Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
The second method forces agriculture to manage wastes and develop rural employment. ( Lichtfouse 1-10)
ll-in-all, there are numerous ways in which to make sustainable agriculture, from simple management adjustments to fundamental changes in the farming system. One course calls for the substitution of products used in agriculture. For instance, toxic chemicals and fertilizers could be substituted for less pollutant alternatives. Many persons suggest the use of Genetically Modified organisms so as to decrease dependence on toxic chemicals and fertilizers. There exists a problem within this logic, however.
The merican cademy of Envrionmental Medicine (EM) states, "Genetically Modified foods have not been properly tested and post a serious health risk. There is more than a casual association between genetically modified foods and the adverse health effects. There is causation." The EM went so far as to insist physicians advise their patients of the risks of genetically modified foods. The use…
Accessed at: http://www.triplepundit.com/2010/04/farm-worker-wages/
9.. U.S. Department of Labor Report
Accessed at: http://migration.ucdavis.edu/rmn/word-etc./dec_2000_labor.htm
Sustainability in Australian Food Exporting
Sustainability is an increasingly important consideration in both built and natural environments, as human endeavors are revealed to be increasingly fragile and enormously dependent on natural resources that could potentially be eradicated through overuse and unsustainable practices. This affects almost all areas of human activity, including many that might seem not directly related to sustainability issues such as import and export levels. When considered from a regional perspective, however, the exportation of resources -- whether purely natural resources or a combination of natural and built procedures -- becomes directly related to certain concepts in sustainability. This paper will examine current features of Australia's food exportation activities and determine their degree of sustainability.
The amount of arable -- i.e. food-producing -- land in the world is diminishing, in some regions at alarming rates, meaning that agricultural products are already becoming increasingly rare (Midmore…
Fresco, L. & Kroonenberg, S. (1992). Time and spatial scales in ecological sustainability. Land use policy July: 155-68.
Midmore, D. (1993). Agronomic modification of resource use and intercrop productivity. Field crops research 34: 357-80.
Midmore, D. (1998). Agriculture and the modern society. Acres 6(2): 33-6.
Shaw, R., Gallopin, G., Weaver, P. & Oberg, S. (1992). Sustainable development: a systems approach. International institute for applied systems analysis status report.
This is because resources available within the environment will provide all what is required for the state (Department of Environment, Food & ural affairs, 2013).
Many countries are same when it comes to the endowments of natural, human and physical capital. However, there is a difference when it comes to the economic development level that can be achieved in a particular country. There are three types of capital that can determine the economic growth process but in a partial manner however, there is a missing link between the three types of capital which is the social capital. Social capital is based on social norms and bonds which have an important role to play when it comes to sustainable development. Social capital emphasizes on the participation on a civic level as well as a horizontal association among people such as social networks. This is also through associated norms that…
Accenture.(2011). Government's role in Sustainable Development. Retrieved April 26,2013
Bayelsa state portal.(2013). Bayelsa State Sustainable Development Strategy. Retrieved April 26,2013 from http://bayelsa.gov.ng/portal/ministries-departments-agencies/agencies/bayelsa-state-sustainable-development-strategy
Department of Environment, Food & Rural affairs.(2013). Making sustainable development a part of all government policy and operations. Retrieved April 26,2013 from https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/making-sustainable-development-a-part-of-all-government-policy-and-operations
Fair Trade allowed producers to receive a significant price premium, dependent upon world coffee prices and the mainstream markets. Price premiums for farmers promoted social development and strengthened institutional capacities in the area. However, the ability to improve working conditions for workers was limited (Valkila and Nygren 2009). Price premiums were found to be the main benefit for fruit producers involved in a Swiss partnership (Bezencon 2009).
Fair Trade products and certified end products represent the next logical step in the natural and organic products movement. The impact of fair trade has already been examined in other industries and it is believed that the same principles apply to the cosmetics industry as well. Trends in the cosmetic industry are driven traditionally by the fashion industry. However, social responsibility must now be considered a part of the equation as well. The movement towards socially responsible products is being driven by…
Bezencon, V. n.d. Producers and the fair trade distribution systems: what are the benefits and problems? [Online]. Sustainably Development. Abstract. Available at: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122542424/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
Global Cosmetics Industry (GCI). 2009. European Natural Cosmetics Sales Approaching €2 Billion. [Online]. 1 Oct 2009. Available at: http://www.gcimagazine.com/marketstrends/segments/natural/63108302.html?page=2 [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
Global Cosmetics Industry (GCI). 2009. Global Natural Products Market: The Battle of the Standards Gains Pace. Available at: http://www.gcimagazine.com/marketstrends/segments/natural/48079987.html?page=1 [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
Moore, G., Slack, R. & Gibbon, 2009. PR Firm Names top Ten Ingredients for 2009. [Online]. Journal of Business Ethics. Available at: http://www.fairtrade-institute.org/db/publications/view/581 [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
Economics and Ethics of Sustainable Design
Dos Toros is a U.S. food manufacturing company. The company manufactures foods of different types from plant food to animal food. At this company, there are several deliberate measures that are employed to ensure that these kind of food produced meets the desired standards. In this case, Dos Toros managed to carve a sizeable market share by distinguishing itself. Chipotle Company, on the other hand, is a beef producing company located in Texas. This company sells meat from naturally raised cows. The cows that they slaughter are bred under natural conditions with no adulteration of chemicals. There is no use of drugs in sustaining the lives of the animals. The kinds of food that the cows eat are those availed by nature. This is similar to Dos Toro's approach to business. As a result, both companies have earned a name for their consideration of…
Dasmann, Raymond F. Environmental Conservation. 2d. ed. New York: Wiley, 2010. Print.
Henningfeld, Diane Andrews. Genetically Modified Food. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2014. Print.
Leff, Enrique. Green Production: Toward an Environmental Rationality. New York: Guilford, 2011. Print
but, one must wash the towel. The cycle continues and the family member has to choose the way of washing this cloth towel. it's embodied net energy is less than that of the paper towel. Another way of reducing the amount of energy a house expends in the window setup in that house. The larger the windows, the more light that comes into the home, and the less lighting is need to keep the house comfortable. (Steffen)
There are many ways in which humans could quicken -- in a humane way -- reindustrialization from the petroleum based overshoot industrial society of the present to a more diverse, efficient and flourishing society based on energy sources such as solar, wind geothermal, water, resource production, and creativity, as well as on such values as compassion, altruism and fairness.
Rainwater harvesting, a well-known practice in the poor economies of the world, is catching…
In fact, San Francisco now puts $100,000 toward how-to-worshops, rebates and discounts on rainwater catchment tanks. Such efforts, furthermore, help alleviate the mess of storm runoff. Asphalt covered roads, sidewalks and parking lots repel storm water, leading it down storm drains and into creaks instead of into soil -- big flushes of storm water in water treatment systems can force raw sewage into the ocean. Overloaded streams can lead to flooding which damages salmon habitats.
Water catchment tanks may be key to a new, sustainable way of life for families. The California drought is anticipated to be the worst in modern times. Already thousands of acres of crops are fallow, with no sign of slowing. Furthermore, the Northern Sierra snowpack for the winter of 2008 turned out to be 51% lighter than usual. According to the Los Angeles Times, the state is nearly out of water, leaving it with prayers of rain and a dwindling Northern California supply. Los Angeles has already begun allocation of water. (Thill)
Cultures across time and space saw their relationships with nature in a myriad of ways, many of which succeeding so much in their niche as to improve the environments they inhabited. What follows, is a quick look at how other cultures have interacted with nature. There are many examples from South America of indigenous living harmoniously off their landbase. The Kayapo, for example, subsist primarily on the produce of their gardens and managed forests. Their societies, despite their subsistence methods, were discovered to be large and complex and their ceremonies plentiful and rich. One Kayapo family, it was found, in its fifty-year lifetime, may clear just ten hectares of forest. A Kayapo swidden, furthermore, will remain fecund throughout its fallow, and once the land does finally return to canopy forest it will have been enriched by the process. A Kayapo swidden
Transform Unsustainable Organization Into Sustainable One
Land and water management
Energy, carbon and transport management
Supply chain management
Waste, pollution, recycling management
Sustainability performance indicators
Long-term sustainability vision
The final report is prepared in conjunction with the ANW Construction Ltd. The report prepared to demonstrate the level of sustainability is effective in highlighting the key features that the business has implemented in its operations. The following sections are focused to the differences that a sustainable organization can have in comparison with the unsustainable business. The recommendations are made based on the academic and professional literature. The notable areas for sustainability in a business are addressed as land, water management, energy, carbon, transport management, supply chain management, waste, pollution, and recycling management. Furthermore the report also provides insight on the sustainability performance indicators, social sustainability, and long-term sustainability vision for businesses.
According to Bell, and Morse (2008)…
Alcamo, J., & Olesen, J.E. (2012). Life in Europe under climate change. USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Bell, S., & Morse, S. (2008). Sustainability indicators: measuring the immeasurable?. USA: Earthscan.
Chang, C.M. (2010). Service Systems Management and Engineering: Creating Strategic Differentiation and Operational Excellence. USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Evans, N., Campbell, D., & Stonehouse, G. (2003). Strategic management for travel and tourism. USA: Routledge.
) They are, in the popular imagination, a peaceful people who spend their time going to church and making preserves, while the rest of us lost our spiritual way, got jobs moving paper around, became obsessed with buying stuff, and watched our families fall apart. (Issenberg, 2004, p. 40).
Today, tourism is second only to agriculture as Pennsylvania's leading industry and Lancaster County accounts for $1.6 billion of the state's $20.5 billion in annual tourism revenue (Goodno, 2004). While the tourism industry in Lancaster County is booming, many observers suggest that unless something is done soon, the Amish will have significant problems in being able to sustain their way of life - and the burgeoning tourism industry -- in the future. Although the Amish are not unique in being reclusive (Paige & Littrell, 2002), they remain the most important tourism element in this region of the country. For example, in…
Boissevain, J. (1996). Coping with tourists: European reactions to mass tourism. Providence, RI: Berghahn Books.
Forsyth, T. (1997). Environmental responsibility and business regulation: The case of sustainable tourism. The Geographical Journal, 163(3), 270.
Friesen, J.W. (2003). Garden spot: Lancaster County, the Old Order Amish, and the selling of rural America. Utopian Studies, 14(1), 274.
Goodno, J.B. (2004, June). Living with tourism: Michael Foley did what many visitors to Maui dream of doing. Planning, 70(6), 16.
As employees have expertise in manufacturing products, they should be paid for that expertise. Low labor figures for manufacturing can question the quality of the products the company is selling to consumers. Not to mention that if Nike has recalls of products, consumers may view this as bad management practices that produce low quality products for high prices.
here marketing takes a big portion of expense dollars, manufacturing labor expense should be balanced with the marketing expense. Unbalancing in these areas can bring questions of integrity and quality of products. It could also place a bad taste with investors in determining the ethics of the company's management team. Nike should spend less on marketing and more on manufacturing labor costs to show a higher quality of products manufactured. Nike should also evaluate the marketing expenses and ensure that waste is eliminated in the process. These changes in the business processes…
Boggan, Steve. Nike Admits to Mistakes Over Child Labor. 20 Oct 2001. Article. 13 June 2013.
Brown, Carolyn M. How to Successfully Rebrand Your Business. 2013. Article. 13 June 2013.
Goldberg, Eleanor. On World Day Against child Labor 2013, Activists fight to Keep Kids in School and Out of Factories (What You Can Do). 12 June 2013. Article. 13 June 2013.
McKenna, Luke. Child Labor Is Making Disturbing Resurgence Around the World. 6 Jan 2012. Article. 13 June 2013.
Water Awareness and Education for Sustainable Watershed Management
Today, the human society continuously deals with the issue of limited resources, as compared to an extensively growing amount of needs. Among these limited resources, water is vital, not only because mankind cannot survive without it, but also because it is essential to producing so many other secondary items, including food and clothing. At the same time, water and watersheds are an essential part of the environment, home to numerous species of animals and plants. Conservationism and environmental protection has a definite impact on the existence and evolution of mankind as well.
With that in mind, this project proposal will focus on identifying a set of solutions that the inhabitants in the Medina River Watershed (exar & Medina County TX) can use to address water pollution in this area, as well as the means by which water conservation can be consolidated and…
1. Engel, F.L. (n.d.) Geomorphic Classification of the Lower San Antonio River, Texas. Texas Water Development Board. Project 0604830637. Retrieved on July 12, 2011 from website http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/RWPG/rpgm_rpts/0604830637_LowerSanAntonioRiver.pdf
2. HDR Engineering [HDR] (2000, December). The Edwards Aquifer Watershed Brush Control Planning Assessment & Feasibility Study. Texas State Soil & Water Conservation Board. Retrieved on July 12, 2011 from website http://www.nueces-ra.org/II/brush/
3. Moore, E.A., & Koontz, T.M. (2003). Research Note A Typology of Collaborative Watershed Groups: Citizen-Based, Agency-Based, and Mixed Partnerships. Society & Natural Resources, 16(5), 451. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
4. O'Neill, K.M. (2005). Can Watershed Management Unite Town and Country? Society & Natural Resources, 18(3), 241-253. doi:10.1080/08941920590908097
People feed themselves?
Why was subsistence agriculture a problem from the perspective of European colonizers?
From the point-of-view of the European colonizers, subsistence agriculture was a 'problem' because it was a source of empowerment for the individuals they desired to oppress. It was cast as primitive in European literature, but this 'primitive' form of agriculture had nourished people for centuries. The real aim of the Europeans was to render colonial peoples useful to the Mother Country. Subsistence agriculture was also problematic for the Europeans because it was primarily designed to sustain people, rather than to generate profits. The agriculture produced only what was needed for a small group of people, rather than crops for the mass marketplace.
An excellent example of this can be seen in the West Indies. Before Europeans came to the region, Africans had a vibrant, rich, and diversified system of agriculture, which provided many forms of…
98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science…
What Are Transgenic Plants? (2010) Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide.
Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University 1999-2004. Online available at' http://www.cls.casa.colostate.edu/TransgenicCrops/what.html
Melton, Margaret and Rissler, Jane (2009) Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Food Crops -- Recent Experiences. Union of Concerned Scientists: Food and Agriculture. Online available at: http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/science_and_impacts/impacts_genetic_engineering/environmental-effects-of.html
Raney, Terri ( 2006) Economic Impact of Transgenic Crops in Developing Countries. Opinion in Biotechnology 2006, 17:1-5. Online available at: http://www.agbioworld.org/pdf/raney.pdf
USDA Certified in Organic Beef on a Family Owned anch
Becoming a certified organic farmer is an expensive and time-intensive process, and, accordingly, a significant decision for any small farmer. The problem is to understand the process by which a family owned ranch could become USDA certified for organic beef. What are the necessary steps and important factors to consider from beginning the process to marketing to retailers?
Understanding USDA Organic
The government-managed organic food certification program is USDA Organic. Within this certification system, organic food production follows guidelines laid out in the Organic Foods Production-Act of 1990 and amended according to Public Law 109-97, Nov. 10, 2005. These regulations take into consideration site-specific conditions "integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity." (USDA Agricultural Marketing Service, 2011) Included in OFPA are rules for farm planning, livestock handling, use of pesticides…
Certified Naturally Grown. (2011). Retrieved 5-17, 2011, from CNG: http://www.naturallygrown.org/
MOSES. (2008). Local and Organic, Not an Either/Or Issue Fact Sheet.
MOSES. (2008). Transitioning to Organic Beef Production Fact Sheet.
Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education. (2010). Grants Information / Grants / SARE Nationwide. (USDA, Producer) Retrieved 5-17, 2011, from SARE Grant Information: http://www.sare.org/Grants/Grants-Information
Ironically, only 1% of the world's fresh water is readily accessible for direct human use. Translated into something we can understand readily: one American taking a 5-minute shower uses more water than the typical person living in a developing country slum uses in an entire day -- and most Americans take far longer than 5-minute showers. This is a crisis that must be addressed, if it is not, over the next two decades the average supply of water per person will drop by over 30%, condemning millions of people and animals to death (Atlas of a Thirsty Planet).
This assignment opened my eyes to a new way of looking at food -- I will be unable to go into a grocery store and look at rows and rows of perfect fruits and vegetables; knowing that half are thrown out while people starve. In the same manner, knowing that each American…
"Atlas of a Thirsty Planet." July 2002. Nature.com. May 2012. .
Cultivating Food Justice: Race, Class and Sustainability. Boston, MA: MIT Press, 2011. Print.
Holt-Gimenez, E. And R. Patel, Food Rebellions: Crisis and the Hunger for Justice. Oakland, CA: Food First Books, 2009. Print.
Local Harvest. "Family Farms." March 2009. Localharvest.org. May 2012. .
e see that convential agriculture often fails in the long-run. Rather than substitue ecosystem functions with chemicals, does it not make more sense to use the ecological functions of the area in question to "develop farming styles tailored to [the] specific agroexosystems and socioeconomic capabilities"? (Holt, p. 39). And what better way to ensure that we provide the world with the most production possible in a way that benefits the consumer, but also the farmer and the farmer's family? (Cuba: The Campesino-to-Campesino Agroecoloty Movement). This is clearly the message from these readings. The economic system is immaterial -- what is important is the manner in which the consumer takes partial responsibility to help the sustainability of the product, insists that corporations do their part, and, in fact, partner with the micro-farmer to develop a winning propostion for all.
Armendariz, B. And J. Morduch. The Economics of Microfinance. Boston,…
Armendariz, B. And J. Morduch. The Economics of Microfinance. Boston, MA: MIT Press, 2007. Print.
Central Intelligence Agency. "CIA World Factbook." January 2012. CIA.GOV. Web. May 2012. .
"Coffee Industry Stakeholders." June 2010. Coffeecorp.org. Web. May 2012. .
"Cuba: The Campesino-to-Campesino Agroecoloty Movement." January 2012. Links - Journal of Socialist Renewal. Web. May 2012. .
With the changing global economy this is unlikely to change any time soon.
Bonnis, G., & Steenblik, . (1998). Water, Agriculture and the Environment. OECD Observer, a (212), 28-30. eaders Guide to Periodical Literature
Che, T.N., Kompas, T., & Vousden, N. (2006). Market eform, Incentives and Economic Development in Vietnamese ice Production. Comparative Economic Studies, 48(2), 277. etrieved October 22, 2008, from EBSCOhost database
Clement, M. (2004, February). ice Imperialism: The Agribusiness Threat to Third World ice Production. Monthly eview, 55, 15. etrieved October 22, 2008, Academic Search Premier
Fox, J., & Ledgerwood, J. (1999). Dry-Season Flood-ecession ice in the Mekong Delta: Two Thousand Years of Sustainable Agriculture?. Asian Perspectives: the Journal of Archaeology for Asia and the Pacific, 38(1), 37. eaders Guide to Periodical Literature.
Greenhalgh, S., & Faeth, P. (2001). Trading on Water. Forum for Applied esearch and Public Policy, 16(1), 71. eaders Guide to Periodical Literature.…
Bonnis, G., & Steenblik, R. (1998). Water, Agriculture and the Environment. OECD Observer, a (212), 28-30. Readers Guide to Periodical Literature
Che, T.N., Kompas, T., & Vousden, N. (2006). Market Reform, Incentives and Economic Development in Vietnamese Rice Production. Comparative Economic Studies, 48(2), 277. Retrieved October 22, 2008, from EBSCOhost database
Clement, M. (2004, February). Rice Imperialism: The Agribusiness Threat to Third World Rice Production. Monthly Review, 55, 15. Retrieved October 22, 2008, Academic Search Premier
Fox, J., & Ledgerwood, J. (1999). Dry-Season Flood-Recession Rice in the Mekong Delta: Two Thousand Years of Sustainable Agriculture?. Asian Perspectives: the Journal of Archaeology for Asia and the Pacific, 38(1), 37. Readers Guide to Periodical Literature.
Glyphosate tolerant weeds started to grow uncontrollably requiring the use of greater quantities of pesticides than was necessary conventionally. [ranford, Sue]
Another problem is the increasing possibility of gene pollution on traditional crops by GM crops. In a brief article, which discusses the health dangers of genetically modified foods, the author cites a recent study by the UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists). In the study, which analyzed samples of conventionally grown crops such as maize, soybeans and canola, it was found that more than half of the seeds were contaminated to some level. As the report indicated the samples under study were, "pervasively contaminated with low levels of DNA sequences from GM varieties." [: Pearce, Fred] a clear example of this type of contamination is the shocking finding that traditional Mexican maize had genetically engineered genes. This problem will be more dangerous if pharming crops contaminate conventional crops.…
1) John Pickrell, "GM Organisms," New Scientist, Special Report, 13/12/2004
2) Branford, Sue, "Argentina's Bitter Harvest," New Scientist, 4/17/2004,
Vol 182 Issue
3) Pierce, Fred, "Gene Pollution is Pervasive," New Scientist, 2/28/2004,
One of the first major conflicts to arise cut to the core of the community's values. Some members pushed for immediate subsidized housing for new members who had nothing to invest. Others, understanding that the EcoVillage "had no money to subsidize anyone," advocated an approach that would cater to middle-class Americans (alker 57). The rift caused many of the "idealistic" members of the community to leave almost as soon as the EcoVillage had been started (alker 57). Conflicts over money as well as lifestyle issues are not uncommon at the EcoVillage, alker admits.
Other conflicts include the perpetual push to participate in social activities vs. The need for solitude. alker claims that talking openly is the key to resolving conflicts before they become problems. "Learning to deal effectively with conflict is the hardest part of living in a community," (alker 83). Community members need to set personal boundaries and be…
Walker, Liz. EcoVillage at Ithaca. New Society Publishers, 2005.
In this regard, Getches (2004) emphasizes that, "ater supplies are finite and erratic. Rivers in the est range wildly in the amount of water they produce. Indeed, there is evidence that average supplies are becoming less reliable than in the past" (2).
The research showed that chemical fertilizers represent a dual-edged sword for the sustainability of the world's population. On the one hand, their use has allowed farmers in industrialized nations and - increasingly - farmers in developing nations to achieve greater crop yield through more intensive agriculture processes. On the other hand, the continuing use of chemical fertilizers is threatening the world's finite water systems through a wide range of chemical interactions, many of which threaten human and animal life. hile many Americans are worried about the rising price of fuel, the research also made it clear that water is more valuable than oil and action needs to…
Backer, L.C., Baden, D.G. And L.E. Fleming. 2005. "Overview of Aerosolized Florida Red Tide Toxins: Exposures and Effects." Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(5):618.
Coming to Terms with Sustainability." 1999. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 14(4):6.
Fertilizer." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Online [premium service]. 8 Dec. 2006 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9034126 .
Getches, David. 2004. "Water Wrongs: Why Can't We Get It Right the First Time?" Environmental Law 34(1):1-2.
However, local enterprises face problems related to diseconomies of scale and this has forced them to charge higher prices which the lower and middle income classes cannot afford. There are instances where the local governments have had to intervene by subsidizing their operations something that has worsened the citizen's tax burden. Proponents of buying local have posited that buying locally made goods enhances velocity of money arguing that the currency will circulate more quickly and pass through more hands. Consequently, more people will have the benefit of that money and what it has purchased for them (Schwartz, 2009). Buying local as opposed to chain stores means more money will be put into the community.
However, quality of products and prices charged cannot be substituted with velocity of money. It is good when money flows in the local economy but no body in his right senses can buy an extremely expensive…
Cranbrook, C. (1997). The Rural Economy and Supermarkets. Suffolk: Great Glemham.
DeWeerdt, S. (2013, Jun. 22). Is Local Better? World Watch Institute.
McGinnis, M .V. (ed). (1999). Bioregionalism. London and New York: Routledge.
New, C. (2012, Sept. 18). Made in America Is a Luxury Label That Will Cost You. Huffington
From an environmental perspective this work demonstrates the fact that the growth of this movement has been reinvigorated as a result of the fact that many have come to understand how dangerous many of the chemicals used in commercial agriculture are to the earth and the body. "The last few years have seen the issues of BSE, genetically modified foods, hormone disruption and antibiotic resistance come to the fore and there is a greater recognition that what we eat is vitally important to our health." She notes that many of the pesticides and herbicides we have used in the past have been a destructive force and are no longer even considered safe, but were deemed so prior to the modern research that has more scientifically established their unwanted and pollutant effects on both the body and earth.
Organic Food Benefits. Nutiva. Organic Food Association. 2003. http://www.nutiva.com/nutrition/organic.php.
This informative article demonstrates…
Weed's extensive article demonstrates that organic food growing is much more likely than other types of agriculture to take biodynamic consideration of soil and the need for retaining minerals and other helpful chemicals in the soil in which we grow food. If this is not paid attention to then organic and non-organic foods are both equally at risk of creating health problems.
Whole Foods Magazine. Whole Foods Natural Foods Guide: What Happens to Natural Food Products from Farmer to Consumer. Berkeley, California: and/or Press, 1979.
This work is an old standard, outlining the manner in which whole foods and natural foods meet consumer needs. This work is expansive and even includes recipes with handy shopping guides as well as demonstrative reasons why organic food growth is better for the body, the environment and communities.
A good example of this can be seen with Whole Foods discussing how they are meeting these long-term objectives with the firm stating, "We believe that companies, like individuals, must assume their share of responsibility as tenants of Planet Earth. We actively support organic farming, the best methods for promoting sustainable agriculture and protecting farm workers / the environment. We also aim to protect the environment by supporting alternative sources of energy and recycling or compositing our waste. We are actively involved in our communities by supporting food banks, sponsoring neighborhood events and contributing at least 5% of the total net profits to charities. Our vision of a sustainable future means our children and grandchildren will be living in a world that values human creativity, diversity and individual choice." This is illustrating how Whole Foods Markets is dedicated towards specific groups that share similar performance goals and standards.…
Our Mission and Culture. (2013). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved from: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/careers/our-mission-and-culture
The Congruence Model. (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved from: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_95.htm
Whole Foods. (2013). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/ae?s=WFM+Analyst+Estimates
Why Work Here? (2013). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved from: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/careers/why-work-here
Gilmore writes, "Carver discovered more than 300 peanut-related products, including milk, cream, cheese, buttermilk, instant coffee, face powder, ink, dyes, vinegar, soap, wood stains and creosote" (Gilmore). He went on to discover a wide variety of products that used sweet potatoes and other items grown in the South, which helped literally recreate agriculture in the early 20th century.
One of the ways Carver's works continue to influence agriculture today is in the use of plant and crop rotation, which is one of the most common methods of rejuvenating the soil today, and Carver discovered it. Another biographer continues, "Carver understood that cotton had depleted the soil of the nitrogen that plants need in order to grow, and he knew that legumes, such as peanuts and peas, had a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that could take inert nitrogen molecules from the atmosphere and convert them into a form plants can use"…
Author not Available. "George Washington Carver: A Mighty Vision Beyond Peanuts." USA Today Magazine; June 2008, Vol. 136 Issue 2757: 4-5.
Editors. George Washington Carver. New York Amsterdam News; Feb. 2006, Vol. 97 Issue 8: 22.
Gilmore, Jodie. "Man of Science -- and of God: George Washington Carver Believed That Providence Guided His Scientific Investigations and That Those Investigations Led to a Better Understanding of God and His Handiwork." The New American 26 Jan. 2004: 35+.
Dirt is a documentary film about, as the title suggests, dirt. It may seem funny to make a whole movie about dirt, but as the filmmakers show, the dirt we take for granted in the ground is the foundation of all life. The movie was based on a book that describes dirt as "the skin of the earth," which is one way of looking at this surface material. Like skin, the dirt breathes. It is like the surface organ of the planet. As such, dirt needs to be respected. The film, narrated by food activist and actor Jamie Lee Curtis, elevates dirt to a political level by showing how modern agro-business has neutered or killed dirt, rendering parts of the globe infertile.
Dirt is not "dirty" in the sense that it is unclean. Rather, dirt is filled with energy and potency. People who have gardens are at least…
With this information, people can make informed decisions regarding the water they consume. Which additives are healthful? Which are not? These are examples of only some of the questions responsible consumers should have when choosing their water. Regarding the use of plastics, the solution is simple. By simply changing their habits from plastic water bottles to stainless steel or any of the other alternatives, not only is the consumer choosing something that supports of the well-being of the planet, but also supports the well-being of themselves.
This is merely one solution of many meant to work towards a more sustainable lifestyle across the globe. That the consumption of water increased so quickly, all over the world, signifies the impact of advertising on consumer choices. This can be a reason for hope, since just as quickly the use of stainless steel water bottles and clean water can be brought into individual…
7. Fluoride Action Network, Health Effects, ( http://www.fluoridealert.org/health ...)
8. Fluoridation/Flouride, Toxic Chemicals in Your Water, ( http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/ )
9. Worth Health Organization, Water Related Diseases, ( http://www.who.int/water_sanitation ...)
Some of the key examples of where geospatial information can be important are during emergency responses during natural disasters especially for purposes of evacuation arrangement, and damage estimation assignments. MarcFarlane (2005) indicates that it is important to use geoinformatics to prevent disasters rather than try to deal with them after they happen. Geoinformatics assists those involved in the emergency processes by providing the necessary data and giving appropriate plans on how and from what point the hit areas should be approached. This makes the whole process convenient and effective since there is no time wasted in guessing the steps to take and the actions taken are accurate and appropriate (Oosterom et al. 2005). It has to be noted however that there are a number of difficulties that are faced in using geoinformatics to manage disaster as explained by Zerger & Smith (2003).
The transport network in any region is highly…
Cutter, S.L., et al. (Eds) (2003). Geographical dimensions of terrorism. London: Routledge.
DeMers, M.N. (1997). Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. New York: Wiley.
Greene, R.w. (2002). Confronting catastrophe: A GIS handbook. Redlands: ESRI Press.
Jha, M.M. & Singh, R.B. (Eds.) (2008). Land Use-Reflection on Spatial Informatics, Agriculture and Development. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company.
For an industry that is fast becoming a verifiable and sustainable model of energy development, the labor that supplies the demand will likely get its fair share of attention (Goldemberg, 2007).
On the marketing end of the industry, there is the automobile manufacturing boom of flex cars, and the new multi-billion dollar deals between the largest ethanol producer in Brazil, Cosan Limited, and Royal Dutch Shell. The most recent joint venture between these fuel giants is worth an estimated $12 billion dollars. However, Cosan has encountered pushback due to its treatment of employees, and even global market giants like almart have suspended contracts with Cosan until this issue is resolved. Additionally, the banks of Brazil have put holds on any future lending until Cosan deals with the labor issue (Martinelli & Filoso, 2008).
On the ethanol end of business, Royal Shell and British Petroleum are to date the only major…
Delgadoa, R., Araujo, A., & Fernandes, J.V. (2007). Properties of Brazilian gasoline mixed with hydrated ethanol for flex-fuel technology. Fuel Processing Technology, 365-368.
Goldemberg, J. (2007). Ethanol for a Sustainable Energy Future. Science, 808-810.
Martinelli, L., & Filoso, S. (2008). EXPANSION OF SUGARCANE ETHANOL PRODUCTION IN BRAZIL: ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL CHALLENGES. Ecological Society of America, 885-898.
Direct mailers will first go to the 535 green businesses on a monthly basis and will be expanded from this number as needed to continue to provide the average 15 event total to meet the strategic goals.
Type: All types of businesses, with 10 or more employees will be targeted as potential customers to this service with the first emphasis being on businesses who have strategic planning around green/sustainable business practices.
Value Drivers: Intentions of practicing sustainable standards in business, seeking mid range catering for meetings and events, seeking alternative to cheaper/less healthy alternative catering offerings, seeking to try something new with a greater level of service and sustainable business practices, a desire to support other local businesses with a similar goal, a desire to improve business climate with only limited resources, a desire to offer vegetarian fare to those who choose it, a desire to offer healthier alternatives to…
Arthur, D. (2001). The Employee Recruitment and Retention Handbook. New York: AMACOM.
Furniss, C. (2006, October). How Green Is Your Business. Geographical, 78, 45+.
Halweil, B. (2003, May/June). The Argument for Local Food: At an Unimposing Diner in Vermont, a Revolution Is Taking Place. World Watch, 16, 20.
Henderson, E. (1998, July/August). Rebuilding Local Food Systems from the Grassroots Up. Monthly Review, 50, 112.
British American Tobacco Company: Business Ethics
The British American Tobacco company is a multinational company with over 200 brands that they have developed under the guidance; the company is staggeringly successful, selling 694 billion cigarettes in 2012 (bat.com). The worldwide company sees itself, and many would argue, rightfully so, as a powerful forces that has stimulated economies all over the globe in lasting and measurable ways: in 2012, the company's "subsidiaries enabled governments worldwide to gather more than £30 billion in duty, excise and sales taxes on our products, more than seven times the Group's profit after tax" (bat.com). Being a stimulus to the economy and a pillar of economic stability is something that company prides itself on: British American Tobacco has 44 factories in 39 countries, employing 55,000 people worldwide in a massive multicultural workforce (bat.com).
The company claims that it gives each local factory a tremendous amount of…
Bat.com. (n.d.). Homepage. Retrieved from http://www.bat.com/servlet/SPMerge?mainurl=/group/sites/UK__3MNFEN.nsf/vwPages
BBC. (2000, September 20). Uk tobacco firm targets african youth. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/933430.stm
Irin. (2007, November 9). Nigeria: Govt hits tobacco companies with whopping law suit.
Corporate Social esponsibility
The concept of corporate social responsibility began to arise in the 1960s as an ideal that corporations can have a number of different impacts on society and the environment through their actions. Corporations are not simply answerable to shareholders, but to a wide variety of other stakeholders as well. The responsibility that corporations have, therefore, is social, not just economic. Dahlrud (2006) studied a number of different definitions for corporate social responsibility and determined that it is not something that can be defined. ather, CS is a social construct, meaning that there are multiple definitions and which definition is most suitable depends on the way the term is used. For corporations, the implication is that they can set their own definitions based on what is relevant to their interests, and the interests of their different stakeholders. The classic view that the only social responsibility corporations have is…
Arndt, M. (2010) Monsanto vs.Food Inc. over how to feed the world. Bloomberg Business. Retrieved November 27, 2015 from http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/next/archives/2010/01/anyone_whos_see.html
Dahlsrud, A. (2006). How corporate social responsibility is defined: An analysis of 37 definitions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management. Retrieved November 27, 2015 from http://www.mcxindia.com/csr/newsarticle/pdf/csr_news45.pdf
Friedman, M. (1970) The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved November 27, 2015 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
ICTSD. (2010). Monsanto accused of unfair business practices. International Center for Trade and Sustainable Development. Retrieved November 27, 2015 from http://www.ictsd.org/bridges-news/biores/news/monsanto-accused-of-unfair-business-practices
ice Production in Arkansas
ice production in the U.S.A. is reported to have started in Arkansas. It stated with a single acre of the crop that was planted in Lonoke County. Other indications suggest that the crop was grown in some locations in Arkansas prior to WWII. official record keeping by the state started in 1905. These reflect the yields in acres and the respective prices per unit weight (Arkansas ice -- Commercial ow Crops -- Production Practices).
Acreage of rice rose until 1955 when the government control on acreage peaked the production of the crop at 500 000 acres. Marketing quotas were stopped in 1974. The acreage of rice rose and hit the peak in 1981. 1.54 million acres were harvested. This amount of harvest was not exceeded until 1999. The highest harvest ever harvested in Arkansas was realized in 2010 in which 1.785 million acres were harvested. Arkansas…
"Arkansas Rice -- Commercial Row Crops -- Production Practices." University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service. Web. 7 Apr 2016. .
"Arkansas Rice Farmers Race Against the Calendar." AG Web. N.p. 2013. Web. 8 Apr. 2016. http://www.agweb.com/article/Arkansas_rice_farmers_race_against_the_calendar/
Davis, Diana. "Annual Arkansas Rice meeting in Jonesboro to focus on research, - KAIT Jonesboro, AR - Region 8 News, weather, sports." KAIT-TV Region 8 News Weather Sports for NE AR and SE MO - KAIT Jonesboro, AR - Region 8 News, weather, sports. 2016. Web. 8 Apr 2016. .
Guerber, and TeBeest. "Infection of Rice Seed Grown in Arkansas by Pyricularia Grisea." Plant DIsease 90.2 (2006). Web. 9 Apr. 2016. .
Business environment is mainly characterized by various human economic activities including the production, sale, and purchase of goods and services that are carried out with the main objective of earning profits. Generally, the business environment can be described as a set of conditions that facilitate and promote the human economic activities. This environment is basically comprised of the internal business environment and the external business environment. The internal business environment includes the factors that are within the control of business while the external business environment refers to factors that are beyond the control of the business enterprise. One of the most common aspects of the business environment and human economic activities is the economy, which is generally influenced by various factors.
ole of Business in the Economy:
Business is defined as the management and coordination of individuals and resources in order to achieve specific production objectives, with the main goal…
Bernanke, B. (2011, February 9). The Economic Outlook and Monetary and Fiscal Policy.
Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2011/02/09/the_economic_outlook_and_monetary_and_fiscal_policy_108845.html
"Introduction to the Economy, Fiscal and Monetary Policy." (n.d.). Investorguide.com. Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://www.investorguide.com/igu-article-284-basic-economic-concepts-introduction-to-the-economy-fiscal-and-monetary-policy.html
"McDonald's Issues First Worldwide Social Responsibility Report." (n.d.). CSR Press Release.
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Accumulating evidence suggest that sustainable agriculture should be promoted. The growth and development of agriculture will still be the driving force of the loss of ecosystems in the 21st century. In specified areas, the growth and development of agriculture poses a danger to ecosystems, establishment, evaluation, and technological diffusion. This could see the rise of the food production sustainably per unit area with the absence of trade-offs relating to excessive water consumption or nutrients and pesticides use, would lessen pressure significantly to ecosystems. For many cases, the required technologies are in place, and they could be implemented in a wider variety, but the nation is facing financial constraints and lacking intuitional capabilities to use and gain the stated technologies. In areas where technology is predominant of the landscape, maintenance of ecosystems within the landscape is a very significant constitute of…
Hayden, J. (2009). Introduction to health behavior theory. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
O'Donnell, M.P. (2008). Health promotion in the workplace. Albany: Delmar Thomson Learning
Scutchfield, F.D., & Keck, C.W. (2009). Principles of public health practice. Clifton Park: Thomson/Delmar Learning
Stephens, C. (2008). Health promotion: A psychosocial approach. Maidenhead: Open University Press
Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath
This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.
Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…
Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.
Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
In addition, it is clear that the company has an extremely ethical approach as it relates to environmental issues. This approach has led the company to develop environmentally safe packaging and to set standards as it relates to emissions and the reduction of harmful waste.
Managing Our Impact." Official Website of Ben & Jerry's Incorporated. etrieved March 13, 2007 from; http://www.benjerry.com/our_company/about_us/social_mission/social_audits/2005_sear/sear05_6.0.cfm?mid=menu6
Our Mission Statement"). Official Website of Ben & Jerry's Incorporated. etrieved March 13, 2007 from; http://www.benjerry.com/our_company/our_mission/
Our Three Part Mission Statement." Official Website of Ben & Jerry's Incorporated. etrieved March 13, 2007 from; http://www.benjerry.com/our_company/about_us/social_mission/social_audits/2005_sear/sear05_3.2.cfm#ceres
Social and Environmental Assessment 2005." Official Website of Ben & Jerry's Incorporated. etrieved March 13, 2007 from; http://www.benjerry.com/our_company/about_us/social_mission/social_audits/2005_sear/sear05_7.3.cfm
Thermo-acoustic efrigeration." Official Website of Ben & Jerry's Incorporated. etrieved March 13, 2007 from; http://www.benjerry.com/our_company/about_us/social_mission/social_audits/2005_sear/sear05_6.7.cfm
Workplace Practices." Official Website of Ben & Jerry's Incorporated. etrieved March 13, 2007 from; http://www.benjerry.com/our_company/about_us/social_mission/social_audits/2005_sear/sear05_7.4.cfm
Managing Our Impact." Official Website of Ben & Jerry's Incorporated. Retrieved March 13, 2007 from; http://www.benjerry.com/our_company/about_us/social_mission/social_audits/2005_sear/sear05_6.0.cfm?mid=menu6
Our Mission Statement"). Official Website of Ben & Jerry's Incorporated. Retrieved March 13, 2007 from; http://www.benjerry.com/our_company/our_mission/
Our Three Part Mission Statement." Official Website of Ben & Jerry's Incorporated. Retrieved March 13, 2007 from; http://www.benjerry.com/our_company/about_us/social_mission/social_audits/2005_sear/sear05_3.2.cfm#ceres
Social and Environmental Assessment 2005." Official Website of Ben & Jerry's Incorporated. Retrieved March 13, 2007 from; http://www.benjerry.com/our_company/about_us/social_mission/social_audits/2005_sear/sear05_7.3.cfm
Mind and Body -- I Sing the Body Electronic, I Interfere with the Body Extraterrestrial
Change the body, and change the nature of human existence. Change the body's means of sustenance, and change the delicate balance that exists within a particular society. These are the two scenarios presented in the science fiction novels, that of Necromancer by illiam Gibson, and Sparrow by Mary Doria Russell. Both novels underline the importance of the physical state of individual bodies in shaping society. A body can be surgically altered with computer technology, or a body's nutrition and reproductive rate can affect the ability of another populace to exist. However, Gibson presents a vision of the world where the body is rendered unimportant, while Russell suggests that the delicate cultural, ecological, and political balance of a sustainable economy on another planet underlines the importance of the body in maintaining a livable world. Both books,…
Brians, Paul. "Study Guide for William Gibson Necromancer (1984)." 29 Aug 2005. Department of English, Washington State University. [5 Jun 2006]
Gevers, Nick. "Of Prayers and Predators. Maria Doria Russell Interviewed." Infinity Plus Non-Fiction. 1999. [5 Jun 2006]
Natural Way Products: Alternative Advertising and Diversification for Greater Market
Natural Way Products is already a leader in the natural products market in New Zealand's North Island due to the quality and effectiveness of its products, which are hand-crafted in a way which is respectful of nature and better for the consumer, using the best ingredients. They want to expand their market share to include all of New Zealand, to go from their current share of 10% to 15% in the next five years, and expand to Australia. The way they should do this is by expanding and increasing their advertising, to raise awareness of their products, opening up new markets and increasing their visibility (Demers, 2010).
SWOT Analysis. Through breaking down Natural Way Products into these four essential elements, it is possible to gain more insight into the strength and stability of the…
Demers, J. (2010). Online marketing strategies for natural product retailers. Retrieved March 24,
2011 from http://jeffreydemers. com/marketing-strategies/?p=71
Nmisolutions. com. (2008). National marketing institute: Consumer insight and market opportunity report. Retrieved March 24, 2011 from http://www. nmisolutions. com/r_consumer_insight. html
Hartman Group (1). (2008). The many faces of organic. Organic Magazine. Summer Issue.
Cleaner environment how work effectively promote a cleaner environment? Will ? Macionis, John J. (2009). Society basics (10th ed.) Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Chapter 15: Population, Urbanization Environment Chapter 16: Social Change: Modern Postmodern Societies.
How can you work most effectively to promote a cleaner environment?
educing waste is perhaps the most effective and immediate way to produce a cleaner environment. ecycling, reusing, and trying to buy as few new objects as possible are all simple ways to reduce one's carbon footprint. This can include steps as simple as buying from secondhand stores, avoiding the use of products that cause needless destruction to the environment (such as those which contain palm oil), and using a refillable water bottle. "It takes 95% less energy to recycle aluminum than it does to make it from raw materials. Making recycled steel saves 60%, recycled newspaper 40%, recycled plastics 70%, and…
Bittman, Mark. (2008). Rethinking the meat-guzzler. The New York Times.
Retrieved August 16, 2011 at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/27/weekinreview/27bittman.html
Recycling benefits. (2005). Recycling revolution. Retrieved August 16, 2011 at http://www.recycling-revolution.com/recycling-benefits.html
Internal Supply Chain at a Local McDonald's
Description of the company from an Australian market perspective, the products offered in the store visited, and the supply chain in which the store operates
The Australian McDonald's corporate Web site indicates that the company opened its first restaurant in an Australian suburb in 1971 and there are currently almost 800 McDonald's restaurants throughout the country, employing approximately 85,000 people (About us 2011). Although Australian McDonald's typically feature a majority of the standard fare offered at the company's restaurants around the world, some also feature regional specialties as shown in Table 1 below.
epresentative products from a Sydney-based McDonald's restaurant
Boston deli bagel
NYC benedict bagel
Bacon and egg McMuffin
Bakehouse brekkie roll
osti brekkie wrap
Baked fruit pies
Various "combo" meals
Various family "dinner box" meals (available…
Psychological studies have confirmed 'altruistic behavior' can be elicited in people. 'Peer Pressure' could also be utilized as an effective psychological tool in reducing resource consumption and in promoting other healthy environmental practices. [Center for Naturalism] A case in point is the Chinese governments 'Grain to Green' Program that offered cash incentives to farmers to convert marginal farmlands to forests. As Alan Tessier, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF) says, "Much of the marginal cropland in rural communities has been converted from agriculture to forests through the Grain-to-Green Program, one of the largest 'payment for ecosystem services' programs in the world," "Results of this study show that a community's social norms have substantial impacts on the sustainability of these conservation investments." [ScienceDaily] uilding this collective self-control at the community, national and international level holds the key to the success of an environmentally sustainable future. Motivated and environmentally conscious…
1) Su-Houn Liu, Yu-Hsieh Sung & Hsiu-Li Liao (2006), 'Developing Sustainable Digital Opportunity: The Case of Lalashan DOWEB Model', Issues in Information Systems,
Volume VII, No. 1, 2006, retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from http://www.iacis.org/iis/2006_iis/PDFs/Liu_Sung_Liao.pdf
2) BIO, (Nov 2009) 'Agricultural Biotechnology Benefits Farmers and the environment', retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from, http://www.bio.org/foodag/positions/Benbrook_Report_PUBLIC_111709.pdf
3) John Vidal, (2009), 'Rich Nations to Offset Emissions with Birth Control', retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/03/carbon-offset-projects-climate-change
A history of a typical American meal
When a typical consumer purchases a rib-eye steak for dinner, he or she will pay far less than his or her grandfather did for the same cut of meat. This is because of the efficiencies generated by the commercial meat industry. While the cow will begin its life in a manner similar to that of cows of the past -- by the side of his or her mother on a ranch -- that will quickly change. "Cows raised on grass simply take longer to reach slaughter weight than cows raised on a richer diet, and the modern meat industry has devoted itself to shortening a beef calf's allotted time on earth" (Pollan 2002). On a factory farm, cows are quickly weaned from their mother and fed a corn-based diet or 'finished' on corn while they are held in pens. Instead of…
Big dairy enters the era of big data. (2012). Businessweek. Retrieved:
Bittman, Mark. (2008). Rethinking the meat guzzler. The New York Times. Retrieved:
Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in ashington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with…
Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm .
Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.
Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.
Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214 .
Over last five years, the government has begun to change focus in regards to its policies towards the Amazon. Where, it has designated a number of different areas as protected national parks. Currently, there are nearly 201 million hectares that are protected from development. Then, in 2006, a law was passed creating an agency to manage the forests and protect them. With the law stating, that all protected forests should remain public land and that these areas should maintain their forest cover. This is significant because it would reduce the total amounts of destruction that was occurring. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than the State Acre. Where, deforestation decreased by over 50% since 1998. The main reason for the drop was: the enforcement of the new laws by razilian official and increased funding for social development in the area. According to the state's…
"Amazon Deforestation Rate has Tripled." Fox News. 29 September 2008. Web. 6 Apr. 2010. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,430401,00.html
"Land Use and Rural Development in the Brazilian Amazon." Wilson Center. 24 Feb. 2010. Web. 6 Apr. 2010.
Cochrane, Mark. "Priority Areas for Establishing National Forrest in the Brazilian Amazon." Conservation Ecology. 6 (41) (2002).4. Print.
Hallowell, Christopher, and Walter Levy. Listening to Earth. Longman, 2004. 210-211. Print.
The garden was located at the back of the unit, and instead of watching television or aimlessly wandering the halls, I witnessed the residents spend hours tilling the soil, planting seeds, tending the young shoots, harvesting the fruits of their labor, and finally cooking and serving their creations. What can be more inspiring than knowing you can feed yourself and your friends? The change in their appearance was remarkable. Gardening and cooking was not just a hobby, it was a metaphor for their ability to regenerate themselves in mind and body.
My dream is to own my own restaurant, a place where all of the food on the menu is grown and raised on-premises. I would also like to employ members of the community along with professional hospitality staff to serve in the restaurant and tend the garden. My hero is Dan Barber, a man who has successfully united his…
Environmental Material Accounting
Phosphorus (P) for sustainable use within the framework of an infrastructural system at the national level is subsequent to a filtration-based system. The topography of Australia is flat throughout south central coast and the middle south interior of the country. The coast bordering Sydney is mountainous whilst Western Australia is hilly terrain. The filtration system from a top-down perspective will flow from the mountain and hill peaks down through a filtration system that eventually bottlenecks at the coast where P. can be collected. Below is a topographical map of Australia that depicts the mountainous area near Sydney in White, the lowest lying region in darkest green, and the higher regions in lighter green to brown/yellow to tan.
Source: Macey (2005) http://www.smh.com.au/news/National/Map-from-above-shows-Australia-is-a-very-flat-place/2005/01/21/1106110947946.html
"We need to be concerned about the emerging threat of phosphorus scarcity, as well as the impacts of too much phosphorus through run-off into lakes and…
Hammond, J. & White, P. 2008, "Sustainable future for fertilisers," Horticulture Week,, pp. 33-34.
Phosphorus: Too Much or Too Little? 2011,, SPRINGFIELD, VA, United States.
Sharpley, A., Foy, B. & Withers, P. 2000, "Practical and innovative measures for the control of agricultural phosphorus losses to water: An overview," Journal of environmental quality, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1-1.
Borderless Society on Food
As disparate regions of the globe become more and more intertwined through the expansion of global capital and the practical disintegration of international borders for massive companies, the food people eat is simultaneously delivered from every region of the globe so that seasons no longer dictate the availability of any given food. However, the ability to obtain any given food out of season brings with it environmental and ecological damages because the farming and transportation practices which make this global food market work are almost entirely unsustainable and detrimental to the continued health of the global food ecosystem. In order to better understand the nature of this borderless society and how it affects the food one eats on any given day, it is useful to trace the path a couple of meals have taken from farm to plate, because only by doing so does the ramifications…
Local-food movement: the lure of the 100-mile diet. (2006, June 11). Time, Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1200783,00.html
Kloppenburg, J, Hendrickson, J, & Stevenson, G.W. (1996). Coming in to the foodshed. Agriculture and Human Value, 13(3), 33-42.
market communication plan for Divine Chocolate that produces chocolates for a noble cause of supporting the cocoa farmers of Ghana and promoting Fair Trade. The paper consists of an analysis of its business environment as well as a set of recommended strategies which it can use to beat the competition and effectively communicate its marketing messages to the most potential target customers.
Divine Chocolate is one of the leading Fair Trade chocolate manufacturers in the United Kingdom and United States. In addition to producing the best quality chocolates, Divine Chocolate also aims to promote fair trade in the Global community. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the current business and marketing strategies of Divine Chocolate and proposes a market communication plan which can help it better understand its target market, effectively run its advertising and promotional campaigns, and beat the competitor brands which are supported by numerous unknown credential…
Batra, R., Myers, J.G., & Aaker, D.A. 2009, Advertising Management, 5th Edition. New Delhi: Pearson.
Batsell, J. 2004, Bumper crop of coffee labels, Available at [Accessed March 7th, 2013]
Brassington, F. & Pettitt, S. 2006, Principles of Marketing, 4th Edition. Harlow: Prentice-Hall.
Blythe, J., & Megicks, P. 2010, Marketing Planning: Strategy, Environment and Context, 3rd Edition. U.K: Prentice Hall
Agriculture represents the lifeblood of any civilization -- we settled into communities for the purpose of growing crops and thereby making our lives easier. For most of the history of civilization, agriculture was the dominant form of economy. Wealth was measured in growing land, or in the number of animals owned. Even after the invention of money, agriculture remained a critical source of wealth. In pre-Italy, the city states often gained wealth through trade, but in the countryside wealth remained related to agriculture, as food was the most important thing to most people. In the 20th century, food scarcity became rare, and agriculture diminished in importance -- nobody was truly worried where their next meal would come from, so other goods took on more value. Today in Italy, agriculture is worth 2% of the economy, or $3.6 billion, and it employs 3.9% of the labor force of the country,…
Bartolini, F., Gallerani, V., Raggi, M. & Viaggi, D. (2010). Water management and irrigated agriculture in Italy: Multicriteria analysis of alternative policy scenarios. Water Policy Vol. 12 (2010) 135-147.
CIA World Factbook: Italy (2014). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 4, 2014 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/it.html
EU (2014). Review of the concentration processes in the agricultural sector and inside the downstream sectors of the agrofood chain. European Union. Retrieved November 4, 2014 from http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/studies/pdf/chap41_en.pdf
No author (2014). Italy -- agriculture. Nations Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 4, 2014 from http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Europe/Italy-AGRICULTURE.html
As the world grows more affluent, it will want more, rather than less meat.
Additionally, meat raised on farms such as Salatin's will likely cost more money. Pollan dismisses this fact, stating: "For my own part, I've discovered that if you're willing to make the effort, it's entirely possible to limit the meat you eat to nonindustrial animals. I'm tempted to think that we need a new dietary category, to go with the vegan and lactovegetarian and piscatorian." Pollan calls the taking of the life of the animal a sacred, special act that must be done with reverence, much like ancient priests used to, and sees the human slaughterhouse at Salatin's farm to be a model for the future. If only people knew what went on behind closed doors, he says, "Tail-docking and sow crates and beak-clipping would disappear overnight, and the days of slaughtering 400 head of cattle an…
Pollan, Michael. "An animal's place." The New York Times Magazine. 20 Nov 2002.
http://michaelpollan.com/articles-archive/an-animals-place / [22 Sept 2012]
Globalization, Genetic Modification of Crops and Agricultural Hysteria on the Left
One of the most telling images in the modern media of recent date, regarding the issue of genetically modified foodstuffs was the sight of silos of genetically modified seed being sent back from an African nation experiencing a profound crisis of famine. Despite the fact that such seeds would have helped the immediate problem, fears were too great that the nation would be rendered dependant upon subsidized food from the first world, and more to the point, become test subjects for a questionable new technology. However, amongst the strident cries in Europe and Africa against genetically modified produce, which have driven some individuals to engage in 'eco-terrorist' practices of sabotage, the American consumer has become comfortable, one might state, in a kind of blissful ignorance over the debate. American genetically modified crops are not even required to be labeled…
Bigman, David. Editor. (2002). Globalization and the Developing Countries. Oxford University Press.
DeGregori, Thomas R. (2002). The Environment, Natural Resources and Modern Technology, Ames: Iowa State Press.
DeGregori, Thomas R. (2003).
Origins of the Organic Agriculture Debate. Ames: Iowa State Press.
Even if giant salamanders may feed more individuals, they too are not sustainable sources of food because of their scarcity. However, turtles may not pose such sustainability or scarcity issues, and turtle soup has been popular throughout the ages. The popularity of turtle meat in Cajun cuisine, combined with the hardiness of turtles might make turtle meat a likely candidate for more widespread consumption: "Turtle soup is a great delicacy in Louisiana. The flavor of the turtle meat is both delicate and intense; there are supposedly seven distinct flavors of meat within the turtle (Turtle Soup, 2010, Gumbo). The fact that turtles are larger and have a wider variety of culinary applications than frogs makes them potentially superior as a food source. However, turtles raised in captivity have also been implicated in environmental problems: "turtles regularly escape or are purposely set free into the wild. They establish populations and damage…
About typical French food. (2008). French Food and Cook. Retrieved July 28, 2010 at http://www.ffcook.com/pages/frenchfrogs.htm
Alligator: The last truly local meat? (2009, October). The Atlantic. Retrieved July 28, 2010 at http://www.theatlantic.com/food/archive/2009/10/alligator-the-last-truly-local-food/28185/
Black, Richard. (2005, September 19). Hunting threat to big amphibians. BBC News. Retrieved July 28, 2010 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4259596.stm
California upholds ban on importation of nonnative frogs and turtles for food. (2010, June 10).
The Impact of a Borderless Society
Because of technology and the way in which society has evolved, people currently live in a world where there are virtually no geographic boundaries (Time, 2006). Goods and services can be transmitted anywhere, and people from all over the world can talk to one another via the internet and cell phones quickly and easily in real time. Even the food that is consumed by most people comes from places far away from them (Kloppenburg, et al., 1996). They have fresh fruit in cold weather areas of the United States in December, for example, and that fruit has to come from somewhere else. It is not possible to grow peaches in South Dakota in January, so there is no way that fruit is local. It had to be grown somewhere warm, picked, packed up, and shipped elsewhere. While there is nothing actually wrong…
Kloppenburg, J. Jr., Hendrickson, J., & Stevenson, G.W. (1996). Coming in to the foodshed. Agriculture and Human Values 13(3): 33-42
Time (2006). Local-Food Movement: The Lure of the 100-Mile Diet. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1200783,00.html #ixzz1wCS2WC46
applying to the Making + Meaning summer program is to enhance my understanding of, and ability to create, interesting, thought-provoking, and purpose-driven design. To that end, I am particularly interested in learning more about the tenets of earth sheltering and its practical applications in our modern world.
While in many respects we have become divorced from the sustainable design practices of the earliest humans, earth sheltering remains a viable means of situating a home or other building in its environment. Earth sheltering is a means of leveraging a building's natural surroundings in order to provide insulation. Typically constructed on a hillside, an earth-sheltered home uses earth and soil to insulate a home or building. Given that below the frost line the temperature is remarkably stable, such a "soil wrap" reduces temperature fluctuations in the building's internal temperature, providing a stable environment conducive to human living.
An earth-sheltered home is very…
Foraging is a skill that is based on the lives of the ancestral hunter-gatherer society. It is the act of searching the environment for resources, such as food (O'Neil). Although this is an ancient concept, the idea behind this sort of behavior as a genetic inherent trait has been explored (Goldstone et al., 508). Individuals who are looking for ways to save money and for easier forms of attaining food, have wholeheartedly supported the idea of modern foraging. In the article, The Ultimate in Eating Local: My Adventures in Urban Foraging by Tara Lohan, the idea of urban foraging was addressed. Her support for this concept was evident in the advice that she gave her readers and in her advocacy for this form of living (Lohan). Another great supporter of this idea was Michael Pollan, the author of The Modern Hunter-Gatherer. He went as far as considering hunting a part…
Goldstone, Robert L., and Benjamin C. Ashpole. "Human Foraging Behavior in a Virtual Environment." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 11.3 (2004): 508-14. Print.
Herbert, Wray. "We're Only Human...: Foraging in the Modern World." We're Only Human... Foraging in the Modern World, 14 Aug. 2008. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. .
Lohan, Tara. "The Ultimate in Eating Local: My Adventures in Urban Foraging."Environment. AlterNet, 04 Sept. 2009. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. .
O'Neil, Dennis. "Patterns of Subsistence: Foraging." Patterns of Subsistence: Foraging. Palomar College, 2006. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. .
One food blogger, comparing the price of organic crackers noted that "Carr's crackers were only $3.79 at Whole Foods" but "$4.39 at Haight Street Market, $4.25 at Say Cheese" in her area (Levin 2011).
This seems to be a wise strategy for Whole Foods, given that it cannot compete on price without sacrificing its core values. "There has been much consolidation in the supermarket industry in recent years. The surviving players have realized that they cannot be all things to all people. Instead, they are attempting to do the things they do best better than their competition" (Inlay 2006). In contrast, SuperValu's strategy has been to expand as swiftly as possible and offer value-based savings on a wide variety of goods, including fuel and pharmaceutical items as well as foods. It acquired the Albertson's grocery chain (another mega-store), further increasing its outreach across the nation.
One of the dangers of…
Hughlett, Mike. (2011, January 6). SuperValu to close stores. Star Tribune. Retrieved March 25,
2011 at http://www.startribune.com/business/113050249.html?elr=KArks:DCiU1OiP:DiiUiacyKUnciaec8O7EyUr
Imlay, Thom. (2006, May). Challenges in today's U.S. supermarket industry.
Microsoft retail and hospitality. Retrieved March 25, 2011 at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa479076.aspx#chlussprmrkt_topic1
Food Supply Safe and Adequate?
The question to be answered in this essay is whether or not America's food supply is adequate and safe. The two issues are related.
One of the reasons America has an ample food supply is because of advances made in the biochemistry of agriculture. This affects food coming from both animals and plants.
New advances in herbicides have helped farmers increase the size of their crops. The newer herbicides are biodegradable and rapidly change from something that poisons some living things to chemicals not known to cause harm to plants or animals. Some people worry any time chemicals are added to the food chain, but farmers will argue that they need to make the most effective use of their efforts and their land.
Similar arguments can be made about fertilizers. Most people know that unless farmland is enriched, eventually it will become so depleted that…
Allouche, J. (2010). The sustainability and resilience of global water and food systems: Political analysis of the interplay between security, resource scarcity, political systems and global trade. Journal of Food Policy.
This article investigates current and potential strain on water and food production systems and aims at ensuring their sustainability and security. These strains are subjects of factors such as war/con-ict, economic crisis and climate change.
The paper looks at the long-term dynamics of global water and food systems in terms of sustainability and resilience and lays emphasis on possible conflict between global securities, allocation, resource scarcity and international trade as well as local coping strategies, power, social and gender relations and right-based social movements on the other.
This paper is significant in asserting the inconclusiveness of the fact that resource scarcity is a motivator of conflict, and that water and food insecurities are a product of socio-political issues. It…
Allouche, J. (2010). The sustainability and resilience of global water and food systems: Political analysis of the interplay between security, resource scarcity, political systems and global trade. Journal of Food Policy.
Center for Sustainable Systems. (2011). U.S. Food System: Fact Sheets. Retrieved November 19, 2012, from
Farmers backbone nation supported ensure a constant high-quality food supply citizens. Dairy farms, examples, assistance government form subsidies order remain competitive continue supply needed dairy products.
Farmers in today's context
Agriculture is the oldest occupation on Earth and the first and still most important means of supporting life. Agriculture was initially manifested through hunting and gathering of wild fruit and vegetable, to gradually evolve into an organized action of land cultivation with the use of developed tools and techniques.
Up until the Industrial evolution, the cultivation of land was the most common human activity and the primary source of food sufficiency. Nevertheless, as machines and equipments were developed, as the steam engine was created and as more and more factories were opened, the people migrated from the rural sites to the urban locations, in search of better lives. Agriculture as such was seconded by work in factories, which came to…
Maneschi, A., 1998, Comparative advantage in international trade: a historical perspective, Edward Elgar Publishing
Winter, M., 2007, Sustainable living: for home, neighborhood and community, Westsong Publishing
2011, Rural and community development, United States Department of Agriculture, http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/!ut/p/c4/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os_gAC9-wMJ8QY0MDpxBDA09nXw9DFxcXQ-cAA_2CbEdFAEUOjoE!/?navid=RURAL_DEVELOPMENT&navtype=SU last accessed on March 15, 2011
2011, The world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/xx.html last accessed on March 15, 2011
ut neophytes should not attempt to do this. Halved coconuts can be dried in one of two ways. The first is by letting them dry by the heat of the sun, which takes a longer time. The other and faster way is by heating them. A bamboo house or shack without walls is built at about 3 feet above the ground. It has only a roof and a floor. The halved coconuts are piled on the floor. Some coconut husks are piled beneath the shack but not too close to burn the shack. A torch is used to set fire on these piled coconut husks but they are monitored carefully. More fire is set if it turns low. The halved coconuts turn brown and separate from the shells when ready for scooping. Just enough heat from medium to low is used to avoid burning. When the fruits at the bottom…
Albert, Jose Ramon G. How Important is Agriculture in the Economy? National
Statistical Coordination Board: Philippine Statistics Authority, 2013. Retrieved on May 1, 2014 from http://www.nscb.gov.ph/beyondthenumbers/2013/04122013_jrga_agri.asp
Baas, Stephen and Ramasamy, Selvaraju. Coconut Leaf Pruning in Bicol Region,
Philippines. Technologies and Practices for Small Agricultural Producers, 2013.
Fair Trade Live Up to Its Ethical Objectives?
The aim of this paper is to analyze the relevance of fair trade to the world today and whether it practices meets the ethical issue. The study will analyze its impacts both negative and positive to the developing countries and whether it has been a success for the developed economies. I wish to state that my discussion in this study considers fair trade as unethical even though it is a strong vehicle that has grown in the recent years with the main aim of minimizing global inequalities and intent in promoting globalization grounded in social justice and ecological sustainability. However despite the well meant intentions, it stands on unethical grounds.
Fair trade is one of the most debated topics in the economies since 19th century up to the 21st century and the arguments are along the lines of economic, moral, and socio-political…
Chrissy G, 2007, Fair Trade, A beginners' Guide (Beginners Guide), One world, California
Harriet, 2008, Change Today, Choose Fair Trade, Wiley Publishers, UK
Joseph E.2007, Fair Trade For All; How Trade Can Promote Development, Oxford University Press, USA
Kimberly M. & Lynne M, 2000, Artisans and Cooperatives: Developing Alternative Trade for the Global Economy, University of Arizona, Arizona