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Experimental, and Survey esearch
Social researchers have a wide array of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies available to them, including field, experimental and survey research. Each of these research methodologies has some strengths and weaknesses that make them better suited for some applications than others. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature concerning field, experiment and survey research to identify their respective strengths and weaknesses and to determine what types of research are most appropriate for these approaches. A summary of the research concerning these issues and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
The purpose of field research is to provide researchers with first-hand observations and interactions with the subjects who are of interest. Although there is rarely an actual field involved in this type of research, researchers are in fact required to leave the comfort of…
Burgess, R.G. (1999). In the field: An Introduction to field research. London: Routledge.
DeMarrais, K. & Lapan, S.D. (2004). Foundations for research: Methods of inquiry in education and the social sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
De Vaus, D. (1996). Surveys in social research. London: UCL Press.
Grinnell, R.M. Jr. & Unrau, Y.A. (2005). Social work research and evaluation: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. New York: Oxford University Press.
measuring the variable of job satisfaction but not job performance. The survey is effective for the former because it is a measure of personal perception; the latter should be measured with FedEx's in-house performance appraisal systems. The disadvantage of the survey is that a worker is being asked his/her own perceptions of his/her own performance -- this is not the best way to measure performance. The Fort Wayne paper used the same approach, again introducing self-reflection bias to something that could have been measured objectively. FedEx in particular relies on objective data to evaluate its employees, so this was a missed opportunity on the part of the researcher. For questions about one's self, the survey method is strong, and thus ties directly to many of the research questions.
The deduction approach to research uses the data to test the hypothesis, but then expands that out to more general conclusions. The…
Surveys research has traditionally been conducted in three ways: In-person, by mail, and over the telephone. A fourth option has been added to these modes through the survey opportunities available in digital media. This array of modes is a bit like the child's matching game in which the outlier is identified: To whit, "Which one does not belong?" Two of the four survey modes entail real-time interaction between a survey researcher and a respondent; the other two survey modes do not entail this "live" interaction. The presence of a "live" interviewer in telephone surveys research is believed to be an important variable in the non-response data. Typically, telephone survey participants are not offered a non-response option ("don't know"), but in this study, a non-response option was offered to the CATI respondents, since this was an important part of the investigation. Moreover, surveys research via the new digital media…
Propensity modeling is a statistical method common to market research -- the field in which the thrust of this research is intended; it is, therefore, wholly appropriate for the research topic and the research questions. The most substantive finding presented in the article is that data from surveys conducted through different modes are not directly comparable and cannot be merged into a single data set for analysis: Mode effects and non-response effects interact in mixed-mode surveys that utilize telephone and internet survey methods. The data clearly supports the findings and is easily auditable. Findings presented and discussed in this article are reasonable and are objectively presented with full descriptions of methods and procedures. Propensity score matching did explain the differences between the sample groups. The CATI respondents most often chose the most positive of the choice categories and, in general, responded more positively than their counterparts in the WAPI sample.
Lugtig, P., Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M., Frerichs, R., and Greven, A. (2011). Estimating nonresponse bias and mode effects in a mixed-mode survey. International Journal of Market Research, 53 (5), 669-686.
Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…
Mayo, J. (2002). Case-based Instruction: A Technique for Increasing Conceptual Application in Introductory Psychology. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 65-74.
O'Connor, B., & Cordova, R. (2010). Learning: The Experiences of Adults Who Work Full-Time While Attending Graduate School Part-Time. Journal of Education for Business, 359-368.
van der Voot, J., Glac, K., & Meijs, L. (2009). ''Managing'' Corporate Community Involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 311-329.
The Challenges of Dual Credit: A Research Proposal
Dual credit or dual enrollment programs “are designed to boost college access and degree attainment, especially for students typically underrepresented in higher education,” (United States Department of Education, 2017, p. 1). With this lofty goal set, it should seem that dual credit programs would be reducing the educational achievement gap. After all, dual credit programs by definition allow all students the opportunity to potentially shorten the amount of time they spend in college, thereby reducing their tuition fees that enable the completion of a degree program. Yet recent research shows that college enrollment and completion gaps may be getting wider, based both on ethnicity and on socioeconomic class (Gewertz, 2017). The results of the RAND study reported by Gewertz (2017) may not be applicable specifically to the state of Hawaii, and yet educational attainment disparities do continue to exist and…
web-based surveys and their usefulness in reducing the cost of business research. The writer explores several aspects of web-based surveys including performance and comparison to traditional type surveys. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.
There are many reasons that people gather information today. ealth professionals gather information to help determine health trends, needs and problems. Marketing professionals gather information so that the consumer can be better served. Churches gather information to better provide for the spiritual needs of the public. Law enforcement officials gather information to ascertain crime trends as well as other information that is useful for predictions and budgeting needs. Different sized governments gather information for the purpose of providing public services to those who live within their geographic area as well as estimations and predictions about the future of the area. There are many reasons to gather information and there are very few instances…
Hart is a managing editor at the Oregonian. ()
Author not available, SPSS Announces Surveys with Confidence; Complete, Easy-To-Use Survey Design, Collection and Analysis Package., Business Wire, 02-08-1999.
Author not available, Total Research Signs Letter of Intent to Exclusively Use WebSurveyResearch for Online Survey Research., Business Wire, 02-20-2001.
mail or email surveys received recently and addresses where proper ethical steps were followed. This work further describes the highest ethical standards in the use of surveys.
The writer of this work has received email surveys recently that ask for participation in providing opinions of products or services. The emails did not follow the proper ethical standards that are required when completing surveys.
Surveys are reported to be representative of the "most common types of quantitative, social science research." (Writing at CSU, nd) In survey research, a sample of respondents is selected from a population and the research following this selection, "administers a standardized questionnaire to them. The questionnaire or survey may be a written document that the individual being surveyed completed. There are ethical issues that are required to be addressed when using surveys. The work of Eleanor Singer reports that when survey research is used the…
Ethical Issues for Online Surveys (2009) Qualtrics. Retrieved from: http://www.qualtrics.com/blog/ethical-issues-for-online-surveys/
Singer, Eleanor (nd) Ethical Issues in Surveys. The International Handbook of Survey Methodology, Chapter 5. Retrieved from: http://edithl.home.xs4all.nl/surveyhandbook/CH5Singer.pdf
Survey Research (nd) Writing at CSU. Retrieved from: http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/guide.cfm?guideid=68
At this stage also, a questionnaire or instrument is formulated and kinds of analysis to be conducted after data collection are determined.
These rigorous steps of developing the methodology for a research are culminated with the conduct of the data collection itself, which, in the example given earlier, the research collected data through the survey method. After collection, processing of the data would be next, followed by the analyses and interpretation of these processed survey data. After data analysis, the researcher uses his/her knowledge and experience as an expert in the field of health by interpreting the data results in the context of health and the social environment of the community. Both data analyses and interpretation are summarized and made easier to communicate through a formal report, both in oral and written modalities.
The outlines systematic approach to research inquiry, while they may appear to be very rigorous and scientific…
As one may observe, most respondents in this study are in the 35-49 and in the 50-64 age groups. The least respondents are in the 18-24%.
Dept results show that the clothing department is preferred by 25% of respondents, followed by the electronics department with 18%. Payment results reveal that 35% of customers prefer to pay with their credit cards, while 52% prefer to pay with cash. egarding the prices in these stores, 26% have a somewhat negative opinion, 18% have a strongly negative opinion, while 42% have a neutral opinion.
Gender: 63% of customers are female, and 37% are male.
egular: 38% stated that they shop several times a week, and 35% said they shop once a week.
eason1: 26% of respondents said they prefer these stores because…
1. Jacobsen, M. (2010). Complementary Research Methods. University of Calgary. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
2. Trochim, W. (2006). The T-Test. Knowledge Base. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/stat_t.php .
3. Trochim, W. (2006). Descriptive Statistics. Knowledge Base. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php .
4. Trochim, W. (2006). Survey Research. Knowledge Base. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/survey.htm .
For each selected school, there will be three groups of which quota sampling will be employed to achieve equal number of respondents. The three groups would be the faculty members, student administrators, and students. espondents will once again be randomly-selected from the list that we shall be acquiring from the university.
A questionnaire shall be devised by the researcher in order to gather opinion and understand attitudes on post-tenure review. An Educational Administration Disposition Belief Scale shall also be provided to better assess school administrators' views and disposition to better understand their particular disposition in the issue of post-tenure review. This instrument by Charles Southern University (n.d.) has already been used in previous studies conducted. This scale shall be modified to a 5-point scale in order to gauge disposition.
The timetable for the data gathering part of this research was based on a seven-week schedule. One week…
Charles Southern University (n.d.) Educational Administration Belief Scale Worksheet.
Retrieved from http://www.csuniv.edu/academics/graduate/ed_docs/Disposition%20Belief%20Scale%20for%20Ed%20Admn.pdf on 11 Jan 2010.
Licata, C.M. & Morreale, (2006). Faculty and Administrator Views About Post-Tenure
Practices: Qualitative Findings, in Post-Tenure Faculty Review and Renewal III:
social science researchers have a number of different types of research designs available to them, including observational studies, correlational research, developmental designs, survey research and experimental designs (Neuman, 2009). This paper reviews the literature concerning quantitative survey research and experimental designs to provide a comparison of their similarities and differences, including their respective processes for selecting an appropriate population sample. In addition, a description of a respective strength and limitation of each design is followed by a conclusion that can be drawn from this comparison. Finally, an explanation concerning ethical, legal, and social-cultural considerations that may be relevant for these designs is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning survey and experimental research designs in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Two similarities and two differences between the survey and experimental research
Survey and experimental research both use data in the form of numbers rather than qualitative…
De Vaus, D. (2002). Surveys in social research. London: UCL Press.
Grinnell, R. M. Jr. & Unrau, Y. A. (2005). Social work research and evaluation: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. New York: Oxford University Press.
McConville, M. & Chui, W. H. (2007). Research methods for law. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Neuman, W. L. (2009). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 6th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Stakeholders Research Project
Preliminary stakeholder identification around any natural resource proves vital to carrying out meaningful trans- disciplinary researches with regard to managing that particular resource. Stakeholders may be defined as all players capable of impacting, or being impacted by, any action or decision (after Freeman 1984). Natural resource management research scholars (e.g. Grimble and Wellard 1997; Dougill et al. 2006; Ravnborg and Westermann 2002) constantly report that the inclusion of stakeholders in finding solutions facilitates mutual learning and negotiation, improves stakeholder buy- in and support of actions and decisions, and decreases conflict. Trans- disciplinary study strategies build on this rationale through assimilating stakeholders and integrating the diverse kinds of ideas and knowledge they bring with them to the table in socially- sound, solution- focused studies (Lang et al. 2012; Bracken et al. 2014; Hurni and Wiesmann 2014).
Quite frequently, project reports and scholarly papers’ descriptions pertaining to stakeholder…
new reading program on a student's ability to learn to read. Because the program is designed specifically for helping new readers learn basic reading skills the experimenter chooses only beginning first-grade students as the population of interest. Thus, as the subject variable is one that cannot be the target of random assignment (you cannot randomly assigned subjects to the first-grade) a nonequivalent control group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design is selected as the preferential design (Cozby & Bates, 2012). Moreover, it is often not feasible for programs like this to randomly assign different students within the same classroom to different breeding programs as there is typically only one teacher teaching the first graders and such a design would be cumbersome and most likely the study rejected by the school system. Thus, the incoming first-grade students are given a basic reading pretest at the beginning of the school year, and then one…
Cozby, P. & Bates, S. (2012). Methods in behavioral research (11th ed). New York: McGraw-
Thompson, B., Diamond, K.E., McWilliam, R., Snyder, P., & Snyder, S.W. (2005). Evaluating
the quality of evidence from correlational research for evidence-based practice. Exceptional Children, 71(2), 181-194.
Identify a Group
The group that will be used for this correlational study is the group of 6th graders from the school district of Winchester in VA. A control group will also be used from the same sample. The sample will include 200 6th graders. This is an appropriate sample size for a study (Chapter 7: Survey esearch, n.d.).
Identify Two Variables
Two variables that might be related and that are relevant for this group are: 1) the teaching of sentence diagramming, and 2) the ability to successfully comprehend, write and break down English sentences.
Write a Purpose Statement
A purpose statement for a correlational study using the group and two variables identified above could read: This purpose of this study is to identify whether there is a relationship between the teaching of…
Chapter 7: Survey Research. (n.d.). Power Point Presentation.
Chapter 8: Correlational Research. (n.d.). Power Point Presentation.
Mills, G. E., & Gay, L. R. & Airasian. (2012). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications. Boston, MA: Pearson Publishing.
desire within the organization for change, in particular with regards to leadership. Ultimately, the research shows that most respondents have an idea of what makes a good leader, but feel that the people currently in leadership positions in this organization lack those traits. There is some evidence of a mandate for change among employees of this organization.
For question 1, respondents could answer more than once, and many did. the results were as follows:
This is best viewed on a histogram:
There are no measures of central tendency for this question.
Question 2. The results were as follows, and are best represented in a pie chart:
Question 3.For this question, n=8 because the two who felt that their bosses exemplified most positive characteristics did not answer. The results were as follows, and are best represented on…
Halcomb, Peters, and Mclennes (2015) aims at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education. The authors have determined that clinical assignments to community facilities may offer nursing undergraduates important opportunities for learning. The research was conducted using a qualitative study design.
The research work attempts at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education.
Statement of Purpose
For promoting the profession of primary healthcare, comprehending pre-registration pupils' experiences within primary care contexts at the time of clinical assignment is vital.
In spite of the observable advantages such assignment have for pupils, poor supervisor-student relationships, work climates that do not foster a sense of belonging, and the absence of adequate guidance and monitoring are proven to have strong links to exacerbated anxiety and stress levels, greater pupil attrition…
Reduced treatment mistakes and patient falls, together with patient perceptions of being better informed during shift change, was witnessed by researchers. The intervention incorporated a 3-hour nursing pupil handoff practicum, 2-hour clinical staff training, and a formative student assessment and feedback in the course of clinical experiences all through the 3rd semester. The pupil practicum was integrated into clinical orientation and clinical lab experience. Best practices in bedside hand-offs were addressed as well. All through the course of the practicum, emphasis was placed on the handoff receiver's active participation in safety communication (Avallone & Weideman, 2015). Numerous favorable results were recorded with regard to combined bedside nurse shift reporting practice, with a small number of downsides. Nursing outlook towards reporting during final data acquisition proved to be more favorable as compared to their outlook at the start of program implementation. If put into proper practice, bedside nurse reporting may improve patient safety results and nurse and patient satisfaction. But it is imperative to ensure nurse involvement in practice implementation and to continually check both report format uniformity and process support on nurses' and patients' part (Jecklin-Sand & Sherman, 2014).
Avallone, M., & Weideman, Y. (2015). Evaluation of a nursing handoff educational bundle to improve nursing student handoff communications: A Pilot Study. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 65 - 75.
Jecklin-Sand, K., & Sherman, J. (2014). A quantitative assessment of patient and nurse outcomes of bedside nursing report implementation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2854 - 63.
Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Pricing
How Can Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships Help to Achieve the Dissemination of affordable medicines - The Case of Anti Malaria Drugs in Nigeria?
Many individuals from developing countries who could benefit from pharmaceuticals products do not receive them due to high costs. Antiretroviral therapy's failure in reaching more than scant numbers of individuals in developing nations, suffering from AIDS, has drawn extensive publicity. However, even far cheaper medications that can be delivered easily aren't reaching numerous individuals who require them. Over a fourth of children all over the world and more than half of the children in a few nations do not receive vaccines, which come under the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Expanded Program on Immunization. Even though these vaccines only cost a family under a dollar a dose, they still cannot afford the medicine. The lack of access to beneficial pharmaceutical products and the…
AUSPA 2012, Policy & Advocacy, Western Australian Council of Social Service Inc., viewed 10 June 2017,
Buckley, J & Seamus, T 2005, International Pricing and Distribution of Therapeutic Pharmaceuticals: An Ethical Minefield. Business Ethics, pp.127-141.
Hussein, A 2015, The Use of Triangulation in Social Sciences Research: Can Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Be Combined? Journal of Comparative Social Work, vol. 4., no.1.
Lampard, R & Pole, C 2015. Practical social investigation: qualitative and quantitative methods in social research. Routledge: Abingdon, UK.
Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.
The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…
Brooks, J. S., & Normore, A. H. (2015). Qualitative Research and Educational Leadership: Essential Dynamics to Consider When Designing and Conducting Studies. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(7), 798-806.
Demeh, W., & Rosengren, K. (2015). The Visualization of Clinical Leadership in the Content of Nursing Education -- A Qualitative Study of Nursing Students' Experiences. Nurse Education Today, 35(7), 888-893.
Kilpatrick, J. E., & McCarthy, M. H. (2015). Global Education and School Leaders' Role in Equitable Access for All Students: Synthesis of Two Qualitative Studies from Massachusetts, USA.
Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Health Promotion Practice, 1524839915580941.
1. An operational definition helps the researcher maintain both internal and external validity. The researcher clearly defines terms, and shows how each variable is measured. In this way, concepts that are otherwise abstract like intelligence can be operationalized.
Intelligence needs to be operationalized because the researcher needs to show what specific type of intelligence is being measured, and how. An operational definition is “the particular method that we use to measure a variable of interest,” beyond the theoretical definitions that can be applied later (“Conducting Research in Social Psychology,” n.d., p. 1). Whereas the theoretical definitions of intelligence can be broad, like “the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge,” operational definitions are narrower in scope because they need to be easily measured (Legg & Hutter, 2006, p. 2).
For example, if mathematical intelligence is being measured, then an established mathematical skills test needs to be administered to research participants. Social skills intelligence…
To analyze the views of the general public about the Stanley Park project
To determine whether Stanley Park meets the needs of the public
To identify opportunities for service improvements in the project
Under 18 years old
Over 45 years old
How would you rate:
= awful, 2 = bad, 3 = okay, 4 = good, 5 = great
The design of Stanley Park
The environmental friendliness of Stanley Park
The amenities provided at Stanley Park
The comfort of the provided benches and lawns
Extras provided at the park
In your opinion, how important is it that: (circle)
= awful, 2 = bad, 3 = okay, 4 = good, 5 = great
10. Stanley Park is comfortable and pleasant
Brewer, M. (2000). Research Design and Issues of Validity. In H. Reis & C. Judd (Eds.), Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wikman, A. (2006). Reliability, Validity and True Values in Surveys. Social Indicators Research, 78(1), 85-110.
Develop an operational definition of self-efficacy.
Self-efficacy is the estimated likelihood of successful completion of a complex task by an individual. In a counseling setting, this would mean successful treatment for a patient's complex personal or interpersonal complaint. A counselor with higher self-efficacy perception would be more likely to take diverse and complex cases, while a lower self-efficacy perception would result in a more uniform and less-challenging caseload.
Construct a 10-item survey to measure the self-efficacy of the counseling students.
Gender (F or M)
ate your overall preparedness to enter professional counseling (Likert scale 1-10)
Did you take the online or land-based program? (A or B)
Do you expect to graduate the program?
How well do you perform in most classes in general?
What is your overall GPA in the Master's program?
How motivated were you to finish this program? (Likert scale 1-10)
Was there more direct participation or…
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change.
Psychological Review 84(2), 191-215.
Bandura, A. (2002). Social Cognitive Theory in Cultural Context. Applied Psychology: An
International Review 51(2), 269 -- 290. Retrieved from: des.emory.edu/mfp/Bandura2002AP.pdf
Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers
In this study by Ohanian, a scale used in measuring celebrity endorsers' expertise, trustworthiness as well as attractiveness is developed. Psychometric scale development protocols are followed for testing the data reliability and validity as well. In addition, this study uses two exploratory and confirmatory samples to initiate a 15-item scale measuring the celebrity endorsers' characteristics. This article complies fully with Churchill's recommendations in several fronts as outlined below.
Several sources are researched on to identify words, phrases, and adjectives to use for this research's questionnaire; this results in the development of several adjectives describing personality traits. During the construction of the scale, 182 adjectives are identified of which some were eliminated to about 139 adjectives. Additionally, the 139 descriptors were further trimmed by a group of 38 college students; the researcher believed the words were unfamiliar with respondents, to 104.
For the identification of celebrities…
Churchill, G.A. (1979). A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 64-74.
Lages, C., Lages, C.R., & Lages, L.F. (2005). The RELQUAL Scale: A Measure of Relationship Quality in Export Market Ventures. Lisbon, Portugal.
Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers' Perceived Expertise, Trustworthiness, and Attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, Vol.19, No.3, 39-52.
Zheng, B., Hall, M.A., Kidd, K.E., & Levine, D. (2002). Development of a Scale to Measure Patients' Trust in Health Insurers. Health Services Research Vol 37 No.1, 187-202.
Data Collection in Leadership
As a social science, leadership research may involve any type of quantitative or qualitative data collection method. Qualitative research data collection methods include observation, participant-observation, interview, and document or content analysis (“Data Collection Methods,” n.d.). Quantitative data collection methods used in leadership research may include surveys and experiments, which allow for statistical analysis, the establishment of causality between independent and dependent variables, and the tracking of results over time. Whereas quantitative data collection methods had once been the most commonly used in the social sciences, recent trends in leadership research have shifted towards qualitative methods (Antonakis, Schriescheim, Donovan, et al., 2003). Qualitative methods often reveal nuances, patterns, and ideas that quantitative methods overlook or take for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior.
Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in…
Perceptions of Self-Efficacy Among Counseling Students
Today, increasing numbers of college students are enrolled in online courses that either supplement or entirely replace traditional land-based counseling graduate degree programs (Smith, Mcaullife & ippard, 2014). These trends may have an effect on the respective levels of self-efficacy that counseling students develop as a result of their online or land-based coursework. To help determine the extent of these differences, if they exist, this paper was guided by the following research question: "What are the differences in perceptions of self-efficacy among counseling students in online and land-based counseling graduate degree programs?" In order to develop a timely and informed answer to this research question, a definition of self-efficacy is followed by a proposed 10-item survey that measures the respective levels of self-efficacy of online and land-based counseling students. A listing of the 10 survey items is followed by supporting rationale for their inclusion…
De Vaus, D. (1996). Surveys in social research. London: UCL Press.
Lane, J & Lane, A. (2009, January 1). Selfs-efficacy and academic performance. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 29(7), 687-690.
Smith, J. E. & Mcaullife, G. (2014, December). Counseling students' transformative learning through a study abroad curriculum. Counselor Education and Supervision, 53(4), 306-310.
Sheperis, C. J., Young, J. S., & Daniels, M. H. (2017). Counseling research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods (2nd ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Demographic Perception Survey of Patients with Atypical CP Who Present to Cardiac Care Doctors and Patient Outcomes
This study intends to examine gender differences in individuals who present to cardiac doctors with chest pain and specifically, atypical chest pain in women. The work of Debra L. Issac (2000) states that over the past ten years "there has been increasing awareness of both the importance of CAD in women and of the significant differences between men and women who have the disease. Potential gender biases, both within the medical community and within the general population of women themselves also have been identified. These gender differences and biases have the potential to influence investigation and management of suspected or confirmed CAD in women, and should be taken into consideration when faced with a woman with potential cardiovascular disease." (p.157)
Issac also states that chest pain in women is "common and often non-ischemic.…
Cayley, WE (2005) Diagnosing the Case of Chest Pain. American Family Physician. 15 Nob 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1115/p2012.html
Gotzsche PC, Nielsen M. Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (1):CD001877, 2011.
Issac, DL (2000) Women with Ischemic Heart Disease. Presented at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress, Vancouver, British Columbia, October 2000. Retrieved from: http://www.stacommunications.com/journals/cme/images/cmepdf/oct01/womencv.pdf
Khan, JJ, Albarran, JW, Lopez, V, and Chair, SY (2010) Gender Differences on Chest Pain Perception associated with Acute Myocardial infarction in Chinese patients: A Questionnaire Survey. J Clin Nurs. 2010 Oct, 19 (19-20)2720-0. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20846222
Research into the legalization of marijuana will seek to determine what people's views on the issue are. The population is going to be the entire United States, as we are seeking to determine national views about the issue. The sampling will be done at random, using databases of phone numbers and computer-generated dialing. The operators will only know of and gather non-personal information such as age bracket, gender and state of residence. The major downside to this form of sampling is that many younger people will not be sampled because they often do not have landlines.
Random sampling is the "purest form" of probability sampling in that it is free from researcher bias and is more likely to accurately reflect the total population as a result (StatPac, 2012). Landline ownership is a reasonable proxy for the total population, with the caveat noted above. However, other sampling methods are…
StatPac. (2012). Survey sampling methods. StatPac. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.statpac.com/surveys/sampling.htm
Statistics.com. (2012). Glossary of statistical terms: sampling frame. Institute for Statistics Education. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.statistics.com/index.php?page=glossary&term_id=851
CRS. (2012). Sample size calculator. Creative Research Systems. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm
interviews and surveys with women offenders who are inmates in the aylor Correctional Institution form the foundation of this discussion of data analysis and report writing. The revised research questions accentuate the need for a greater balance of qualitative and quantitative research to ensure as complete and accurate a research methodology is executed. The first phase of the study concentrates on a more thorough analysis of the qualitative factors that influence the outcomes of every research question. The second phased concentrates on the use of attitudinal scaling at the interval or ratio level of measurement so that multidimensional scaling (MDS) can be used to define perception- and attitudinal-based maps of how and why trigger events lead to lapses on drug tolerance. The use of MDS techniques to determine the relative level of self-awareness and attitudes towards specific treatment strategies is commonplace in social science, and often provides insights into interrelationships…
Beck, J.A. (2006). Offending women: Discipline, punishment, and re-forming selves in a therapeutic-community drug treatment program. (Order No. 3219609, University of California, Santa Cruz). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 407-407
Marlowe, D.B., Festinger, D.S., Dugosh, K.L., Arabia, P.L., & Kirby, K.C. (2008). AN EFFECTIVENESS TRIAL OF CONTINGENCY Management IN A FELONY PREADJUDICATION DRUG COURT. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(4), 565-77.
Robbins, C.A., Martin, S.S., & Surratt, H.L. (2009). Substance abuse treatment, anticipated maternal roles, and reentry success of drug-involved women prisoners. Crime and Delinquency, 55(3), 388-411.
Schwartz, S.H., Cieciuch, J., Vecchione, M., Davidov, E., Fischer, R., Beierlein, C. Konty, M. (2012). Refining the theory of basic individual values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(4), 663.
esearch Method and Design Proposal
A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).
Most importantly, qualitative data methods…
Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23770_Ch1.pdf
Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.
Lancet, 359, 145-149.
Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…
Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.
Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.
SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm
The behavior of both botnets and worms in peer-to-peer networks have been empirically examined and models or simulations of their behavior have been attempted, and the manner in which different nodes in peer-to-peer networks develop in and of themselves and in terms of their relationships with other nodes -- the very architecture of the network itself, in other words, which is necessarily dynamic in a peer-to-peer network -- makes it easier for these threats to spread and evolve undetected due to this architecture and to the patterns of information flow over such networks (Fan, 2011; Xu et al., 2011). When it comes to worms propagating in peer-to-eer networks, the activity of the worm itself has been demonstrated to be the most necessary knowledge in terms of tracking and preventing the continued spread and damage of such a threat, while botnets generally show more "robustness" an are better impacted by shifts…
Ahmad, N. & Habib, M. (2010). Analysis of Network Security Threats and Vulnerabilities by Development & Implementation of a Security Network Monitoring Solution. Blekinge Institute of Technology (thesis).
Barth, W. (2008). Nagios: System and Network Monitoring. San Francisco: Open Source Press.
Bejtlich, R. (2004). The Tao of Network Security Monitoring: Beyond Intrusion Detection. New York: Pearson.
Cao, J. & Liu, Z. (2012). A Distributed Trust Model in Unstructured P2P Networks. Recent Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering 126: 635-41.
This is thus a correlational research measure, which aims to show a correlation between increases in marketing potential with increased use of social networking platforms for SMEs of various industries. The research will use the coding methods of grounded theory in order to extrapolate meaning from open ended survey responses. External validity will be assured through the number of SMEs included in the survey to ensure that results represent a shared consensus.
The type of research you are doing (casual or correlational) -- address measures about external validity
Social networking has such potential for SME business strategies. With this in mind, it is the general hypothesis of the research that social networking would prove to benefit SME marketing strategies enormously. This cost effective measure will allow SMEs to strengthen their marketing techniques to such an extent that they will be able to compete with larger enterprise businesses.
There are a…
Furthermore, the researcher could explore the frequency of purchase, consumption, budget, and usual places where the mother purchases the product. Also, the exploratory discussion could lead to other dimensions and information about breakfast cereal purchase and consumption that were not identified in previous studies. Similarly, in IDIs, concepts that will be explored and discovered during the one-on-one interview could be developed into variables for the survey. For concepts identified in FGDs and IDIs, they will be used as variables for the survey, and will be tested during the analysis stage for validity and reliability.
Another proposed approach is through an ethnographic study. Similar to the qualitative methods, an ethnographic study would explore concepts that will be quantitatively tested for validity and reliability in the survey. In ethnographic studies, the researcher will observe and take note of the processes that take place in the target groups' natural environment. This could be…
Additionally, participating teachers will be drawn from public schools in the same state to mitigate the possibility that geographic factors will intervene to too great a degree. That said, consideration will be made to distinguish the specific school districts, socioeconomic conditions and racial factors present in different schools. Without making any preemptive deductions, these preliminary details may be used to help yield evidence of connections which might be used for future study.
The Likert Scale model of survey will be distributed through the email listserv at participating schools, requesting respondents to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 to what extent they agree or disagree with statements provided in the survey. These statements will primarily concern the presence or absence of sufficient outdoor recreational opportunities and the connection between said opportunities and academic performance.
This would be considered a true experimental quantitative study, where a control and experimental group…
Brown, P.; Sutterby, J.A. & Thornton, C.D. (2002). Dramatic play in outdoor play environments. Parent Teacher Organization Today.
Burberry, J. & Learoyd, B. (2005). Leeds Childhood Obesity Prevention and Weight Management Strategy. Leeds Children & Young People. Online at .
Montessori, M. (1986). The Discovery of the Child. 4th. New York: Ballantine Books.
Office of Communications (Ofcom). (2004). Children's food choices, parents' understanding and influence, and the role of food promotions. Office of Communications. Online at http://www.ofcom.org.uk/research/tv/reports/food_ads/ .
Sands Rewards Club on Venetian Macao/
"Research & Reporting": How does the hotel membership system (Sands Rewards Club) affect the Venetian Macao Hotel itself?
How does the Hotel Membership System (Sands Rewards Club)
Affect The Venetian Macao Hotel itself?
Module Title & Code
Authors, names and Class designations
This work describes the affect of the Sands Rewards Club on the Venetian Macao Hotel through an exploration of three key themes. 1.The role of loyalty program membership on customer loyalty in the hotel industry as influenced by repetition of stays at Sands Hotels and specifically at The Venetian Macau Hotel. 2. The influence of loyalty program membership on customer purchase behavior, by comparing both member and non-member purchases. 3. The relationship between membership purchase discounts and/or privileges and purchasing behavior by comparing member and non-member purchases of a single promoted hotel package that is marketed and discounted for members. Research Question:…
2011, 'Hotels.com Expands Its Successful welcomerewards Loyalty Program', Hispanic PR Wire, 28 October, Regional Business News, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 December 2011.
Bareham, JR 2004, "Can consumers be predicted or are they unmanageable?," International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 16, 3, pp.159-165
Barsky, J 2011, 'Hotel reward programs attracting more consumers', Hotel Management (21582122), 226, 14, p. 12, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 December 2011.
Berman, B 2006, 'Developing an Effective Customer Loyalty Program', California Management Review, 49, 1, pp. 123-148, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 December 2011.
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…
Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.
Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899
population for my proposed research will be college students ages 17-22 at three different educational institutions. The purpose of the cross-sectional study will be to survey the study habits of college students and the effect of those study habits on student's grades. Students will be asked to identify themselves on the questionnaire in terms of their age, gender, ethnicity, college major, whether they are the first member of their family to attend college full-time and their GPA. They will then be surveyed upon a variety of study habits, such as what time of day they study, where, how frequently, if they study alone or in a group, if they study with music playing and for how long.
All of the categories will be narrowed down in the final statistical analysis, for ease and clarity (such as noting if their major is in the humanities, social sciences, or natural sciences). GPAs…
Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
esearch Issues on the Topic of Terrorism
Written into the very word, terrorism is a fascinating social problem worth inquiry. The meaning of terrorism is an act of violence or other that paralyses the individual or society with a feeling of terror. That terror can be a product of the relative infrequency and therefore surprise and seeming senselessness associated with the event, such as in the case of large scale and broad violent acts against larger populations (like 9/11, or the Oklahoma City bombing in the U.S.). The form of terror might also grow out of the expectation of debilitating acts against others as a standard operating procedure during certain circumstances (like the support and at the very least complicity of commanders in times of often ethnic war where women of the "enemy" are frequently and violently raped as an act of aggression and show of power).
Ford, J.D., Adams, M.L., & Dailey, W.F. (2007). Psychological and health problems in a geographically proximate population time-sampled continuously for three months after the September 11th, 2001 terrorist incidents. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 20(2), 126-146. doi:10.1080/10615800701303215
Rothbart, G.S., Fine, M., & Sudman, S. (1982). On finding and interviewing the needles in the haystack: The use of multiplicity sampling. Public Opinion Quarterly, 46(3), 408-421. doi:10.1086/268737
In this closed question item, respondents will be given statements that refer to the respondent's perceived success of the marketing strategy implemented in his/her business. Two options can be done to quantitatively measure this variable: (a) using a rank order-type of question on the marketing strategies used and respondent's perceived success of each, ranked from the most successful to the least successful, or (b) use of a Likert scale to describe the level of success of each marketing strategy implemented. For option a, level of measurement would be ordinal while the latter, interval.
(4) Benefits of using social networking as a marketing platform. This open-ended question will explore the different ways the social media has benefited the respondents (SMEs). This question is an exploratory kind of question in that the researcher is expected to discover the different dimensions surrounding the concept of benefits and success in SMEs within the social…
New Laws Makes Criminal Pasts Off-Limits in California City. (2013) Fox News. 3 Aug 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/08/03/new-laws-make-criminal-pasts-off-limits-in-california-city/
The article under reviewed was published August 3, 2013 by Fox News Network. The article states that a suburb of San Francisco has made it illegal for city contractors to inquire about the criminal histories of prospective employees. This city of 100,000 people stated to be "troubled by crime and high unemployment" is part of what is reported as a national trend with the design to bring about an improvement in the employment possibilities of community members "amid wider incarceration." (Fox News, 2013, p.1) Private companies who have contracts with the city and who employ more than nine people are prohibited from asking about the criminal record of applicants. Field research could be handled in this area of study through conducting a survey of applicants who have applied with companies with…
New Laws Makes Criminal Pasts Off-Limits in California City. (2013) Fox News. 3 Aug 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/08/03/new-laws-make-criminal-pasts-off-limits-in-california-city/
Surveymonkey (2013) Perceptions of Crime Survey. Retrieved from: http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/59VSPHD
0 applications. The survey also attempts to define the eturn on Investment from investing in social networking applications, and derives a figure of $1.9M by 2013, corroborating a figure from Forrester esearch.
Completing any research project designed to capture business-to-business (B2B) market data takes an approach to isolating respondents within each organization that have a role in evaluating the technology being studied. The survey methodology concentrates on the role of it staff in evaluating social media applications. It would have been more effective if the researchers had also concentrated on the line-of-business managers and those responsible for the performance of business units who could make use of social networking applications as well. The integration aspects of Enterprise 2.0, as the coordination point for legacy systems, are what the it staff most concentrated on. To make this a more effective study, the unmet needs of the line-of-business users also need…
Ashley Jones (2008, September). Studies Suggest That Enterprise Social Media Will Change the Face of Business. EContent, 31(7), 14-15. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1556481791).
http://www.econtentmag.com/Articles/News/News-Feature/Studies-Suggest-That-Enterprise-Social-Media-Will -- Change-the-Face-of-Business-50353.htm
Link to press release from Trampoline Systems:
For example, an upscale restaurant, mid-market clothing store, hardware store, and general store could all be sampled, and over the course of four days shoppers could be asked to respond to a survey at the check-out counter about their perceptions of the store and shopping experience. The data could then be analyzed demographically, in terms of consumer perceptions, and also precisely what the different shoppers bought on different days, as opposed to what they said they would buy. This would also allow repeated testing -- using the same four-day musical format over different periods of the year at different stores. The article's study takes the form of a posttest only study design: the independent variable of the music (or in the case of the control group, the lack thereof) is applied, and then subjects record their responses.
The advantage to the test is that there is no 'learning,' necessary to…
North, Adrian C. & David J. Hargreaves. (1998). The effect of music on atmosphere and purchase intentions in a cafeteria. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 28 (24):
Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:
(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?
(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;
(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)
ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:
(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…
Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at: http://www.socsci.uci.edu/ssarc/pcs/webdocs/W-Readings/IntegratingQualandQuant.pdf
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at: http://prod.baruch.cuny.edu/facultyhandbook/documents/YoshikawaWeisnerKalilWay2008DP.pdf
Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at: http://www.tlulib.ee/files/arts/95/nigla32417030233e06e8e5d471ec0aaa32e9.pdf
Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at: http://www.social-marketing.com/research.html
It is projected that at least 10% of the individuals receiving the survey will respond.
There are a variety of reasons for using qualitative methods in a study such as this one. Even though there are drawbacks to the qualitative method including (but not limited to) the fact that respondents are not known and could be lying, the responses are very subjective, and the questions themselves are quantitative in nature, it is still deemed that the expense and time necessary to employ other methods would be to exorbiant in nature.
It is also determined that there are a number of others studies currently available that can provide data that shows the effectiveness of direct mail advertising, therefore, the focus would be on the sports magazine aspect rather than direct mail per se. Qualitative methods are therefore deemed the most appropriate for this study.
De Chematony, L.; Cottam, S.; (2009)…
De Chematony, L.; Cottam, S.; (2009) Interacting contributions of different departments to brand success, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, Iss. 3, pg. 297
Payne, a.; Storbacka, K.; Frow, P.; Knox, S.; (2009) Co-creating brands: Diagnosing and designing the relationship experience, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, Iss. 3, pg. 379
Roderick, J.B.; Whittome, J.R.M.; Brush, G.J.; (2009) Investigating the service brand: A customer value perspective, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, Iss.3, pg. 345
Teddington; (2008) the innovative media offerings for a man's world, Campaign, Oct 10, 2008, pg. 17
goal of this research is to identify interventions that can reduce the risk of negative outcomes for at-risk youth. The basis for the analysis will rely on prior literature on parenting styles, co-parenting conflicts, and also child pre-disposition to violence. A literature review is the initial research design, with the goal of explaining the nature of the problem and the variables involved (Blakstad, n.d.). The research may progress into two further stages, including an exploratory and primarily qualitative phase. Subsequent to the exploratory research, a pilot study with longitudinal design may be warranted, but experimental designs are not indicated in a project of this nature.
Because the research is currently exploratory in nature, as it is in the early stages, several descriptive research designs would be highly appropriate. Three of the descriptive research designs that would be appropriate to this dissertation in particular include Case Study and Descriptive esearch. Later…
Blakstad, O. (n.d.). Research designs. Retrieved online: https://explorable.com/research-designs
De Vaus, D.A. Research Design in Social Research. London: SAGE, 2001; Trochim, William M.K. Research Methods Knowledge Base. 2006.
Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Case study research design. Retrieved online: https://explorable.com/case-study-research-design
This research was done to identify any relationship to job satisfaction and a recent company outing to Camp Feel Good. Essentially, the manager is doing this experiment to determine how effective Camp Feel Good attendance is on employee's attitudes.
u1= mean of employees who attended meeting and did not increase job satisfaction u0 = mean of employees who attended meeting and increased job satisfaction
u1 > u0
Null: H0: u1 / u0
Meeting attendance: This variable is discrete since it can either be yes or no, with no in between. This is a quantitative measurement and is the independent variable.
Job Satisfaction Score: This variable is continuous and is nominal. It is a qualitative variable that needs to be converted to understand its meaning. It is the dependent variable in this analysis.
The descriptive statistics infer some important points about the research question posed.
Week 3 SPSS Output. Provided by student.
National Atlas.GOV. (nd). Understanding Descriptive Statistics. Viewed 22 July 2013. Retrieved from http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/a_statistics.html
"Now we're coming over the top of the curve and heading down the wrong side of it" (Welsh-Huggins, 2008).
Among the numerous features, common to the cities in the analyzed sample, one could point out the following:
Throughout the past year, the city budgets have reduced the spendings in recreational programs and facilities; they reduced the working hours for the public libraries and laid off municipal workers; the agenda is likely to continue throughout 2009
The revenues generated from property taxes have decreased drastically throughout 2008 as a direct result of the devaluing of the houses; 2009 is likely to follow a similar trend
Sales and income taxes are also decreasing, posing even more difficulties in the background of increasing health care, employee, safety and fuel costs
For all cities analyzed, the general economic stability is being threatened and in this context, raising the taxes is not a recommendable course…
Welsh-Huggins, a., 2008, Financial Hardship for Most Cities to Grow in '09, Business Week, http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D936UMV00.html . Ast accessed on September 15, 2008
criminal law. A comprehensive research, primary and secondary, was conducted in order to gather relevant information about crime, criminal law and crimes against a person. This study can help understanding the mechanism that deals with the criminal law.
Crime is an integral part of the everyday life and is a salient fact in today's world. In the opinion of public as well as the scholars, crime is usually linked with violence and harm to societies and individuals, destroying the property and degrading the respect of individuals, societies and institutions. It is quite obvious that we are facing problems in describing the nature of crimes and are unable to understand the works of many scholars on this subject. The basic question is "What is crime?" there are a number of answers to that, some are supporting each other while some are contradictory to each other. There is a strong need to…
Richard Quinney, Criminology as Peacemaking, Indiana University Press, 1991.
Walker, Samuel (1992). "Origins of the Contemporary Criminal Justice Paradigm: The American Bar Foundation Survey, 1953-1969." Justice Quarterly
Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). "Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (Northwestern University)
Neocleous, Mark (2004). Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police Power. London: Pluto Press.
collect information for your research (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods)?
I will use a mixed methods approach. To allow me to sample a large number of parents regarding their choices about vaccination, I would use an initial quantitatively assessed survey, submitting questionnaires to a statistically diverse sample of parents inquiring about their children's immunization history and why they have made the choices they have regarding their child's immunization. I will also ask them questions about their children's health history regarding specific major and minor childhood illnesses. All information will be anonymous. However, to add more personal nuance to my research, I will also conduct qualitative interviews of several parents who have made different decisions about their children's immunization.
What statistical methods will be used to analyze the data? Why?
Given that the primary focus of the statistical research will be a comparison between two groups, ANOVA seems to be the…
Crossman, A. (2013). Purposive sample. About.com. Retrieved from:
Neutens, J.J., & Robinson, L. (2010). Research Techniques for the Health Sciences (4th ed.).
San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings
cientific and empirical research take time, and therefore detracts from the timeliness of such research. However, the truth level in such research is higher than in research that takes less time and is therefore more timely. The author points out that these are not the only factors involved in the quality of a piece, and that the purpose of publication should also be kept in mind when assessing the quality of a work. A persuasive piece of literature will therefore entail a lower level of absolute truth than a piece that addresses more than one side of an issue without bias.
This is where increasing access to sources such as the Internet provides the researcher with a valuable tool for assessing believability. Materials can for example be broadly investigated and cross-checked against others for consistency in content regarding a specific issue.
Another valuable tool, according to Kmetz, is the elements…
Kmetz, John. A Consumer's Guide to the Business and Management Literature. University of Delaware
Oulton, Tony. Management research for information. Library Management, 1995. Vol.16, Iss. 5; pg. 75-81
administer a five-question survey whilst administering the survey using at least two different methods. The author did indeed compose the survey and administered it in person and via the internet. There were clear differences in response rates and the responses that were garnered from each method. The differences were not surprising but were noticeable and palpable nonetheless.
There was some resistance to each method but it manifested in very different ways. One of the methods used, as noted in the introduction, was in person. Some people were noticeably tepid and hesitant to engage the author and answer the questions. Perhaps they were shy or perhaps they were taken a bit aback by a stranger approaching them out of the blue and asking them questions. They also might have been concerned that the author was simply trying to sell them something. The author made it clear up from with…
Berman, E.M., & Wang, X. (2012). Essential statistics for public managers and policy analysts (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.
UofT. (2013, September 29). University of Texas. Survey Methods. Retrieved September 29, 2013, from https://www.ischool.utexas.edu/
Wal Mart Stats
Wal-Mart Survey Analysis
In order to begin addressing two key research questions, how can Wal-Mart ensure decent quality products and simultaneously keep consumers happy with prices and how would Wal-Mart keep the costs of its products down, a survey of Wal-Mart customers was taken. Attitudes towards prices, quality of products, and overall shopping experiences were collected and analyzed via in-person questionnaires/surveys to consumers exiting Wal-Mart stores after shopping. All responses were recorded on a Likert scale of 1-5, with 5 representing high satisfaction or strong agreement and 1 representing extreme dissatisfaction or strong disagreement. The following paragraphs assess the quality of this survey and its results in terms of addressing the research question.
Validity and eliability
The research questions themselves as detailed above are very valid questions to be asked of Wal-Mart, a company that built its business model on the ability to offer low-priced goods to…
Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
McClave, J.T., Benson, P.G., & Sincich, T. (2011). Statistics for business and economics (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall
Walmart Co. (2012). About Us. Retrieved from http://corporate.walmart.com/
Three classmates were assigned to interview a total of 15 people about their exercise habits. The following questions were asked:
Instructions: For Questions 1-4, select your answer based on a scale of 1 to 7. For Question 5, indicate yes or no.
I plan to exercise for at least 30 minutes, three times per week in the coming month
Extremely Likely ____1 ____2 ____3 ____4 ____5 ____6 ____7 Extremely Unlikely
For me to exercise at least 30 minutes per day, three days per week is:
Enjoyable ____1 ____2 ____3 ____4 ____5 ____6 ____7 Not Enjoyable
Most people who are important to me think that I should (or should not) should exercise for at least 30 minutes per day, three days per week:
I should ____1 ____2 ____3 ____4 ____5 ____6 ____7 I should not Question 4: It is mostly up to me whether or not I exercise for…
Purpose Statement: To determine whether or not one's political affiliation has an impact on their views regarding public policy.
Applicable Literature: The relationship between political affiliation and behavior has been studied extensively, dating back decades. Studies in the 1960s and 70s explored the impact of party affiliation on judge's decisions (Nagel, 1961), and on the war in Vietnam (Verba et al., 1967). In some of these studies, political affiliation is considered to be a demographic variable that can be measured and used to help analyze results, and this tactic has continued to be popular fifty years hence. For example, a recent study examined the impact of political affiliation on trade issues (hite, 2009). Recent literature in psychology and sociology has gone further, to study how political affiliation impacts on one's thinking process (Gerber et al., 2009; Baldassarri, 2008). This study will approach the issue again from a…
Baldassari, D. & Gelman, A. (2008). Partisans without constraint: Political polarization and trends in American public opinion. Working Paper, Columbia University.
Gerber, A., Huber, G. & Washington, E. (2009). Party affiliation, partisanship, and political beliefs: A field experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 15365.
Nagel, S. (1961). Political party affiliation and judges' decisions. The American Political Science Review. Vol. 55 (4) 843-850.
Verba, S., Brody, R., Parker, E., Nie, N., Polsby, N., Ekman, P. & Black, G. (1967). Public opinion and the war in Vietnam. The American Political Science Review. Vol 61 (2) 317-333.
The research in this study is exploratory and descriptive. The study begins with the declaration that this topic of study has been pursued in the past, yet the sampling methods used proved ineffective in defining or describing why less Asian-Americans utilize healthcare services in the United States. This research seeks to describe the problem of little use of healthcare with their study. The research in this study classifies the phenomenon of lack of healthcare service use/participation by Asian-Americans. The research problem is that Asian-Americans are not using the healthcare services available to them for a variety of reasons. The research problem is stated clearly in the first two pages of the study. In this study, there were no listed hypotheses, instead there are objectives. The objectives of the study are:
…(1) examine rates of mental health-related service use among immigrant and U.S.-born Asian-Americans during a 12-month period, (2)…
Abe-Kim, PhD, J., Takeuchi, PhD, D.T., Hong, S., Zane, PhD, N., Sue, PhD, S., Spencer, PhD, M.S., Appel, PhD, H., Nicdao, PhD, E., & Alegria, PhD, M. (2007) Use of Mental Health-Related Service Among Immigrant and U.S.-Born Asian-Americans: Results From the National Latino and Asian-American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 91 -- 97.
Unlike primary data that are time-consuming, the secondary data is less time consuming, and a research could collect secondary data to answer the research questions as well as achieving research objectives. Boslaug (2007) argues that the economy is the major advantage of secondary data. Since data have already been collected by another researcher, a researcher does not need to devote his/her resources to collect the data. More importantly, the saving of time is another major advantage of secondary data. Since the data has already been collected and analyzed, the research only needs to collect the data for his or her research study. Boslaug (2007) further points out that secondary data are characterized with the informed expertise, which may not be available with primary data.
Despite the advantages that this research derives from secondary data, there are still disadvantages associated with secondary data. The secondary data may not be suitable to…
Borlaug, S. (2007). Secondary Data Sources for Public Health: A Practical Guide.
Cambridge University Press.UK.
Hox, J.J. & Boeije, H.R. (2010). Data Collection Primary vs. Secondary. Utrecht University. The Nethertland.
Morrell, K. (2010). Quantitative Data Basic Introduction. USA.
ole of esearch in Social Work
esearch assists in placing social work in its changing political and social context. This implies the ability to define social work's current environment in terms of dynamics like society and politics. esearch assists in establishing a knowledge base and professional status of social work, for example it assisted in establishing evidence-based practice. esearch also assists in analyzing population-based research that identifies people at risk in social work (Leece & Leece, 2010). This is because is assists social workers to understand clients in their social contexts, give voice to clients. Overall, research provides epistemological and value issues that define the nature and purpose of social work.
Social Worker's need to understand research
The main reason social workers need to understand research is to understand effective use of scientific evidence on the social services they offer to clients. esearch assists the social worker to investigate social…
Allen, R., & Earl, B. (2009). Essential Research Methods for Social Work. 2nd ed., Belmont, CA:
Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Leece, J., & Leece, D. (2010). Personalization: Perceptions of the Role of Social Work in a World of Brokers and Budgets. The British Journal of Social Work, 41(2), 204-223.
Regnerus Mark. (2012). How different are the adult children of parents who have same-sex relationships? Findings from the New Family Structures Study. Social Science Research
Interestingly, however, only females reported over 60 hours per week. The scatterplot below shows the hours worked with females on the top axis:
The correlation between the satisfaction with the weight in men and women is 0.097. As expected, this is also a weak correlation, but it does indicate that males are more likely to be satisfied with their weight. 46.6% of males and 37.3% of females indicated that they were satisfied with their weight. The chart below shows females in pink and men in blue. The top axis represents the number that are not satisfied with their weight and the lower axis, the ones that are.
The first decision with respect to measurement scale is whether the findings will be reported on a composite scale or a summated scale. A composite scale is probably the most appropriate for this study. A summated scale is commonly used in the social sciences, and can be used to reflect people's attitudes, emotions and feelings. There are four main characteristics of a summated scale. The first is that the scale must contain two or more items. The second is that the format must be a rating scale. The third is that the scales "must be designed to assess an underlying construct that is quantifiable. The fourth is that the items do not have correct answers (Spector, 2006). A Likert scale is an example of a summated scale.
The composite scale is one that transforms the original data point. There may be just a single variable, but sometimes there…
Marcus, B. (2006). Composite measurement. Sage Research Methods. Retrieved November 18, 2015 from https://srmo.sagepub.com/view/the-sage-dictionary-of-social-research-methods/n26.xml
Spector, P. (2006). Summated ratings scale. Sage Research Methods. Retrieved November 18, 2015 from http://srmo.sagepub.com/view/the-sage-dictionary-of-social-research-methods/n203.xml
Loans Envisioned Research Methodology
Association Loans: Association Loans Envisioned Research Methodology
Association Loans: Envisioned Research Methodology
Envisioned research Methodology and Design
Descriptive Research Methods
Research Designs Considered
Explanatory Sequential Design
Exploratory Sequential Design
The Embedded Design
Research Validity and Reliability
Strengths and weaknesses
Method of Data Collection
Primary Data Collection
Secondary Data Collection
Justifying Choice and Alternative methods/designs
The loan associations work on different grounds as compared with commercial bank loans. The commercial and saving bank loans and financing options are usually provided by the financial service providers are more focused to provide funds for business venture. The loan's security is also devised based on credit cards, business performance, and the likelihood of growth potential. However, the loan associations and building loans are more concerned about promoting land and building ownerships.…
Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business research methods. USA: Oxford University Press.
Caprio Jr., G., & Vittas, D. (Eds.). (2007). Reforming financial systems: historical implications for policy. USA: Cambridge University Press.
Creswell, J. W & Clark, V.L.P (2010). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Dexter, S. (2009). A treatise on co-operative savings and loan associations. USA: BiblioLife, L.L.C.
Service Quality esearch
The research discussed in this paper is based on the application of the SEVQUAL model to the restaurant sector of the hospitality service industry. The SEVQUAL model was developed in 1985 and has been refined since for use in the service industry. In contrast to goods, service quality has been difficult to measure because of the intangibility, variability and heterogeneity of the service. Moreover, the service quality depends on the interaction between service provider and consumer. The SEVQUAL model was developed to overcome these limitations. The research articles discussed in the following sections were all conducted to apply the model in the restaurant sector to evaluate the service quality of various kinds of restaurants.
In addition to the SEVQUAL model, another useful model is the DINESEV model which has also been used by a couple of the researches discussed in this paper. The researches discussed in this…
Chow, I.H., Lau, V.P., Lo, T.W., Sha, Z., & Yun, H. (2007). Service quality in restaurant operations in China: Decision- and experiential-oriented perspectives. Hospitality management, Vol. 26, pp. 698-710. Accessed from www.sciencedirect.com
Fitzsimmons, J.A., & Fitzsimmons, M.J. (2006). Service management. 5th ed. Tata McGraw-Hill.
Fu, Y., & Parks, S.C. (2001). The relationship between restaurant service quality and cnsumer loyalty among the elderly. Journal of hospitality tourism research, Vol. 25, pp. 320-336. doi: 10.1177/109634800102500306.
Grigoroudis, E., & Siskos, Y. (2009). Customre satisfaction evaluation: Methods for measuring and implementing service quality. Springer Publications.