Triple Bottom Line and Systems Theory
Triple Bottom Line Theory
Triple Bottom Line (TBL) Theory is a contemporary approach to modern business organizations that greatly expands the scope of their focus beyond the traditional bottom line of financial profits (George & Jones, 2008; obins & Judge, 2009). Whereas the traditional corporate business organization was designed to benefit the interests of shareholders, the TBL approach is designed around the effects of corporate activity on stakeholders, a group that includes shareholders along with people, communities, and entities outside of the corporation. More specifically, the TBL concept applies to the so-called "Three Ps" for People, Planet, and Profit (George & Jones, 2008; obbins & Judge, 2009).
In principle, TBL dictates corporate actions and decisions in light of all of the direct, indirect, short-term, and long-term consequences on all of those who could potentially be affected by the business and interests of the organization…… [Read More]
Technological advantages, for example, could result in change within a nation's economy and precipitate changes in some peripheral or semi-peripheral areas, as it has in India. However, allerstein asserts that an analysis of the history of the capitalist world system shows that it has brought about a skewed development in which economic and social disparities between sections of the world economy have increased rather than provided prosperity for all nations of the world, and will continue to do so to a dangerous degree unless some ameliorative efforts are taken. orld-systems theory is fundamentally a pessimistic view of international economic prosperity, and unless some balance is achieved between core and peripheral states, the earth will continue to exist in a state of injustice and imbalance. Also, as there are no uncharted territories left to colonize, difficulties lie ahead even for core nations, once they have exhausted their available resources like the…… [Read More]
Organizational Excellence and Change: Antioch Baptish Church
Organizational Excellence and Change
This study focuses on excellence and changes at Antioch Baptist Church. It seeks to establish the grounds with which the church exists and operates as a system and as an organization. This church is based in America with branches in Texas among other states. The most peculiar thing about this church is the large population that it has. There are many other extraordinary characteristics that the church has. Its programs are well elaborated and arranged in such a way that allows the worshipers access sermons at any time that they feel like doing so during the worship days. There are also two services within the weekday.
The church as a system
The systems theory holds the idea that a unit or organization is considered as a system if it has a number of separate parts synchronized and…… [Read More]
Open Systems Theory
The model of Organizational Development, commonly known as OD model, represents organization in a form that its overall understanding becomes easier and faster. It is a reflection of observable affairs in the organization. Burke has identified numerous ways showing the utility of organizational models (in Howard and Associates, 1994):
They lead to easy collection of brief and first hand language.
They give fairly clearer idea about the organizational behavior.
They assist in interpretation of organizational data.
They provide a base for the categorization of organization related data.
A properly selected OD model is crucial for the true diagnosis of the issue prevailing in an organization and also streamlines the analysis phase. OD Practitioner may have developed certain model for the organization on the basis of his intuition, yet the correct diagnosis is available only through the explicit model. It helps OD Practitioner collect right type of required…… [Read More]
Bowen Systems Theory
It is essential to understand the behavior of a person before engaging in assisting them to overcome their challenges in counseling. However, in the course of understanding this individual, there would be barriers, as the person may not have the free will to disclose their actions. Therefore, this necessitates the help of the family to the nurse conducting the assessments to gather useful information that on application will help the patient in need. Therefore, to establish such information, through the association of the patient to the family or close friends helps in understanding the person and factors that led to the situation they face. Thus, in this aspect, this constitutes the Bowen Systems Theory, which has the sole purpose of assisting the psychiatric examination and assessment of patients (Bowen, awlins, & Martin, 2010). To understand the theory, the discussion further leads to the diagnostics and treatments available…… [Read More]
Open Systems Theory
What is Open Systems Theory?
To understand open systems theory, it is necessary to first look at what is mean by an open system. An open system is a system that interacts and is influenced by its environment (Scott, 2002). The interactions will involve inputs and outputs, such as energy exchanges, the movement of material between the system and the environment, or other types of feedback (Scott, 2002). Influences from the environmental conditions may include the natural environment with factors such as weather and competition for food exerting an influence, in the commercial environment the influences may include political, social, economic, technological, and competitive forces.
The definition of a system is a group of parts or components that work together as a whole, defined by boundaries, which in open systems will be porous (allowing inflows and outflows). The parts that work together may be mechanical,…… [Read More]
Conyne, Ellen Cook, and the University of Cincinnati Counseling Program. In a nutshell, ronfenbrenner's theory points to environmental factors as playing a major role in human or child development (Derksen, Warren).
The Impact of the Theory on Career Goals
It teaches that children grow and develop with a series of different relationship systems like circles forming from within and moving outward (NACCE, 2012; Yngist, 2011). It shows how a child is affected by each system and how he affects it. In turn, each system affects, and is affected by, other oncoming systems. These are linked and interlinked among themselves. Moreover, each system contains risks as well as opportunities for a child's development and the stronger and more positive the connections between systems, the better it is for the child (NACCE, Yngist).
According to the Theory, the mesosystem consists of relationships between different microsystems between family and child care and between…… [Read More]
This creates stress, but also makes his sedentary for most of the day. As a truck driver, he spends most of his work day in a seated position, with limited exercise or strenuous movements. Additionally, Mr. J. has no health insurance. As such, he has limited access to care, which often places him in danger of not getting his needed medicines, but also of not taking them in a proper regiment.
3. Nursing Interventions
a. Goal: Reduce Environmental Stressors
Primary Prevention: The patient should reduce his alcohol consumption and begin a healthier diet regiment. This will help reduce some of the main environmental stressors that would further complicate his condition.
Secondary Prevention: Continue with the nitroprusside therapy and prescribed medications to directly treat the symptoms of hypertension and keep systolic blood pressure at an optimal level.
Tertiary Prevention: Moreover, the patient must set weight loss goals in order to reach…… [Read More]
Application of Systems Theory
Meyer & O’Brien-Pallas (2010) state that healthcare organizations are conceptualized as open systems characterized by various components including differentiation, coordination, negative entropy, energy transformation, integration, and dynamic steady state. Therefore, systems theory play an important role in the healthcare organization setting. Based on the Nursing Services Delivery Theory, some of the characteristics of systems theory as applied to healthcare organizations include input, throughput, and output factors. Given the application of systems theory in healthcare organizations, this theory provides a valuable and beneficial way of examining challenges in healthcare organizations. This process requires examining all system components of the healthcare organization since some of these components may be healthy while others problematic. This paper demonstrates the application of systems theory in the health sector by examining components of an organization that utilizes systems theory terminology.
Healthcare Organization Department/Unit Using Systems Theory Terminology
An example of a healthcare…… [Read More]
Family Systems Theory
The purpose of Family Systems Theory is to utilize the family unit along with systems approach to explain the complex manner in which a family and the various members of that family operate. By placing members of family together, the reality of the family's bond can be appreciated, dispelling feelings of neglect or disconnect. Family Systems Theory enables individuals to speak more directly to one another within the family in order to overcome obstacles and deal with issues that may be affecting them as individuals or as a family unit.
The scope of the theory "encompasses the considerable relationship complexities of families without imposing one-time married family models or expectations on them" (Titelman, 2013, p. 356). The idea here is that instead of focusing on individual pathologies, family systems theory enables individuals to focus on the process of interaction within the family. It diverts attention away from…… [Read More]
Ecological Systems Theory and Person-in-Environment Concept:
The ecological systems theory is perhaps the most important theory within the social work context as it analyzes the development of an individual based on his/her interaction with his/her immediate and external environment. The person-in-environment concept is therefore directly linked to this theory; in the first question here, we highlight six examples of the influences of the four layers of environment (as outlined by the ecological systems theory) on the person-in-environment. All these examples are linked as changes in one layers cause a chain reaction in all other layers as well: Example 1: improper sewage systems negatively impact the health of the people in the community (macro level); Example 2: the low level of local government assistance to improve conditions impacts the trust and reliance of the community on its legislators (macro level); Example 3: the racially biased attitudes of peers will impact self-esteem…… [Read More]
Strengths Perspective Theory
Provide some data specific points on the trends associated with the two oppressed/marginalized population (LGBTC Youth and Homeless Youth). B. Indicate the reason behind your interest in the population, and its direct connection to social work practice.
LGBTC youths are overrepresented amongst the homeless population. In spite of the fact that it is challenging to obtain accurate figures, it is approximated that LGBTC youths constitute 20 percent to 40 percent of the entire homeless youth population but make up solely 4 percent to 10 percent of the overall youth population. It is suggested that LGBTC youths are at greater risk of facing homelessness as compared to other youths (Cray et al., 2013). The inference of this is that they are almost 7 times over represented amongst the homeless community. Research indicates that LGBTC youth have a greater likelihood of running away from their homes as compared to…… [Read More]
Discuss relationship systems theory healthcare deliver U.S. - What current concepts healthcare explained helped a system theory approach? - What system theory? - How researchers (Ludwig von Bertalanffy Everett M.
Systems theory and diffusion of innovation theory
Systems theory was not specifically designed to cope with the challenges of the U.S. healthcare system, although it has been frequently applied to some of its issues. Systems theory was originally coined by the scientist Ludwig von Bertalanffy to sum up his idea that the 'whole' of systems -- both biological and otherwise -- were larger than the sum of their parts. According to von Bertalanffy, "in the past, science tried to explain observable phenomena by reducing them to an interplay of elementary units investigable independently of each other, conceptions appear in contemporary science that are concerned with what is somewhat vaguely termed 'wholeness', i.e. problems of organization, phenomena…… [Read More]
However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).
Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…… [Read More]
Its business alliances have succeeded because of the past encounter and uncompromising principles of Starbucks. When Starbucks created a licensing contract with Kraft Foods, Inc., it permitted Kraft Foods to begin to make Starbucks' items available in grocery markets, and now because of that attempt their items are available all over Northern U.S. And even the United Kingdom. If Starbucks did not have the primary features of what it is looking for in an alliance, it might not have been as effective in its collaboration with Kraft Foods or any other partner. Starbucks was willing to think about the good and bad in the possible collaboration and choose on whether or not the collaboration would benefit its organization (Davidson & Fielden, 2013). If Kraft Foods, Inc. did not have the same corporate perspective and objectives that Starbucks had, Starbucks would not have engaged in business with them. Starbucks has been…… [Read More]
To rectify this situation, business schools need to begin implementing some kind of ethics training, in the undergraduate and graduate school levels. This is because the corporate and social responsibility that students are taught; will have a dramatic impact upon how they view the world. Where, studies have shown that in college, students do not have any kind of understanding of being ethically and socially responsible. (Arlow, 1991) This is significant, because one could infer that all of the different corporate scandals that have been occurring, over the last ten years are: because of a lack of ethics in business. In many ways, one could imply that the reason why this is a problem is occurring, is students are being not taught the difference between ethical and social responsibility. To rectify this situation, it is advisable that all graduate and undergraduate schools implement some kind of corporate and socially responsible…… [Read More]
One must "initiate corrective actions when deviations exceed some preset level" (Kurtyka 2005). Process improvement is essential. It is not enough to meet benchmarks; a leader must enable the entire organization to improve in a synergistic fashion. It is also not enough to 'strike it big' with one large project success: an organization must ensure that its 'system' is functional and that a single incident of success is not a fluke. This is one reason for the success of Toyota, an industry leader that has pushed itself to eliminate defects and engage in continual improvement of processes and products, even when things are going well.
Systems theory also enables a leader to locate his or her organization within the system of a larger social environment. Porter's Five Forces analysis underlies systems theory. Porter analyzes supplier power, buyer power, competitive rivalries, threat of substitutions for a product, and threats of new…… [Read More]
Similarly, a team of employees working together is greater in terms of skills, abilities, and potential personality conflicts than any one individual working alone.
Systems theory still functions as an important reminder that all systems have optimal sizes, and need to work in concert with the whole business environment. In today's merger-made climate, and in a world where taking a holistic, international perspective is important for all levels of management, systems theory can still be helpful to adopt a multidimensional and broad-reaching perspective, a reminder that bigger is not always better -- and that even when bigger is better, the bigger organization is not the same as what existed before a merger. System theory's weaknesses lie in its difficulty in treating individual employee problems, and motivating individual employees, as it provides little psychological advise as to how to motivate an 'organism's different parts, but these weaknesses do not discount the…… [Read More]
For example, GM lobbied the state of California 1998 to overturn an emissions-reduction mandate that would have prohibited many of GM's passenger vehicles from being sold in the large, car-hungry state. When it was successful in the short run, GM discontinued its work on its prototype of a battery-powered car, the EV1 that ran 100 miles on a single charge. Toyota, in contrast, continued to work on its hybrid line, and the resulting Prius shows the fruitfulness of the Toyota approach (Lifton 2008). Discontinuing research on battery-powered technology was not simply bad business sense on GM's part, but also showed how one part of the company (management) could thwart the efforts of another part of the company (&D). The focus of systems theory is synergy rather than such discordant behavior. Systems theory stresses that "the system's overall behavior depends on its entire structure (not the sum of its various parts)"…… [Read More]
Systems Theory makes several assumptions that are useful for understanding the 14-year-old's behavior:
The state or condition of a system, at any one point in time, is a function of the interaction between it and the environment in which it operates." (Longres, 1999, p. 19)
Change and conflict are always evident in a system. Individuals both influence their environments and are influenced by them. Processes of mutual influence generate change and development." (Longres, 1990, p. 19)
Each person in a family is part of the whole system. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts." (Longres, 1990, p. 266)
These assumptions make us understand that the responsibility for the acts of the 14-year-old rest not with the child himself, but with the relationships and interactions in his family. More than anything else, the real issue is a family boundary problem where the hierarchical subsystem had not had a…… [Read More]
Systems theory is actually used by some practitioners in domestic violence social work and counseling by being packed within the approach of "family system theory" (e.g. Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). This approach holds that the family is a holistic system where all parts are inextricably and holistically intertwined and each member of the family affects the other. The school and community -- outside systems -- too affect the family, and, in turn, the individual family members have an impact on these external systems. Believing that all causes and effects have reciprocal impact, systems theory also posits circular causality where not only are multiple causes the instigation of one problem, but oen problem may, in effect, eventuate in multiple causes. Domestic violence, for instance, of spouse attacking other spouse negatively impacts children, which leads to poor academic study, which my negatively impact teacher's rating, disturbing the school, and so forth. Other…… [Read More]
Napier & Whitaker's (1978) classic The Family Crucible is the benchmark book related to family therapy. The book is thorough, and divided into twenty chapters that cover the gamut of family therapy theory and especially practice. Napier & Whitaker (1978) are family systems theorists, and they openly divulge their appreciation for an approach to individual psychology that takes into account family systems. In other words, no individual can be understood or helped without paying attention to the family situation, its dynamics, and its role in identity formation and coping. The authors discuss dysfunctional family systems via a case study. By focusing on one case study, Napier & Whitaker (1978) show how family systems theory works, and what clients can expect from the process.
The authors weave their personal views and experiences throughout the case study, which clutters and bogs down the narrative, but which also provides a necessary…… [Read More]
future search method involves identifying a problem, and then getting everybody involved in the issue together to hash out a response to the problem. There are several elements that underlie the future search. By bringing everybody together for a period of three days, the idea is that solutions can be identified, including implementation. Dialogue helps to establish common ground between the stakeholders, and this serves as the basis for moving forward with a solution (Future Search, 2003).
Future search builds on the ideas in systems theory. Systems theory has been described as a "transdisciplinary study of the abstract organization of phenomena" (Heylighen, & Joslyn, 1992) wherein different elements interact with each other to create a system. Nothing functions without a system, and the underlying value is interconnectedness. This applies quite well to the future search method. In future search, the different people that are brought together for the conference come…… [Read More]
From that vantage point it is clear that EP systems may not be able to provide the depth and breath of unification that is possible with more advanced approaches to using it systems.
Another drawback or con of using EP systems has the catalyst of creating a more unified socio-technical system is the fact that they are often implemented and measured on a department or functional basis first. Interpolating their performance to strategic initiatives has never been particularly easy; using them to unify a sociotechnical system could be daunting. Underscoring these aspects is the need for creating a more effective approach to change management so that equilibrium is attained in each subsystem of a socio-technical system (Manz, Stewart, 1997). Finally, EP systems are often extremely difficult to customize and upgrade over time, which has made many obsolete, delivering just 60% of the total value of information they are capable of.…… [Read More]
Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach
There have been significant interest in research on the problems of addiction; hence, the many scientific studies on the issue. Many of the studies in this area end up with the same conclusions; the concept of addiction is complicated. The complexity partly arises from the effect it has on the drug abuser from different perspectives such as psychological, social, biological, and the impacts of addiction on social law, economics and politics. On the other hand, psychologists perceive drug addiction as a disease. From a religious worldview, addiction is a sin. Therefore, it is possible to view addiction from a medical, behavioral, and spiritual angle. As stated, the concept of addiction is complex, and there are many definitions of addiction reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon (Sremac, 2010).
Notably, all the definitions of addiction portray a negative judgment on addiction, but owing to…… [Read More]
The Congruence Model for Organizational Analysis appears thorough in terms of both the internal and external environment. The model operates on the basis of inputs, throughputs and outputs, with the external environment providing feedback on inputs and outputs. The organization is regarded as a dynamic system, which is influenced by means of a number of variables. Of all the models, this one appears to be the most applicable to Walgreens.
Tichy's TPC Framework and Diagnosing Group and Individual ehavior are also regarded as particularly applicable to Walgreens, as a result of the significant influence of the environment. Tichy's model increases the complexity of the internal environment by recognizing that some relationships among variables are stronger than others. Environmental influence is recognized through inputs, outputs and the feedback loop. Diagnosing Individual and Group ehavior focuses mainly upon human relationships within the internal environment. It is also assumed that there are minimal…… [Read More]
At only $50 below the X5, Handheld must either drop the price to at least $175 for the X7 to alleviate cannibalization from occurring by the X5. The paradox however is that to lower the price of the X7 is to prolong the payback period for this specific model, which is the most unprofitable of the entire company. Ideally the X7 needs to have a higher price point associated with it, and in retrospect the better product strategy would have been to expand into higher-priced models where Handheld would have had ample room in terms of price points to differentiate. The new product needed to be approximately 30% or more than the X6, with significantly greater features including support for WiFi, social networking apps including Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, Friendfeed and other features that could be turned into value-added services that could be upsold to customers. A new product at the…… [Read More]
Family Systems Theory: Vignette II
Discussion of what's going on in this family
Claudia and Margaret had suffered violence at a young age and therefore, are prone to commit acts of aggression, with the chances of developing more symptomatology like anxiety, aggression, depression and low levels of self-esteem, as compared to those who led a violence-free childhood. Being victims of, and exposed to, family violence during childhood years can make Claudia and Margaret victims or offenders. Margaret was a victim of violence when she was young and resorted to aggression as the means to resolving conflicts in her relationships; her personality structure incorporates shame, anger and guilt. Claudia, also being victimized in childhood, cannot regulate her emotions, particularly anger, and exhibits more tolerance to adult intimate abuse. As they were both victimized or exposed to abuse, they not only display aggressive behaviors, but also possess ineffective ways of coping and…… [Read More]
1. What is open systems theory
In essence, open systems theory, in the words of Chance and Chance (2002), posits/suggests “that organizations are dynamic systems involving constant interactions among the various formal and informal systems within the organization as well as exchanges (feedback and input) between the organization and systems outside the organization” (p. 7). It therefore follows that an organization’s structure as well as behavior is impacted upon by the permeating or surrounding environment.
2. How can open systems theory be used to understand an organization?
As per the open systems theory, organizations are not autonomous (Daft, Murphy, and Willmott, 2010). Their operations do not take place outside the world we live in. For this reason, their structure ought to be cognizant of the environment in which they do business. This effectively means that deliberate measures ought to be undertaken to embrace opportunities and concerns unique to the organization…… [Read More]
Systems and Diffusion of Innovation Theory
Systems theory vs. diffusion of innovation theory
Systems theory is based upon the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Its founder Ludwig von Bertalanffy proposed that, based upon his experience with the biology of organisms, all systems are constantly changing because they are able to interact with their environments. Systems are open and thus can acquire "qualitatively new properties through emergence" (Clark 2011). Living beings of all kinds are capable of taking in and incorporating new elements while expelling the old. This is vitally important for healthcare organizations today to understand, given the need to respect the changing nature of patients and the fact that patient's health can be significantly improved or worsened, depending on the type of care the patients receive and do not receive. Healthcare organizations must be true 'learning organizations' as new patients…… [Read More]
For example, somebody with no knowledge of military jargon and technology may struggle with understanding how the military works. Systems theory allows that person to examine the linkages and structures within the military, and then to understand how those linkages and structures work towards the desired outcomes. This understanding comes on a broad level, and does not require the observer to understand the nuances of military jargon and technology.
Systems thinking also allows the observer to understand similarities and differences between systems. Understanding the similarities between systems that on the surface level are entirely unrelated is difficult when the observer is focused on the superficialities, but an examination of the underlying systems allows for this understanding to take place. The university, for example, is more similar to a military unit than it is to a symphony. hile within the university there is a clear structure of command, there is a…… [Read More]
The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).
EXAMPLE NATUAL -- Management NEED in Business OGANIZATION
Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…… [Read More]
System Issues & Chikfila
Systems thinking is a way of synthesizing the issues surrounding any organization in both a macro and micro manner. This allows more shared values through teamwork, mental paradigms, the ability to think in the future, and look at projects in a way that are best for the organization as a holistic entity. Thus, when the process of inquiry is moved from the individual and rote (only knowledge) to an organization that moves through different, more analytical modes of thinking, the individual involved are more active participants and there is a shared vision alone with a personal and team mastery of the question in point. This evolution engenders personal buy-in, a feeling of empowerment, and clearly a new way of processing disparate information (Senge, 2006).
Chick-Fil -- A is an American fast food restaurant chain specializing in Chicken Sandwiches. Their headquarters are in Atlanta, Georgia, and have…… [Read More]
They must never become complacent and assume that they have considered all factors and can now relax, or they can slip into the "boiling frog" phenomenon: circumstances may turn so gradually negative that they do not notice the changes until they have large problems instead of small ones to solve (Beckford, 2002).
Just as the example of the soldiers at the bridge faced with a battle situation for which they had no previous experience, business leaders must expect the unexpected. If they create a culture of lifelong learning within their businesses, their staff and employees will always be open to looking at old facts in new ways, ready to find forward-thinking solutions. uch a company philosophy and structure can keep even the oldest company packed with fresh ideas and innovative solutions to the new problems they face.
Barker, Randolph T., and Camarata, Martin R. 1998. "The Role…… [Read More]
The key constructs of systems thinking were constituted in the first half of the 20th century in fields such as psychology, ecology, organismal biology, and cybernetics (Capra 1997). They include: sub-systems/parts/wholes, environment/system/boundary, process/structure, emerging properties, hierarchy of organizations, negative and positive feedback, data and control, open systems, holism, and the observer. The practical application of these constructs in many fields was discovered by von Bertalanffy (1950). He referred to these concepts as general systems theory (GST). These concepts were adapted in Organizational research and Management science (O/MS) and were referred to as management cybernetics (Beer 1967), systems engineering (Hall 1962), system four dynamics (Forrester 1968), and finally, in what we might refer to as the systems approach (Churchman 1968; Klir 1969; Weinberg 1975) (Mingers & White, 2009).
The systems thinking/systems approach, has been closely linked to the growth of organizational research and management science. At the start it…… [Read More]
The incident and accident theory is one of the major theories that has been developed in the literature to attempt to provide a model for accident causation. The theory has been defined as something of an addendum to the human factors theory of accident causation. Therefore, to understand the accident/incident theory fully, an overview of the human factors theory will first be provided. The accident/incident theory works to fill in some of the gaps that have prevented a human factors approach from being able to fully explain how many accidents occur. The theory adds several dimensions to the previous model such as consideration of ergonomic traps, the decision to err, and systems failure among others (Duffy, N.d. ).
Incident and accident theory
There are roughly seven different theories of accident causation that are typically cited in the literature. Such theories include the domino theory that focuses on mistakes,…… [Read More]
The Harrison family in the 1998 film "Stepmom" consists of the father (Luke Harrison, played by Ed Harris), the ex-wife and mother (Jackie Harrison, played by Susan Sarandon), the daughter (Anna Harrison, played by Jena Malone), the son (Ben Harrison, played by Liam Aiken), and the soon-to-be stepmom (Isabel Kelly, played by Julia oberts). The children's natural mother and ex-wife becomes of aware that she has cancer, a number of therapies are tried, but finally everyone must face the fact that disease will end her life before long.
The parents of Anna and Ben have divorced, and their father's girlfriend, Isabel -- a single, successful professional photographer -- is living with them. Isabel's efforts to provide good mothering to the children is met at every turn by their resistance -- understandably, the children want their parents back together. Ganong, et al. (2011) identified six patterns of step-relationship development,…… [Read More]
Systems Theory Lens
The analysis of the case study clearly indicates that the school eh cycle of production at the school begins with a child getting enrolled into the school at any grade level and ends with the student leaving the school after completion of his/her studies. The input systems and the throughout systems in the organization or the educational institution, in this case, has an input system that sustains the system and these inputs are provided by everyone in the hierarchy of the institution (Morgan, 2006). The production inputs for the educational institution include the suggestions that are sought into the system of intervention, in accordance with the case study, are the vital advice from the functional behavioral assessment (FSB) committee.
This is important as the committee comprises of experts and noted people from all walks of life and includes counselors, faculty, and department heads as well as a…… [Read More]
Systems Design Project
Change is integral to the survival of any commercial enterprise in today's globalized, technologically advanced business environment. This requires stakeholders to have personal and organizational transition skills to attain the desired change for future success (Hughes, 2006). Strategizing drives organizational change giving it direction through activities (Thornhill, Lewis, Millmore and Saunders, 2000). Internal and external environmental considerations are both relevant; along with change management required to align with strategic change. Singular change is integral to organizational modification; a concept that bears adopting as a precursor to internalizing change across the organization.
The change agent is responsible for comprehending the concept of strategic change which encompasses an understanding of change models, approaches and tools for proper implementation. Furthermore they must possess an aptness for analytical assessment of contexts, critical thinking adeptness - both of which will be applied along the change continuum within the organization through use of…… [Read More]
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
Integrity and…… [Read More]
Systems of Power and Inequality
In early March of 2012, a 28-minute video on the plight of African children received more than 21 million YouTube views. The video vividly depicts how the guerilla warlord Joseph Kony, leader of the Lords esistance Army (LA), reportedly abducted over 60,000 children who were subsequently forced to become child soldiers or sex slaves over the course of the civil war. Captured children who did not cooperate as said to have been mutilated and murdered. Production and dissemination of the video was a result of the efforts of an American charity called Invisible Children. In interviews with the press following the viral reception of the video, Invisible Children campaigner Jason ussell stressed the importance of the video as an example of how social media allows people all over the world to actually see other people -- see, as in the struggles, challenges, plights, and victories…… [Read More]
Systems Media Table: Comparison
The main purpose of this program is to construct sentences of the perceived information and manipulate paragraphs to form a word document. The program uses a display format 'what-you-see-is-what-you-get' to enhance the quality of the expected hardcopy.
WordPerfect and Microsoft Word are mostly superseded by both organization and personal computers to perform functions such as word formatting, letter processing and some simple designing. Accordingly, it is the most frequently used program in day-to-day operation.
It is used to type the text, save, and format and print the text.
It is used to insert pictures into the text page.
It is used to spell check the text document.
It is used to prepare letters and other word documents.
This kind of database system is to display a structure that would relieve the presentation of information using parent to child relationship. The…… [Read More]
Theory vs. Ideology
What is ideology?
Ideology is a belief system that supports and promotes personal or a group's social or religious agenda. In some cases its nature will be obvious to most people, but in other cases an ideology will be disguised as scientific fact based on nonexistent or reinterpreted empirical evidence. Ideologies are invariably supported by personally- or collectively-held religious or political beliefs, rather than extant empirical evidence or objective observation. Concepts within the ideology are typically framed in a black and white manner, such as right vs. wrong, just vs. unjust, and Evil Empire vs. God's Country. The use of such terminology has the effect of erasing the inherent complexity common to most social issues. From the perspective of a social scientist the most important characteristic is that ideologies are refractory to scientific inquiry and may go so far as to attack opposing beliefs to preserve its…… [Read More]
The second and third runs, therefore, were largely based on making adjustments to the first run strategy. In each instance, the adjustments made increased the total profit over the four years and it is believed that continuing along that same path of making slight adjustments would consistently increase the profits earned. It is for this reason that the strategy changed little -- there was no insight that was believed to lead to a better strategy and in lieu of such major insight there was no reason to pursue a radically different strategy.
The most useful concepts in this exercise were contribution margin (CVP analysis) and elasticity of demand. Understanding the cost structure of each product allowed for more intelligent pricing decisions. For example, the price cut in the X7 was significant at 25% from the base price in the base case run to 31.5% of that price in the later…… [Read More]
To the extent the totality of circumstances suggest that possibility, even acceptance of the most nominal gratuities (i.e. A cup of coffee) is ethically inappropriate.
Similarly, even where the gratuity involved is of nominal value and there is no potential misunderstanding on the part of the individual proffering an otherwise appropriate gratuity, there is the issue of creating the appearance or inference of an improper relationship from the perspective of others observing the exchange. For example, while the proffer and acceptance of a single cup of coffee is excusable within the framework of ordinary positive community relations, the conspicuous regular transfer of even nominal gratuities in the presence of third parties can create an apparent inference of inappropriate influence regardless of whether or not that inference is necessarily accurate.
The SOI is intended to ensure that police officers do not misuse their duly authorized latitude to take different degrees…… [Read More]
Systems Management Problem:
Cincom Company operates in a flexible business environment that allows participating business enterprises and customers to be flexible. This flexibility translates into the ability of these businesses to choose the best software option from available options like Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), cloud option, and one or on-premise enterprise software. Generally, the availability of this software options and the flexibility of the business environment implies that Cincom Company can choose the type of software to implement based on its specific needs. However, the company is faced with numerous challenges including difficulty in implementing change, customer lock-in strategy, and lack of flexibility due to its particular organizational structure and culture. Actually, the major challenge for Cincom is the difficulty to adapt to and implement change that will reflect the new business environment it is operating in. This challenge is characterized with the CEO's approval of all products, pricing, sales, and services…… [Read More]
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…… [Read More]
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for:
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…… [Read More]
Transitioning From Closed to Open Systems: How Effective Nurse Leaders Approach Problem Solving and Decision Making in Organizations
The objective of this study is to examine transitioning from closed to open systems and how effective nurse leaders approach problem solving and decision making in organizations. This study will utilize systems theory in identifying an issue or process that could be improved and apply knowledge and strategies related to systems theory.
The problem addressed in this study is the excessive trust vested in unlicensed personnel resulting in some to make decisions reserved to licensed health professionals.
Responsibilities of the Nurse Manager
It is reported that the licensed nurse manager or supervising nurse has the responsibility to "delegate professional responsibilities only to persons who are qualified by education, experience or licensure to carry out the responsibility." (New York Office of the Professions, Division of Professional Licensing Services, 2009, p.27) It is additionally…… [Read More]
Applying Open Systems Theory to Google
Open systems theory may be used as one approach to examining an organization. An interesting organization, which was also forth on Fortunes 2011 list of the 100 best companies to work for is Google (Fortune, 2011). Google is a firm where there is a great deal of influence between the internal and the external environments due to the porous boundaries of the firm.
One of the most important and influential components of Google are the employees, they are also one of the most porous elements as the employees may be members of multiple systems and their performance in the workplace may be influenced by many external forces. Motivation theory, such as Maslow Hierarchy of Needs, indicates that employees will have different needs; these may depend on many external influences, based on their personal psychological well being and attitudes, and other factors, such as…… [Read More]
Open Systems ISA, Inc.
Due to the delay of my understanding, I was able to complete the writing but haven't inserted the APA footnotes yet. I'm doing that now but I opted to upload the text first. I will use the message system and provide you with another version with the footnotes shortly. Sorry, but I wanted to show you it would be ready pretty close to the due date and time! You should have the second version with the footnotes in less than an hour.
Whether one goes to a large medical facility or to a free community clinic, step one is generally the same: Someone in the organization initiates both a financial and a physical assessment of your condition. It's as if the doctor needs to know your symptoms and what resources are at hand before he or she can even consider how to plot out their response.…… [Read More]
It is the process of interaction among family members that determines the rules by which the family is governed. This is the family's level of cohesion, its adaptability, and its communication style. Finally, these interactions work together to serve individual members and collective family needs;
(3) Family function is the output of the interactional system. Utilizing the resources available through its structure (input), the family interacts to produce responses that fulfill its needs; and (4) the family life cycle introduces the element of change into the family system. As the family moves through time, developmental and non-developmental changes alter the family structure and/or the family's needs. These, in turn, produce change in the way the family interacts." (Allen, et al., 2007)
Figure 1 -- the Family System
Source: Allen et al. (2007)
The family is stated by Allen et al. (2007) to have many "attitudes, rules and communication patterns which…… [Read More]
Connecting Theory and Meaning of Disability Studies in Schools
The connecting theory application in the system of basic education has contributed to the development and establishment of a trans-disciplinary scientific strategized framework. This framework bases on the specified reverence for a considerable orientation in long-term and the engagement of decision makers in the education system on its application. The connecting theory involves work that cuts across education disciplines. This is with the aim of exposing the aspects perceived to be of outdated assumptions in the education system. This happens with their respective enrichment in the technological and social practice. The theory constitutes well-strategized research with knowledge meant for informing a scientific framework designated. This is to enable direct transformation towards the education system future with worldview fit (Fenton-Smith, & Stillwell, 2011).
The concrete developed strategic objectives aim at addressing the advancements with accuracy in understanding the aspect of science. This…… [Read More]
A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.
Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. eview of Public Policy esearch 21(1). etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKinOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8yw-dfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbOjWa5vU-Cordw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ
Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.
Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWScZuXra2PExdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlIUDHqnfiObow
Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_Shx7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbeyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
Fletcher, B.., Shaver, L.D. & Moon, D.G (1993). Women Prisoners: A forgotten population. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Martinez, D.J. (2010). ole accumulation theory and…… [Read More]
Bioecological Theory and the Family and Community Resource Conceptual Framework)
The Case History
"Kerry" has twin girls who are now 4 years old. he had been living with her defacto "Dean" for the past 6 years. he is a qualified beautician and has previously run a small business from home before the birth of the twins. he undertook schooling until year 12 (equal to UA high school diploma) at a public school, is one of two children herself and has supportive parents in a middle income suburb. he left her defacto 10 months ago after two years of domestic violence brought on by the use intravenous "speed." he has an AVO (Aggravated Violence Order) on "Dean" for 12 months. During the previous two years "Kerry" was subjected to physical and psychological trauma, the twins witnessed this abuse. "Dean" is on a fly in fly out basis working in the mines…… [Read More]
Organizational Theory #2
What core competences give an organization competitive advantage? What are examples of an organization's functional-level strategies?
Core competencies are those capabilities that are critical to a business achieving a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Typically, core competencies can be identified by certain common characteristics -- offering a benefit to the customer, difficult to imitate, uniquely identify the organization and easily leveraged to create many products or operate in many markets (Kern, 2010). The organization that is best able to use its resources to create value is in an ideal position to outperform the competition, thus creating advantage (Jones, 2010). Core competencies tend to change in response to changes in the environment. They are flexible, evolve over time and enable the company to enter apparently different markets with a clear and distinctive brand proposition. Examples of core competencies include manufacturing, research and development, new technology or organizational design…… [Read More]
Open and Closed Systems
• Differentiate between two types of management theories- open-system theories and closed-system theories with regard to criminal justice organizations. Which of the two theories would better suit the operation of the agency you chose?
When it comes to explaining behavior in organizations, "the closed-system models tend to focus on internal events when explaining organizational actions and behavior, while open-system model focus on events occurring external to the organization that influence changes within the organization" (Open vs. closed systems, 28). Closed-systems models tend to focus on the degree to which organizational culture produces certain results: for example, if there were accusations of racial profiling in 'stop and frisks' in a police department, a closed systems model would suggest examining how officers are trained and the ideas and incentives that are communicated to the officers through that training about who appears to be a criminal. The presumption of…… [Read More]
Napier and Whitaker exemplify systems therapy with their presentation of the Brice family case. It is necessary to identify the origins of the systems approach in order to fully appreciate its value in the context of family therapy. It approaches the family unit as a system and therefore borrows heavily from systems theory. Systems theory is a general theory applies across many disciplines and looks at systems that have the ability to self-regulate. The theory applies to biological systems, climate, environment, and the family unit.
Systems approach recognizes the interdependencies that exist in the family as a system. The family unit consists of individuals related to one another forming a complex web that should act in congruence. Therefore, although a part of a system is essential, it is the relationship of the part to the whole that is paramount. The family as a system is dynamic since…… [Read More]
Since, this one lacks structure means that many employees can become confused about their responsibilities. Once this occurs, it can often lead to employee issues, where this confusion can become an issue of contention between the staff and management. As management is telling them to engage in particular activity, yet they don't understand why they are doing such tasks. Over time, this can cause moral to drop as those employees who do not thrive under such a system, begin to lower the overall positive attitude in the work environment. ("Contingency Theory," 2010)
Despite some of the obvious weaknesses, the contingency theory is effective for those organizations that are small. This is because the in formalized structure allows managers / owners the opportunity to adapt to changes that are occurring in real time. Where, they can use their experience and common sense to adjust to various business conditions. As a result,…… [Read More]
Age Students With Learning Disabilities
The impact of family motivation on college age students with learning disabilities may be a deciding factor in regard to the student's success or failure. College age students with learning disabilities obviously have more immediate needs in cooperative learning settings when compared to typical students. Educators cannot just tell the student to just sit-down and read five chapters of Freud. These students have problems like dyslexia, AD/HD, or English as a second language to name a few and they may have had additional help in the past that may not be available at an older age. When there are obvious underlying issues, the family, teachers and the students themselves have to work more closely together in order to reach the desired positive outcomes. "Teaching effectiveness is inferred from the product that was created; it is the product that is the indicator of scholarship." (Cranton,…… [Read More]