1. The pure idea of Confucianism is to benefit all the citizens and those benefits have a ripple effect starting with the individual, through the family, and out to the Korean society and then the world (Canda, p. 1).
Confucianism has had an influence on many spiritual and physical Asian-based traditions; for example, Confucianism had a big influence on the development of martial arts, acupuncture, and meditation, according to Canda.
Shamanism: There are about 300 shamanistic temples within an hour of the capital of Seoul, according to an article in the New York Times (Sang-Hun, 2007, p. 1). The article points out that shamanism is presently enjoying a renaissance after "centuries of ridicule and persecution"; indeed, shamans were "demonized by Christian missionaries and…
Beaver, R. Pierce. "Chondogyo and Korea." Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
Buddhism Today. Buddhism in Korea. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2010, from http://www.buddhismtoday.com . (1997).
Buswell, Robert E., and Lee, Timothy S. Christianity in Korea. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.
trategy -- Rulers, tates and War
It is very difficult to look at the history of humanity and define a number of common, yet intangible philosophies of action that seem to be part of the overall human condition. One of these intangibles is the human capacity to produce both incredible beauty and horrific evil -- both of which occur during war. In fact, we may ask -- what is war? Every historical period from Ancient Mesopotamia to the present has added a new meaning to the word, but the very essence remains the same. War is a conflict between groups, a way to solve a political or social disagreement through force. Because war has been part of the human condition for millennia, however, we can look at it from both a theoretical and practical aspect of a way to use violence as a solution to problems. One of the most…
Clausewitz, C. On War. Edited by M. Howard. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1984.
Keegan, J. A History of Warfare. New York: Vintage, 1994.
Murray, W., et al., eds. The Making of Strategy: Rulers, States and War. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1996.
Like many tools, it is dependent upon two things: 1) How it is used, and 2) the quality of the data. Six-Sigma was originally designed for use by Motorola in the early 1980s. It was put in place in order to not only uncover, but to solve, certain manufacturing processes that were not working appropriately. It improved the company by defining a clearly focus on measurable issues that could be quantified and linked to profitability. It also increased an emphasis on management's commitment to utilizing the strategic planning system to actually implement a cause-effect relationship within the manufacturing model.
However, when all the bells and whistles come off, and all the statistical data and measurement are broken down, the model is really a quality improvement template. It is not designed for any subjectivity and often fails to take into account that margin of error is different on divergent products and…
Van Del Wiele, T., et.al. (2006). A Comparison of Five Modern Improvement Approaches. International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management. 1 (4): 363-78.
It was created in 1949.
It was first showcased in 1936 (Berlin).
Cannot find any record of this person…is this the most common spelling of the
It was standardized in 1958.
It was first created in 1958.
There are 5 sections.
This information is not readily available through any sources I've researched.
They were revised in 1990.
Unable to find this information.
It was Richard Nixon.
They were a Wushu (Martial Arts) Company
It was in 495 A.D.
Damo is the Chinese name of Bodhidharma, credited for bringing Ch'an to China.
It was released in 1982.
It was in 2005, in Beijing.
It was in 1974.
Anthony Chen is a silver medalist at the 4th World Traditional Wushu Championship.
Bai Yu-Feng, from his monk name Qiu Yue Chan Shi is a martial art expert who trained at the Shaolin Temple. He is the author of the…
1) Given the recent tardy but well-meaning responses by the federal, state and local officials in the Gulf Coast, it can be assumed that the nation remains relatively unprepared for a terrorist attack of September 11-proportions. The U.S. is struggling to negotiate a nuclear arms treaty with Iran and North Korea (the latter having recently agreed to forego additional nuclear weapons testing in exchange for light-water nuclear reactors, a "breakthrough" that returns the U.S. To the same position it had under the Clinton administration) and is waging a fighting war in Afghanistan and Iraq.
2) "Taking the battle to the enemy" appears to be immensely preferable, at least from the perspective of someone sitting safely at home pontificating about it, than waiting for an attack of any sort on the nation's interests.
3) Certainly, the U.S. And much of the world has increasingly come to rely on the…