visual cues come from students developing knowledge of letter/sound relationships and of how letters are formed what letters and words look like often identified as sounding out words
Example 2- Phoneme Awareness -- Recognizing Rhyme Assessment (Klein, 2003).
Instructor: Says two-three words that rhyme: fat, cat, bat
Model: These words have the same sound at the end so they rhyme; cat and mop do not rhyme because their sound is different.
Listen to these two words:
pail - tail.
Now say the two words with me:
pail - tail.
Do these two words rhyme?
Put your thumbs up like this if they rhyme:
Listen to these two words:
cow - pig.
Now say the two words with me:
cow - pig.
Do these two words rhyme?
Put your thumbs down like this if they do not rhyme:
Assessment and Additional Words:
rug-mug-tug hat-dress-dog pan-man-tan
Bird-book-look lock-rock-sock bet-get-met cup-dog-cat
Part 3 -- Theory, References- Phonics teaches English by learning to connect the sounds of the spoken language with letters or groups of letters, then blending those sounds to form words. New words are mastered by forming approximate pronunciations of sounds, and then extrapolating to newer words. English has absorbed so many other languages that the word does not always sound the same way it looks, so patterns are taught -- short vowels, long vowels, shwa- sounds, closed and open syllables, dipthongs and dipgraphs. Sight words are a development from phonics, in which the picture of the object or activity (noun or verb) becomes dually associated with sound and meaning (Sensenbaugh, 1996).
The panel found that phonics are an effective way to teach reading in K-6, or when students have difficulty reading at higher levels. However, it is also important that teachers understand phonics is only one step of a total reading program, and that a significant amount of time and energy must also be spent on comprehension and synthesis (NRPR, 8-14).
Part 4 -- Appendix -- as a sample lesson on helping students value diversity we might utilize a book called Uncle Jed's Barbershop (Forgran; Mitchell, 1998).
Book Summary: Uncle Jed is a 79-year-old African-American barber who always dreams of having his own barbershop. He travels to many countries cutting people's hair and saving as much money as possible. In his travels, Uncle Jed faces many obstacles, but with determination and hard work, he finally achieves his goal.
Lesson Goal: To help students value human diversity and positively relate to others.
Prereading Activities: Preload students with questions, information about a barber. Tell them this book takes place 100 years in the past and that transporation and cities were much different. As them to listen closely and try to identify the differences.
During Reading: Can either be read aloud, popcorn style, or individually. Before revealing the final solution to the plot (Whether Jed saved enough money to open his barbershop), use the I SOLVE strategy to predict potential ideas for Uncle Jed to save and earn money.
1. How old do you think the little girl, Sara, is when this story begins?
2. Why did Uncle Jed need to travel?
3. What was Uncle Jed's dream?
4. Why didn't people believe Uncle Jed could save enough money for the trip?
5. What do you think the word segregation means?
6. How do you think Sara Jean's parents felt when they had to wait for the doctor to treat all the white patient's first?
7. How did it make Uncle Jed feel to help Sara Jean get...
How do you think Uncle Jed felt when he heard the bank lost all his money?
I SOLVE Strategy
I: IDENTIFY the problem presented in the book (Uncle Jed did not have enough money to open up his own barbershop).
S: SOLUTIONS to the problem? a) Book solution, b) Uncle Jed could give up? C) New solutions.
O: OBSTACLES to the solutions? a) Book solution, B) if Uncle Jed gave up, he'd never make his dream come true. C) Other.
L: LOOK at the solutions and choose one: What could help Uncle Jed achieve his goal?
V: VALIDATE the solution by trying it. Role play
E: EVALUATE how the solution worked. Discuss ways it worked, did not work, or could work better.
Extended Learning Activities:
Geography -- Find all the places Uncle Jed visited and describe a bit about each one.
History -- What was life like when Uncle Jed was travelling? Compare and contrast that with life today?
Science -- Why do people need to cut their hair? Discuss sanitation. Also travel and technology. What changes in Uncle Jed at 79 might affect his dream? (Mitchell, 1998)
Math - How much did Uncle Jed need? What are some savings plans that could help?
Psychology -- Discuss perceptions and cultural attitudes. Discuss ageist attitudes.
Philosophy -- Discuss morality and ethics of segregation, especially in medicine. Give some current examples and ask students to reflect.
WORKS CITED and CONSULTED
Anderson, H. (2000). Teaching Through Texts. Routledge.
Coulson, a. (2008). "Delivering Education." Hoover Institution Review. Cited in:
Dodson, D. (April 20, 2010). "Ready…Set…Read! Teaching Reading Fluency." Lesson
Planet. Cited in:
Forgan, J. (2003). Teaching Problem Solving Through Children's Literature. Teacher's Idea Press.
Graves, M. (2008). Teaching Individual Words. Teacher's College Press.
Guidry, L. (2003). "A Phonological Awareness Intervention for at-Risk Preschoolers."
Harvey, S. And a. Goudvis. (2007). Strategies That Work: Teaching Comprehension for Understanding and Engagement. Stenhouse Publishers.
Havie, P. (2004). "Review of Diane McGuinness: What Science Really Tells Us About
How to Teach Reading." Reading in a Foreign Language. 17 (1). Cited in:
Hiskes, D. (2005). Phonics Pathways: Clear Steps to Easy Reading and Perfect Spelling.
New York: Jossey Bass.
Johnson, T. (1987). Literacy Through Literature. Heinemann.
Klein, a. (2003). "Teaching Phonemic Awareness" Cited in:
Linan-Thompson, S. And S. Vaughn. (2007). Research-Based Methods of Reading
Instruction for English. ASCD Press.
Mitchell, M. (1998). Unclle Jed's Barbershop. Alladin.
Moats, L.C. (2000). Whole Language Lives on: The Illusion of 'Balanced Reading'
Instruction. Washington, DC: Fordham Foundation.
National Reading Panel. (2000). "Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching
Children to Read." National Institute of Health and Human Services. Cited in:
'Phonemic Awareness Intervention," (2006). Cited in:
"Phonics Interventions," 2003, Halo.Org. Cited in:
Pressley, M. (2006). Reading Instruction that Works: The Case for Balanced Teaching.
New York: Guilford Press.
Sadofsky, M. And D. Greenberg, eds. (1999). Reflections on the Sudbury School Concept.
The Sudbury School Press.
Sensenbaugh, R. (1996). "Phonemic Awareness: An Important Early Step in Learning to Read." ERIC Digest. Cited in:
Sloan, G. (2003). The Child as Critic: Developing Literaracy Through Literature. Teacher's College Press.
Smith, C. (1997). "Vocabulary Instruction and Reading Comprehension." Eric Digest.
Cited in: http://www.indiana.edu/~reading/ieo/digests/d126.html
Steiner, S. (2001). Promoting a Global Community Through Multicultural Children's Literature. Greenwood Publishing.
Walsh, J. a. (2005). Quality Questioning. Sage.
Yiio, R. a. (2009). Literature-Based Reading Activities. Allyn and Bacon.
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