Survey Research Essays (Examples)

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Behavioral Research Surveys Research Has Traditionally Been

Words: 796 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18135545

Behavioral Research

Surveys research has traditionally been conducted in three ways: In-person, by mail, and over the telephone. A fourth option has been added to these modes through the survey opportunities available in digital media. This array of modes is a bit like the child's matching game in which the outlier is identified: To whit, "Which one does not belong?" Two of the four survey modes entail real-time interaction between a survey researcher and a respondent; the other two survey modes do not entail this "live" interaction. The presence of a "live" interviewer in telephone surveys research is believed to be an important variable in the non-response data. Typically, telephone survey participants are not offered a non-response option ("don't know"), but in this study, a non-response option was offered to the CATI respondents, since this was an important part of the investigation. Moreover, surveys research via the new digital media…… [Read More]

Propensity modeling is a statistical method common to market research -- the field in which the thrust of this research is intended; it is, therefore, wholly appropriate for the research topic and the research questions. The most substantive finding presented in the article is that data from surveys conducted through different modes are not directly comparable and cannot be merged into a single data set for analysis: Mode effects and non-response effects interact in mixed-mode surveys that utilize telephone and internet survey methods. The data clearly supports the findings and is easily auditable. Findings presented and discussed in this article are reasonable and are objectively presented with full descriptions of methods and procedures. Propensity score matching did explain the differences between the sample groups. The CATI respondents most often chose the most positive of the choice categories and, in general, responded more positively than their counterparts in the WAPI sample.


Lugtig, P., Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M., Frerichs, R., and Greven, A. (2011). Estimating nonresponse bias and mode effects in a mixed-mode survey. International Journal of Market Research, 53 (5), 669-686.
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Research Approaches in Maritime Security

Words: 6550 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56752225

International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security

The study will be based on the question that "What is the impact of the International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security." Answers will be sought to have this question addressed adequately.

The study feels that the ISPS Code has some impacts upon the Maritime Security in the world. Thus, the study seeks to uncover the various impacts that are realized by the Maritime Security as offered by the ISPS.


The influence and functionality of the existing ISPS Code run globally. Its effects, as part of its usefulness and importance, are felt by the Maritime Security among other agents of security in the world. Thus, the study will uncover the impacts caused by the ISPS Code on the Maritime Security in various parts of the world. The study will seek further knowledge from different materials; research…… [Read More]

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research methodologies and design

Words: 1175 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15623155

Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mayo, J. (2002). Case-based Instruction: A Technique for Increasing Conceptual Application in Introductory Psychology. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 65-74.

O'Connor, B., & Cordova, R. (2010). Learning: The Experiences of Adults Who Work Full-Time While Attending Graduate School Part-Time. Journal of Education for Business, 359-368.

van der Voot, J., Glac, K., & Meijs, L. (2009). ''Managing'' Corporate Community Involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 311-329.
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research design issues in education dual credit

Words: 945 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53239074

The Challenges of Dual Credit: A Research Proposal
Problem Statements
Dual credit or dual enrollment programs “are designed to boost college access and degree attainment, especially for students typically underrepresented in higher education,” (United States Department of Education, 2017, p. 1). With this lofty goal set, it should seem that dual credit programs would be reducing the educational achievement gap. After all, dual credit programs by definition allow all students the opportunity to potentially shorten the amount of time they spend in college, thereby reducing their tuition fees that enable the completion of a degree program. Yet recent research shows that college enrollment and completion gaps may be getting wider, based both on ethnicity and on socioeconomic class (Gewertz, 2017). The results of the RAND study reported by Gewertz (2017) may not be applicable specifically to the state of Hawaii, and yet educational attainment disparities do continue to exist and…… [Read More]

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Web-Based Surveys and Their Usefulness in Reducing

Words: 6102 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50674051

web-based surveys and their usefulness in reducing the cost of business research. The writer explores several aspects of web-based surveys including performance and comparison to traditional type surveys. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.

There are many reasons that people gather information today. ealth professionals gather information to help determine health trends, needs and problems. Marketing professionals gather information so that the consumer can be better served. Churches gather information to better provide for the spiritual needs of the public. Law enforcement officials gather information to ascertain crime trends as well as other information that is useful for predictions and budgeting needs. Different sized governments gather information for the purpose of providing public services to those who live within their geographic area as well as estimations and predictions about the future of the area. There are many reasons to gather information and there are very few instances…… [Read More]

Hart is a managing editor at the Oregonian. ()

Author not available, SPSS Announces Surveys with Confidence; Complete, Easy-To-Use Survey Design, Collection and Analysis Package., Business Wire, 02-08-1999.

Author not available, Total Research Signs Letter of Intent to Exclusively Use WebSurveyResearch for Online Survey Research., Business Wire, 02-20-2001.
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Mail or Email Surveys Received Recently and

Words: 548 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77505619

mail or email surveys received recently and addresses where proper ethical steps were followed. This work further describes the highest ethical standards in the use of surveys.

The writer of this work has received email surveys recently that ask for participation in providing opinions of products or services. The emails did not follow the proper ethical standards that are required when completing surveys.

Ethical Standards

Surveys are reported to be representative of the "most common types of quantitative, social science research." (Writing at CSU, nd) In survey research, a sample of respondents is selected from a population and the research following this selection, "administers a standardized questionnaire to them. The questionnaire or survey may be a written document that the individual being surveyed completed. There are ethical issues that are required to be addressed when using surveys. The work of Eleanor Singer reports that when survey research is used the…… [Read More]


Ethical Issues for Online Surveys (2009) Qualtrics. Retrieved from: 

Singer, Eleanor (nd) Ethical Issues in Surveys. The International Handbook of Survey Methodology, Chapter 5. Retrieved from: 

Survey Research (nd) Writing at CSU. Retrieved from:
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Criminal Justice Research Torres A N Boccaccini M T

Words: 1775 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1480754

Criminal Justice esearch

Torres, A.N., Boccaccini, M.T., and Miller, H.A. (2006). Perceptions of the validity and utility of criminal profiling among forensic psychologists and psychiatrists, American Psychological Association, 37 (1), 51-58.

Study purpose, research topic, and research questions. This research explores the perceptions of forensic psychologists and psychiatrists in regard to the utility and validity of criminal profiling. It is important to first establish a clear definition of the key term used in this research: Criminal profiling. The definition of criminal profiling in this research is not the same as in the vernacular. The authors discriminate forensic criminal profiling as the use of "behavioral evidence left at a crime scene to make inferences about the offender, including inferences about personality characteristics and psychopathology" (Torres, et al., 2006, p. 51). From the literature (Davis & Follette, 2002), the authors overly the simplest of definitions: "…profiling is simply the postdiction of behavior;…… [Read More]


Bartol, C.R. (1996). Police psychology: Then, now, and beyond. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23, 70-89.

Cook, C., Heath, F., and Thompson, R.L. (2000). A meta-analysis of response rates in web- or Internet-based surveys. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60, 821-836.

Davis, D. And Follette, W.C. (2002). Rethinking the probative value of evidence: Base rates, intuitive profiling, and the "postdiction" of behavior. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 133-158.

Douglas, J.H., and Olshaker, M. (1995). Mind hunter: Inside the FBI's elite serial crime unit. New York, NY: Mindhunters.
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Education Research the Scientific and

Words: 825 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25120164

At this stage also, a questionnaire or instrument is formulated and kinds of analysis to be conducted after data collection are determined.

These rigorous steps of developing the methodology for a research are culminated with the conduct of the data collection itself, which, in the example given earlier, the research collected data through the survey method. After collection, processing of the data would be next, followed by the analyses and interpretation of these processed survey data. After data analysis, the researcher uses his/her knowledge and experience as an expert in the field of health by interpreting the data results in the context of health and the social environment of the community. Both data analyses and interpretation are summarized and made easier to communicate through a formal report, both in oral and written modalities.

The outlines systematic approach to research inquiry, while they may appear to be very rigorous and scientific…… [Read More]

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Represents a Survey Study Made

Words: 743 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77612940

Interval variables

Frequency distribution


Category Percent





64+ 15%

As one may observe, most respondents in this study are in the 35-49 and in the 50-64 age groups. The least respondents are in the 18-24%.

Ordinal variables

Frequency distribution

Dept results show that the clothing department is preferred by 25% of respondents, followed by the electronics department with 18%. Payment results reveal that 35% of customers prefer to pay with their credit cards, while 52% prefer to pay with cash. egarding the prices in these stores, 26% have a somewhat negative opinion, 18% have a strongly negative opinion, while 42% have a neutral opinion.

Categorical variables

Frequency distribution

Gender: 63% of customers are female, and 37% are male.

egular: 38% stated that they shop several times a week, and 35% said they shop once a week.

eason1: 26% of respondents said they prefer these stores because…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Jacobsen, M. (2010). Complementary Research Methods. University of Calgary. Retrieved January 29, 2011.

2. Trochim, W. (2006). The T-Test. Knowledge Base. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from .

3. Trochim, W. (2006). Descriptive Statistics. Knowledge Base. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from .

4. Trochim, W. (2006). Survey Research. Knowledge Base. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from .
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Post-Tenure Review A Research Design

Words: 744 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6677221

For each selected school, there will be three groups of which quota sampling will be employed to achieve equal number of respondents. The three groups would be the faculty members, student administrators, and students. espondents will once again be randomly-selected from the list that we shall be acquiring from the university.


A questionnaire shall be devised by the researcher in order to gather opinion and understand attitudes on post-tenure review. An Educational Administration Disposition Belief Scale shall also be provided to better assess school administrators' views and disposition to better understand their particular disposition in the issue of post-tenure review. This instrument by Charles Southern University (n.d.) has already been used in previous studies conducted. This scale shall be modified to a 5-point scale in order to gauge disposition.

Data Gathering

The timetable for the data gathering part of this research was based on a seven-week schedule. One week…… [Read More]


Charles Southern University (n.d.) Educational Administration Belief Scale Worksheet.

Retrieved from  on 11 Jan 2010.

Licata, C.M. & Morreale, (2006). Faculty and Administrator Views About Post-Tenure

Practices: Qualitative Findings, in Post-Tenure Faculty Review and Renewal III:
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A Comparison of Survey and Experimental Research

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94264883

social science researchers have a number of different types of research designs available to them, including observational studies, correlational research, developmental designs, survey research and experimental designs (Neuman, 2009). This paper reviews the literature concerning quantitative survey research and experimental designs to provide a comparison of their similarities and differences, including their respective processes for selecting an appropriate population sample. In addition, a description of a respective strength and limitation of each design is followed by a conclusion that can be drawn from this comparison. Finally, an explanation concerning ethical, legal, and social-cultural considerations that may be relevant for these designs is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning survey and experimental research designs in the conclusion.

eview and Analysis

Two similarities and two differences between the survey and experimental research

Survey and experimental research both use data in the form of numbers rather than qualitative…… [Read More]


De Vaus, D. (2002). Surveys in social research. London: UCL Press.

Grinnell, R. M. Jr. & Unrau, Y. A. (2005). Social work research and evaluation: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. New York: Oxford University Press.

McConville, M. & Chui, W. H. (2007). Research methods for law. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Neuman, W. L. (2009). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 6th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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Stakeholders Research Project

Words: 1483 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96829099

Stakeholders Research Project
Preliminary stakeholder identification around any natural resource proves vital to carrying out meaningful trans- disciplinary researches with regard to managing that particular resource. Stakeholders may be defined as all players capable of impacting, or being impacted by, any action or decision (after Freeman 1984). Natural resource management research scholars (e.g. Grimble and Wellard 1997; Dougill et al. 2006; Ravnborg and Westermann 2002) constantly report that the inclusion of stakeholders in finding solutions facilitates mutual learning and negotiation, improves stakeholder buy- in and support of actions and decisions, and decreases conflict. Trans- disciplinary study strategies build on this rationale through assimilating stakeholders and integrating the diverse kinds of ideas and knowledge they bring with them to the table in socially- sound, solution- focused studies (Lang et al. 2012; Bracken et al. 2014; Hurni and Wiesmann 2014).
Quite frequently, project reports and scholarly papers’ descriptions pertaining to stakeholder…… [Read More]

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Correlational Research

Words: 745 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83069623

new reading program on a student's ability to learn to read. Because the program is designed specifically for helping new readers learn basic reading skills the experimenter chooses only beginning first-grade students as the population of interest. Thus, as the subject variable is one that cannot be the target of random assignment (you cannot randomly assigned subjects to the first-grade) a nonequivalent control group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design is selected as the preferential design (Cozby & Bates, 2012). Moreover, it is often not feasible for programs like this to randomly assign different students within the same classroom to different breeding programs as there is typically only one teacher teaching the first graders and such a design would be cumbersome and most likely the study rejected by the school system. Thus, the incoming first-grade students are given a basic reading pretest at the beginning of the school year, and then one…… [Read More]


Cozby, P. & Bates, S. (2012). Methods in behavioral research (11th ed). New York: McGraw-


Thompson, B., Diamond, K.E., McWilliam, R., Snyder, P., & Snyder, S.W. (2005). Evaluating

the quality of evidence from correlational research for evidence-based practice. Exceptional Children, 71(2), 181-194.
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How to Conduct Correlational Research

Words: 307 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22656383

Correlational Study

Identify a Group

The group that will be used for this correlational study is the group of 6th graders from the school district of Winchester in VA. A control group will also be used from the same sample. The sample will include 200 6th graders. This is an appropriate sample size for a study (Chapter 7: Survey esearch, n.d.).

Identify Two Variables

Two variables that might be related and that are relevant for this group are: 1) the teaching of sentence diagramming, and 2) the ability to successfully comprehend, write and break down English sentences.

Write a Purpose Statement

A purpose statement for a correlational study using the group and two variables identified above could read: This purpose of this study is to identify whether there is a relationship between the teaching of…… [Read More]


Chapter 7: Survey Research. (n.d.). Power Point Presentation.

Chapter 8: Correlational Research. (n.d.). Power Point Presentation.

Mills, G. E., & Gay, L. R. & Airasian. (2012). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications. Boston, MA: Pearson Publishing.
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Survey Results on Management Survey

Words: 474 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75858793

desire within the organization for change, in particular with regards to leadership. Ultimately, the research shows that most respondents have an idea of what makes a good leader, but feel that the people currently in leadership positions in this organization lack those traits. There is some evidence of a mandate for change among employees of this organization.

For question 1, respondents could answer more than once, and many did. the results were as follows:


Forward looking









This is best viewed on a histogram:

There are no measures of central tendency for this question.

Question 2. The results were as follows, and are best represented in a pie chart:




Question 3.For this question, n=8 because the two who felt that their bosses exemplified most positive characteristics did not answer. The results were as follows, and are best represented on…… [Read More]

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Research Summary

Words: 1249 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37510181

Halcomb, Peters, and Mclennes (2015) aims at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education. The authors have determined that clinical assignments to community facilities may offer nursing undergraduates important opportunities for learning. The research was conducted using a qualitative study design.

The research work attempts at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education.

Statement of Purpose

For promoting the profession of primary healthcare, comprehending pre-registration pupils' experiences within primary care contexts at the time of clinical assignment is vital.

In spite of the observable advantages such assignment have for pupils, poor supervisor-student relationships, work climates that do not foster a sense of belonging, and the absence of adequate guidance and monitoring are proven to have strong links to exacerbated anxiety and stress levels, greater pupil attrition…… [Read More]

Reduced treatment mistakes and patient falls, together with patient perceptions of being better informed during shift change, was witnessed by researchers. The intervention incorporated a 3-hour nursing pupil handoff practicum, 2-hour clinical staff training, and a formative student assessment and feedback in the course of clinical experiences all through the 3rd semester. The pupil practicum was integrated into clinical orientation and clinical lab experience. Best practices in bedside hand-offs were addressed as well. All through the course of the practicum, emphasis was placed on the handoff receiver's active participation in safety communication (Avallone & Weideman, 2015). Numerous favorable results were recorded with regard to combined bedside nurse shift reporting practice, with a small number of downsides. Nursing outlook towards reporting during final data acquisition proved to be more favorable as compared to their outlook at the start of program implementation. If put into proper practice, bedside nurse reporting may improve patient safety results and nurse and patient satisfaction. But it is imperative to ensure nurse involvement in practice implementation and to continually check both report format uniformity and process support on nurses' and patients' part (Jecklin-Sand & Sherman, 2014).

Avallone, M., & Weideman, Y. (2015). Evaluation of a nursing handoff educational bundle to improve nursing student handoff communications: A Pilot Study. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 65 - 75.

Jecklin-Sand, K., & Sherman, J. (2014). A quantitative assessment of patient and nurse outcomes of bedside nursing report implementation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2854 - 63.
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Research Proposal for Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Pricing

Words: 806 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68579566

Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Pricing

How Can Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships Help to Achieve the Dissemination of affordable medicines - The Case of Anti Malaria Drugs in Nigeria?

Sustainability Perspective

Many individuals from developing countries who could benefit from pharmaceuticals products do not receive them due to high costs. Antiretroviral therapy's failure in reaching more than scant numbers of individuals in developing nations, suffering from AIDS, has drawn extensive publicity. However, even far cheaper medications that can be delivered easily aren't reaching numerous individuals who require them. Over a fourth of children all over the world and more than half of the children in a few nations do not receive vaccines, which come under the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Expanded Program on Immunization. Even though these vaccines only cost a family under a dollar a dose, they still cannot afford the medicine. The lack of access to beneficial pharmaceutical products and the…… [Read More]


AUSPA 2012, Policy & Advocacy, Western Australian Council of Social Service Inc., viewed 10 June 2017,

Buckley, J & Seamus, T 2005, International Pricing and Distribution of Therapeutic Pharmaceuticals: An Ethical Minefield. Business Ethics, pp.127-141.

Hussein, A 2015, The Use of Triangulation in Social Sciences Research: Can Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Be Combined? Journal of Comparative Social Work, vol. 4., no.1.

Lampard, R & Pole, C 2015. Practical social investigation: qualitative and quantitative methods in social research. Routledge: Abingdon, UK.
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Research Approaches in Education

Words: 1763 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84885030

Educational Leadership

Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.


The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…… [Read More]


Brooks, J. S., & Normore, A. H. (2015). Qualitative Research and Educational Leadership: Essential Dynamics to Consider When Designing and Conducting Studies. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(7), 798-806.

Demeh, W., & Rosengren, K. (2015). The Visualization of Clinical Leadership in the Content of Nursing Education -- A Qualitative Study of Nursing Students' Experiences. Nurse Education Today, 35(7), 888-893.

Kilpatrick, J. E., & McCarthy, M. H. (2015). Global Education and School Leaders' Role in Equitable Access for All Students: Synthesis of Two Qualitative Studies from Massachusetts, USA.

Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Health Promotion Practice, 1524839915580941.
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research design in psychology

Words: 600 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54282430

1. An operational definition helps the researcher maintain both internal and external validity. The researcher clearly defines terms, and shows how each variable is measured. In this way, concepts that are otherwise abstract like intelligence can be operationalized.

Intelligence needs to be operationalized because the researcher needs to show what specific type of intelligence is being measured, and how. An operational definition is “the particular method that we use to measure a variable of interest,” beyond the theoretical definitions that can be applied later (“Conducting Research in Social Psychology,” n.d., p. 1). Whereas the theoretical definitions of intelligence can be broad, like “the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge,” operational definitions are narrower in scope because they need to be easily measured (Legg & Hutter, 2006, p. 2).

For example, if mathematical intelligence is being measured, then an established mathematical skills test needs to be administered to research participants. Social skills intelligence…… [Read More]

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Survey Administration Plan

Words: 521 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82743109

Administration Plan

To analyze the views of the general public about the Stanley Park project

To determine whether Stanley Park meets the needs of the public

To identify opportunities for service improvements in the project

I am:





Under 18 years old

years old

years old

years old

Over 45 years old









How would you rate:

(please circle)

= awful, 2 = bad, 3 = okay, 4 = good, 5 = great

The design of Stanley Park

The environmental friendliness of Stanley Park

The amenities provided at Stanley Park

The comfort of the provided benches and lawns

Extras provided at the park

In your opinion, how important is it that: (circle)

= awful, 2 = bad, 3 = okay, 4 = good, 5 = great

10. Stanley Park is comfortable and pleasant






11. Stanley…… [Read More]


Brewer, M. (2000). Research Design and Issues of Validity. In H. Reis & C. Judd (Eds.), Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wikman, A. (2006). Reliability, Validity and True Values in Surveys. Social Indicators Research, 78(1), 85-110.
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Survey Development

Words: 826 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6797828


Develop an operational definition of self-efficacy.

Self-efficacy is the estimated likelihood of successful completion of a complex task by an individual. In a counseling setting, this would mean successful treatment for a patient's complex personal or interpersonal complaint. A counselor with higher self-efficacy perception would be more likely to take diverse and complex cases, while a lower self-efficacy perception would result in a more uniform and less-challenging caseload.

Construct a 10-item survey to measure the self-efficacy of the counseling students.

Gender (F or M)

ate your overall preparedness to enter professional counseling (Likert scale 1-10)

Did you take the online or land-based program? (A or B)

Do you expect to graduate the program?

How well do you perform in most classes in general?

What is your overall GPA in the Master's program?

How motivated were you to finish this program? (Likert scale 1-10)

Was there more direct participation or…… [Read More]


Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change.

Psychological Review 84(2), 191-215.

Bandura, A. (2002). Social Cognitive Theory in Cultural Context. Applied Psychology: An

International Review 51(2), 269 -- 290. Retrieved from:
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Surveys More on Scaling

Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80935322

Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers

In this study by Ohanian, a scale used in measuring celebrity endorsers' expertise, trustworthiness as well as attractiveness is developed. Psychometric scale development protocols are followed for testing the data reliability and validity as well. In addition, this study uses two exploratory and confirmatory samples to initiate a 15-item scale measuring the celebrity endorsers' characteristics. This article complies fully with Churchill's recommendations in several fronts as outlined below.

Several sources are researched on to identify words, phrases, and adjectives to use for this research's questionnaire; this results in the development of several adjectives describing personality traits. During the construction of the scale, 182 adjectives are identified of which some were eliminated to about 139 adjectives. Additionally, the 139 descriptors were further trimmed by a group of 38 college students; the researcher believed the words were unfamiliar with respondents, to 104.

For the identification of celebrities…… [Read More]


Churchill, G.A. (1979). A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 64-74.

Lages, C., Lages, C.R., & Lages, L.F. (2005). The RELQUAL Scale: A Measure of Relationship Quality in Export Market Ventures. Lisbon, Portugal.

Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers' Perceived Expertise, Trustworthiness, and Attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, Vol.19, No.3, 39-52.

Zheng, B., Hall, M.A., Kidd, K.E., & Levine, D. (2002). Development of a Scale to Measure Patients' Trust in Health Insurers. Health Services Research Vol 37 No.1, 187-202.
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research design and methods used in leadership

Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69889618

Data Collection in Leadership
As a social science, leadership research may involve any type of quantitative or qualitative data collection method. Qualitative research data collection methods include observation, participant-observation, interview, and document or content analysis (“Data Collection Methods,” n.d.). Quantitative data collection methods used in leadership research may include surveys and experiments, which allow for statistical analysis, the establishment of causality between independent and dependent variables, and the tracking of results over time. Whereas quantitative data collection methods had once been the most commonly used in the social sciences, recent trends in leadership research have shifted towards qualitative methods (Antonakis, Schriescheim, Donovan, et al., 2003). Qualitative methods often reveal nuances, patterns, and ideas that quantitative methods overlook or take for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior.
Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in…… [Read More]

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Survey for Online and Land Based Counseling Students Self Effiacy

Words: 836 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92243073

Perceptions of Self-Efficacy Among Counseling Students

Today, increasing numbers of college students are enrolled in online courses that either supplement or entirely replace traditional land-based counseling graduate degree programs (Smith, Mcaullife & ippard, 2014). These trends may have an effect on the respective levels of self-efficacy that counseling students develop as a result of their online or land-based coursework. To help determine the extent of these differences, if they exist, this paper was guided by the following research question: "What are the differences in perceptions of self-efficacy among counseling students in online and land-based counseling graduate degree programs?" In order to develop a timely and informed answer to this research question, a definition of self-efficacy is followed by a proposed 10-item survey that measures the respective levels of self-efficacy of online and land-based counseling students. A listing of the 10 survey items is followed by supporting rationale for their inclusion…… [Read More]


De Vaus, D. (1996). Surveys in social research. London: UCL Press.

Lane, J & Lane, A. (2009, January 1). Selfs-efficacy and academic performance. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 29(7), 687-690.

Smith, J. E. & Mcaullife, G. (2014, December). Counseling students' transformative learning through a study abroad curriculum. Counselor Education and Supervision, 53(4), 306-310.

Sheperis, C. J., Young, J. S., & Daniels, M. H. (2017). Counseling research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods (2nd ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
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Demographic Perception Survey of Patients With Atypical

Words: 2504 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2311782

Demographic Perception Survey of Patients with Atypical CP Who Present to Cardiac Care Doctors and Patient Outcomes

This study intends to examine gender differences in individuals who present to cardiac doctors with chest pain and specifically, atypical chest pain in women. The work of Debra L. Issac (2000) states that over the past ten years "there has been increasing awareness of both the importance of CAD in women and of the significant differences between men and women who have the disease. Potential gender biases, both within the medical community and within the general population of women themselves also have been identified. These gender differences and biases have the potential to influence investigation and management of suspected or confirmed CAD in women, and should be taken into consideration when faced with a woman with potential cardiovascular disease." (p.157)

Issac also states that chest pain in women is "common and often non-ischemic.…… [Read More]


Cayley, WE (2005) Diagnosing the Case of Chest Pain. American Family Physician. 15 Nob 2005. Retrieved from: 

Gotzsche PC, Nielsen M. Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (1):CD001877, 2011.

Issac, DL (2000) Women with Ischemic Heart Disease. Presented at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress, Vancouver, British Columbia, October 2000. Retrieved from: 

Khan, JJ, Albarran, JW, Lopez, V, and Chair, SY (2010) Gender Differences on Chest Pain Perception associated with Acute Myocardial infarction in Chinese patients: A Questionnaire Survey. J Clin Nurs. 2010 Oct, 19 (19-20)2720-0. Retrieved from:
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Business Research Into the Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 907 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64387605

Business Research

Research into the legalization of marijuana will seek to determine what people's views on the issue are. The population is going to be the entire United States, as we are seeking to determine national views about the issue. The sampling will be done at random, using databases of phone numbers and computer-generated dialing. The operators will only know of and gather non-personal information such as age bracket, gender and state of residence. The major downside to this form of sampling is that many younger people will not be sampled because they often do not have landlines.

Random sampling is the "purest form" of probability sampling in that it is free from researcher bias and is more likely to accurately reflect the total population as a result (StatPac, 2012). Landline ownership is a reasonable proxy for the total population, with the caveat noted above. However, other sampling methods are…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

StatPac. (2012). Survey sampling methods. StatPac. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from (2012). Glossary of statistical terms: sampling frame. Institute for Statistics Education. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from 

CRS. (2012). Sample size calculator. Creative Research Systems. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from
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Interviews and Surveys With Women Offenders Who

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98836517

interviews and surveys with women offenders who are inmates in the aylor Correctional Institution form the foundation of this discussion of data analysis and report writing. The revised research questions accentuate the need for a greater balance of qualitative and quantitative research to ensure as complete and accurate a research methodology is executed. The first phase of the study concentrates on a more thorough analysis of the qualitative factors that influence the outcomes of every research question. The second phased concentrates on the use of attitudinal scaling at the interval or ratio level of measurement so that multidimensional scaling (MDS) can be used to define perception- and attitudinal-based maps of how and why trigger events lead to lapses on drug tolerance. The use of MDS techniques to determine the relative level of self-awareness and attitudes towards specific treatment strategies is commonplace in social science, and often provides insights into interrelationships…… [Read More]


Beck, J.A. (2006). Offending women: Discipline, punishment, and re-forming selves in a therapeutic-community drug treatment program. (Order No. 3219609, University of California, Santa Cruz). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 407-407

Marlowe, D.B., Festinger, D.S., Dugosh, K.L., Arabia, P.L., & Kirby, K.C. (2008). AN EFFECTIVENESS TRIAL OF CONTINGENCY Management IN A FELONY PREADJUDICATION DRUG COURT. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(4), 565-77.

Robbins, C.A., Martin, S.S., & Surratt, H.L. (2009). Substance abuse treatment, anticipated maternal roles, and reentry success of drug-involved women prisoners. Crime and Delinquency, 55(3), 388-411.

Schwartz, S.H., Cieciuch, J., Vecchione, M., Davidov, E., Fischer, R., Beierlein, C. Konty, M. (2012). Refining the theory of basic individual values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(4), 663.
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Role of Research Problem in Choosing an

Words: 4782 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83788076

role of research problem in choosing an appropriate methodology. It also presents the research questions, methodology, and design that can be used by the researcher to analyze the research problem and proceed with his research study. The third section of the paper identifies two major qualities of team leaders that contribute to successful leadership and explains strategies that organization leaders can implement to develop these two qualities in their team leaders in order to achieve maximum performance. The paper also explains some advantages and disadvantages of these leadership skills or qualities.

Vietnam -- The Economy, Marketing Landscape, and Brand Perception of Consumers

Economic System and Macro-Economic Environment of Vietnam and its esponse to Globalization:

After the recent financial crisis hit the world markets, Vietnamese economy revived itself and became a market-oriented economy (Vietnam Centre for Economic and Policy esearch, 2010). All its manufacturing, industrial, and trade sectors have seen tremendous…… [Read More]


Atchariyachanvanich, K., & Okada, H. (2007). "How Consumer Lifestyles Affect Purchasing Behavior: Evidence from Internet Shopping in Japan," Journal of Entrepreneurship Research, 2 (2): 63-78.

Basefsky, M., Maxwell, J.L., Post, A. & Turner, B.G. (2004). "Manager to Manager - What Are the Five Most Important Qualities of an Effective Leader?," Journal American Water Works Association, 96 (7): 34-36.

Bennis, W.G. 2009, On Becoming a Leader, 20th Anniversary Edition. New York: Basic Books.

Bernthal, P. & Wellins, R. (2006). "Trends in Leader Development and Succession," Academic journal article from Human Resource Planning, 29 (2): 5-9.
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Descrptive Design Research Method and Design Proposal

Words: 2120 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90647310

Descrptive Design

esearch Method and Design Proposal

A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).

Most importantly, qualitative data methods…… [Read More]


Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from 

Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.

Lancet, 359, 145-149.

Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.
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Ethics in Research for Organizations of All

Words: 1204 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83305104

Ethics in esearch

For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).

Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…… [Read More]


Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.

Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.

SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from
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Network Research Encountering -- and

Words: 2984 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96557868

The behavior of both botnets and worms in peer-to-peer networks have been empirically examined and models or simulations of their behavior have been attempted, and the manner in which different nodes in peer-to-peer networks develop in and of themselves and in terms of their relationships with other nodes -- the very architecture of the network itself, in other words, which is necessarily dynamic in a peer-to-peer network -- makes it easier for these threats to spread and evolve undetected due to this architecture and to the patterns of information flow over such networks (Fan, 2011; Xu et al., 2011). When it comes to worms propagating in peer-to-eer networks, the activity of the worm itself has been demonstrated to be the most necessary knowledge in terms of tracking and preventing the continued spread and damage of such a threat, while botnets generally show more "robustness" an are better impacted by shifts…… [Read More]


Ahmad, N. & Habib, M. (2010). Analysis of Network Security Threats and Vulnerabilities by Development & Implementation of a Security Network Monitoring Solution. Blekinge Institute of Technology (thesis).

Barth, W. (2008). Nagios: System and Network Monitoring. San Francisco: Open Source Press.

Bejtlich, R. (2004). The Tao of Network Security Monitoring: Beyond Intrusion Detection. New York: Pearson.

Cao, J. & Liu, Z. (2012). A Distributed Trust Model in Unstructured P2P Networks. Recent Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering 126: 635-41.
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Corporate World According to Prior Research Studies

Words: 3497 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19036124

Corporate World

According to prior research studies, plagiarism is not just appearing in the academic environment. Now, plagiarism is being seen in corporate America as a way to "adjust" information that might otherwise seem unfavorable to stakeholders, higher-ups, or others who will be provided information regarding something to do with the company. Financial issues are often a part of the plagiarism issue, but there are other concerns that are not related to the company's finances. No matter what concerns a corporation has, it should be honest about those concerns and not attempt to cover them up with dishonesty of any kind. There are other dishonest practices other than plagiarism that are used in corporations today, but plagiarism is one of the more common problems that is discovered. It appears to be acceptable until it is discovered, and it is important that the researcher examines just how much plagiarism is permeating…… [Read More]


Aguilera, R., & Vadera, A. (2008). The dark side of authority: Antecedents, mechanisms, and outcomes of organizational corruption. Journal of Business Ethics, 77, 431-449.

Bailey, J. (2008, January). Whistleblowing: An international perspective. Internal Auditing, 23, 20-25.

Dewey, J. (1963). Experience and education. New York, NY: Collier Books.

Haggerty, J., & McKinnon, J. (2004, September 24). Fannie Mae ousters might come. Wall Street Journal, p. A12.
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Social Media Survey Breakdown Social

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94685709

This is thus a correlational research measure, which aims to show a correlation between increases in marketing potential with increased use of social networking platforms for SMEs of various industries. The research will use the coding methods of grounded theory in order to extrapolate meaning from open ended survey responses. External validity will be assured through the number of SMEs included in the survey to ensure that results represent a shared consensus.

The type of research you are doing (casual or correlational) -- address measures about external validity

Social networking has such potential for SME business strategies. With this in mind, it is the general hypothesis of the research that social networking would prove to benefit SME marketing strategies enormously. This cost effective measure will allow SMEs to strengthen their marketing techniques to such an extent that they will be able to compete with larger enterprise businesses.

There are a…… [Read More]

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Cereal Survey in Undergoing a

Words: 548 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26991509

Furthermore, the researcher could explore the frequency of purchase, consumption, budget, and usual places where the mother purchases the product. Also, the exploratory discussion could lead to other dimensions and information about breakfast cereal purchase and consumption that were not identified in previous studies. Similarly, in IDIs, concepts that will be explored and discovered during the one-on-one interview could be developed into variables for the survey. For concepts identified in FGDs and IDIs, they will be used as variables for the survey, and will be tested during the analysis stage for validity and reliability.

Another proposed approach is through an ethnographic study. Similar to the qualitative methods, an ethnographic study would explore concepts that will be quantitatively tested for validity and reliability in the survey. In ethnographic studies, the researcher will observe and take note of the processes that take place in the target groups' natural environment. This could be…… [Read More]

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Recreation Proposed Quantitative Research Outdoor

Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2636582

Additionally, participating teachers will be drawn from public schools in the same state to mitigate the possibility that geographic factors will intervene to too great a degree. That said, consideration will be made to distinguish the specific school districts, socioeconomic conditions and racial factors present in different schools. Without making any preemptive deductions, these preliminary details may be used to help yield evidence of connections which might be used for future study.

The Likert Scale model of survey will be distributed through the email listserv at participating schools, requesting respondents to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 to what extent they agree or disagree with statements provided in the survey. These statements will primarily concern the presence or absence of sufficient outdoor recreational opportunities and the connection between said opportunities and academic performance.

This would be considered a true experimental quantitative study, where a control and experimental group…… [Read More]


Brown, P.; Sutterby, J.A. & Thornton, C.D. (2002). Dramatic play in outdoor play environments. Parent Teacher Organization Today.

Burberry, J. & Learoyd, B. (2005). Leeds Childhood Obesity Prevention and Weight Management Strategy. Leeds Children & Young People. Online at .

Montessori, M. (1986). The Discovery of the Child. 4th. New York: Ballantine Books.

Office of Communications (Ofcom). (2004). Children's food choices, parents' understanding and influence, and the role of food promotions. Office of Communications. Online at .
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Sands Rewards Club on Venetian Macao Research

Words: 4315 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24557319

Sands Rewards Club on Venetian Macao/

"Research & Reporting": How does the hotel membership system (Sands Rewards Club) affect the Venetian Macao Hotel itself?

How does the Hotel Membership System (Sands Rewards Club)

Affect The Venetian Macao Hotel itself?

Module Title & Code

Authors, names and Class designations

This work describes the affect of the Sands Rewards Club on the Venetian Macao Hotel through an exploration of three key themes. 1.The role of loyalty program membership on customer loyalty in the hotel industry as influenced by repetition of stays at Sands Hotels and specifically at The Venetian Macau Hotel. 2. The influence of loyalty program membership on customer purchase behavior, by comparing both member and non-member purchases. 3. The relationship between membership purchase discounts and/or privileges and purchasing behavior by comparing member and non-member purchases of a single promoted hotel package that is marketed and discounted for members. Research Question:…… [Read More]


2011, ' Expands Its Successful welcomerewards Loyalty Program', Hispanic PR Wire, 28 October, Regional Business News, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 December 2011.

Bareham, JR 2004, "Can consumers be predicted or are they unmanageable?," International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 16, 3, pp.159-165

Barsky, J 2011, 'Hotel reward programs attracting more consumers', Hotel Management (21582122), 226, 14, p. 12, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 December 2011.

Berman, B 2006, 'Developing an Effective Customer Loyalty Program', California Management Review, 49, 1, pp. 123-148, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 December 2011.
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Experimental Research Methods in Business Experimental Research

Words: 4846 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87946505

Experimental esearch Methods in Business

Experimental esearch Methods

The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.


The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…… [Read More]


Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.

Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.

Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved
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Population for My Proposed Research Will Be

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93320509

population for my proposed research will be college students ages 17-22 at three different educational institutions. The purpose of the cross-sectional study will be to survey the study habits of college students and the effect of those study habits on student's grades. Students will be asked to identify themselves on the questionnaire in terms of their age, gender, ethnicity, college major, whether they are the first member of their family to attend college full-time and their GPA. They will then be surveyed upon a variety of study habits, such as what time of day they study, where, how frequently, if they study alone or in a group, if they study with music playing and for how long.

All of the categories will be narrowed down in the final statistical analysis, for ease and clarity (such as noting if their major is in the humanities, social sciences, or natural sciences). GPAs…… [Read More]


Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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Terrorism Research Issues on the Topic of

Words: 1038 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82114272


esearch Issues on the Topic of Terrorism

Written into the very word, terrorism is a fascinating social problem worth inquiry. The meaning of terrorism is an act of violence or other that paralyses the individual or society with a feeling of terror. That terror can be a product of the relative infrequency and therefore surprise and seeming senselessness associated with the event, such as in the case of large scale and broad violent acts against larger populations (like 9/11, or the Oklahoma City bombing in the U.S.). The form of terror might also grow out of the expectation of debilitating acts against others as a standard operating procedure during certain circumstances (like the support and at the very least complicity of commanders in times of often ethnic war where women of the "enemy" are frequently and violently raped as an act of aggression and show of power).

Though the…… [Read More]


Ford, J.D., Adams, M.L., & Dailey, W.F. (2007). Psychological and health problems in a geographically proximate population time-sampled continuously for three months after the September 11th, 2001 terrorist incidents. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 20(2), 126-146. doi:10.1080/10615800701303215

Rothbart, G.S., Fine, M., & Sudman, S. (1982). On finding and interviewing the needles in the haystack: The use of multiplicity sampling. Public Opinion Quarterly, 46(3), 408-421. doi:10.1086/268737
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Smes and Social Networking Survey

Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2095658

In this closed question item, respondents will be given statements that refer to the respondent's perceived success of the marketing strategy implemented in his/her business. Two options can be done to quantitatively measure this variable: (a) using a rank order-type of question on the marketing strategies used and respondent's perceived success of each, ranked from the most successful to the least successful, or (b) use of a Likert scale to describe the level of success of each marketing strategy implemented. For option a, level of measurement would be ordinal while the latter, interval.

(4) Benefits of using social networking as a marketing platform. This open-ended question will explore the different ways the social media has benefited the respondents (SMEs). This question is an exploratory kind of question in that the researcher is expected to discover the different dimensions surrounding the concept of benefits and success in SMEs within the social…… [Read More]

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Perceptions of Crime Survey Surveymonkey

Words: 435 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68243270


New Laws Makes Criminal Pasts Off-Limits in California City. (2013) Fox News. 3 Aug 2013. Retrieved from:

The article under reviewed was published August 3, 2013 by Fox News Network. The article states that a suburb of San Francisco has made it illegal for city contractors to inquire about the criminal histories of prospective employees. This city of 100,000 people stated to be "troubled by crime and high unemployment" is part of what is reported as a national trend with the design to bring about an improvement in the employment possibilities of community members "amid wider incarceration." (Fox News, 2013, p.1) Private companies who have contracts with the city and who employ more than nine people are prohibited from asking about the criminal record of applicants. Field research could be handled in this area of study through conducting a survey of applicants who have applied with companies with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

New Laws Makes Criminal Pasts Off-Limits in California City. (2013) Fox News. 3 Aug 2013. Retrieved from: 

Surveymonkey (2013) Perceptions of Crime Survey. Retrieved from:
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Business Research Many Research Firms

Words: 552 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64496129

0 applications. The survey also attempts to define the eturn on Investment from investing in social networking applications, and derives a figure of $1.9M by 2013, corroborating a figure from Forrester esearch.


Completing any research project designed to capture business-to-business (B2B) market data takes an approach to isolating respondents within each organization that have a role in evaluating the technology being studied. The survey methodology concentrates on the role of it staff in evaluating social media applications. It would have been more effective if the researchers had also concentrated on the line-of-business managers and those responsible for the performance of business units who could make use of social networking applications as well. The integration aspects of Enterprise 2.0, as the coordination point for legacy systems, are what the it staff most concentrated on. To make this a more effective study, the unmet needs of the line-of-business users also need…… [Read More]


Ashley Jones (2008, September). Studies Suggest That Enterprise Social Media Will Change the Face of Business. EContent, 31(7), 14-15. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1556481791).

Link: -- Change-the-Face-of-Business-50353.htm

Link to press release from Trampoline Systems:
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Behavior Research Study Review The

Words: 1563 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4328663

For example, an upscale restaurant, mid-market clothing store, hardware store, and general store could all be sampled, and over the course of four days shoppers could be asked to respond to a survey at the check-out counter about their perceptions of the store and shopping experience. The data could then be analyzed demographically, in terms of consumer perceptions, and also precisely what the different shoppers bought on different days, as opposed to what they said they would buy. This would also allow repeated testing -- using the same four-day musical format over different periods of the year at different stores. The article's study takes the form of a posttest only study design: the independent variable of the music (or in the case of the control group, the lack thereof) is applied, and then subjects record their responses.

The advantage to the test is that there is no 'learning,' necessary to…… [Read More]


North, Adrian C. & David J. Hargreaves. (1998). The effect of music on atmosphere and purchase intentions in a cafeteria. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 28 (24):
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Mixing Methods Within Research Projects

Words: 1908 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84083495

(Niglas, 2004)

Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:

(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?

(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;

(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)

ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:

(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…… [Read More]


Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at: 

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at:

Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at: 

Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at:
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Business Research Purpose of Business

Words: 1729 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96573858

It is projected that at least 10% of the individuals receiving the survey will respond.

There are a variety of reasons for using qualitative methods in a study such as this one. Even though there are drawbacks to the qualitative method including (but not limited to) the fact that respondents are not known and could be lying, the responses are very subjective, and the questions themselves are quantitative in nature, it is still deemed that the expense and time necessary to employ other methods would be to exorbiant in nature.

It is also determined that there are a number of others studies currently available that can provide data that shows the effectiveness of direct mail advertising, therefore, the focus would be on the sports magazine aspect rather than direct mail per se. Qualitative methods are therefore deemed the most appropriate for this study.


De Chematony, L.; Cottam, S.; (2009)…… [Read More]


De Chematony, L.; Cottam, S.; (2009) Interacting contributions of different departments to brand success, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, Iss. 3, pg. 297

Payne, a.; Storbacka, K.; Frow, P.; Knox, S.; (2009) Co-creating brands: Diagnosing and designing the relationship experience, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, Iss. 3, pg. 379

Roderick, J.B.; Whittome, J.R.M.; Brush, G.J.; (2009) Investigating the service brand: A customer value perspective, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, Iss.3, pg. 345

Teddington; (2008) the innovative media offerings for a man's world, Campaign, Oct 10, 2008, pg. 17
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Goal of This Research Is to Identify

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48679248

goal of this research is to identify interventions that can reduce the risk of negative outcomes for at-risk youth. The basis for the analysis will rely on prior literature on parenting styles, co-parenting conflicts, and also child pre-disposition to violence. A literature review is the initial research design, with the goal of explaining the nature of the problem and the variables involved (Blakstad, n.d.). The research may progress into two further stages, including an exploratory and primarily qualitative phase. Subsequent to the exploratory research, a pilot study with longitudinal design may be warranted, but experimental designs are not indicated in a project of this nature.

Because the research is currently exploratory in nature, as it is in the early stages, several descriptive research designs would be highly appropriate. Three of the descriptive research designs that would be appropriate to this dissertation in particular include Case Study and Descriptive esearch. Later…… [Read More]


Blakstad, O. (n.d.). Research designs. Retrieved online: 

De Vaus, D.A. Research Design in Social Research. London: SAGE, 2001; Trochim, William M.K. Research Methods Knowledge Base. 2006.

Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Case study research design. Retrieved online:
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Job Outing This Research Was Done to

Words: 473 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83068714

Job Outing

This research was done to identify any relationship to job satisfaction and a recent company outing to Camp Feel Good. Essentially, the manager is doing this experiment to determine how effective Camp Feel Good attendance is on employee's attitudes.

u1= mean of employees who attended meeting and did not increase job satisfaction u0 = mean of employees who attended meeting and increased job satisfaction

u1 > u0

Null: H0: u1 / u0

Meeting attendance: This variable is discrete since it can either be yes or no, with no in between. This is a quantitative measurement and is the independent variable.

Job Satisfaction Score: This variable is continuous and is nominal. It is a qualitative variable that needs to be converted to understand its meaning. It is the dependent variable in this analysis.

Descriptive Statistics

The descriptive statistics infer some important points about the research question posed.

The first…… [Read More]


Week 3 SPSS Output. Provided by student.

National Atlas.GOV. (nd). Understanding Descriptive Statistics. Viewed 22 July 2013. Retrieved from
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Validity When Conducting a Research Study the

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71047213


When conducting a research study, the researcher needs to pay particular attention to the reliability and validity of his or her research instruments. These concepts form the basis of the academic acceptability and even excellence in a study. Hence, any researcher should be concerned with maximizing especially the validity of his or her work. In addition to internal consistency, various forms of validity can be identified, including face validity, content validity, criterion validity, and construct validity. All these validity forms form an important component of ensuring the strength of a research project.

Internal consistency refers to the homogeneity of a measure. When a questionnaire is offered to sports apparel customers in one of the countries (United States or Kenya) represented in the study, for example, it should be ensured that all the questions would produce valid scores for specific populations. This can be done by comparing half the items…… [Read More]

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Business Research - Financial Hardship

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62639084

"Now we're coming over the top of the curve and heading down the wrong side of it" (Welsh-Huggins, 2008).

Among the numerous features, common to the cities in the analyzed sample, one could point out the following:

Throughout the past year, the city budgets have reduced the spendings in recreational programs and facilities; they reduced the working hours for the public libraries and laid off municipal workers; the agenda is likely to continue throughout 2009

The revenues generated from property taxes have decreased drastically throughout 2008 as a direct result of the devaluing of the houses; 2009 is likely to follow a similar trend

Sales and income taxes are also decreasing, posing even more difficulties in the background of increasing health care, employee, safety and fuel costs

For all cities analyzed, the general economic stability is being threatened and in this context, raising the taxes is not a recommendable course…… [Read More]


Welsh-Huggins, a., 2008, Financial Hardship for Most Cities to Grow in '09, Business Week, . Ast accessed on September 15, 2008
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Criminology-Review Criminal Justice Research Review Ricciardelli R

Words: 1111 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83277250


Criminal Justice Research Review

Ricciardelli, R., Bell, J., & Clow, K. (2009). Student attitudes toward wrongful conviction, Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 51(3), 411-427.

There has been considerable research addressing the underlying factors regarding wrongful conviction; however, minimal research has been completed that investigates attitudes toward wrongful conviction. First and third year Canadian undergraduate students in criminal and non-criminal justice majors were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward various facets of wrongful conviction, the need to educate criminal justice personnel regarding contributing factors to wrongful conviction, the Blackstone ratio ("better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer), and the question as to whether wrongful conviction causes individuals to lose faith in the criminal justice system.

The problem was sufficiently narrowed down into a researchable problem, and is certainly formidable enough to warrant formal research efforts. The authors complete a significant comparison to the most…… [Read More]

Hickle, K., & Roe-Sepowitz, D. (2010). Female juvenile arsonists: An exploratory look at characteristics and solo and group arson offences, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 15, 385-399.

The purpose of the study was to examine a sample of 114 female juveniles charged with arson in a large juvenile justice system, as there is limited descriptive literature about female juvenile arsonists. The methodology included looking into familial characteristics, abuse, neglect, school related issues, mental health, substance abuse, and crime characteristics. Individual and group offenders were explored in depth, and were followed over a five-year period of time.

The literature review was very detailed and provided comparative as well as empirical information that highlighted the current gap that this study was designed to address. T test and chi square tests were used to establish whether the 86 that were excluded from the study demonstrated any significant differences than those who participated in the study. The 114 females included represented 22 counties in the state of Florida. The supervision Risk Classification Instrument was completed by juvenile probation officers within 6 hours of custody. This is a standard tool used for all juvenile offenders. It was difficult to discern from the study whether or not the participants assented to participation in the study, or whether it was required. The study did indicate that permission for the study was granted by the Florida Juvenile Justice Review board. The research design is appropriate to address the research problem; and issues of internal and external validity are adequately addressed. Data collection instruments are adequately described and the statistical tests are correct for answering the questions posited by the hypothesis.
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Collect Information for Your Research Qualitative Quantitative

Words: 387 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63354510

collect information for your research (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods)?

I will use a mixed methods approach. To allow me to sample a large number of parents regarding their choices about vaccination, I would use an initial quantitatively assessed survey, submitting questionnaires to a statistically diverse sample of parents inquiring about their children's immunization history and why they have made the choices they have regarding their child's immunization. I will also ask them questions about their children's health history regarding specific major and minor childhood illnesses. All information will be anonymous. However, to add more personal nuance to my research, I will also conduct qualitative interviews of several parents who have made different decisions about their children's immunization.

What statistical methods will be used to analyze the data? Why?

Given that the primary focus of the statistical research will be a comparison between two groups, ANOVA seems to be the…… [Read More]


Crossman, A. (2013). Purposive sample. Retrieved from: 

Neutens, J.J., & Robinson, L. (2010). Research Techniques for the Health Sciences (4th ed.).

San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings
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Criminal Law A Comprehensive Research Primary and

Words: 1491 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94955506

criminal law. A comprehensive research, primary and secondary, was conducted in order to gather relevant information about crime, criminal law and crimes against a person. This study can help understanding the mechanism that deals with the criminal law.

Crime is an integral part of the everyday life and is a salient fact in today's world. In the opinion of public as well as the scholars, crime is usually linked with violence and harm to societies and individuals, destroying the property and degrading the respect of individuals, societies and institutions. It is quite obvious that we are facing problems in describing the nature of crimes and are unable to understand the works of many scholars on this subject. The basic question is "What is crime?" there are a number of answers to that, some are supporting each other while some are contradictory to each other. There is a strong need to…… [Read More]


Richard Quinney, Criminology as Peacemaking, Indiana University Press, 1991.

Walker, Samuel (1992). "Origins of the Contemporary Criminal Justice Paradigm: The American Bar Foundation Survey, 1953-1969." Justice Quarterly

Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). "Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (Northwestern University)

Neocleous, Mark (2004). Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police Power. London: Pluto Press.
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Criminal Justice -- Research Method & Theory

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91391740

Criminal Justice -- Research Method & Theory

British Crime Survey (BCS) Review

The survey I reviewed is from primary research that provided a transcript for an interview, presumably to use in a face-to-face interview -- there are directions for showing cards to the respondents that give them a change to read response options and choices. Demographic data was collected at the beginning of the survey either to act as a screener or because it is essential to the data collection -- having this information at the start of the survey ensures that the interview will not conclude or be aborted without collecting this information. Demographic data tends to be categorized, which provides quantitative data analysis capability. A fairly consistent use of a 5-point Likert scale is used to record participants' responses. In other places, respondents are asked to choose from a list of distinct responses or simply answer yes or…… [Read More]

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Believability in Business Research as

Words: 1304 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49219337

cientific and empirical research take time, and therefore detracts from the timeliness of such research. However, the truth level in such research is higher than in research that takes less time and is therefore more timely. The author points out that these are not the only factors involved in the quality of a piece, and that the purpose of publication should also be kept in mind when assessing the quality of a work. A persuasive piece of literature will therefore entail a lower level of absolute truth than a piece that addresses more than one side of an issue without bias.

This is where increasing access to sources such as the Internet provides the researcher with a valuable tool for assessing believability. Materials can for example be broadly investigated and cross-checked against others for consistency in content regarding a specific issue.

Another valuable tool, according to Kmetz, is the elements…… [Read More]


Kmetz, John. A Consumer's Guide to the Business and Management Literature. University of Delaware

Oulton, Tony. Management research for information. Library Management, 1995. Vol.16, Iss. 5; pg. 75-81
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Cloud Computing Research Question and Experimental Design

Words: 1907 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84116713

Cloud Computing esearch Question and Experimental Design

Develop a research question that addresses one of the unknowns you identified in Part I of the literature review and sketch a quantitative or qualitative study that can answer the question about what is unknown and contribute to theory. Draw on the additional resources for this course for guidance in understanding the concepts (e.g., internal validity, threats to validity, and operationalization) needed to address this question.

After a thorough review of the prevailing research and literature on the adoption and implementation of cloud computing technology, it is clear that the base of knowledge on this emerging field is continually expanding. A number of critical questions are still left unanswered, however, as is befitting an innovation which was only recently made available for public and private use. Namely, what are the implications for widespread adoption of cloud computing on the overall information security management…… [Read More]


Abbas, H., Magnusson, C., Yngstrom, L., & Hemani, A. (2011). Addressing dynamic issues in information security management. Information Management & Computer Security, 19(1), 5-24.

Cegielski, C.G., Jones-Farmer, L.A., Wu, Y., Hazen, B.T. (2012). Adoption of cloud computing technologies in supply chains: An organizational information processing theory approach. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 23(2), 184 -- 211.

Dhar, S. (2012). From outsourcing to cloud computing: Evolution of IT services. Management Research Review, 35(8), 664-675.

Lacey, D. (2010). Understanding and transforming organizational security culture. Information Management & Computer Security, 18(1), 4-13.
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Exercise Survey Analysis

Words: 556 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19794014

Exercise Survey

Three classmates were assigned to interview a total of 15 people about their exercise habits. The following questions were asked:

Instructions: For Questions 1-4, select your answer based on a scale of 1 to 7. For Question 5, indicate yes or no.

I plan to exercise for at least 30 minutes, three times per week in the coming month

Extremely Likely ____1 ____2 ____3 ____4 ____5 ____6 ____7 Extremely Unlikely

For me to exercise at least 30 minutes per day, three days per week is:

Enjoyable ____1 ____2 ____3 ____4 ____5 ____6 ____7 Not Enjoyable

Most people who are important to me think that I should (or should not) should exercise for at least 30 minutes per day, three days per week:

I should ____1 ____2 ____3 ____4 ____5 ____6 ____7 I should not Question 4: It is mostly up to me whether or not I exercise for…… [Read More]

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Administer a Five-Question Survey Whilst Administering the

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13848277

administer a five-question survey whilst administering the survey using at least two different methods. The author did indeed compose the survey and administered it in person and via the internet. There were clear differences in response rates and the responses that were garnered from each method. The differences were not surprising but were noticeable and palpable nonetheless.

esponse ate

There was some resistance to each method but it manifested in very different ways. One of the methods used, as noted in the introduction, was in person. Some people were noticeably tepid and hesitant to engage the author and answer the questions. Perhaps they were shy or perhaps they were taken a bit aback by a stranger approaching them out of the blue and asking them questions. They also might have been concerned that the author was simply trying to sell them something. The author made it clear up from with…… [Read More]


Berman, E.M., & Wang, X. (2012). Essential statistics for public managers and policy analysts (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.

UofT. (2013, September 29). University of Texas. Survey Methods. Retrieved September 29, 2013, from 

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Wal Mart Stats Wal-Mart Survey Analysis in

Words: 863 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37665223

Wal Mart Stats

Wal-Mart Survey Analysis

In order to begin addressing two key research questions, how can Wal-Mart ensure decent quality products and simultaneously keep consumers happy with prices and how would Wal-Mart keep the costs of its products down, a survey of Wal-Mart customers was taken. Attitudes towards prices, quality of products, and overall shopping experiences were collected and analyzed via in-person questionnaires/surveys to consumers exiting Wal-Mart stores after shopping. All responses were recorded on a Likert scale of 1-5, with 5 representing high satisfaction or strong agreement and 1 representing extreme dissatisfaction or strong disagreement. The following paragraphs assess the quality of this survey and its results in terms of addressing the research question.

Validity and eliability

The research questions themselves as detailed above are very valid questions to be asked of Wal-Mart, a company that built its business model on the ability to offer low-priced goods to…… [Read More]


Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

McClave, J.T., Benson, P.G., & Sincich, T. (2011). Statistics for business and economics (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall

Walmart Co. (2012). About Us. Retrieved from