Fair Trade allowed producers to receive a significant price premium, dependent upon world coffee prices and the mainstream markets. Price premiums for farmers promoted social development and strengthened institutional capacities in the area. However, the ability to improve working conditions for workers was limited (Valkila and Nygren 2009). Price premiums were found to be the main benefit for fruit producers involved in a Swiss partnership (Bezencon 2009). It is the consumers who are in control of this trend and if current growth is any indication, the trend will continue to increase in the future. Attention to global issues and social responsibility are key drivers of the trend.
Fair Trade products and certified end products represent the next logical step in the natural and organic products movement. The impact of fair trade has already been examined in other industries and it is believed that the same principles apply to the cosmetics industry as well. Trends in the cosmetic industry are driven traditionally by the fashion industry. However, social responsibility must now be considered a part of the equation as well. The movement towards socially responsible products is being driven by consumer demand. Consumers are demanding socially responsible products and the industry has an obligation to provide them.
Research sustainable practices and the UK cosmetics industry reveals two key trends in research. Study into this topic is in its infancy and it currently lacks in cohesive theory development. Theory is beginning to develop in the area of standards and evaluation criteria for those seeking certification. Cohesiveness in this area is expected to produce greater consumer demand. Standardization will allow the customer to know what to expect when they read key terms on the label. Currently, a lack of theoretical cohesion in this area leaves the customer wondering if they are getting what they pay for in terms of sustainability and ethically sound practices.
Research into the affects of fair trade products indicates that socially responsible products do have at least some positive effects on the country of origin. The trend in fair trade and sustainable market will have an impact on UK cosmetic sales. It is expected that as time continues, sales of organic, natural and fair trade cosmetic products will continue to represent a greater percentage of the market share as the gains momentum. If the literature reviewed is any indication, one could expect consumer demand for sustainable cosmetic products to continue to increase over time.
The consumer market for sustainable cosmetic products is in its early stages. As the market matures, one could expect to see major players in the industry to be begin ...
Due to the early stage in market development, the field is wide open for the introduction of new theories and ideas. Research indicates that the trend is here to stay and that it hold the potential to represent a major sector in the cosmetic industry. Sustainability closes the gap in the value chain between supply and marketing. The development of this intimate relationship means a new way of looking at the value chain in the sustainable cosmetic industry. However, much more research is needed before we will be able to understand its impact on the industry.
This literature review demonstrated that although, not much is available concerning the cosmetic industry in the UK and sustainability, one can extrapolate from other industries that face a similar situation. The first step in understanding the complexities of this developing trend will be the formulation of theory. It will be necessary to look towards other industries that have a similar supply chain and end product distribution for inspiration. As the market matures the direction that research must take will become more apparent.
Bezencon, V. n.d. Producers and the fair trade distribution systems: what are the benefits and problems? [Online]. Sustainably Development. Abstract. Available at: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122542424/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
Global Cosmetics Industry (GCI). 2009. European Natural Cosmetics Sales Approaching €2 Billion. [Online]. 1 Oct 2009. Available at: http://www.gcimagazine.com/marketstrends/segments/natural/63108302.html?page=2 [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
Global Cosmetics Industry (GCI). 2009. Global Natural Products Market: The Battle of the Standards Gains Pace. Available at: http://www.gcimagazine.com/marketstrends/segments/natural/48079987.html?page=1 [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
Moore, G., Slack, R. & Gibbon, 2009. PR Firm Names top Ten Ingredients for 2009. [Online]. Journal of Business Ethics. Available at: http://www.fairtrade-institute.org/db/publications/view/581 [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
Pitman, S. 2008. France leads the way on Fairtrade personal care Cosmetics design.com. 1 Oct 2008 [Online]. Available at: http://www.cosmeticsdesign.com/on-your-radar/Naturals-and-organics/France-leads-the-way-on-Fairtrade-personal-care [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
Organic Monitor. 2008. 7021-92 Strategic Insights: The Potential of Fair Trade Cosmetics & Ingredients. Available at: http://www.organicmonitor.com/702192.htm [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
Valkila, J. & Nygren, a. 2009. Impacts of fair trade certification on coffee farmers, cooperatives, and laborers in Nicaragua. [Online]. Agriculture and Human Values. Abstract. Available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/2r78663l0352518k / [Accessed 3 Nov 2009].
It is the consumers who are in control of this trend and if current growth is any indication, the trend will continue to increase in the future. Attention to global issues and social responsibility are key drivers of the trend.
UK Healthcare Within this section of Chapter One, a historical perspective of NHS will be provided. This discussion will identify problem areas that have emerged in relation to NHS with an attempt made to address the manner in which such problems have historically influenced reform efforts. With the passage and associated provisions of the NHS Act of 1946, NHS was implemented in the UK in 1948. The NHS Act of 1946 served
Sustainable design is the smart and subtle way of utilizing modern building methods and materials to achieve a more intelligent building, while using fewer resources and recycling more waste. It is not simply a trend, nor is it only a marketing tool for 21st century developments, but rather sustainable design is a conscientious decision by an architect to take measures to protect the environment, lessen utility costs, and ensure a
133). Marks & Spencer is currently met with a wide array of challenges, among which the emergence of the internationalized economic crisis which reduces the buying powers of the individuals, but also the incremental pressures for sustainable development. As the rest of the retailers, Marks & Spencer promotes its development through high levels of consumption, but given the unstable state of the environment, the governments militate for sustainable and limited
1 6,665 Equipment depreciation 6 7,331.4 4,888 Water 10,850 19,019 19,589 Electricity 1,681 3,001 3,151 Gas 1,800 3,636 3,709 Business landline 1,020 1,020 Internet Cleaning 2,100 4,200 4,200 Advertising 200,000 300,000 300,000 Salaries 190,692 327,095 327,095 Interest 144,000 144,000 144,000 Total Expenses 569,794 843,600 838,617 Profit Before tax 618,341 694,338 779,632 Tax 123,668 138,868 155,926 Profit 494,672.94 555,470.76 623,705.29 53,552 261,250 330,070 Profit before interest and tax 638,673 699,471 767,705 NPV 1,377,368 As you can see, this venture is projected to earn a profit in the first year. Furthermore, once the model for one metropolitan area is refined to the point that it is fit for duplication; other urban markets will be entered further enhancing the financial position as the industry further develops. The industry is positioned for rapid growth due to its
Buildings will be required to obtain energy certification. At the current time, construction engineers are the most likely candidate for the job. This being the case, it is estimated that approximately 12,000 engineers will need to be retained to carry out these functions (Coverdale, 2002). As one can see, the EPBD will place a strain on the construction industry in terms of knowledge and the manpower needed to carry out
Balfour Beatty UK The multinational infrastructure PPP firm The rise of the public-private partnership (PPP) during the onset of the global financial crisis in 2008 is most representative of market activities in the infrastructure investment sector. Appropriations linked to economic and fiscal policy in the UK since this period has had influence on the steering of PPP projects and the strategies designed by participatory entities. Conversely, the PPP relationship to infrastructure in