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Television Advertising on 20-Something Females
Effectiveness of Television Advertising
Television is a traditional, yet the largest communication medium used by business corporations to promote their products and services to their potential customers. Advertisements done on television reach large target audience in both urban and rural areas. Every television advertisement has a specific target audience which constitutes the most potential customers for the company. The response rate and reaction of audience to television advertising is much greater than all other traditional and contemporary marketing mediums. Companies use targeted advertising on this medium to achieve better results of their marketing efforts.
This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of television advertising to young female consumers with age group of 18-25. It is widely believed that television advertising largely influences the behavior of young females which then becomes their attitude. Young females with age group of 18 to 25 are highly active viewers…
Debra Trampe, Diederik A. Stapel, Frans W. Siero. "The Self-Activation Effect of Advertisements: Ads Can Affect Whether and How Consumers Think about the Self," 2011. Journal of Consumer Research, 37 (6): 1030-1045. Print.
Frith, Katherine & Mueller, Barbara. "Advertising and societies: global issues, 2nd Edition. New York: Peter Lang. 2010. Print.
Gary, Austin, Witt. "High Impact: How You Can Create Ads that Sell!," Marketing Psychology Group, Inc., 1999. Web. December, 04, 2013.
Hanan, Jessica. Coping with changing roles for young men and women, 1st Edition. New York: Rosen Pub. Group. 2000. Print.
If children are repeatedly exposed to certain portrayals of an ethnic group, they may develop corresponding beliefs about the group" (Horgan, et. al., 2001)
Because there are very few advertisements that use the minority groups as the product endorsers, children are made to believe that these minority groups are not part of the "elites" and are just second-class citizen. This then cultivates the idea to children that minority groups do not deserve to receive the same attention that what other citizens are receiving, thus a clear indication of racism.
Intentionally or not, controversial advertisements do affect the psychological, emotional, physical and sociological state of the children. Children are very susceptible to various effects presented by the advertisements because they can easily be swayed to change their perceptions and even their behaviors. This is the very reason why there must be strict control over the contents and implication of the…
Edelson, Sharon (August 1995). "Shock values: do they sell?." Fairchild Publications, Inc.
Horgan, K.B. et al. 2001. "Television Food Advertising: Targeting Children in a Toxic Environment," the handbook of Children and the Media.
Schuster, Camille P. And Christine Pacelli Powell (1987) "Comparison Alcohol Advertising Controversies," Journal of Advertising, 16 (2), 26-33.
Marketing success is almost always found in celebrity endorsements. We can take a look at Pepsi ads which have featured Madonna, Michael Jackson, Brittany Spears, and even Mike Tyson. Pepsi is known around the world, just as the celebrities whom are featured on the Pepsi commercials. In other words, in using the notoriety of celebrities, a corporation may be able to increase its market share into the pockets of consumers who are more familiar with the celebrity than the product. The celebrity thus is a bridge between the consumer and the product. But what happens when those celebrities are notorious for other things as well as their entertainment or sport talent? And why do the corporations continue to utilize these celebrities if these celebrities have been known to engage in improprieties or dubious activities?
Corporations have a business model that has multiple branches leading from three or four…
The role of advertising, especially television commercials, in influencing social lifestyles has long been a raging debate between public interests groups, government and industry. Critics believe that advertising imagery, coupled with television programming, preys on susceptible minds. Pro-choicers, on the other hand, point out that freedom of speech and expression constitutes a basic, inviolable constitutional right, and that advertising merely facilitates consumers to exercise choice in their lifestyle decisions. Much of the debate, though supported by research, is based on the rhetoric of ideology. As against this, it is the objective of this paper to establish that advertising has a very fundamental and valuable contribution, in as much that it fuels economic and social progress. For one, advertising stimulates economic growth through creating new desires, thereby increasing the demand for goods and services. Second, advertising allows consumers to make informed purchase decisions. Third, advertising revenue enables affordable, mass…
Bennett, C.L. "Effects of Magazine Advertisements on College Females' Drive for Thinness, Self-esteem and Body Satisfaction." College of Communications, Schreyer Honors College. The Pennsylvania State University. Spring 2003. Retrieved Feb. 7, 2004: http://www.ipa.udel.edu/students/bennett/ugthesis_bennett.pdf .
Brown, S. "The role of advertising today." Marketing Monthly. Oct. 2003.
Retrieved Feb. 7,
2004, One Vision Web site: http://www.onevision.co.uk/xq/ASP/id.864/qx/default.htm?CT=LeftNav
The lizard is improbably likeable, with his enormous bright eyes and Cockney accent. The commercials are effective, in part, because they ask us to suspend belief. The lizard is the foil for whatever human character appears. The human does something silly or illogical and the lizard is the voice of reason. The situations are bizarre, which is what makes them funny. Geico is smart to change the commercials frequently. Just about the time the viewer tires of one, there is a new commercial starring the lizard in a fresh situation. As soon as the Geico logo appears on the television screen, the viewer is primed with anticipation for what the lizard will say and do next.
In each of these cases, the basis for appeal is appropriate to the product. Apple wants to appeal to our emotions while maintaining a serious tone. The iPad is supposed to be seen as…
'Geico Gecko Dollar Commercial,' YouTube. n.d. Web. 12 May 2011.
'If You Asked.' Apple iPad 2 TV Commercial. 4 May 2011. Web. 12 May 2011.
'Prius Harmony,' 2011 Toyota Prius TV Commercials. 2011. Web. 12 May 2011.
Cable television also opened up the medium to numerous types of television programming that had previously been excluded, simply because it could never have competed with the demand for mainstream types of programs during the same time slot.
Initially, cable television was only available in the largest markets like New York and Los Angeles and it was priced out of the range of most consumers. The technology also required a cable connecting the television to the channel box, which often was the size of small dinner platter. Within a few years, the technology advanced to the point of providing microwave remote controls that were no larger than those already included with many television sets.
The addition of virtually unlimited available channels resulted in the creation of dozens of specialty-interest program content such as cable television channels dedicated exclusively to history, science, nature, sports, politics, and comedy, to name just several.…
S. Constitution is on the side of the distilled spirits advertisers. The right to advertise is constitutionally protected commercial free speech under the First Amendment (Distillers spirits advertising in perspective). The First Amendment protection afforded to distilled spirits advertising is equal in scope to the First Amendment protection afforded to the advertising of all other legal products and services, certainly wine and beer.
Many believe that advertisers should not be allowed to target underage audiences with products that are harmful to their health even if it means limiting constitutional protection because many children are not capable of making good choices. Research shows that youth exposure to alcohol advertising increases awareness of that advertising, which in turn influences young people's beliefs about drinking, intentions to drink, and drinking behavior (Alcohol advertising on television, 2001 to 2003: more of the same).
Opponents of advertising alcohol on television are growing more vocal as…
Alcohol advertising on television, 2001 to 2003: more of the same. Retrieved November 9, 2005 from Web site: http://camy.org/research/tv1004/
Beaver, W. (1997, July-August). What to do about alcohol advertising. Business Horizons.
Retrieved November 9, 2005 from Web site: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n4_v40/ai_20141970#continue
Bivins, T. (2004) Mixed media. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbarum Associates, Inc.
So, advertising is not just bad because it lures us into eating unhealthy diets, the diets to lose some of the weight we gain are just as bad. Why? ecause they teach fast weight loss -- lose 10 pounds in two weeks. Is that possible? Yes, but it's usually "water" weight -- that weight that is most quickly put back on when we go back to a normal diet. ut just as the ads and promos don't tell us about all the calories in those RTE cereals and fast foods, when they push the fad diets, they don't mention that "water" weight problem.
And, sure enough, that's why people on fad diets eventually get frustrated. They lose ten pounds in a couple or three weeks, go back to their regular diet, and gain it right back. Eventually, the frustration level reaches a point that they give up and go have…
Atkins, B. (2007, August 7). Advertising affects children's food choices. Retrieved May 13, 2009, from Mydietexercise.com: http://www.healthcentral.com/diet-exercise/news-152468-29.html
Cohen, M. (2008, November 6). An investigation of the role of advertising in diet choice. Retrieved May 13, 2009, from http://www.macohen.net/prospectus_Job_Market.pdf
Elliott, V. (2007, February 3). TV's new junk food rules allow chips with everything. Retrieved May 13, 2009, from Timesonline.com: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/health/article1426542.ece
Kluger, J. (2009, April 22). Dieter self-control: Why you make bad choices. Retrieved May 14, 2009, from Time.com: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1892943,00.html
..hile older children and adults understand the inherent bias of advertising, younger children do not, and therefore tend to interpret commercial claims and appeals as accurate and truthful information," said psychologist Dale Kunkel, Ph.D., Professor of Communication at the University of California at Santa Barbara and senior author of the task force's scientific report. (Kunkel, et.al, 2004)
The Lego ads, when seen by younger children who "do not understand persuasive intent in advertising," might feel as if the balance of the world really does hang in their hands -- and an older child might be confused by the overlapping techniques of advertising, which blur the lines between advertising with a persuasive ulterior motive to encourage consumption, and entertainment in the form of cartoons. This confusion might be another reason for the greater efficacy of movie and product tie-ins with children's advertising."(Briesch, Bridges, & Kim, 2004) This fact is seconded by…
Briesch, Richard, Eileen Bridges, & Chi Kin (Bennett) Yim. (Nov 2004) "Advertising
Decisions and Children's Product Categories." SMUCox. Retrieved 6 Dec 2006 at http://www.cox.smu.edu/article/research/research.do/114
Campbell, Margaret & Amna Kirmani. (2000). Consumers' Use of Persuasion
Knowledge: The Effects of Accessibility and Cognitive Capacity on Perceptions of an Influence Agent." Journal of Consumer Research. Vol. 27. Pp.69-83. Retrieved 6 Dec 2006 at http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/resolve?id=doi:10.1086/314309&erFrom=8138845525183247928Guest
(Snyder & Deono quoted in Kjeldal 2003, Introduction section, ¶ 6).
The results from the study Kjeldal (2003) conducted with 70 participants in two stages suggest that the word association responses high self-monitors (HSMs) produce reflect selective activation of a personally meaningful, experiential, system. The responses low self-monitors (LSMs) produce, on the other hand, indicate an intellective factual system.
2. Decision Making Process Theories
Dr. onnie Halpern-Felsher (2009), an Associate Professor at theUniversity of California, San Francisco, identifies a number decision-making criteria in her report, "Adolescent decision making: an overview." According to Halpern-Felsher, determinations of definitions for a competent decision, the process of how the decision was made, differ dramatically. The actual behavior or outcome, albeit, does not determine competent decision making, however, during the normative model of decision-making process, one does consider the consequences to not choosing a particular behavior or a specific event.
Normative models of decision making,…
'Advertising, Public Relations' N.d. < http://courses.umass.edu/bmat352/lectures_and_readings/KA_16.pdf > [25 May 2009].
Bahaudin, M & Jue, A 2005. 'Deceptive and Subliminal Advertising in Corporate America: Value Adder or Value Destroyer?', Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. Nova Southeastern University Wayne Huizenga Graduate School of Business. HighBeam Research. Available from: < http://www.highbeam.com > [20 May 2009].
Barnard, N & Ehrenberg, A 1997. 'Advertising: Strongly Persuasive or Nudging',
Journal of Advertising Research - January/February 1997.
The same can also be said of corporate organisation that has in their possession accumulated research capacity which enables it to deliver unique products and services from its competitors.
1.2.7 To increase market share.
Advertising can also be used to increase the market share of an organisation resulting from the acceptance of the products but the consumer and subsequent recognition of the brand.
1.3 FUNCTIONS OF ADVERTISEMENT
Advertising as a promotional mix element is expected to play some functions. Organisations usually employ advertisement to play the following functions.
1.3.1 To distinguish products from their competitors
Advertising has been found to be a useful promotional tool when it comes to distinguishing between the products of an organisation from their competitors. There are so many products in the market. Sometime the same types of products are competing in one market. It is even the case that other manufacture may imitate the products…
Children Could Lose Their Attention on TV Advertisements
While watching TV, children could create their own imaginary world and totally engrossed in it for a period of time. Recent survey finds out that children watch their favorite program on TV for about four or more hours every day. It is assumed that television has brought hazardous effect on children's attitude, intelligence, and social acceptance this way. However, based on my recent observation, kids are not totally engrossed on the program. My subjects show that during the program they also insert several different tasks such as inviting friends (other people over). Why do some children lose interest in television programming during commercials and begin other task? Is it because they lack of concentration span as most children do? Are there any other factors from the commercial itself that prevent them from watching? The research will combine behavior observation and questionnaire method…
____. Survey Design. 2001. The Survey System's Tutorial. Creative Research System. http://www.surveysystem.com/sdesign.htm .(Apr5, 2002)
____. TV or No TV?. 2000. Your Child's Health. http://www.yourchildshealth.com/family/tv.html.(Apr5, 2002).
Commercials. 1997. Center for Media Education. http://www.cme.org/children/kids_tv/commercial.html.(Apr5, 2002)
DeGaetano, Gloria. 1998. Visual Media and Children's Attention Span. University of Oregon. http://interact.uoregon.edu/MediaLit/mlr/readings/articles/degaetano/visualmedia.html (Apr5, 2002)
Children (boys especially) are predisposed to watching scenes of violence for long periods of time without feeling the need to change the program. Consequent to this, they are expected to display antisocial behavior.
Cartoons are essential in influencing children, given the fact that most seem innocent to most parents, thus preventing them from wanting to change the channel. Studies have shown that cartoons have a more negative influence on children in comparison to violence seen directly on TV. hile cartoons do not necessarily influence a violent behavior in children, they are apparently responsible for children having a decreased capacity to create neurotic connections.
Advertising is yet anther domain which catches children of guard, taking into consideration that they are less capable of ignoring advertisements. hen they are specially made for children, advertisements have an even greater influence, as they can affect their "beliefs, values, and moral norms" (Moniek Buijzen, Patti…
1. Buijzen, Moniek and Valkenburg, Patti M. "The Impact of Television Advertising on Children's Christmas Wishes," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 44.3 (2000)
2. Gunter, Barrie; Charlton, Tony; Coles, David and Panting, Charlie. "The Impact of Television on Children's Antisocial Behavior in a Novice Television Community," Child Study Journal 30.2 (2000): 65.
3. Johnson, Marilou M. "The Impact of Television and Directions for Controlling What Children View," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 45.4 (2001).
4. Reis, Raul "The Impact of Television Viewing in the Brazilian Amazon," Human Organization 57.3 (1998).
Convenience rather than creating cuisine is the priority of Kraft ads. Adult tastes are given less of a priority than suiting the palate of children. Nutrition is paid homage to, but only in the sense of giving a family a starch, protein, and vegetable on a plate in the Hormel TV dinner advertisement.
One ad that occurred towards the end of the show, a Domino's Pizza advertisement, seemed to clash with the demographic of the other advertisement. However, the cheapness of Domino's many specials enables a mother to feed a large family quickly.
It is interesting to compare the Martha advertising with the advertising for later-night television programs aimed at a younger demographic, with a larger male audience. These ads favor snack food like sodas, have hipper and more conceptual features, and in the case of many fast food advertisements like KFC and McDonald's, often feature minority actors, even those…
Other annoying commercials include several of those for SUVs, which are sometimes shown driving over speed bumps to suggest that no other car could ever navigate through a city than an SUV. Similarly, some SUV commercials show the driver truly off-road, but most consumers use their SUVs in the suburbs and never drive off-road. Therefore, bad ads are generally unrealistic or annoying to the senses.
Good ads, on the other hand, can be hilarious and even enjoyable to watch. A recent UPS ad depicts some office workers who can't figure out how to send an international package. The acting is good and the commercial uses no annoying music or cliches. The Axe body spray commercials are slightly annoying but still have comedic value because they depict a pile of attractive women assaulting the man who uses the product. Some of the Budweiser commercials that air during sporting events use great…
Television and America
There have been many technological advances within the past sixty years that have fundamentally influenced the way that we live in the United States. Among the most influential is the invention and proliferation of the television.
Though there are other advances which, are equally important it is still the television that dominates the background noise of nearly every home. In fact most homes have more televisions than they have bathrooms. It is not unusual for television to be the single most used avenue for national and international information. "From its early position as a new medium for political coverage in the 1950s, television quickly supplanted radio and eventually newspapers to become by the early 1960s the major source of public information about politics."
This information includes political, social and popular issues that have helped shape the culture of America. It is through the influence of television and…
Lynda Lee Kaid. "Political Process and Television." 2003
Paul Schatzkin "Television is 75" 2002 http://www.philo75.com
One strategy that we have seen more and more actually preceded the current economic recession is product placement instead of traditional advertisement in commercials (Howard 2005). This may be one of the most effective innovations in our industry since the shift in the 1960s from word-heavy advertising to memorable visual images (Ogilvy 1983).
Q: The Internet and other visual media must factor into that shift as well.
A: Absolutely. The modern advertiser is learning not to focus exclusively on traditional modes of message transmission and product branding like television and billboards. The phenomenon of things like YouTube demonstrate the value of creating imagery that captures the audience's imagination and interest. In fact, future advertisers may eventually question the value of spending so much money on commercials and even product placement when it is possible to reach huge audiences on the Internet, essentially, for free.
Q: The way that the Napster…
Belch, G, Belch, M. (1998) Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated
Marketing Communications Perspective. Irwin/McGraw-Hill: New York
Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2000) Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati: West Legal Studies. Howard, M. (2005) We Know What You Want: How They Change Your Mind. New York: The Disinformation Company
Ogilvy, D. (1983) Ogilvy on Advertising
Theatrical claims and manifestations do well when selling a manufactured good or service, as long as they continue to credible (Lights, Camera, Action: Creating Effective TV Commercials, n.d.).
The main idea of both of these advertising mediums is to grab the attention of prospective consumers and create a connection between the customer and the product that is being sold. Radio spots are generally short and do not allow for a lot of time to get the message across. TV spots on the other hand are usually a little longer in nature. TV has one advantage over Radio in that it can use images to try and help make the connection and help consumers to remember the product. Radio on the other hand has to rely solely on words and thus must make them very memorable.
Both of these are a bit different from internet advertising in the fact that there…
LaMarco, Nicky. (2009). Creating the Perfect Radio Ad. Retrieved March 9, 2011, from Web
Lights, Camera, Action: Creating Effective TV Commercials. (n.d.). Retrieved March 9, 2011,
from Web site:
Government's ole in Advertising egulation
History of attitudes towards advertising
Taste and decency
The advertising is a major contributor and visual segment of the complete marketing strategy of a business. It is also noted as one of the image carrier for an organization. The businesses seek support of advertising agenciesdealing in print and electronic media to establish an advertising campaign along with the design of such activities to further their marketing objectives (Shimp, 2013). There are various environmental factors as well as regulations that should be followed by the advertising agencies. The governments also take part in evaluation of the content printed in advertisements. The role of government in regulating the advertising material and assessment of the content is discussed below. It is required that the governments lower their involvement in such activities and empower the self-regulation of advertisement content through agencies, associations. And…
Carroll, A.B., & Buchholtz, A.K. (2011). Business & society: Ethics and stakeholder management. USA: CengageBrain.
Chryssides, G.D., & Kaler, J.H. (1993). An introduction to business ethics.USA: CengageBrain.
De Fleur, M.L. en EE Dennis (2002). Understanding Mass Communication.A Liberal Arts Perspective.
O'guinn, T.C., Allen, C.T., & Semenik, R.J. (2011). Advertising and integrated brand promotion.USA: Cengage Learning.
According to Graff (2010), less than one percent of Americans live without television. Living without television has become a radical lifestyle choice. Moskowitz (2008) claims that living without a television might be the only lifestyle issue to unite the ultra-liberal and ultra-conservative Americans. Television aversion "is a common ground for the very liberal and the very conservative," both of which are the most likely demographic to do without the boob tube (Moskowitz 2008). However, the Internet is becoming an increasingly viable means of acquiring and viewing content including television shows. Many families that do without television watch their favorite shows online using Websites like Hulu. What Hulu and other Web-based television content providers offer is greater control over the viewing experience. The user still watches advertisements, but not as much. Elberese & Gupta (2010) point out that Hulu viewers only see one quarter of the number of ads that…
Fleiss, P. & Hodges, F.M. (2000). Sweet Dreams. McGraw-Hill Professional.
Graff, A. (2010). Family life without a television. The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved online: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/blogs/sfmoms/detail-entry_id=56466
"Kids' TV watching linked to unhealthy eating habits," (2001). CNN. Jan 8, 2001. Retrieved online: http://articles.cnn.com/2001-01-08/health/tv.eating_1_fruits-and-vegetables-salty-snacks-healthy-habits?_s=PM:HEALTH
Moskowitz, C. (2008). Out there: People who live without tv. Live Science. Retrieved online: http://www.livescience.com/2836-people-live-tv.html
cDonalds' themselves have faced the fact that children need to learn a healthy food choice early on to lead healthy and productive lives. It is fallacy to believe that it is up to a fast food corporation to instill diet habits in children, and it should be noted that Disney Theme Parks would continue to have cDonalds on the premises, (Abramowitz, 2006). Ultimately, it is up to parents to teach children about healthy food choices and dictate what children should or should not eat.
Children are highly impressionable consumers. "Children see 40,000 advertisements a year on television alone" (Gavin, 2005.) arketing food toward children is by no means solely done via the fast food industry and processed food producers believe that children represent the largest untapped market for the purchase of their products. As a result, more and more advertisers are focusing food commercials on children, who have difficulty discerning…
McDonalds' themselves have faced the fact that children need to learn a healthy food choice early on to lead healthy and productive lives. It is fallacy to believe that it is up to a fast food corporation to instill diet habits in children, and it should be noted that Disney Theme Parks would continue to have McDonalds on the premises, (Abramowitz, 2006). Ultimately, it is up to parents to teach children about healthy food choices and dictate what children should or should not eat.
Children are highly impressionable consumers. "Children see 40,000 advertisements a year on television alone" (Gavin, 2005.) Marketing food toward children is by no means solely done via the fast food industry and processed food producers believe that children represent the largest untapped market for the purchase of their products. As a result, more and more advertisers are focusing food commercials on children, who have difficulty discerning reality from what they see on television. The numbers are clear - children aged 5-13 represent 36.8 million consumers in the United States and can influence a total of $100 billion in food spending by adults. Parents are much more likely these days to listen to the child's opinion regarding food purchases, and advertisers see that market as wide open (McCue, 1996). It may be that the shake up between McDonalds and Disney is simply a way to approach the market from a new angle.
Breaking ties with Disney can aid McDonald's in revamping their corporate responsibilities as well. The contract was very strong and dominating with not much leeway for McDonald's to introduce alternative items in the Happy Meals. According to the article, there is a market for "puzzle games and the plastic characters" (Abramowitz, 2006). McDonald's
As expected to prove H3, the fourth graders could recall a median of 6 items about the ad while the first graders recalled a median of 4 items.
The ultimate conclusion of the researchers was that children "can recall a reasonable amount of information from a single exposure to a television advertisement and are capable of sharing information accurately" (Maher et al., 2006, p. 30). The authors view their work here as a beginning point for further study. In the conclusion to the article, they suggest that the next step would be to see how much children recall if they were in an unstructured environment and perhaps not paying close attention to the advertisement as the children in this experiment did.
International food advertising, pester power and its effects"
In a British study directed by Laura McDrmott, Terry O'Sullivan, Martine Stead, and Gerard Hastings the power of pestering by children…
FTC not sweet on junk-food ads targeting children. (2006, Nov. 7). The Washington
Post, p. A1.
Maher, J, Hu, M. & Kolbe, R. (2006). Children's recall of television ad elements.
Journal of Advertising, 35(1), 23-33.
TV & Internet
Mass media technology has become omnipresent in our society. It is not uncommon for children to now be raised with personal electronics, constant television and an overall barrage of sensory stimulus. Moreover, electronic devices are becoming the main means of communication for the younger generation, which can challenge their ability to relate to others. While many in the media have called into question the impacts of these socio-technical changes, others point the benefits that technology offers, and note that change is inevitable and the negative effects are overblown. This paper will take a look at the effects of television and Internet consumption on the young generation.
There are a number of different influences the have been hypothesized for children based on their exposure to television and the media, none more prevalent than the argument that children are exposed to much more violence throughout their childhoods than…
AAP. (2011). Children, adolescents, obesity and the media. Pediatrics. Vol. 128 (1) 201-208.
Castillo, M. (2013). Parents' TV time may be the biggest influence on kids' viewing habits. CBS News. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/parents-tv-time-may-be-the-biggest-influence-on-kids-viewing-habits/
Donnerstein, E. (2010). The media and aggression: From TV to the Internet. University of Arizona. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.sydneysymposium.unsw.edu.au/2010/chapters/DonnersteinSSSP2010.pdf
Harris, J., Speers, S., Schwartz, M. & Brownell, K. (2012) U.S. food company branded advergames on the Internet: Children's exposure and effects on snack consumption. Journal of Children and the Media. Vol. 6 (1) 51-68.
Advertising Effectiveness and Consumer Memory
The relationship between psychology and advertising is not a new one -- in fact, it is fundamental to the birth of modern advertising in America. Edward Bernays, the father of marketing, was the nephew of none other than Sigmund Freud, and used Freud's sense that "man was motivated by passion" to manipulate the senses of consumers and plant seeds of desire within consumer memory (Jones, 2000, p. 283). Since the days of Bernays, all evidence indicates that marketers have utilized cognitive psychology in order to assist advertising effectiveness in relation to consumer memory. This paper will discuss this evidence and research surrounding this association and critically analyze and discuss it.
A Complex elationship
Developing brand awareness and brand loyalty are two of the biggest factors in successful marketing. Establishing either requires an effective campaign that essentially implants the brand in the mind of the consumer…
Aaker, D, Biel, A (2013) Brand Equity and Advertising: Advertising's Role in Building
Strong Brands, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
Bloemer, J, Kasper, H (1995) The complex relationship between consumer satisfaction and brand loyalty, Journal of Economic Psychology, 16(2): 311-329.
Festinger, L (1957) A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, CA: Stanford University Press.
Advertising and public relations serve to communicate ideas and convince the audience of something. Politicians are among the most prolific advertising spenders during election campaigns and can have enormous public relations machines. This is especially true of Presidential candidates, who must first run for their party's nomination and then must run for President. We know that Hillary Clinton went from frontrunner to loser in the race for the Democratic Presidential nomination in 2008. There are lessons to be learned about the different factors that contribute to selling an idea, in this case Clinton as President, to different audiences. This case study will evaluate Clinton's campaign leading up to the Democratic primary using the OSTE model. The OSTE model focuses on research, objectives, strategies, tactics and evaluation.
The Hillary Clinton campaign at the time of the case was a large organization. It featured both extensive advertising and public relations, backed…
Cree, C. (2008). Hillary Clinton's approach to social media killed her campaign. Success Creations. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://successcreeations.com/339/hillary-clintons-approach-to-social-media-killed-her-campaign/
Gawiser, S. & Witt, G. (2012). 20 questions a journalist should ask about poll results. National Council on Public Polls. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.ncpp.org/?q=node/4
Murray, M. (2008). The primary vs. general election fallacy. NBC News. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/23591347/
OpenSecrets.org. (2008). Hillary Clinton. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.opensecrets.org/pres08/summary.php?cid=N
Advertising bCreative is an online creative boutique that offers manufacturers and advertisers original designs and concepts, which can be licensed onto virtually any type of consumer product, merchandise or promotional medium (bCreative, Inc.). Since bCreative's concepts and designs are used to appeal to the consumer of the products and services of various manufacturers and advertisers, it can be said that the focus of the company's work is the end consumer. Indeed, this is evident by the fact that the firm's top selling licensed concepts and designs have been used in stationery products such as posters, calendars, and greeting cards; apparel items that include T-shirts and caps; gift products such as mugs, books, and puzzles; and novelty items ranging from key rings to magnets and bumper stickers.
The scope and size of BCreative's business is potentially huge for several reasons. One, the firm has chosen to specialize in the creation of…
Works Cited bCreative, Inc. "About bCreative." Accessed June 22, 2004:
As such, she is once again linking the notion of skinny to fashionable. Everyone in "Young Hollywood," as the magazine refers to the younger celebrities as skinny and this then reinforces a need for young girls to also be skinny, at all costs. When young women are looking to their favorite stars and singers they want to replicate that look, and often many take on unhealthy habits in order to get that skinny that fast.
Victoria Justice is not the first child star to embed these types of messages into images. No, many child actresses have felt the pressure to be skinny, and have thus internalized the societal demand and reproduce it for their own fans to follow. Take for example the case of former Nickelodeon actress Amanda Bynes. According to one recent post on the Huffington Post's Celebrity page, the actress has continuously admitted to her fans on Twitter…
Huffington Post. (2013). Amanda Bynes eating disorder: Actress shares yet another worrisome tweet. HuffPost Celebrity. Web. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/05/amanda-bynes-eating-disorder-tweet_n_3019913.html#slide=more250437
Kirsh, Steven J. (2010). Media and Youth: A Developmental Perspective. John Wiley & Sons.
Thompson, J. Kevin & Heinberg, Leslie J. (1999). The media's influence on body image disturbance and eating disorders: We've reviled them, now can we rehabilitate them? Journal of Social Issues, 55(2), 339-353.
Studies (Howard 2005) have indicated that it may be very difficult to position healthier foods against traditional fast foods, by virtue of the strength of the latter's long- standing successful history of advertising. Naturally, the fact that healthy fast food cannot hope to compete with traditional fast food in terms of taste and its purported addictive quality presents another challenge that must be met by creative advertising and marketing strategies to overcome those disadvantages from the advertising perspective. Incorporating Challenges into a Marketing Plan:
Incorporating those challenges into a marketing plan requires long-term vision to anticipate the likely pattern of consumer demand over time, specifically in response to advice about health, wellness, and the relationship of diet to overall human health.
Naturally, the healthy fast food industry should emulate some of the strategies that have traditionally proven successful, particularly in the case of fast food in terms of name recognition…
Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2000) Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati: West Legal Studies. Howard, M. (2005) We Know What You Want: How They Change Your Mind. New York: The Disinformation Company
Gibbs, N, (2007) One Day in America. Time Magazine.
Nov. 26 / 07 (pp. 60-61)
Provided the counselors and instructors are charismatic, this might be the ideal way to generate initial 'buzz' about the center. Sending out free coupons for free sessions, and offering free 'teaser' yoga or Pilates classes in public venues (like on the Boardwalk during the summer or an in-store location like the mall) can generate publicity and interest. For fitness, marketing should be experiential as well as about selling a particular image.
Since a wellness center is marketing a service as well as a product, one extremely important, but often overlooked component of advertising is good training of the staff. Staff members must be friendly and helpful, and project the right type of 'image' for the center. Given the center's emphasis on personal self-improvement in its marketing strategy, staff members should embody the likely ideal of the target female consumer: they should be fit, knowledgeable, friendly and ready to answer the…
Gootman, Elissa. "Weight Watchers upends its point system." The New York Times.
December 4, 2010. December 16, 2010 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/04/nyregion/04watchers.html
Sorgen, Ellen. His and her fitness. WebMD. December 16, 2010
communication through various advertising techniques. The writer explores newspapers, advertisements, direct mail, ecommerce and other methods of attempting to reach the potential consumer. The writer uses 12 sources to complete the paper.
The development and sustaining of any company that offers products or services is heavily dependent on its ability to market and advertise. The use of advertising to communicate messages to the consumer is not a new concept. It is something that has been used for many years to entice the consumer into purchase. Communication through the use of advertising is not a new concept but there are several relatively new approaches being used today.
Many years ago before there was electricity or television there was only one way for a business to advertise and that was through print advertisements. Print ads included things such as posters, newspaper ads and magazine publications. Print ads often contained pictures of the…
It Takes a Cybervillage.(analysis of web sites and Internet services for schools and teachers)
Is The End Of The Ad Slump In Sight?(First/The Question Authority)(Interview)
Perceptions and attitudes about eCommerce development in China: an exploratory study.
ENews, ECommerce, EManaged Care: Managed Care Firm Begins Online Conversion To "Virtual" Consultations.
Internet and Television Advertisements of Disneyworld
The Walt Disney Company is considered one of the most adept and skilled at managing multichannel promotion and integrating marketing campaigns, including the innovations they have brought to Internet and television advertising (Schmelzer, 2005). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of their Internet ads vs. their television commercials. The consistency of a brand experience across channels leads to greater trust and transparency, leading to greater customer loyalty over the long-term (Balmer, Greyser, 2006). This aspect of managing advertising across both Internet and television is an aspect of Disney's marketing execution that is done exceptionally well and shows in how they lead consumers to their website for additional information (Schmelzer, 2005).
Advertising Effectiveness Comparing Internet and Television Ads
Disney is a company that relies heavily on psychographics and audience research to understand how its target segments of customers see them, and…
John M.T. Balmer, & Stephen A. Greyser. (2006). Corporate marketing: Integrating corporate identity, corporate branding, corporate communications, corporate image and corporate reputation. European Journal of Marketing, 40(7/8), 730-741.
Von Freymann, J.. (2010). An IMC Process Framework for a Communications-Based Services Marketing Model. Journal of Promotion Mgmt, 16(4), 388.
Randi Schmelzer. (2005, January). Disney's Digital Dance. Adweek, 46(2), 24-25.
Varadarajan, R.. (2010). Strategic marketing and marketing strategy: domain, definition, fundamental issues and foundational premises. Academy of Marketing Science. Journal, 38(2), 119.
One study revealed Berry (2003) found that young children's retention of emotional information was greater in children viewing family sitcom than those who just watch an animated films or moppet program. This result justifies the fact that children are more likely to learn more due to the presence of human characters in family sitcoms as they find these characters more close to the reality than either cartoon or Muppet characters.
On investigating the type of family interaction shown in family sitcoms it was revealed that majority of family interactions were constructive or supportive in nature. Nonetheless, just about one fourth of these interactions were found to involve argument or negativity. Research shows that even though large amount of verbal and nonverbal interactions between siblings in family sitcoms were positive, nearly 40% of the examined behaviors were found to be negative (e.g., bullying, inappropriate remarks). (alma, Molen and Juliette, 171) As…
Berry, Gordon L., Developing Children and Multicultural Attitudes: The Systemic Psychosocial Influences of Television Portrayals in a Multimedia Society, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, ISSN 1099-9809, 11/2003, Volume 9, Issue 4, 2003, pp. 360-366
Bryant, J, A., Television and the American Family, Routledge, 2nd edition, 2000, 300- 350.
Corrigan, C, The impact of television viewing on young children, 2010, ISBN 9781124298979, 2010, 50- 70.
D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto. Attitudes toward TV advertising: A measure for children, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0193-3973, 2009, Volume 30, Issue 4, 2009, pp. 409-418
Web-based, print, media, and outdoor advertising techniques can be used for successful marketing. It also details the principles of marketing, along with its definition to establish a clear understanding of the subject at start. From the viewers' as well as marketer's perspective, the paper also gives the importance of different communication media, their impact, background, statistical findings, analytical comparison and their effectiveness in relative terms of advertising costs and audience exposure. In conclusion, the examples of non-profit and profit-based organizations are studied and noted for their advertising strategies.
Marketing Principles Summary
External / Uncontrollable
Internal / Controllable
Marketing on the Web
Paid Advertising Strategies
Test Areas to Check OI
adio and Television Advertising
The Outdoor Advertising History 9
The Evolution in Outdoor Advertising 9
Growth in Viewers' Exposure 10
Print Advertising 11
Cases in Point 12
Cohn, Tim. Marketing Definition. Advanced Marketing Consultants, Inc. 2002. Marketing
Gary Davis Media. Radio vs. TV: Radio Advertising vs. Television Advertising. 2002.
Corporate Social Responsibility: Its Extension to Consumer Advertising Imagery
The last few decades have seen the emergence of two trends that have important implications for the field of consumer advertising. The first trend, as indicated in Gulas and Mckeage's literature review, is a growing body of research evidence that the imagery projected in consumer advertising has psychological and sociological effects.
This indicates that consumer advertising imagery is now being measured for its possible effect on consumer psychology and social behavior. The second trend, which is related to the first, can be seen in the widely acknowledged public demand that businesses need to demonstrate their social responsibility and conscience in all forms of organizational activity. These two trends make it evident that advertisers and their agencies can no longer defend socially irresponsible advertising imagery by using the traditional argument that consumer advertising merely mirrors society. Instead, as this paper will establish,…
"The Alcoholic Beverage Industry's Commitment to Responsible Drinking." Black
Enterprise. March 1994, 24.8, 79+. Available: Questia; http:/ / www.questia.com (May 13, 2005).
Bates, Clive, and Pauline Doyle. "Tobacco Explained: Advertising." Action on Smoking and Health. Available: Internet; http://www.ash.org.uk/html/conduct/html/tobexpld4.html (March 19, 2005).
Biocca, Frank A., and Philips N. Myers, Jr. "The Elastic Body Image: The Effect of Television Advertising and Programming on Body Image Distortions in Young Women." Journal of Communication 42.3 (1992): 108 -- 130. Available: Questia; http://www.questia.com (March 19, 2005).
Theme: The use of popular entertainment figures in print, on television, and on the Internet to sell sugar to children
Print Advertising: Kellogg's Star Wars Pop Tarts
Who could be more worthy of one's trust than the wise, kindly figure of Star Wars' young bi Won Kenobi (embodied by the actor Ewan MacGregor) when he is fighting the Dark Forces of destruction embodied by the mature, black-mask encased Darth Vader? A recent advertising campaign for Kellogg's pop tarts deployed just such a popular media figure to sell Pop Tarts to children. "Toast up this Jedi Snack!" It shouted from the printed page. In the advertising campaign for the pop tarts, the name of Star Wars is not merely invoked to make Kellogg's Pop Tarts seem more attractive or tasty for breakfast. Rather the new 'Wildberry' flavor of the tart and the images movie are melded into one, erroneously…
Of course, to be fair to the Kellogg's company, in print, its popular television cereal advertising is also hardly guilt-free in its targeting of children, either in terms of the sugar rush it purports to provide, or its supposed health. Kellogg's in print promises Jedi strength in a cake masquerading as breakfast. Kellogg's on the television promises the strength and fortitude of a tiger to children, as it depicts Tony the Tiger roaring away, fighting rapids with strength and dexterity, fueled by the morning power of corn flakes spackled with sugar. This advertisement has become even more deceitful because the company has been stressing that the cereal now contains less sugar. But merely because the sugar is reduced does not mean that the levels of sugar consumed in a meal of Frosted Flakes are on par with the sugar levels that are acceptable for young children in the morning to have a good and healthy start for their school day, much less navigating white water rapids at camp. The roaring, powerfully endowed Tony, one might add, is even funnier to contemplate when one considers that tigers and cats are carnivores, animals that eat other animals for protein in the morning, hardly sugary grains. (http://www.kelloggs.com/brand/ttt/flash.html) The healthy breakfast pictured in the advertisements on television contain milk and juice not contained within the box, and the cereal is not nearly as well fortified with vitamins and minerals, even compared with more adult cereal products made by the same company.
Internet advertising: A sweet tooth is encouraged online
Finally, even the Internet has come to bear in encouraging children to eat poorly nourishing food that contains sugar, without any information about the likely consequences of such a diet, even in terms of the children's morning energy levels. The use of the Internet to advertise the children-targeted cereals of Kellogg's is perhaps most insidious of all, as it contains tie-ins to popular 'play book' promotional advertisements. (http://www.kelloggsfunktown.com/funktown/NoFlash.htm) The viewer is told that he or she can earn his or her Frosted Flake tiger stripes, by buying as many boxes of cereal as he or she can, and thus become like soccer star Mia Ham, or other popular athletes endorsing the product. By implying that athletes find a healthy breakfast in the form of a bowl of sugar encrusted cereal, children receive a confused, mixed message about nutrition at best, and at worst, the information misleads them from real data about truly healthy substances that could nourish their growing bodes. Children's palates are thus formulated at an early age to prefer sugar, encouraged to surf the Internet for fake competitions bought by eating cereal rather than exercising their bodies athletically outdoors, and the act of eating more for tiger stripes and points is encouraged, rather than eating to grow healthy bones, or not eating when one is not hungry.
Adolescents & Advertising Media Messages
Examination of a Commercial
The advertisement chosen for examination in this brief study is Britney Spears Pepsi commercial in 2010, which was part of the advertising during the World Cup. The intended audience for the advertisement is the general audience and specifically male and female young people. The ad features Brittney Spears singing, drinking Pepsi, and volley a ball. Brittney appears beautiful and sexy in this commercial and gives the appearance that drinking Pepsi will make everyone athletic and sexy. This ad would be interpreted of course by each gender differently as the male gender would interpret the commercial to mean that drinking Pepsi would ensure that they attract sexy girls and females would view the commercial as appealing to them to drink Pepsi to ensure that they are hot and sexy like Brittney Spears. This ad is not accurate in its portrayal of body…
(13) Kaiser Family Foundation (2005). Generation M: Media in the lives of eight to eighteen-year-olds. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.kff.org/entmedia/entmedia030905pkg.cfm .
(14) How to Magazines Effect Body Image (2008) Center on Media and Child Health. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/how-magazines-affect-body-image/
(15) Ransohoff, J. (2010) Teens and the Media. Palo Alto Medical Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.pamf.org/teen/life/bodyimage/media.html
advertising geared to the gay and lesbian communities. Specifically, it will discuss advertising in the context of gay and lesbian culture, and how particular ad campaigns are significant to the gay and lesbian communities. While society has become more accepting of the gay and lesbian lifestyle, there are still many aspects of culture and society that disapprove of the gay/lesbian experience. Traditionally, mainstream advertising has not courted gays and lesbians, but some advertisers have recognized the size and dimensions of the market, and are beginning to break down the barriers in advertising to gays and lesbians in mainstream markets. In the last decade, advertising has become more open, and the gay lifestyle has become more accepted. Advertisers will continue to create new markets to create new opportunities for business and industry, and the gay/lesbian market is still waiting to be fully tapped.
The gay and lesbian lifestyle has existed for…
Author not Available. "Mainstream/B2B Advertising Best Practices." CommercialCloset.org. 2004. 19 July 2004. http://www.commercialcloset.org/cgi-bin/iowa/index.html?page=best
Boyce, David B. "Coded Desire in 1920's Advertising." Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 7.1 (2000): 26-30.
Buford, Howard. "Understanding Gay Consumers." Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 7.2 (2000): 26-28.
Burnett, John J. "Gays: Feelings about Advertising and Media Used." Journal of Advertising Research (2000): 75.
As Belch and Belch (631) note, "music and sports are universal languages for teens." By creating this association, Coca-Cola is increasing its appeal to the young market. In saying this, it must be noted that music and sports stars and recognized as idols for many teens. This includes that teens look to these stars or celebrities to determine what is considered cool. Music and sports celebrities that have featured in advertisements for Coca-Cola include Christina Aguilera, Michael Jordan, Shaquille O'Neal, and singer Mya. By having these celebrities endorse the product, Coca-Cola is communicating to the young audience that the product is considered cool and linked with success. It must be noted that the celebrities that endorse Coca-cola also tend to be young and attractive. This shows that the product is not just being positioned to appeal to all people who consider athletes and celebrities successful. Instead, it is specifically being…
Belch, G.E., & Belch, M.A. Advertising and Promotion. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 1998.
Friedman, W. "Product Integrators Tackle Learning Curve." Advertising Age 21 October 2002: 18.
Grimm, M. "Drink Me: What Becomes a Legend Most? For Coca-Cola, It's All in the Package." American Demographics, Feb 2000: 78-80.
Tully, S. "Teens: The Most Global Market of All." Fortune 16 May 1994: 90-97.
Race and Advertising
Virginia Slims and Virgin Boef
Easy to Swallow Social Poison and a Mad Cow Solution)
Popular media today is driven by the advertisements that fund it, and our society is significantly influenced by the images that are found within those advertisements. It is said that the popular consumer is both the producer and the product of social inequality and this can be seen as strongly in the portrayal and interpretation of gender and race stereotypes as in any other example. Advertisements have been shown to exaggerate cultural differences between genders and races. (Coltrane, Messineo) hile the unfair caricatures of certain groups may not be as blatantly cartoonish and obvious as those of decades past, there still remains a very definite stereotypical set of boundaries into which different groups, especially minorities, must fall in order to be featured in the majority of popular media. These kinds of portrayals,…
Coltrane, Scott and Messineo, Melinda. "The Perpetuation of Subtle Prejudice: Race and Gender Imagery in 1990s Television Advertising." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. March 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2294/2000_March/63993940/p1/article.jhtml
Nephwrack. "Virgin Boef. http://www.bookofcruxshadows.com/orc/art/brightercover.jpg
Virginia Slims. "Find Your Voice." http://www.media-awareness.ca english/resources/educational/handouts/tobacco_advertising/images/62775041.jpg
Television on Society
Television has helped to create and perpetuate perceptions of gender and race.
Television and Perceptions of Gender
How children form ideas about gender
Perpetuating gender myths through entertainment programming
Gender portrayals on prime time news
Racial Stereotypes on Television
Television in shaping the perception of black people
Television and stereotyping Asian-Americans as the model minority
Television played a great role in colonial domination of American Indians.
Conclusion and change - where to now?
In his famous dictum of the medium is the message, Marshall McLuhan illustrated how mass media, as an extension of human capabilities, has tremendous personal and social consequences (McLuhan: 23).
Television is in a particularly strong position to initiate such consequences. After all, the great majority of American homes have at least one television set, putting the medium in an unparalleled position to affect American society.
Television also has a power to shape an…
Bird, S. Elizabeth. "Gendered construction of the American Indian in popular media." Journal of Communication. (49) 3: 61-83. Proquest. Proquest Direct. Los Angeles Public Library, California. http:proquest.umi.com/pdqweb.
Comstock, George and Erica Scharrer. Television: What's On, Who's Watching, and What it Means. London: Academic Press, 1999.
Dow, Bonnie. Prime Time Feminism: Television, Media Culture, and the Women's Movement Since 1970 Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
Fujioka, Yuki. "Television portrayals and African-American stereotypes: Examination of television effects when direct contact is lacking." Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly. (76) 1: 52-75. Proquest. Proquest Direct. Los Angeles Public Library, California. http:proquest.umi.com/pdqweb.
Quasi-Experimental Design on the Effect of TV Adverts on Children
This study carries out the evaluation of a research titled "A quasi-experiment assessing the effectiveness of TV advertising directed to children" (Goldberg, 1990 p 445). The paper examines the extent the research hypotheses have been able to address the study. The paper also examines the research dependent variables and independent variables. Moreover, the study investigates the extent the author has adhered to both external and internal validity for the research.
esearch question the study Addresses
Goldberg, (1990) carries out the experimental research to investigate the potential impact of television advertising on children. Although, the author does not provide the research questions, nevertheless, the author tests two hypotheses using the quasi-experiment to assess the effectiveness of television advertising that has been directed to children.
ationale for the study
The rationale of the study is to assess whether children exposed to higher…
Goldberg, N. (1990). A Quasi-experiment Assessing the Effectiveness of TV Advertising directed to Children. Journal of Marketing Research JMR, 27 (4): 445
Khandker, Shahidur R., et al. (2010). Handbook on Impact Evaluation: Quantitative Methods and Practices, World Bank, Washington, D.C: 53-103.
Morgan, G. A. (2000). Quasi-Experimental Designs. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry: pp. 794-796.
Shadish, William R., et al. (2002). Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston: 103-243.
Participants will be recruited with announcements in local newspapers and school newsletters. Flyers are posted in the nurse's offices and in the clinic. esponse cards will be given to parents who indicate an interest in participating in the study. See the participation invitation -- Appendix 1.
Once enrolled, participants will answer a series of questions related to food choices, influences, physical activities and food and beverage advertisements. The first measure will involve showing the children a set of distinct images. The children will then be asked 1) what company the image belongs to; 2) what they feel about that company; 3) if the images make them feel good/bad/nothing; 4) if they enjoy the food; 5) how they feel after eating the food; and, 6) what their parents think of the type of food or company. The following 15 images are examples of popular logos. These 15 will be used…
Caprio, Sonia. (2006). Treating child obesity and associated medical conditions. The Future of Children,16(1), 209+. Gale Group.
Darwin, David. (2009). Advertising obesity: Can the U.S. follow the lead of the UK in limiting television marketing of unhealthy foods to children? Vanderbilt journal of transnational law,42(1), 317+. Gale Cengage Learning.
Enz, C., & Lundberg, C. (1993). A Framework for student case preparation. Case Research Journal,13, 134.
Evans, W. Douglas. (2008). Social marketing campaigns and children's media use. The Future of Children,18(1), 181+. Gale Cengage Learning.
Embedded Communication in Advertising
"There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to their self-interest." -- JI Fowles, in Advertising's Fifteen asic Appeals
"Good advertising does not just circulate information. It penetrates the public mind with desires and belief." -- Leo urnett, Advertising Executive and Creator of the Marlboro Man
"The ability to attract new smokers and develop them into a young adult franchise is key to brand development." 1999 Philip Morris report
When the preceding collection of opinions regarding the influence of modern advertising are considered in conjunction with the iconic advertising image shown above, it becomes quite clear that, much like advertising itself, forming an informed position on this ubiquitous aspect of modern marketing is simply a matter of perception and perspective (elch 120). Corporate conglomerates and other private enterprises ascribe tremendous value to the persuasive power of advertising, bombarding the general public…
Altman, David G., Michael D. Slater, Cheryl L. Albright, and Nathan Maccoby. "How an unhealthy product is sold: Cigarette advertising in magazines, 1960 -- 1985." Journal of Communication 37, no. 4 (1987): 95-106.
Belch, George E., Michael A. Belch, and Angelina Villarreal. "Effects of advertising communications: Review of research." Research in marketing (1987).
Bovee, Courtland L., and William F. Arens. "The Indictments Against Advertising." Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education, 2008. 685-691. Print.
De Gregorio, Federico, and Yongjun Sung. "Understanding attitudes toward and behaviors in response to product placement." Journal of Advertising 39, no. 1 (2010): 83-96.
Discuss the various reasons marketers have been shifting their marketing dollars to sales promotion from media advertising. Discuss the pros and cons of this reallocation of marketers' advertising and promotion budgets.
Marketers are shifting their marketing budgets to support sales promotion from media advertising in an effort to get greater impact on brand recognition at the upper ends of their sales funnels, and more effectively influence lead generation in the lower areas of their sales funnels. Sales promotion is seen increasingly as having a more immediate impact on lead generation, lead fulfillment and the entire pipeline of sales activity. Media advertising on the other hand is not as easily tracked directly to sales activity and often is seen as "air cover" to drive up awareness of a given brand. Where media advertising is strategic and long-term in scope, in fact it has to be long-term to have an appreciable impact…
advertising claim that firms advertise to manipulate people's tastes and defenders argue that advertising provides information. Both are correct, and characterizing these views as "pro advertising" or the reverse is not particularly accurate. Most industries exist in a state of monopolistic competition, and advertising is one of the ways that companies can differentiate themselves from the competition, and through this differentiation companies can exert a greater degree of market control (No author, 2012).
Firms sometimes use advertising as an informational tool, as it provides an opportunity to reveal to consumers the differences between the advertised product and its competitors. Typically, each product within an industry will differ at least slightly with respect to its design and the quality level of the workmanship and other inputs. In addition, firms use other marketing elements such as distribution to help with differentiation. Advertisers often use brands as shorthand for the product or service…
Fournier, S. & Yao, J. (1997). Reviving brand loyalty: A reconceptualization within the framework of consumer-brand relationships. International Journal of Research in Marketing. Vol. 14 (5) 451-472.
No author (2012). Monopolistic competition, advertising. AMOSWeb. Retrieved May 30, 2012 from http://www.amosweb.com/cgi-bin/awb_nav.pl?s=wpd&c=dsp&k=monopolistic%20competition,%20advertising
TV and Magazine Ads. There are five references used for this paper.
Americans see numerous advertisements on TV and in magazines, all aim at getting them to spend their money. It is interesting to look at five such ads and who their target audience is.
The Libmen Company offers a wide array of products for cleaning the home. Their newest product is the Nitty Gritty Roller Mop which is targeted for the middle-class, homemaker.
The ad promises the product will "get to the nitty, gritty of cleaning a floor (Libmen)."
The company demonstrates this benefit by showing the consumer bristles on the mop, as well as the roller portion.
The consumer is shown the mop being used, further successfully illustrating the virtues of the product.
Odor Eaters has a product called Odor Eaters Plus. The product is aimed mainly at middle-class athletes or workers who may…
AT&T Text Messaging Ad. (observed 02 September, 2002 at 1:20 P.M.).
Jeep Grand Cherokee Ad. Time. (2003): 10 February.
Liberman Nitty Gritty Mop Ad. (observed 02 September, 2003 at Noon).
Odor Eaters Plus Ad. (observed 02 September, 2003 at 12:45 P.M.).
Fear as an Advertising Tactic
Americans are considered to be one of the most highly exposed peoples to commercial advertising in the world. From television (an entertainment medium in which the average adult spends 254 minutes a day engaged), to print media, to internet banner ads, the American consumer culture is kept humming through the often, guerilla tactics of top advertising firms.
Although there have been many concerns about the sheer volume of advertising in all forms of media from as long as it has been in existence, the relatively new and growing trend of using health-related fears to sell products is particularly alarming. It is this trend that Benjamin Radford mentions in his book, Media Mythmakers, that actually "threatens" to manipulate consumers to the detriment of society as a whole.
It seems that the concept of an "informed citizenry" has become almost passe in modern times -- especially when…
Although some memories remain veritable and intact from the original experience, many memories are inextricably mixed up with post-analysis and interpretation. Furthermore, the authors examine psychological literature for information on memory processing, noting that false memories and actual reproductive memories activate the same brain regions and are therefore processed similarly. However, research shows that when people recognize the falseness of the memory at the time of encoding, they will process the cues differently. The researchers designed the present study based on these prior researches. Furthermore, the current study hearkens to advertising literature in general, which investigates the impact of ads on consumer behavior. The authors note that the retroactive impact of advertising has been studied far less than the proactive impact of advertising and therefore the present study can fill gaps in the literature and offer impetus for conducting future studies.
2. The psychological concepts discussed center on memory: both…
Companies use advertising plans to build awareness about their product. Company uses different plans to promote their sales. It uses trade show plan to demonstrate what they are selling, sales promotion plan for incremental sales, public relations plan for free ads, internet plan for instant distribution of product specifications and information, customer service plan to repeat sales, research plan to monitor activities regarding the products and customer satisfaction and last but not least marketing plan which helps to identify when to market, how to market and who are the target audience for the product (Luther, 2011).
Marketing plan must cover the below 12 areas to form an effective marketing plan to increase sales (Wong, 2010).
Marketing plan must have the executive summary
Introduction about the marketing plan and the product
Analysis of the market situation for the product.
Analysis of the target customers
Analysis of the competition for the product…
Luther, William M. (2011), "The Marketing Plan: How to prepare and Implement It," AMACOM Div American Mgmt Association.
Wong, Ken K. (20100, "Approved Marketing Plans for new Products and Services," iUniverse, Anselmo, Donna. (2010), "Marketing Demystified," McGraw-Hill Professional.
Thomas, Lorrie. (2010), "The McGraw Hill 36-Hour Course: Online Marketing," McGraw-Hill Professional.
Rognerud, Jon. (2010), "Ultimate Guide to Search Engine Optimization: Drive Traffic, Boost Conversion Rates and Make Tons of Money," Entrepreneur Press.
The obvious course of action is to try to remove the child's head from the stairay ithout causing damage to the house, ith the backup alternative being to cut the child free from the stairay. It holds interest because one's curiosity is piqued ith the four seemingly incongruous items, and ith the image of the child's head in the stairay. The commercial does not arouse desire in the ay that one thinks of ith traditional advertising, because it is not marketing a product but a concept. It is highly unlikely that any person atching the advertisement is finding themselves in the scenario depicted in the ad. Hoever, it does remind the consumer that shopping at Walmart allos for one-stop shopping. Finally, it seems likely that the advertisement obtains action. While it probably does not prompt anyone to get up off the couch at that time and go to Walmart, the…
television media research of Nielsen, Scarborough, & Arbitron
This is an essay comparing the pros and cons of television media research. Discussed are Nielsen, Scarborough, and Arbitron research. Two sources are used. APA.
Scarborough Research is a leader in consumer and media research tools.
It provides a syndicated research service on a local, regional and national level to newspapers, television and radio stations, cable systems, outdoor media, Internet companies, advertisers, agencies and sports teams and leagues. It conducts on-going studies in the top seventy-five markets and interviews over 200,000 adults annually (http://www.scarborough.com/scarb2002/press/pr_partner.htm).Itdelivers twice yearly updates of its local market reports to a diverse client base that spans all major media, advertisers and their agencies. These reports examine a variety of characteristics including online and offline consumer habits, local consumer shopping patterns, traditional and online media usage, demographics and lifestyle activities. Scarborough Research is a partnership between VNU Marketing…
Nielsen Media Research and Scarborough Partner for Qualitative Measurement Service to Local TV Station." Scarborbough Research. November 8, 2001. http://www.scarborough.com/scarb2002/press/pr_partner.htm .(accessed08-12-2002).
Interactive Television Research Institute. Murdoch University Perth Australia. http://www.itri.tv/.(accessed08-12-2002).
television shows Parks and ecreation and the American version of the Office deal with similar themes regarding the nature of the modern workplace and the relationships which populate it, but although both shows are shot in the same single-camera, mockumentary style, they end up saying very different things about their shared subject. This is ultimately a result of each particular show's setting; in The Office, the story follows the employees of a small paper company, but in Parks and ecreation, the story is about the public employees of the parks department in a small town. This difference is ultimately responsible for the different interpretations of similar themes seen both shows, and examining the ramifications of this distinction will serve to explicate the particular meaning of either show.
For much of its history The Office focuses on the ineptitude of management and the failure of the commercialized masculine ideal, implicitly critiquing…
Aronstein, A. (2011, May 05). The personal politics of parks and rec. Retrieved from http://splitsider.com/2011/05/the-personal-politics-of-parks-and-rec
Griffin, J. (2008). The americanization of the office: A comparison of the offbeat NBC sitcom and its british predecessor. Journal of Popular Film & Television, 35(4), 154-163.
Much has been said about the violence on television and its potentially harmful effects on children. Everything from cartoons to toy commercials depicts violence in some form, and it is understandable that parents may be frightened. However, television can be a valuable tool for children's social and academic education. Programs like Sesame Street have for years taught young children the basics of reading and math in a multicultural framework. Educational children's programming abounds, and each show has something unique to offer. By watching these shows, children are encouraged to be creative. Educational programming also includes shows on stations like the Discovery Channel and the History Network. Many of these shows can be watched by both adults and children and can therefore stimulate dialog within the home. Even entertainment television such as sitcoms can help children make sense of their world. An early exposure to popular culture can be…
Barbie doll top ten viral commercials as of 2013 rely mostly on You Tube, Dailymotion, Facebook and Twitter.
The third doll brand, subject to this study is Bratz. As evidenced from the four commercials assessed in the course of this study, Bratz deploys a slightly different mode of advertising, which involves marketing adult entertainment to kids. Social psychologists have argued that this strategy is very effective within the realm of modern-day material culture. Adult entertainment, which often involves depiction of violence, sex, strong language and obscenity, has become very popular among children
. For Bratz, one of the most popular commercials involves cowgirls in Texas fighting crime modelled along the risque film group Charlie's Angels. The use of guns to depict violence is central to this commercial, which has since increased the brand's digital reach through pervasive advertising on TV and in the internet. In a similar commercial, Bratz acquired…
Meyers, Laurie. "Dangerous dolls? Psychologists push back against market forces and products that sexualize young girls." American Psychological Association September 2006, Vol 37, No. 8
Eglinton, Kristen Ali Youth Identities, Localities, and Visual Material Culture: Making Selves, Making Worlds New York: Springer, 2013
Doeschka, J. Anschutz and Rutger, C.M.E. Engels. "The Effects of Playing with Thin Dolls on Body Image and Food Intake in Young Girls" U.S. National Library of Medicine
Marketing Mix for Panera Bread Company
Advertising refers to any form of non-personal communication meant to persuade, inform, and remind customers to buy a product (Shapiro, 1984). Panera Bread Company has adopted the informative approach as a way of winning and retaining customers. In this strategy, the aim is to let the clients get to know the features of the products being offered. These features include the price, quantities sold, the quality as well as how the products are consumed. Some information to the effect of the ingredients used to bake the breads as well as how the bread needs to be consumed (Peter and Donnelly 2013).
The informative objective also involves teaching the clients about the hazards of overconsumption of the product. Panera Bread Company has warned the clients of over consumption of bread -being a processed food in its adverts. The action seeks to comply with the…
Peter, J. Paul and Donnelly James H. Marketing management: Knowledge and skills. 11. ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2013. Print.
Scott, David Meerman. The new rules of marketing and PR: how to use news releases, blogs, podcasting, viral marketing, & online media to reach buyers directly. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Print.
Shapiro, Benson P. The marketing mix. Boston, Mass.: Distributed by the Pub. Division, Harvard Business School, 1984. Print.
Advertising and Sales Strategy for Travel Agent Franchise
Before embarking on any business opportunity it is necessary to consider the viability of the business, including the way that the new venture may be marketed and the products sold. If a new business is a franchise, then it may be argued some aspects of the have already been developed and proof of concept exists. If a franchise has been chosen, for example Cruise Planners; An American Express epresentative, the potential franchise will still need to consider the way in which the business will be advertised and sales made. This franchise opportunity has been chosen as it requires a low initial investment.
The first consideration is the advertising plan, looking to assess what types of media may be used, and the best way of optimizing the budget available.
The budget for advertising is typically between 3% and 5% of…
Dickinson, Bob; Vladimir, Andy, (2007), Selling the Sea: An Inside Look at the Cruise Industry, John Wiley & Sons
Florida-Caribbean Cruise Association (2012), Cruise Industry Overview - 2012, The State of the Industry, http://www.f-cca.com/downloads/2012-Cruise-Industry-Overview-Statistics.pdf
Franchise Opportunities, (2014), accessed at http://www.franchise.com / on 14th July 2014
Internet World Statistics, (2014), United States of America Internet and Facebook Users Stats, accessed at http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats26.htm on 14th July 2014
Advertising and Its Effects
Advertising is the art of making a product known to the potential buyers. It entails the use of various means of media and any other means that can relay the message to the people out there. Through advertisements, the buyers can know more than just the availability of a product. Besides being made aware of the product, consumers can learn about the prices and the usability of the products being sold. Advertisement is a commercial activity, and media houses make most of the revenue from it (Batra, 2009). People and even companies pay to be covered by the platforms of these media in order to have a better way of convincing the public to purchase the goods and services. This paper discusses the various aspects of advertisement and its effects to all concerned stakeholders.
Forms of advertisements
The most commonly used forms of advertisements include both…
Batra (2009). Advertising Management. New York: Pearson Education India
Ferrier, A. & Fleming, J. (2014). The Advertising Effect: How to Change Behavior. Oxford: Oxford University Press Australia & New Zealand
Murray, E, Lo B, Pollack, L, Donelan K, & Lee K. (2004). Direct-To-Consumer Advertising: Public Perceptions of Its Effects on Health Behaviors, Health Care, and the Doctor-Patient Relationship. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2004 Jan-Feb;17(1):6-18.
Olney, T.J., Holbrook, M.B. & Batra, R. (1991). Consumer Responses to Advertising: The Effects of Ad Content, Emotions, and Attitude toward the Ad on Viewing Time. Journal of Consumer Research. Vol. 17, No. 4 (Mar., 1991), pp. 440-453
Government officials and elected officers become unwilling to provide limited public funds to broadcasters whose audiences are becoming smaller, forcing public service programmers to reach for larger audiences with different types of program content. "While multiple program sources -- cable, home video -- make it unlikely that these systems will move toward "mass audience programming" it is the case that the face of broadcasting is changing in these contexts" (Narrowcasting, 2012).
Digital signage networks for narrowcast advertising are becoming part of the mainstream and not some sort of on the edge experimental medium reserved for the daring and advanced. ather than being seen as a risk in the eyes of media buyers, they are becoming a vital communications path for marketers and advertisers wishing to sway consumer spending decisions at the point of purchase. It isn't particularly surprising that narrowcast digital signage networks are entering the mainstream. Advertising buyers and…
Little, D. (2007). Digital signage -- InfoTrends sees significant growth for narrowcasting.
Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Digital-Signage-InfoTrends-Sees -
Narrowcasting. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?entrycode=narrowcasting
Internet TV -- Present and Future
The future of how will people watch television is far from clear. The rapid advancements in technology have provided an increased number of options for different kinds of program viewing. Customers now have the ability to view only the programs they want without having commercial interruptions. Although this can be effectively accomplished now with devices such as the digital video recorders (DRV), when internet derived programing becomes more ubiquitous this will act to further accelerate the consumers control over their media. Advertisers will have to evolve to be able to deliver a marketing message through this medium. Although there will continue to be opportunities for traditional advertising, such as the thirty second ad, it is likely that marketers will begin to further integrate their messages into the content of the program even further through product placement.
Internet TV Overview
The combination of the…
Associated Press. (2007, July 3). 'Transformers' a GM ad in disguise. Retrieved from NBC News: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19562215/ns/business-autos/t/transformers-gm-ad-disguise/
Cowley. (2011). The Ubiquitous Product Placement. Sydney: The University of Sydney.
Cowley, E., & Barron, C. (2008). When Product Placement Goes Wrong: The Effects of Program Liking and Placement Prominence. Journal of Advertising, 89-98.
Google TV. (2012). How it works. Retrieved July 22, 2012, from Google TV: http://www.google.com/tv/features.html
Vizio sells voice-activated televisions, and needs a marketing plan. The product is not a game-changer, so the company needs to have a message that emphasizes total value over gimmick novelty, if it actually intends to sell the sets. People buy televisions because of picture/sound quality, then price, and then other features, in order of importance (Katzmaier, 2013). The marketing plan needs to recognize this -- focusing on voice activation will get the company nowhere if the picture or value are poor.
The first part of the marketing plan is the place strategy. Vizio needs to sell its televisions in the places where consumers go to buy televisions -- no other approach makes any sense at all. Vizio therefore needs to look at both online and offline channels. There is significant overlap since most retailers utilize both channels. Key retailers of televisions are Best Buy, Wal-Mart, Target, Costco and Amazon. Vizio…
Hose, C. (2013). Top ten promotional strategies. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved November 20, 2013 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/top-ten-promotional-strategies-10193.html
Katzmaier, D. (2013). Best TVs: Picture quality. C/Net. Retrieved November 20, 2013 from http://reviews.cnet.com/best-tvs-picture-quality/
NetMBA. (2010). Pricing strategy. NetMBA.com. Retrieved November 20, 2013 from http://www.netmba.com/marketing/pricing/