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Teaching English as a Second Language in Middle School
The teaching of ESL (English as a second language as countered to as a language that is foreign) has usually been a specialized activity that is experienced by, if not preserved for, individuals that are conventionally mentioned to as native speakers that are native English. Since there are now a lot more nonnative language ESL teachers than there were before, the area of ESL, when likened to other subjects of this type of academic, has become rather distinct in manifestations of what its teaching staff can bring with them into the teaching arena. One feature of ESL teachers' experience that has a huge influence on student knowledge is ESL teachers' education. An overabundance of findings in general education has searched the effect and nature of the information teachers is possessing, who are a somewhat homogeneous group that is inside each topic…
Borg, S. "Self-perception and practice in teaching grammar." ELT Journal 11, no. 5 (2001): 21-29.
Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Drisko, J.W. (2008). How is qualitative research taught at the master's level? Journal of Social Work Education, 44(1), 85-101.
Gatbonton, E. "Investigating experienced ESL teachers' pedagogical knowledge." Modern Language Journal 7, no. 3 (2006): 33-50.
Although Burrhus Frederick Skinner is better known for his seminal work in behaviorism, the psychologist also explored a first wave of computer science. In "Teaching Machines," B.F. Skinner (1958) proposes a set of technological tools that can enhance the learning experience and even supplant the student-teacher relationship. Skinner (1958) suggests that there are distinct advantages to using teaching machines: such as individualized instruction and student-driven learning. In "Teaching Machines," Skinner (1958) suggests that modern educational infrastructure is designed with a high teacher-student ratio. The high teacher-student ratio precludes the quality of learning typically evident in smaller, intimate sessions. Given that students do not reap the benefits of individualized instruction in American public schools, it only makes sense to capitalize on the use of technological tools. In 1958, when Skinner's "Teaching Machines" was published in Science, the author could not have been definitively aware of the trajectory that learning…
Devitt, P. & Palmer, E. (1999). Computer-aided learning: an overvalued educational resource? Medical Education 33(2): 136-139.
Messitte, A. (1986). Skinner says computers aid learning. The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved online: http://www.thecrimson.com/article/1986/3/6/skinner-says-computers-aid-learning-psocial/
Skinner, B.F. (1958). Teaching machines. Science 128(3330): 969-977.
Teaching is a conversation. It is a dialogue, not a monologue. When a teacher strives to convey knowledge, he or she must do so with an awareness of the student body's needs and background. Teaching involves give-and-take: even when lecturing the teacher must do so with an awareness of whom she or he is lecturing to. Do the students have special needs? Are they familiar with this period of history? Are they likely able to relate to the character in the story?
Teaching is also a performance. Like a good performer, the teacher must know his or her audience: their strengths and weaknesses, and what frameworks of knowledge they 'bring to the table.' Although the teacher may have to convey a specific syllabus of content, the teacher cannot assume that every class has the same background. Teachers must also have sensitivity and understanding of student's cultural differences, social…
The role of teaching assistants is to facilitate access to the curriculum, enable autonomous learning, and promote inclusion. During their work, these professionals sometimes work with pupils with learning disabilities, hearing or visual impairment, physical disability, communication problems, and those experiencing difficulties in behaviors. Consequently, teaching assistants play a critical role to enable a pupil to accomplish increased autonomy, greater social awareness, achieve higher academic standards, and feel a sense of belonging in the entire school community.
Since they are vital in supporting the curriculum, teaching assistants are usually mandated with the task of supporting planning and evaluating learning activities through providing support. Some of the support that a teaching assistant may be expected to give in the classroom during this process includes educational and social development, helping in the implementation of Individual Education Programmes, assisting class teachers with maintenance of students records. The other support that teaching…
visual cues come from students developing knowledge of letter/sound relationships and of how letters are formed what letters and words look like often identified as sounding out words
Example 2- Phoneme Awareness -- Recognizing Rhyme Assessment (Klein, 2003).
Instructor: Says two-three words that rhyme: fat, cat, bat
Model: These words have the same sound at the end so they rhyme; cat and mop do not rhyme because their sound is different.
Listen to these two words:
pail - tail.
Now say the two words with me:
pail - tail.
Do these two words rhyme?
Put your thumbs up like this if they rhyme:
Listen to these two words:
cow - pig.
Now say the two words with me:
cow - pig.
Do these two words rhyme?
Put your thumbs down like this if they do not rhyme:
Assessment and Additional ords:
rug-mug-tug hat-dress-dog pan-man-tan
WORKS CITED and CONSULTED
Anderson, H. (2000). Teaching Through Texts. Routledge.
Coulson, a. (2008). "Delivering Education." Hoover Institution Review. Cited in:
Dodson, D. (April 20, 2010). "Ready…Set…Read! Teaching Reading Fluency." Lesson
Finally, I am interested in whether or not there is a trickle-down effect from leftist or rightist politics style at the provincial and federal levels.
1.3.1 There are two major objectives for this research. The first is to compare the level of motivation among secondary school teachers under the Vancouver British Columbia School District in Canada by their socio-demographic and organizational factors. My hypothesis in advance of investigating this is that there are indeed demographic factors that will have a significant effect on overall levels of motivation, although I do not yet know what these may be and I am prepared (as any good researcher must be) to find that my initial ideas are wrong. For example, I believe that I will find that female teachers are, on the whole, more motivated than male teachers because it is still the case that women have fewer career paths…
Adams JS. (1965), Inequity in social exchange. Advanced Experiments in Social Psychology, Vol 62 (pp. 335-343)
Alderfer CP (1980), The Methodology of Organizational Diagnosis, Professional Psychology Vol. 11 (pp. 459-468)
Alderfer CP (2005), The Five Laws of Group and Intergroup Dynamics, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science Vol. 13 (pp. 193-210)
Annaraja P. And Jose S (2005), Emotional intelligence of B. Ed. Trainees
Opening up to students is very important for teachers. While it is obviously not appropriate for a teacher to confide intimate personal details to the class, or gossip about others to try to be more accepted, there are ways that a teacher can seem more 'real' to the students. For example, crying over something very sad or letting the students know when the teacher is getting angry with their misbehavior goes a long way toward having younger students see teachers as real people. These same kinds of things - made age-appropriate of course - can work well for adult learners, as well.
Many individuals who are a bit older also have trouble connecting with their instructors, because they are uncertain about what is wanted from them, and they may have trouble learning everything that they need to know in the way that it is presented to them. The way that…
A group approach is considered beneficial as teachers "need to rethink their traditional teaching roles and expand their repertoire of teaching skills to include techniques that help students enhance their comprehension" and students who receive individual attention may not retain it as effectively as in a group environment (Anderson 2006).
There are five and a half students with special needs in the United States and nearly 80% are educated in a general education setting. It is perhaps significant to note that teaching children of special needs in a classroom with regular students is not easy, but "involving a behaviorally or academically challenged child in regular classroom activities can be a source of frustration" (Hedge 2007). But this does not mean it cannot be rewarding or beneficial to all who are involved, including the regular students in the class if a teacher is properly prepared and able to address the differences…
Alleman, Janet, Barbara Knighton, and Jere Brophy. "Social Studies: Incorporating All Children Using Community and Cultural Universals as the Centerpiece." Journal of Learning Disabilities 40 (2007): 166. 23 Apr. 2007 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1233098271&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=77110&RQT=309&VName=PQD .
Anderson, Diane. "In or Out: Surprises in Reading Comprehension Instruction." Intervention in School and Clinic 41 (2006): 175. 23 Apr. 2007 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=960626751&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=77110&RQT=309&VName=PQD .
Graham, Steve, and Karen R. Harrison. "Improving the Writing Performance of Young Struggling Writers: Theoretical and Programmatic Research From the Center on Accelerating Student Learning.." The Journal of Special Education 39 (2005): 19. 23 Apr. 2007 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=833146191&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=77110&RQT=309&VName=PQD .
Hoover, John J., and James R. Patton. "Differentiating Standards-Based Education for Students with Diverse Needs." Remedial and Special Education 25 (2004): 74. 23 Apr. 2007 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=594396251&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=77110&RQT=309&VName=PQD .
An appropriate dance for a small, rural classroom in the Midwest during Christmas would not necessarily be appropriate in a multiethnic and multilingual large urban school, or at very least modifications might need to be made in the lesson plan.
Using the teacher's body as a presentation technique, and observing dances are some of the helpful suggestions offered by the book. Also, using the children's own innate sense of movement is another helpful suggestion. If a child can run, hop, jump and skip, the child can dance! Especially for the lower grades, such as kindergarten to 2nd grade, using fun tactile things like streamers and balloons, dancing in a playground, pretending to be clouds, rain, and waves are ways to use this age group's fluid imaginative capacity. Imagining being at a circus, using percussion instruments like people did in the past to provide rhythm for dance might seem like 'obvious'…
Cone, Theresa Purcell & Stephen L. Cone. Teaching Children Dance. 2nd Edition. New York: Human Kinesthetics.
In the realm of psychology and education, moral education is continuing to be more and more an accepted subject. Several people in the U.S. inclusive of educators involved with education for democratic citizenship are underlining for effectual moral education of the youth because of an overall moral crisis confronting these youths. People are clamoring for announcing a moral crisis in our nation in the wake of media coverage of growing youth offences and other problems concerning teens. Although not all of these social issues have moral characteristics, and the majority has intricate origins, and an increasing drift is being witnessed correlating the answers to these and associated social issues to the imparting of moral and social values in our public schools. ut, deliberations of the part that schools are capable of playing and ought to play in the moral development of youth are now embroiled in a debate.…
Smetana, J.G. Morality in context: Abstractions, Applications, and Ambiguities. In R. Vasta
Ed.) Annals of Child Development, Volume. 10 (pp. 83 -- 130) London, England: Jessica
Goleman, Daniel. Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books, 1995
Teaching eading in the Content Areas
eading of content area is observed to provide some gratifying instances and also capable of creating critical circumstances. Due emphasis is being laid on reading in the sphere of evaluation of the developed contents at state and federal levels. The teachers seem to come across varied theories and instructional approaches while attempting to include the content area matters in their teachings. All the numerous approaches that the teachers come across on their path of through reading and writing are not found to be consistent to be adopted for content teaching. Out of them only the approaches constructed on the strength of strong foundations of researches and capable of catering to the high standards demanded by the classroom instruction need to be followed.
Simply assisting the children for recognition and grouping of letters forming words is not enough in the teachings of reading. Simply assisting…
McKenna, Michael C; Robinson, Richard D. (November, 2001) "Teaching through Text; Reading and Writing in the Content Areas" Pearson Education
Moore, David; et. al. (1998) "Developing Readers and Writers in the Content Areas K-12"Longman
Roe, B.D; Stoodt, B.B; Burns, P.C. (1987) "Secondary School Reading Instruction: The Content Areas" Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Ryder, Randall J; Graves, Michael F (November, 2002) "Reading and Learning in Content Areas" Allyn & Bacon
Besides nursing, teaching is perhaps one of the most noble and worthy professions a person might choose. Indeed, those who have a particular love for people and children tend to choose this profession. For this reason, a particular kind of love for a very specific demographic of children is necessary to be attracted to the special education classroom. Those who choose to enter this field of teaching will not only need to be aware of the specific reasons why they chose this profession, but also the challenges involved and the skills needed to handle these challenges.
My main reason for choosing to work in a special education classroom, for example, is that I care deeply not only about education today, but specifically about providing an effective education for those with special needs. The reason for this is that, by providing such an education, we open up the lives of…
Education K-12 and the Shortage of Teachers
1. Introduction: Policy Problem
In South Carolina State, the share of educators quitting their posts per annum (6,500 in number, in the year 2016) is much higher as compared to that of teacher-program graduates available to occupy those vacant posts (1,700, for the year 2016). The state’s teacher-training enrollment has been dwindling at four percent, averagely, a year. From 2009 to 2014, a thirty-five percent drop was witnessed in teacher education enrollment, to 451,000 from 691,000. This represents a decline of nearly 240,000 graduates in 2014 from the 2009 figures (Sutcher, Darling-Hammond & Carver-Thomas, 2016). The state’s dearth of qualified educators, particularly in rural, impoverished areas and within the disciplines of science and mathematics, has grown so acute that long-term economic growth as well as education quality has suffered statewide (The Citadel, 2017). In this paper, the State of South Carolina will be…
Brown, E. S. (Ed.). (1938). Ratification of the Twenty-First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States: State convention records and laws. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.
Burnham, W. (2016). Introduction to the law and legal system of the United States. West Academic Publishing.
Daniel, L.G., Petersen, G., Welch, F., Meetze-Holcombe, T., Pedersen, J. & Rakestraw, J. (2017). South Carolina education deans collaborate to tackle teacher shortage. College of Education, University of South Caroline. Retrieved from http://www.sc.edu/study/colleges_schools/education/about/news/2017/deans_teacher_shortage.php on 26 April 2018
Dee, T. S., & Goldhaber, D. (2016). Understanding and Addressing Teacher Shortages in the United States. The Hamilton Project, Brookings.
Elazar, D. (1972). American Federalism: A View from the States, 2nd ed. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company.
Espinoza, A (2017). Providence schools face a shortage of teachers for English language learners. WNPR. Retrieved from http://wnpr.org/post/providence-schools-face-shortage-teachers-English-language-learners on 27 April 2018
Fiorina, M. P. (1994). Divided government in the American states: a byproduct of legislative professionalism?. American Political Science Review, 88(2), 304-316.
Hedge, D. (2018). Governance and the changing American states. Routledge.
Attainment of the Achievement Goal
I currently teach Business-related courses at Downingtown HS East Campus, which has experienced an overall high performance of students over the last few years. The Business-related courses that I teach are designed students prepare to compete in competitions like mock trial, DECA, and other business topic competitions. While most of my students have demonstrated significant interest in pursuing a career in the field of business, they have challenges in reading. Due to reading challenges, the biggest problem in my class is that most of the students who take these courses are lower level or average students and struggle with higher level thinking and development of their idea. The desired change in this area is for students to demonstrate higher level creative thinking and be able to develop their own ideas. This paper discusses strategies that I could use in my classroom to help in the…
California Department of Education Publication. (n.d.). Interventions in English Language Arts. Retrieved from California Department of Education website: https://pubs.cde.ca.gov/tcsii/ch2/intrvnelarts.aspx
Cox, J. (2017). Teaching Strategies that Enhance Higher-Order Thinking. Retrieved December 6, 2017, from http://www.teachhub.com/teaching-strategies-enhance-higher-order-thinking
Professional Learning Board. (n.d.). Why Use Graphic Organizers in the Classroom? Retrieved December 6, 2017, from https://k12teacherstaffdevelopment.com/tlb/why-use-graphic-organizers-in-the-classroom/
Tofade, T., Elsner, J. & Haines, S.T. (2013, September 12). Best Practice Strategies for Effective Use of Questions as a Teaching Tool. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(7). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3776909/
Thoughtful Classroom. (n.d.). Styles and Strategies for Helping Struggling Learners Overcome Common Learning Difficulties. Retrieved November 24, 2017, from https://www.thoughtfulclassroom.com/PDFs/lsis-help-for-struggling-students.pdf
What are three rewards and three challenges that you will face as a teacher?
As a rabid student of popular culture, I have been interested in the so-called "achievement gap" in education, popularized in the media, the political spectrum, and even within contemporary business culture. There is clearly a demonstrable gap in educational relevancy; second, there are basic skills that are absolutely vital in order to participate in the modern global village that are not universal with the U.. educational environment. cholarship also points out that the earlier the attention to this "gap," the earlier the attention to potential reading disabilities, and the earlier the intervention towards socialization issues, the higher rate of success and inclusion. This, too, engenders challenges within the profession. For instance, today's classrooms are more diverse than ever, they are multi-dimensional as well. To help fill the gap, teachers need to be able to jump…
Kauchak, D. And Eggen, P. (2011). Introduction to Teaching, Becoming a Professional,
4th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Instructors should fully explain the "purpose" behind the assignment, and should ask themselves before assigning it: a) am I offering "any autonomy over how and when to do this work?"; b) does doing this assignment promote mastery by being "an engaging task?" And c) is the purpose of this assignment clear to the students?
Teachers, students and others in the classroom community are inspired when there is a larger cause for everyone to focus on. For example, by teaching to students' strengths (their interest in wildlife), have the students write and illustrate reports on the loss of wildlife habitat in their county -- by going out into the natural world with a biologist who can point out the ways urban sprawl, pollution, and over-grazing has done damage to the ecosystems and hence taken away habitat for birds, coyotes, deer and rabbits. Students use the concepts of autonomy, mastery, and purpose…
Life Long Learners. (2003). Dan Pink Recommends a 'FedEx day' for Students and Teachers.
Retrieved June 12, 2012, from http://life-long-learners.com .
Pink, Dan. (2009). Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. New York:
As a result they are often excluded from the mainstream and from being productive members of society.
I feel that it is not only ethically and morally important to help these individuals but that it also makes economic and social sense to assist those who are disadvantaged to receive a better education and advance their potential in life.
I also believe that we should be careful to consider the fact that adult education is an area that requires a very different approach and involves different modes of understanding, as well as the use of appropriate techniques, when dealing with the various categories of disadvantaged adult. For example, in terms of those adults who are disadvantaged with regard to education backlogs, one has to realize that they often face a number of unique and specific problems; such as the fact that many will have families, children and work commitments, which make…
Moore, M.G., & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance Education: A System's View.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Motivating Disadvantaged Adult Learners. Retrieved July 5, 2009 from http://ujop.cuni.cz/page/en/dalsi/presentations/MoDAL-basic%20idea.ppt.
Incidental teaching. Retrieved July 5, 2009 from Incidental Teaching.
As I began to realize that I was expecting less than they were capable of I realized that some of my preconceived notions about the teaching profession were coloring my viewpoint.
One example was the day a preschool student from the regular education class came to me and handed me a book that she wanted to read to me. I was surprised but let her open the book and begin reading. It reminded me not to assume the level of ability of any student as each student is an individual and develops at individual rates.
In observing the classrooms I found that problems can be dealt with by remaining flexible and keeping an open mind (Safer, 2003).
An example of this philosophy occurred when an autistic preschool student was included in the inclusion setting. "Tommy" did not respond to verbal cues nor was he a verbal child. The teacher made…
GRIESHABAER, SUSAN and CANNELLA, GAILE S. (EDS.) (2001). EMBRACING IDENTITIES in EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: DIVERSITY and POSSIBILITIES. MIDWOOD; LB1139.23.E58.
SAFER, STEFFEN (2003). PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS to PRACTICALLY EVERY PROBLEM: THE EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHER'S MANUAL. REDLEAF PRESS.
WOMG, HARRY K., WONGN, ROSEMARY T. (2004). FIRST DAYS of SCHOOL: HOW to BE an EFFECTIVE TEACHER. HARRY K. WONG PUBLICATIONS.
PELLETIER, CAROL MARRA (2003). STRATEGIES for SUCCESSFUL STUDENT TEACHING. REDLEAF PRESS.
Teaching Diversity in the Classroom
In recent decades it has become increasingly important that educators understand the importance of multicultural education. Given that society has become more pluralistic and diverse, there is a need for a curriculum that focuses on diversity. This research proposal recognizes that diversity can and should be taught, and proposes a methodology for doing so.
This project reviews the literature on teaching diversity. Achieving diversity in higher education involves a wide range of approaches. Teaching diversity includes the need to recruit and maintain a diverse student body, as well as faculty, and to provide instruction to a diverse group of students, provide an inclusive curriculum that reflects the contributions of non-Western and minority groups, and to teach so as to critically examine the humanities and the professions from perspectives of groups that have been marginalized.
The Center for Instructional Diversity in Research divides strategies for diversity…
Banks, J.A., Cookson, P., Gay, G., Hawley, W.D., Irvine, J.J., Nieto, S…Stephan, W.G. (2001). Diversity within unity: Essential principles for teaching and learning in a multicultural society. The Phi Delta Kappan, 83(3), 196-198, 200-203. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20440100
Center for Instructional Diversity in Research. (2008). Inclusive teaching. University of Washington. Retrieved November 9, 2011 from: http://depts.washington.edu/cidrweb/inclusive/diversify.html
Center for Teaching. (2011). Diversity & inclusive teaching. Vanderbilt University. Retrieved November 9, 2011 from: http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/teaching-guides/interactions/diversity/
Davis, B.G. (1993). Tools for teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Teaching is one of the most important, although also the most underrated, professions in the world. Teachers today prepare young people not only for their next level of schooling, but also for tertiary education and ultimately to become gainfully employed and contributing citizens themselves. The problem is that there are so many varying levels of education today, ranging from the extremely poor to the extremely excellent. One factor that plays a major role in how well teachers are able to present materials in the classroom is the education they receive themselves. Although the quality of teacher education depends on several factors, one major argument revolves around whether they should be exposed to unproven theory or not. On the one hand, the argument may be that exposing them to unproven theory may only detract from the central purpose of their education, which is to provide them with the tools…
Chye, T.E. (2008, Jul.) Learning to Teach, Teaching to Learn: A handbook for NUS teachers. Retrieved from: http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/handbook/home/foreword.htm
The Critical Thinking Community (2013). The Role of Questions in Teaching, Thinking and Learning. Retrieved from: http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/the-role-of-questions-in-teaching-thinking-and-learning/524
National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) (2007, Jul.) Quality Indicators for Teacher Education. Retrieved from: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/PUB_QITE.pdf
Porter-Magee, K. (2013, Feb. 8). Common Core v. The false promise of leveled literacy programs. Common Core Watch. Retrieved from: http://edexcellence.net/commentary/education-gadfly-daily/common-core-watch/2013/common-core-v-the-false-promise-of-leveled-literacy-programs.html
The teacher must use effective discipline to ensure students do not interrupt one another, know to raise their hands, not get out of their seats during class, or engage in disturbing activities. This is disrespectful to the learning of others as well as simply against the rules. Drawing up a list of rules to obey for the students is one way to help students understand how the U.S. Constitution, for example, was negotiated and formulated.
Student assignments will include everything from pretending to be various historical characters in costume, to doing Internet research to understand what are reliable and unreliable sources, as well as more standardized essays and tests to prepare them to meet nationalized testing standards. Field trips will reinforce many of class lessons. To encourage student confidence without relaxing curriculum standards, teachers should assign a variety of projects in a variety of media. Some students are natural talkers…
ardhaugh indicates that there is a problematic need in the field to reverse expectations about the capacity of this approach to instruct in practicable and usable linguistic ability. The author takes exception with traditionalist ideas the argue "the single paramount fact about language learning is that it concerns, not problem solving, but the formation and performance of habits." (ardhaugh, p. 21) The linguistic theorist rejects this principle as failing to acknowledge many of the more abstract contextual factors relating to the applicable usage of language. Particularly, the impact levied by culture, by regional dialect, by accent, by generational difference, by distinctions between formal, informal or slang usage and by a host of other even less tangible effectors cannot be introduced simply through the use of habit-forming drills or other techniques which rely singularly on rote practice.
Kanno & Varghese (2010) contribute research that does endorse this more integrative approach, which…
Booth, N.B. (2009). English as a Second Language (ESL) learning communities: An approach to retaining ESL students in a community college. Rutgers the State University of New Jersey.
Burdett, B.E., & National Association of Independent Schools, B.A. (1967). Foreign language teaching- A Review of current problems. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Flood, J. (2003). Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. Psychology Press.
While commenting on the works of Baldwin & Ford, Detterman (Detterman & Sternberg, 1993) observed that the American enterprises were more likely to lose in case of teaching employers as they diverted lump sum of $100 billion annually to tutor employees. The loss is experienced because whatever is learned in an adult learning session is not practiced at the workplaces.
This problem is indicative of the dire need for combining knowledge with current practical work. The internships of doctors and people doing Ph. D serve as examples to show the link between learning and practical work (Lave & Wenger, 1991). The variations in practical applications and formal learning make it necessary that lifetime learners find out fresh strategies to tackle these variations. These variations comprise of the high work requirements that make the job training mandatory, unavoidable variation in an occupation, tech-literacy and the disparity created between the skilled and…
Detterman, D.K., & Sternberg, R.J. (1993). Transfer on trial: Intelligence, cognition, and instruction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing,.
Fischer, G. (1991). Supporting learning on demand with design environments. International Conference on the Learning Sciences, pp. 165-172.
Fischer, G. (1998c). Making learning a part of life-beyond the 'gift-wrapping' approach of technology. In P. Alheit & E. Kammler (Eds.), Lifelong learning and its impact on social and regional development. Donat Verlag, Bremen, pp. 435-462.
Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind, New York: Basic Books.
Teaching disadvantaged adults could be one of the biggest challenges that an educator could face. Adults are already set in their ways. Their brains have already developed to the point where very little will be reshaped and habits are already set in. Not only can this pose difficulty when trying to teach something new to adults, it becomes an even harder task when trying to teach something novel to disadvantaged adults. Situational factors such as poverty, lack of complete grasp of the English language, and cultural factors could come into play and both negatively and positively affect their ability to learn and be taught (Kerka, 2002). A key concept in teaching disadvantaged adults is in the methods and materials chosen to appropriately affect their learning. An educator needs to make sure that these things are appropriate to an adult given their disadvantaged situation and that whatever method is chosen will…
Kerka, S. (2002). Teaching adults: Is it different? Educational Resources Information Center. 21(3): 32-33.
Kozma R. & Wagner. D. (2006). Reaching the most disadvatanged with ICT: What works? Education and Training Policy ICT and Learning. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Chapter 5: 97.
Lyn, T. & Ducklin, A. (1995). Further education colleges and educationally disadvantaged adults. Scottish Educational Review. 27(2): 154-164.
This is the essence of Knowles' self-directed learning.
The last sentence of Stephen Brookfield's Chapter on "Adult Learning: An Overview" states "To understand adult learning we need to know it's connections of learning in childhood and adolescence and to the formation during these periods of interpretive filters, cognitive frames and cultural values."
Brookfield's assertion is somewhat at odds with Knowles concept of the difference between child and adult learning, although it is developmental in nature. One possible way of reconciling the difference between Brookfield and Knowles is to propose a stage theory of learning that shows progression from childhood to adolescence to adulthood, incorporating different theorist's ideas about the relationship between learner and teacher at different developmental, emotional, and experiential stages.
Stage 1: Childhood. Child is eager to learn but not certain of how to go about it. Learns to please self 'in the moment' of experience, but without…
Smith, M.K. (2002) 'Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and anadragogy.' The encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm.
I am currently taking a teaching preparatory course that enables me to go to a local elementary school (K-1 center) three days a week where I work in a classroom with the teacher and her students. I am enjoying this experience a great deal. I believe that these small children are our nation's future. There's nothing that gives me greater joy than helping them build a solid foundation to succeed in the future. By teaching them the basics in reading, writing and math, I truly believe that I am making a difference in their lives.
Now, I am ready to take the necessary steps I need to follow to become certified to teach. I value your consideration of my application to your university. I assure you that my performance will exceed your expectations given my high desire to become a teacher and work with children.
There is a quote I remember that I don't know exactly where I heard that goes "The mediocre teacher tells, the good teacher explains, the superior teacher demonstrates, the great teacher inspires." I have been fortunate to have had a number of superior teachers throughout my academic career. Each encouraged me to succeed. However, there are two that hold a special place in my memory, one from elementary school and one from high school.
I was in a self-contained sixth grade classroom and my teacher was Mr. Burke. The one most important thing he did for me was to construct an atmosphere in the classroom where learning was fun. His style of teaching facilitated learning in a positive and supportive environment. He was an excellent communicator with a ready laugh and a good sense of humor. His teaching style put everyone at ease. He had high expectations and…
Teaching Style of Lecturing
From the ancient Grecian sophists delivering rhetorical oratories to adoring throngs, to the staid scientists presenting analytical treatises to graduate students, vocalizing an organized lecture to a group of students has long been among the hallmarks of traditional educational delivery. The process of arranging complex subject matter within the relatively accessible framework of lecturing affords educators a number of distinct benefits, including the standardization of student exposure to learning material, the ability to customize lessons in accordance with the collective needs of a class, and the opportunity to inject creativity into dense and demanding instruction. Despite the historical reliance on lecturing to impart knowledge and skills to a wide audience, however, the modernization of educational communication which has occurred in conjunction with the digital age has exposed many of disadvantages inherent to the typical teacher-delivered lecture. The availability of online lecture series delivered directly from experts…
Coughlin, S. (2013, May 01). Jimmy wales: Boring university lectures 'are doomed'. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-22160988
Exley, K., & Dennick, R. (2009). Giving a lecture: from presenting to teaching. (Vol. 10). Newy York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Knight, J.K., & Wood, W.B. (2005). Teaching more by lecturing less. Cell Biology Education, 4(4), 298-310. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1305892/
Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., Kalman, H.K., & Kemp, J.E. (2011). Designing effective instruction. (6th ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Teaching Special Education Students
In the classroom, teachers are primarily responsible for ensuring that special education students are provided with equal opportunities for education. While instructors should not lower academic standards in the classroom, they should make every effort to make reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities. y making simple adjustments, such as allowing students to record lectures or changing the format of a test, teachers can make sure that special education students do not have academic or social disadvantages.
Setting up the Classroom
In the classroom, simple changes can make a great difference for special education students. For example, by arranging desks in a manner where each student has his own personal space, as opposed to sitting in groups, special education students have less chances of being distracted.
There should be various centers in the class that provide a space for students to go when they are finished with…
Klinger, J., & Vaughn, S. (1999). Students' perceptions of instruction in inclusion classrooms: Implications for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children.
Polloway, E., Bursuck, W., Jayanthi, M., Epstein, M., & Nelson, J. (1996). Treatment acceptability: Determining appropriate interventions within inclusive classrooms. Intervention In School and Clinic.
Brattlan, Lee. (2002) Brief Reference of Student Disabilities:...with Strategies for the Classroom.
Teaching in America
Grant and Murray's Teaching in America: The Slow Revolution is a book with two faces. On one hand it is a book of history, covering the developments in education in general over the past century; here it is at times fascinating, at times tedious, but always informative. On the other hand, the book points to one overruling "Slow Revolution" which the authors describe as the solution to our nation's (and the world's) educational problems. While the former topic is simply a recounting of established history, the latter requires evidence and argument in support of the authors' claim; this evidence comes primarily from interviews with teachers. Hence, this book spans two realms of academia: as the researchers themselves state, "Our research is both sociological and historical" (8). This paper will investigate the credibility of the authors' latter claim, which is based on a rather isolated set of evidence,…
Grant, G., and Murray, C.E. Teaching in America: The Slow Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard
Customer Reviews. 2003. Booksunderreview.com. 16 December 2003. http://authors.booksunderreview.com/G/Grant,_Gerald/
Harvard University Press/Teaching in America/Reviews. 2000. Harvard UP. 16 December 2003. http://www.hup.harvard.edu/reviews/GRATES_R.html
Teaching Disaster and Emergency Management
The whole world has turned into a place where people encounter experiences with diverse forms of disaster. Most of the disasters are usually extremely complicated and strike unexpectedly in any region causing massive damages and loss of lives. The complexities accompanying the catastrophes require the existence of well-trained personnel oftentimes ready to deal with disasters as they occur before causing irreparable harm to people and property. In some regions, many people have lost lives and properties destroyed because of the slow response by the people dependable for handling the emergencies. This calls for the training of new and many people who provide quick and efficient response to the disasters whilst saving lives. Various regions and countries have taken up the initiative of training people expected to play a critical role in the management of disasters. There has been an argument whether teachers handling disaster management…
Alexander, D. (2000) "Scenario Methodology for Teaching Principles of Emergency
Management," Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 9(2): 89 -- 97
Neal, D.M. (2000). Developing Degree Programs in Disaster Management: Some Reflections
and Observations. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 18(3): 417-
While each student will respond to school and education differently, all can discover their personal aptitudes in academics, athletics, or the arts. School also provides key socialization functions that helps students learn and grow. As a teacher it is my responsibility to understand the process of socialization and social development in my students. As students become more aware of their personal power, they can apply what they learn in school to outward expressions such as community service, creative endeavors, or athletic performance.
Teachers learn as much from their students as our students learn from us. Students challenge us, and encourage us to change and grow just as they do. By keeping up-to-date on my profession, and the subject matters that I teach, I can provide my students with the best quality education. Incorporating current events and popular culture into my lessons will help students understand how education has a direct…
Learning strategies do this inherently by focusing on the student and his or her capacity to learn rather than by what methods the teacher chooses to teach. Because this study was done during the dawn of learning strategies, the paper takes the form of a literature review rather than primary research. As such, the data is presented in the form of findings. The authors provide a definitive definition of learning strategies as well as giving a list of types of learning strategies that students have been known to employ and that the research to this date finds credible. Based on this, the authors conclude that teachers need to assist students with how to learn in addition to what to learn. They similarly conclude that as research into the strategies continues, they will be likely to affect and grow the implications of learning strategies.
Although the authors are correct that the…
Weinstein, C.E. & Mayer, R.E. (1983). The Teaching of Learning Strategies. Innovative Abstracts. 5.32, pp. 1-4.
Teaching Strategy for Special Ed
Special Education Standard
Direct instruction is the most widely-used teaching strategy, although it has become controversial in recent years. Critics argue that it limits the creativity of good teachers and provides a crutch for poor ones (What is direct instruction? 2011). It is a teacher-centered approach that relies on structured lesson plans, offering little or no variation and no opportunity for discussion or active participation. The effectiveness of direct instruction has been demonstrated widely but it can be a poor choice for students with disabilities who would benefit from another approach.
What is Direct Instruction?
"Direct instruction is a theory of education which posits that the most effective way to teach is by explicit, guided instructions" (What is direct instruction? 2011). Although it is the oldest form of instruction, it gained attention in the 1980s when implemented in the schools of inner-city Baltimore. Instruction was…
Adams, G., and Carnine, D. (2003). Direct instruction. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Retrieved from http://nichcy.org/research/summaries/abstract1
National Institute for Direct Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nifdi.org/15/
What is direct instruction? (2011). Teach-nology. Retrieved from http://www.teach-
Child Development Center
Louisa Bell, 27, in the Starry Night Child Development and Preschool, starts her day greeting the toddlers in the front pathway. Chris (2.5), a quite dynamic boy, comes with a huge bag with snacks and drinks inside, and so do Tamara (3), and Rachel (2). This week, Chris doesn't want to wear other apparel but his blue jeans overall with a horse and cart on the pocket.
After praying, Louisa asks them if they like watching TV. She asks them to sit on the cushion. Both Tamara and Chris want the red cushion, so Louisa has to calm them down and take another red cushion from the other room. Louisa says, she wants them to keep the cushion clean before she starts the film, then she helps the kids putting the cushions forward the TV.
She puts a Teletubbies tape on a VHS player and…
Because of the lack of clarity and certainty regarding mental retardation or intellectual disability, the effect of having students with this issue in a classroom can be somewhat more chaotic than with other developmental disorders, where specific modes of instruction have been developed. It can be difficult to predict what a student with mental retardation might be stimulated by, and there are certain areas where individual students might simply have no interest. This can make it incredibly hard to involve them in classroom activities even when special accommodations and attempts are made. Students with mental retardation are not especially disruptive, and do not tend to make learning difficult for others, but this actually runs a greater risk of their going ignored as the classroom's education develops and progresses. For this reason, specific and repeated attempts to engage students with mental retardation in every aspect of the classroom and its activities…
Additionally, teachers provide information on upcoming math topics so tutors can come more fully prepared" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1).
The program demonstrates how an elementary school's mathematics education can be enhanced by a good tutoring program. The program helped inject fun into the discipline of mathematics, provided personalized attention to struggling students, featured 'previewing' critical material to be covered the next day in class, had less structured break/snack time so students had time to 'digest' new material (no pun intended), and the tutors worked closely with the student's regular teachers. The tutors also said that they learned a great deal that would serve them well in their own classrooms while working with the teachers, and also from their students. Supervising university observers of the tutors noted they had fewer absences in their classes than non-participants. Finally, the program made effective use of community outreach, as it merged the…
I never used to like math but now it is my favorite subject since I have been going to math tutoring. Now I understand it" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1). Few words could more delightful to the ears of an elementary math school teacher. But what prompted this student's enthusiasm? The student became excited about math because of a program created by a rural school district that was seeking to raise its students' standardized test scores. The district took proactive action and created a partnership with the local university to formulate an after-school tutoring program, staffed by university volunteers from the elementary education program at the university.
Elementary children in grades 3-6 were chosen to participate who had math scores below the 30th percentile on the standardized test used by the state of Pennsylvania, the results of their Stanford 9 Achievement Tests, and classroom teachers' recommendations. The ratio of elementary students to university tutors was two students to each tutor. Sessions included individual meetings with tutors, snack time during which tutors 'previewed' upcoming math lessons, homework assistance, and games. "Each child has a folder that contains an information sheet for classroom teachers to guide tutoring with assigned homework and skill areas to be practiced. Additionally, teachers provide information on upcoming math topics so tutors can come more fully prepared" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1).
The program demonstrates how an elementary school's mathematics education can be enhanced by a good tutoring program. The program helped inject fun into the discipline of mathematics, provided personalized attention to struggling students, featured 'previewing' critical material to be covered the next day in class, had less structured break/snack time so students had time to 'digest' new material (no pun intended), and the tutors worked closely with the student's regular teachers. The tutors also said that they learned a great deal that would serve them well in their own classrooms while working with the teachers, and also from their students. Supervising university observers of the tutors noted they had fewer absences in their classes than non-participants. Finally, the program made effective use of community outreach, as it merged the resources of the local university and solicited the input of school and district administrators to create an effective program. Despite the occasional logistical and emotional problems created by the difficulties of using the same tutor for individual students from grade to grade, the program was deemed a success.
Students that have adapted, whethe it is fo cultual easons o because an anothe style was bette suited fo the subject, may continue to show highe achievement even in futue classooms that do not implement the teaching styles that have been found to be ideal fo achievement levels. Futue eseach should also look to see if teaching styles beyond the ecommendations of No Child Left Behind can acquie the impovement in achievement NCLB seeks.
Bouque J., Bouchamma, Y., & Laose, F. (2010). Aboiginal Students' Achievement in Science Education: The Effect of Teaching Methods. The Albeta Jounal of Educational Reseach, 56(1), 57-71.
Cabo, M. (2009). Match the Style of Instuction to the Style of Reading. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(5), 373-378.
Mogan, H. (2010). Impoving Schooling fo Cultual Minoities: The Right Teaching Styles Can Make a Big Diffeence. Educational Hoizons, 88(2), 114-120.
Payne-Tsoupos, C. (2010). No Child Left Behind: Disincentives to…
references for teaching styles matter in academic achievement: scientific and practical implications. Educational Psychology, 28(6), 615-625.
I view education holistically. Students are developing their character and their values in addition to facts and figures. Language learning is a critical component of character development because language mastery enhances cross-cultural communication. A fellow teacher offers a powerful statement on the role of progressivism in the classroom: "In a progressivist classroom, teachers plan lessons to arouse curiosity and push the student to a higher level of knowledge. The students are encouraged to learn by doing and to interact with one another. This develops social virtues such as cooperation and tolerance for different points-of-view," (Wilt 2003). A progressive teaching philosophy acknowledges the persistence and potency of change. Optimism and creativity will motivate my students to achieve, inspiring their curiosity and ability to think critically.
The means by which I will achieve my teaching objectives include the use of proven classroom management techniques, the implantation of creative cooperative learning strategies, and…
Haugen, L. (1998). Writing a Teaching Philosophy Statement. Iowa State University. Retrieved online: http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/philosophy.html
Sofsian, D. (n.d.). Teacher education philosophies. Retrieved online: http://ezinearticles.com/?Teacher-Education-Philosophies&id=227410
Wilt, B.L. (2003). A personal philosophy of education. Retrieved online: http://schoolmarm.org/main/index.php?page=p-genphil
Description of Learning:
Educational institutions are teaching subjects for a digital future but it is from a superficial manner however students need a deeper knowledge of it as a curriculum. When teaching students about math, it should be integrated in all subjects they are learning by being motivated by educators (Singhal, 1997). As shown in the examined scenario planning with an elementary school, it is apparent things became better for the students as far as the educational resources, and environment, which ultimately affects the learning process. Educational institutions must engage partnerships with other schools around the world. By providing student exchanges they will produce world class students, the internet is facilitating the process of globalization and providing virtual interaction with others. As it is shown in schools, technology is the key to change the educational environment and resources. The internet is encouraging students to engage in meaningful cross cultural dialogue…
There are some papers that are to be released and referred to by her in the above article. In the first of those papers, the belief is that the present result of the aptitude tests of the teachers today is the same as was the case a generation earlier, but the best among them are not likely to become teachers. In the second paper, the result shows that the women from the best colleges are not continuing to be teachers as the pay received by them as teachers is low, and not due to the attraction of higher pay in other occupations. On the level it can be assumed that if the salary of teachers were better, a lot of the best students would still be going into teaching.
According to the columnist, "Teachers aren't exactly getting worse. They're getting more consistently mediocre." She ends her own article by saying…
Ave, Melanie. Educators want more Mr.'s in their classrooms. St. Petersburg Times. 14 November, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.sptimes.com/2004/11/14/Tampabay/Educators_want_more_M.shtml . Accessed on 27 May, 2005
Bhat, Sanjay. Schools struggle to reduce high teacher turnover. 3 January, 2005. The Seattle Times. Retrieved at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2002138717_turnover03m.html . Accessed on 28 May, 2005
Direct Instruction: Is it the Most Effective Science Teaching Strategy? 15 December, 2004. NSTA Web News Digest. Retrieved at http://www.nsta.org/main/news/stories/education_story.php?news_story_ID=50045Accessed on 28 May, 2005
Errickson, Tiffany. Mentoring teachers. September 21, 2004. Retrieved at http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,595092712,00.html . Accessed on 27 May, 2005
(Fletcher & Crochiere, 2004)
Motivation to Learn
Motivation to learn can be defined as the degree of cognitive effort invested to achieve educational goals (Li, 2003). It can also be understood as the degree of "seriousness" with which a student attempts to address the commitments and targets school with the purpose of: a) master the knowledge and skills rather than and get away with doing the minimum, b) clearly verify the status of their knowledge rather than try to complete the task independently of being sure that they actually learned something (MacIntyre, 2002).
Marshall (2001) have proposed to distinguish two types of motivation to learn, one that manifests itself as a personality trait and one that manifests itself as a state. In the first sense, the concept refers to a general provision that allows a student to perceive learning as an inherently valuable and satisfactory and therefore to engage in…
Barbetta, P., Norona, K. & Bicard, D. (2005). Classroom behavior management: A dozen common mistakes and what to do instead. Preventing School Failures. Vol. 49, Issue 3, p 11-19.
Bear, G.G. (2008). Best practices in classroom discipline. In Thomas, A. & Grimes, J. (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology V (1403-1420). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists
Bear, G.G., Cavalier, A., & Manning, M. (2005). Developing self-discipline and preventing and correcting misbehavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Fletcher, L., & Crochiere, N. (2004). How to Design and Deliver Speeches (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Most Internet providers will create Web sites for their members, and there are large amounts of software that can be purchased to create one's own Web site as well as companies that will do this for a fee. ecause of this, creating a web site for a particular instructor and his or her particular classes will be relatively easy. Most universities already have allocated this type of space to each faculty member and even adjunct professors often have space for Web sites for distance learning classes. These are usually not overly fancy, but this is irrelevant based on the fact that any type of web site which provides the necessary information clearly and correctly will be sufficient to do what is needed for a class to learn and understand (Cornell, 1999).
This type of simple web site and an e-mail address are really all the faculty needs for a very…
Cornell, R. (1999). The onrush of technology in education: The Professor's new dilemma. Educational Technologies, May/June. pp 60-63.
Ehrmann, S. (1995) Using technology to transform the foundation of higher education. On the horizon, April/May, Vol 3, No. 4.
Jones-Delcorde, D. (1999). The Information Age: The instructor-Computer Dilemma. Education Today, 45 (2). pp 32-33.
A special education assistant is classified as a teaching assistant in the British Columbia educational system. The definition of a teaching assistant, according to the Make a Future: Careers in BC Education Web site, is someone who provides general assistance to support teachers, students, and/or school programs (Make a Future: Careers in BC Education, 2012). In addition to the desired post of special education assistant, other teaching assistant positions include general teacher assistants, Supervision Aides, Food Program Aides, Library Aides, Science Aides, Multicultural Support Worker, Youth Care Worker, Aboriginal Support Worker, and Community School Assistants. For each of these teaching assistant positions, including special education teaching, a high school graduation is required.
The specific qualifications necessary for a special education assistant includes include certificates or diplomas from recognized college programs such as Classroom and Community Support Worker Program, Special Education Assistant Certificate, and Special Needs Worker Program (Make a…
Abbotsford School District. Website retrieved: http://hr.sd34.bc.ca/careers
"Abbotsford: School District 34." Retrieved online: http://www.makeafuture.ca/bc-school-districts/regions/fraser-valley/34-abbotsford/
Make a Future: Careers in BC Education (2012). Retrieved online: http://www.makeafuture.ca/career-resources/overview/support-staff/special-education-and-teacher-assistants/
S. Department of Education presented a five-year grant to University esearch Co's - UC Center for Human Services to work in collaboration with McDaniel College. The project is intended to act as a source to McDaniel to expand and execute a high quality bilingual education/ESL teacher-training program. By this project, CHS/McDaniel will offer various professional development openings to public school teachers and administrators, including workshops, graduate courses in bilingual education, field experiences, and a rigorous summer training institute. (Bilingual Education: Training for All Teachers)
The language immersion programs that are now provided in the United States came from Canada. They wanted their English-speaking population to learn French. Canadians realized English-speaking students were not getting adequate French to get minimum grades in school and to get jobs in French speaking areas of Canada. In 1975, Canada's first French immersion program began and by 1980 this program was launched in the United…
Bilingual Education: Training for All Teachers" Retrieved at http://www.urc-chs.com/services/education/bilingualeducation.html . Accessed on 20 March 2005
Canales, JoAnn; Ruiz-Escalante; Jose Agustin. "A Pedagogical Framework for Bilingual Education Teacher Preparation Programs" Proceedings of the Third National Research Symposium on Limited English Proficient Student Issues: Focus on Middle and High School Issues. Retrieved at http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/symposia/third/canales.htm. Accessed on 20 March 2005
Cargas, Rachel; Ryan, Tricia. (May 7, 2002) "Bilingual Education" Rachel Cargas's Online Research Portfolio. Retrieved at http://tiger.towson.edu/users/rcarga1/researchpaper.htm#BilingualeducationoriginatinginCanadaAccessed on 20 March 2005
Krashen, Stephen. (August 22, 2000) "Bilingual Education Wasn't a Cure" New York Times. Retrieved at http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/klet4.htm. Accessed on 20 March 2005
Teaching used to be easier than it is now. Teachers presented the information, assigned homework, made up tests, and graded students. It was the teacher's job to separate the wheat from the chaff, and the test was one of the most effective tools for that important task. Tests were sometimes complicated or tricky. Students who were weak readers found that their reading difficulties depressed their grades in all subjects, because only the best readers could negotiate the complicated test formats often used in social studies and science classes.
However, it was an easy way to grade. Tests were constructed to have ten items, not nine or eleven; or twenty, not nineteen or twenty-one. This made grading easier: "-2" to "-0" was an A, because those grades were 90% or higher.
The way teachers graded affected the way they wrote their tests: that 20th question might not have been important; that…
actual. The sample size is so small and concentrated that it is possible that intra-respondent bias was also present. Finally, the results provide support for the Internet in general and social networking applications specifically supporting appreciative, expressive and creative abilities yet fails to actually define how these strategies can be attained based on the research. The result is a study that reflects more of a consensus across the teaching profession than a rejection or critique of rote memorization and the embracing of scaffolding as a teaching strategy. It is disappointing that the research is not more robust and focused on getting past the obvious conclusions, stating instructors need to sharpen their online teaching skills. The most critical questions of how to create effective scaffolding strategies for each student using the new tools available from Web 2.0-based technologies goes unanswered. There is also the lack of charting and analysis of the…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. "Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. " MIT Sloan Management Review 49.3 (2008): 36-42. 1 Aug. 2008
Derrick Huang, Ravi S. Behara. "Outcome-Driven Experiential Learning with Web 2.0. " Journal of Information Systems Education 18.3 (2007): 329-336. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest 2 Aug. 2008.
Chin-Chih Lin, Chien-Chung Lin. "Instructional Strategies and Methods of e-Learning for Nurturing Appreciative, Expressive, and Creative Abilities." Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge 13.1 (2008): 199-207. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest.3 Aug. 2008
Mehdi Najjar. "On Scaffolding Adaptive Teaching Prompts within Virtual Labs. " International Journal of Distance Education Technologies 6.2 (2008): 35-54. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 3 Aug. 2008
This type of education has worked best within societies that contain large amounts of oppressive practices, where the oppressed need to learn some autonomy. More developed countries however tend to favor the more traditional types of education (Werner, 2000).
It is important to assess the specific needs of one's own educational environment. Some environments, as seen above, would benefit more from the behaviorist philosophy than from the humanist philosophy, and vice versa. It is therefore important to establish an initial focus, determine goals, and assess student needs. When there is for example a need for strongly skill-centered learning, such as a computer-skills course, this would benefit little from a behaviorist methodology. When the course is however more flexible and artistic, it might be better to focus on students' individual needs and concerns. In order to find what would work best in a specific classroom therefore, once should assess needs…
Bullen, Mark. (2004) "Andragogy and University Distance Education." University of British Columbia. http://www2.cstudies.ubc.ca/~bullen/bullen1.html
Kett, J.F. (1994) the Pursuit of Knowledge Under Difficulties. From self-improvement to adult education in America, 1750-1990, Stanford, Ca.: Stanford University Press.
Merriam, S.B. And Caffarella, R.S. (1991) Learning in Adulthood. A comprehensive guide, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Smith, M.K. (2002) 'Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and anadragogy', the encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm.Last updated: January 30, 2005
eal Crisis in the Classroom: Where Have All the Teachers Gone?"
The article "The eal Crisis in the Classroom: Where have all the teachers gone?" By William . Ogden, discusses the problematic circumstance of teachers leaving schools more quickly than schools are able to replace them. Ogden argues that a majority of students simply aren't willing to "wade through" complex field exams, coursework and certification programs. Part of the literature analysis begins by pointing out that educational facilities are subject to far too much scrutiny from outside organizations.
From a beneficial perspective the article does point out the crisis that is obviously plaguing educational facilities: a shortage of teachers. Also pointed out is the notion that professionals are poorly compensated. In this case the literature review provides too much "fluff." The article talks about songs in the 1960s, "Where have all the flowers gone" seemingly veering focus away…
Arends, Richard I.; Castle, Sharon. "Faculty Supply and Demand in Education." Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 54, 2003
Foshay, Arthur W.; Leavitt, Howard B. "Issues and Problems in Teacher Education: An International Handbook." Greenwood Press, Westport: 1992.
Sindelar, P.T., Buck, G.H., Carpenter, S., & Watanable, A.K. (1993). "Supply and demand in leadership personnel in special education: A follow-up study with analysis of failed searches." Teacher Education and Special Education, 16 (3), 240-248.
Smith, D.D., & Pierce, T.B. (1995). "The state of special education leadership training and college and university faculty: What we know and what we don't." Teacher Education and Special Education, 18, 156-165.
Students in grades 3-8 tested annually in reading and math. Students tested in science at least once in elementary, middle and high school. NAE Progress test taken by sample of 4th and 8th graders to compare results.
Academic progress. States must bring all students up to the "proficient" level on state tests by the 2013-14 school year.
Teacher Qualifications. Every public school teacher must attain the "highly qualified" level in each core subject he or she teaches. "Highly qualified" means teacher is certified and demonstrably proficient.
Controversy has swirled around the NCL law since its inception. Arguments over funding, standards, fairness, and legality of NCL continue even today. (EPE Research Center, 2004)
EPE Research Center. (2004, September 21). No Child Left ehind. Retrieved February 7, 2009, from Education Week: http://www.edweek.org/rc/issues/no-child-left-behind/
Lips, D. (2007, April 23). Saving 'No Child Left ehind' From Itself. Retrieved February 7, 2009, from the Heritage…
EPE Research Center. (2004, September 21). No Child Left Behind. Retrieved February 7, 2009, from Education Week: http://www.edweek.org/rc/issues/no-child-left-behind/
Lips, D. (2007, April 23). Saving 'No Child Left Behind' From Itself. Retrieved February 7, 2009, from the Heritage Foundation: http://www.heritage.org/Press/Commentary/ed042307a.cfm
Sometimes, an apparently poor performance on a standardized proficiency exam may be a remarkable performance for an individual student, although not when compared to the rest of the district's more privileged or capable children,
Linking pay to student performance provides a profound disincentive for teachers not to take the risk of teaching in historically disenfranchised and underperforming school districts. Why work twice as hard to deal with students who are more difficult to educate, for less pay? Finally, linking pay to performance assumes the validity of the test used to measure student performance. Teachers who teach 'to the test' may receive a bonus, while teachers who spend time devising creative assignments, or who cover material in a way that deals with all of the student's multiple intelligences, rather than just the verbal and mathematical capabilities tested on standardized proficiency tests, may not be rewarded adequately.
While the functionalist theory and the conflict theory aren't so different in theory, Durkheim's functionalist theory at least offers a bit more hope for students and it doesn't assume that education is meant to keep people in their place. However, preparing students for life is rather elusive as we can see especially today where the quality of education differs so dramatically from state-to-state and even from zip code to zip code.
The interactionist theorists examine how the educator's expectations influence the students' functioning, attitudes and impressions. osenthal and Jackson's groundbreaking study for the interactionist theory approach occurred in 1968 when the researchers studied a group of students of average IQ. The researchers then pointed out a handful of students whom they said would excel dramatically over the course of the coming year. The teachers were told who the students were and the teachers were asked to monitor the students' performance…
Dignan, Patricia. The Pygmalion Principal: The Impact of High Expectations on Students
and Staff Achievement. Author House, 2006.
Rosenthal, Robert., & Jackson, Lenore. Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher
Expectation and Pupils' Intellectual Development. Crown House Publishing,
Even when information should be shared with other educators and/or administrators, however, this does not mean that the information should become a part of general or public knowledge (Omstein & Levine 2007). Again, the risk of stigmatizing the student or in some way calling their development into question is quite high in certain circumstances, and even in the most mundane of instances other parents and non-educators might attempt to exert undue influence over another student's placement based on rumors or knowledge obtained through a lapse in privacy protection. This ultimately takes the power of decision making out of the teachers' and administrators' hands; instead of leaving the information and the decisions to those trained and equipped to handle them, breaching the privacy rights of students could potentially lead to a sort of mob rule of the schools, where the loudest voices make the decisions.
This is, of course, an extreme…
Chowdary, S. (2004). Mastery of teaching skills. Delhi: Discovery Publishing.
Omstein, A. & Levine, D. (2007). Foundations of education. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
Teacher Behavior/Class Culture
Avoiding Seeking Help in the Classroom: Who and Why?" appeared in the Educational Psychology Review in 2001. The article, by Allison Ryan, Paul Pintrich, and Carol Midgley, is mainly a literature review in the interrelated areas of achievement goal theory, social-goal orientation, and classroom dynamics and how these things impact the decision to seek academic help. The researchers investigated the causes of help avoidance, which has been found to increase during early adolescence (p.94). Therefore, the population in question is early adolescents, although the researchers to include references to studies that deal with other student populations. The article is well-written, well-organized, and clear. Help-seeking is the main focus of the paper, and is described by the authors as "an important self-regulatory strategy that contributes to student learning," (93). As help-seeking directly relates to actual student performance, the current research is important and can help educators understand and…
"Many of our current challenges are unprecedented," the president explained. "There are no standard remedies, or go-to fixes this time around. That is why we are going to need your help. e'll need young people like you to step up. e need your daring and your enthusiasm and your energy." I will continue to offer my enthusiasm and my energy -- and hopefully I will be daring enough to learn new skills and strategies for the betterment of my students and my community.
Critical Incidents in Education
Before I share specific school experiences I have had, I want to express my own perspective on teaching and education. I have always been very impressed by the thinking of John Dewey, who is considered the "Father of Public Education" in America, and also I've been influenced by the more contemporary strategies put forward by Albert Bandera, who is well-known for his…
Bandura, Albert. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human
Behavior, 4. New York: Academic Press, pp. 71-81
Dewey, John (2002). Waste in Education. In The School and Society (pp. 77-110).
Bristol, UK: Thoemmes Press.
If a religion forbids dancing, those children should not have to learn a new dance, even though it might be a lot of fun for others. In other religions, any kind of image is forbidden. These children should not be served cookies that have, for instance, a jack-o-lantern or the country's flag on it.
At the same time, such a day can help students learn about each others' cultures. In those cases, parents who belong to those cultures might organize the activities. For instance, if there are Jewish children in the school, parents might make latkes with applesauce or have an activity that explains the significance of a Jewish holiday. Ethnic minorities might set up an activity that demonstrates something important about their culture and history. "Under Eights" can be a learning experience as well as a lot of fun.
13. You are a teachers' aide. Discuss with a teacher…
If I had been in the instructor's position, I fear that I would not have handled the disciplinary issues quite as well, as I had not thought of all of the considerations mentioned by the instructor during the interview, especially the issue of the disruptive students' right and need to be educated and grow. An aide would have been of assistance in these scenarios, as they could remove the student from the public setting while going over rules and restoring discipline, but this is secondary to a proper consideration of the issues. I might have dropped different items from the week's curriculum, as well, but these changes would have been minor and largely unimportant. As far as moving ahead with tasks, I would have done just what the instructor did.
The rationales along which the above decision would have been-based is simply that these approaches appear to be the best…
When students can see and manipulate objects, they can be asked to describe them and put objects in visual and verbal terms that they can relate to, in their current developmental stage. Piaget observed students relate to objects at this age by touching what is concrete, describing objects and an object's location in space.
How well did Jenny follow constructivist guidelines? What could she have done differently to make the lesson more constructivist?
Jenny made use of group activities, and socially engaged forms of learning, although a strict constructivist would have wanted her to begin with such group activities.
Discuss constructivism in terms of the constructs defined and discussed by both Piaget and Vygotsky in the text. What is the basic difference between the approaches of these two theorists?
Piaget believed that biological development drives the movement from one cognitive stage to the next, while Vygotsky stressed the need…
esponding to hate crimes
Finally, all employees of the Trenton Public School District who become aware in the course of their employment that a student or other staff person has committed a hate crime or is about to commit one are required to immediately inform the principal and chief school administrator. According to the District's Equal Educational Opportunity Policy (File Code 5145.4), "All incidents of hate/bias shall be reported whether they occur during school hours on school grounds, on the way to or from school or otherwise" (p. 2). Teachers can play an important role in mitigating hate crimes in the schools by addressing anti-Semitism and Islamophobia (Haynes, 2011).
Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.
eference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.
Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. etrieved from http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/tchs/Course%20
Black's law dictionary. (1990).…
Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.
Reference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.
Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. Retrieved from http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/tchs/Course%20
Teaching Impression and eality
Out of all things I expected myself to do, teaching was probably the least of my expectations. However, things unraveled and led me to get a job at ICCD School.
Prior to this job, I had no experience as a teacher at any level. However, I had been raised by two parents in the field of education, both of whom would always come home with their share of amazing stories that I enjoyed hearing. I also got an ample amount of opportunities observing my parents at their work place, during breaks, when they would be busy with enrichment programs and would bring me along so that I would be able to spend quality time with them. Although I can't say I spent a lot of time bonding with them during their working hours, I can doubtlessly say I got to learn a lot from those trips.…
Magolda, M.B. (2000). Teaching to promote intellectual maturity. Jaussy Bass Publishers.
Orfalea, P. (2008). An eye for opportunity . Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 34(3), 46
Reid, G. (2003). Dyslexia a practitioner's handbook. Moray House School of Education University of Edinburgh
Slavin, R.E. (2001). Effective programs for latino students in elementary and middle schools . Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.