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Sharing and Terror Attacks:
According to the findings of the 9/11 commission or the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States and several media reports, breakdowns in information sharing and failure to combine relevant intelligence are some key factors in the failure to stop the 9/11 terror attacks. Consequently, intelligence gathering and information sharing have become vital components of the U.S. government efforts to fight terrorism. Actually, the first major step for preventing terror attacks is to gather information regarding the operations of the terrorist group. This is followed by sharing the information across the relevant governmental agencies to use the information in preventing the attacks.
Information Sharing and the 9/11 Terror Attacks:
As part of showing the failure of information sharing in the failure to prevent the 9/11 terror attacks, the commission cited several reasons or factors including
Limits on Federal Law:
Many provisions in the federal…
"Agencies Failed to Share Intelligence on 9/11 Terrorists." Broken Government -- An Assessment
of 128 Executive Branch Failures Since 2000. Retrieved May 17, 2012, from http://www.publicintegrity.org/investigations/broken_government/articles/entry/1017/
Bjelopera, J.P. (2011, June 10). Terrorism Information Sharing and the Nationwide Suspicious
Activity Report Initiative: Background and Issues for Congress. Retrieved from Foreign Press Centers -- U.S. Department of State website: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/166837.pdf
London Terror Attacks
hen terrorist attacks felled the orld Trade Center and blew a hole into the Pentagon in the United States on September 11th, 2001, the United Kingdom fulfilled its role as America's closest ally. England immediately stepped forward to pledge troops to whatever operations were to arise in response. This would create a coalition that first ventured to Afghanistan to uproot the Taliban and subsequently to Iraq to displace longtime dictator Saddam Hussein. But it was not until July 7th, 2005 that the British people came face-to-face with the ar on Terror. The subway bombings which transpired in London on that day and which claimed 56 lives including those of four suicide bombers, highlighted the inherent danger of England's involvement with the global war on violent extremism. Indeed, the events would highlight the ongoing debate within Great Britain at the time, which cast staunch supporters of American interests…
Baldwin, T. (2006). U.S. Admits Iraq is Terror 'Cause.' The Sunday Times.
BBC. (2006). Reid: Bombers Never Blamed Iraq. BBC News.
The author of this report is asked to answer several questions that center on the idea that a truck bomb is (or could be) used to destroy the Federal eserve building in Washington DC, not unlike what happened with the Murrah building in Oklahoma City at the hands of Timothy McVeigh. There are five overall questions that will be answered as part of this brief paper. These questions include how important it is to have a continuity systems for the Federal eserve, what some of the other scenarios that could cause a total closure of the Federal eserve, how the Federal eserve could prepare itself against an attack or huge disaster in general including proactive steps it could take, what a good overall plan of operation would be for the Federal eserve given the above and whether the data flowing the Federal eserve should be backed up at…
FEMA,. (2015). Sandy Recovery Office -- FEMA.gov. Fema.gov. Retrieved 1 October 2015, from https://www.fema.gov/sandy-recovery-office
Levine, M., & Date, J. (2015). 22 Million Affected by OPM Hack, Officials Say. ABC News. Retrieved 1 October 2015, from http://abcnews.go.com/U.S./exclusive-25-million-affected-opm-hack-sources/story?id=32332731
USGS,. (2015). USGS Data Management - Backup & Secure. Usgs.gov. Retrieved 1 October 2015, from http://www.usgs.gov/datamanagement/backup.php
Triage During a Terrorist Attack
Triage During a Large-Scale Terrorist Attack
Triage is the cornerstone of medical emergency response. Triage is a technique of prioritizing victim injuries based on severity. In a triage situation, the most serious injuries are treated first instead of first come first served. The reason behind the modern triage method is to save as many lives as possible as quickly as possible. While this method is effective, there are some considerations that should be examined regarding the safety and efficiency of the technique. When considering whether triage is the best approach in an emergency situation one must consider the safety of the rescue units, danger of remaining within a crowded area, and the overwhelming waves of victims at nearby hospitals.
escue units put their lives on the line ignoring their own safety to safely remove and save any victims from a disaster. In the 9/11 trade…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Preparing for a Terrorist Bombing: A Common Sense Approach." Accessed 12 March 2012.
Cushman, James; et al. "Two New York City Hospitals' Surgical Response to the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attack in New York City." Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. Vol 54.1, 147-155.
The 9/11 terror attacks is an act of terrorism that has had significant impacts on modern law enforcement and military operations. Etter (2015) contends that the 9/11 attack was a very traumatic event for the entire United States of America. This is primarily because the attack resulted in loss of lives and destruction of properties. 9/11 has been regarded as a terror attack that changed the face of global terrorism by highlighting the extent terrorists are willing to go to achieve their goals. In the initial response to the attack, law enforcement officers and other emergency or first responders lost their lives while others suffered severe injuries. Given the devastating and widespread impacts of the attack, numerous changes have been made in the operations, tactics, and mission of law enforcement agencies and military personnel in the United States. This paper examines the changes in operations for military personnel post 9/11…
Abbasi, I.A., Khatwani, M.K. & Hussain, M. (2018). An Overview of Major Military Operations in the Tribal Areas of Pakistan. Journal of Academic and Social Research, 1(1), 1-14.
Bell, A. (2018, July 4). In the Post-9/11 World, Military and Police Merge in the Fight Against Terror. Retrieved March 2, 2019, from https://www.policeone.com/terrorism/articles/477251006-In-the-post-9-11-world-military-and-police-merge-in-the-fight-against-terror/
Etter, G.W. (2015). Changes in Local Law Enforcement Brought About by 9/11. in (ed.) Terrorism and Counterterrorism (Sociology of Crime, Law and Deviance, Volume 20). Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.219-240.
Green, M. (2017, September 8). How 9/11 Changed America: Four Major Lasting Impacts (with Lesson Plan). Retrieved March 2, 2019, from https://www.kqed.org/lowdown/14066/13-years-later-four-major-lasting-impacts-of-911
Kaplan, F. (2011, September 1). The Post-9/11 Military. Retrieved March 2, 2019, from https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2011/09/the-post-9-11-military-our-soldiers-and-generals-have-adapted-well-in-the-past-decade-here-s-how-they-did-it.html
Scarborough, R. (2011, September 8). 9/11 Changed War-fighting. The Washington Times. Retrieved March 2, 2019, from https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/sep/8/911-changed-war-fighting/
Smith, M. & Ziegler, S.M. (2017, November 10). Terrorism Before and After 9/11 – A More Dangerous World? Research & Politics, 4(4). Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2053168017739757
Thrall, A.T. & Goepner, E. (2017, June 26). Step Back: Lessons for U.S. Foreign Policy from the Failed War on Terror. Retrieved March 2, 2019, from https://www.cato.org/publications/policy-analysis/step-back-lessons-us-foreign-policy-failed-war-terror#full
But this seems to be an assumption athe than an established fact. Jugensmeye late points out that Abouhalima denies his involvement in the Wold Tade Cente bombing. If so, how can one know that Abouhalima was "disappointed" to see little damage? One can also see assumptions in the wods Jugensmeye uses. Fo example, Jugensmeye wites that Abouhalima "felt fee to talk about the subject of teoism in geneal and teoist incidents of which he was not accused, including the Oklahoma City fedeal building bombing."
Instead of witing, he "was not involved," Jugensmeye says he "he was not accused," as if Abouhalima could be accused of the Oklahoma City bombing.
Instead of making assumptions about Abouhalima, Jugensmeye could have focused on the contadictions in the actions and views of the Islamist militant and his appaent lack of knowledge in Islamic law. Jugensmeye povides evidence fo that by telling the stoy…
references to religious doctrines are almost always abstract and vague. As Jurgensmeyer's discussion of Abouhalima's ideological views demonstrates, Islamists like Abouhalima are not well-versed in Qur'anic studies or other Islamic core texts. It is important to critically examine the views of Abouhalima and other Islamist terrorists and expose their lack of Islamic knowledge and contradictions inherent in their views as this may help in discrediting them in the eyes of most Muslims.
Mark Jurgensmeyer, Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2001), p. 60.
Ibid, p. 61.
Ibid, p. 62.
Ibid, p. 61.
Terrorism is a complex and widely used term in today's lexicon. hat started out as a tactical approach to warfare has seemingly morphed into a label for loosely organized Muslim militias. Being branded as a terrorist is certainly relative, where one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter. Regardless of these distinctions, terrorist organizations, at least perceived in estern culture, are threats to peace and stability. The purpose of this essay is to explore the significance of terrorist targeting preferences and methodologies in order to understand how terrorist choose targets contributes to counter-terrorism operations, policies and practices. I will explore this topic by examining and interpreting literature relevant to this topic.
Drake (1998) explained how terrorist targets, while once thought to be indiscriminate, are essentially extremely specified. He explained that "target selection is instead determined by a number of factors, and the terrorists' ideology is central to this…
Carpenter, Shanna. "Q&A with Loretta Napoleoni: The ever-changing face of terrorism." Ted, December 14, 2009, http://blog.ted.com/2009/12/14/qa_with_loretta / (accessed January 31, 2013).
Drake, C.J.M. "The Role of Ideology in Terrorists' Target Selection." 10 (1998): 53-85.
Libicki, Martin, Peter Chalk and Melanie Sisson. "Exploring Terrorist Targeting Preferences." Rand Corporation (2007).
September 11 Attacks Affected the Lives of American Muslims
For a long time, American Muslims have been part and parcel of the American society. It is however important to note that after the September 11 terror attacks, the status of American Muslims in the wider American society seems to have undergone a major review. Unlike was the case a couple of years ago, most American non-Muslims seem to have developed negative stereotypes of American Muslims.
The September 11 Attacks
One of the darkest moments in American history, September 11, 2001 is a day that will remain engraved in the minds of most Americans for many years to come. This is the day that 19 Muslim men executed a plan that left thousands of Americans dead and others badly injured. In a well planned (and executed) undertaking, the terrorists involved in this atrocity chose to used several planes as deadly weapons…
Almasri, Nasir. "The Impact on American Muslims, 11 Years After 9/11." Council on American-Islamic Relations -- Chicago. CAIR -- Chicago, 13 Sept. 2012. Web. 2 May 2013.
Cohen, Jon and Kyle Dropp. "Most Americans Object to Planned Islamic Center Near Ground Zero, Poll Finds." The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, 9 Sept. 2010. Web. 3 May 2013.
Khan, Mussarat and Kathryn Ecklund. "Attitudes Toward Muslim Americans Post-9/11." Journal of Muslim Mental Health. 7.1 (2012): n. pag. Web. 1 May 2013.
Lean, Nathan. "Sept. 11: Eleven Years Later, American Muslims are Victims." The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, 9 Sept. 2012. Web. 1 May 2013.
How have worries over WMD terror attacks distorted a balanced approach to policy on terrorism?
Intelligence failures led to the presumption that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction (Jervis).[footnoteef:1] The presumption was rooted in a widespread policy playing upon mortal fears, rather than on reason. "Although administration officials exaggerated the danger that Saddam posed, they also revealed their true fears when they talked about the possibility that he could use WMD against the United States or its allies," (Jervis, p. 57).[footnoteef:2] It also "made little difference" that Saddam was shown to have no WMDs (Jervis, p. 57).[footnoteef:3] Therefore, the approach to policy on terrorism has been overtly shaped by fear mongering rather than on intelligence. [1: Jervis, obert, 2005.] [2: Jervis, obert, 2005, p. 57] [3: Jervis, obert, 2005, p. 57]
At the same time, policy on terrorism is always going to entail some type of trade-off between preparing…
"Global Salafi Terrorist Networks." Unrestricted Warfare Symposium. March 1-415, 2006.
Jervis, Robert, 2005. American Foreign Policy in a New Era. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis.
Pillar, Paul. R, 2001. Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Sageman, M., 2008. Leaderless Jihad. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Pineda (2012) noted that the tip was wasted entirely due to communication problems, the failure by the police to follow procedures as well as inadequate means-Factors that together bogged down the Norwegian Police's reaction as well as operation on the emergency following the incident.
The Gjorv eport also indicated that the nation's only helicopter in the city of Oslo was unusable since its crew was absent on vacation (Blair,2012). This is inefficiency by the Police since this is a clear sing of a lack of disaster/emergency preparedness. There was no emergency/replacement crew to fly the chopper. The availability of the chopper was also "limited." The understaffing of the police centers was also another problem.
Weaknesses in the police information sharing system
At the time of the Oslo and Utoya Island terrorist attacks, the Norwegian Police information-sharing infrastructure was subjected to a very formidable weakness. Further, the Police Security Services never…
Bjelopera, JP (2011). Terrorism Information Sharing and the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Report Initiative: Background and Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service .Available online at http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/166837.pdf
British Broadcasting Corporation (2012a). Norway PM Jens Stoltenberg 'sorry' over Breivik response.Available online at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-19401598
Blair, David (14 August 2012). "Breivik 'could have been stopped sooner' by police." The Daily Telegraph. The Irish Independent. http://www.independent.ie/world-news/europe/breivik-could-have-been-stopped-sooner-by-police-3200081.html . Retrieved 18th September 2012.
Cook, AH (2009).Emergency response to Domestic Terrorism-How Bureaucracies reacted to the 1995 Oklahoma Bombing.Continuum-New York
Emergency Terror Response
Roles and Responsibilities of Terror Response Incident Commander
In the event of an emergency incident such as the terrorist attack described in the case scenario, the National Response System (NRS) is immediately invoked. This places a previously designated Incident Commander at the helm of all efforts to control, contain and respond to a terrorist attack. In the present case, as the Incident Commander, it is incumbent upon me to employ the NRS and the resources which it has placed under my control in order to bring order to the chaos of a terror attack.
ith the initiation of the incident, my first priority is to gather together an assembly of delegates and representatives from concerned agencies. This would include personnel from local law enforcement (police, municipal personnel, HAZMAT teams), the Department of Defense (NORAD, NORTHCOM, etc.), Homeland Security and various affiliated and subordinated intelligence agencies as…
Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR). (2012). Emergency Management and the Incident Command System. Public Health Emergency.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (NCTAUUS). (2004). The 9/11 Commission Report. 9-11commission.gov.
Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA). (2011). Incident Commander. United States Department of Labor.
Ignored Group of Terror Victims, And the Possible Consequences
The American population is currently one that is fully aware of the extent of the damage and effect that terrorism has on the community and the nation as a whole. The diverse effects and damages that terrorism has is drawn from the fact that terror has numerous faces, ranging from violent aggressions through shootings, suicide bombing, detonating bombs into buildings, using motorized means for terror acts like the planes and trucks, bioterrorism and even cyber terrorism (Crime Museum, 2015). All these are viable means that the terrorist can use of the American people, hence the extended fear and apprehension. Worse still, the effects of any single terror activity often lives in the psyche of a generation and is passed on to the next generation hence has a very profound effect. The 9/11 terror act can be seen to have transcended the…
Crime Museum, (2015). Types of Terrorism. http://www.crimemuseum.org/crime-library/types-of-terrorism
Table of Contents
III. Related Topics
VI. Essay Hook
VII. Thesis Statement
C. Sunni/Shia Split
D. Relationship between AL Qaeda and Isis
E. ISIS attacks on the United States
X. Works Cited
In this essay about ISIS attacks in America, we examine attacks by the terrorist organization ISIS, which have occurred on U.S. soil. Because of the structure of ISIS/ISIL, which operate in cells, it can be extremely difficult to determine whether a terrorist attack carried out by someone claiming to be working on behalf of ISIS was actually directed by ISIS. Therefore, for the purposes of this essay, we are working on the assumption that attacks by people who appear to be radicalized Muslims and claim a personal affiliation with ISIS are, indeed, ISIS attacks. This essay will give some…
2001 there was an Anthrax attack which created an alert of how bioterrorism had an impact on the public health emergencies. These types of emergencies can not only spread illnesses but also cause several deaths. The can also affect government operations which include the economic growth, creating fear which can cause International crisis. There has been an alert on illnesses that have previously been curbed reappearing with most of them resisting the drugs in the market. There has also been an alert of the food supplies in the market due to the terrorists because they can be used to spread infections.
The public health system is highly responsible for detecting any bioterrorist attacks enabling the government to prepare for any attacks. This means that the government should enhance all infrastructure connected to health systems in order to integrate any threats related to biological or chemical terror attacks (Hamburg 2003).This is…
Chomel, B., & Sun, B. (2010). Bioterrorism and invasive species. Revue Scientifique Et Technique (International Office Of Epizootics), 29(2), 193-199
Hamburg, M.A. (2003).Testimony to the Government Reform Committee, U.S. House of Representatives.
Heinrich, J. September (2003).Testimony to the Subcommitteeon Emergency Preparedness and Response, Select Committeeon Homeland Security, U.S.House of Representatives
Institute of Medicine. (2003). Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
U.S. counter-terrorism policies negatively affected individual rights and liberties of law-Abiding U.S. citizens
US counterterrorism efforts have adversely affected human rights in ways that alarmists had warned. There is a significant degree of government interference for the purposes of security. The most criticized effects relating to civil rights are the operations of Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs) across the U.S. Some of the tactics employed have entrapped human rights as they provide detonators, explosives and other equipment. In such sting operations, individuals are always charged for attempting to acquire illegal firearms and explosives or smuggling. This enables the government to exercise tight control over its citizens by denying them the right to own any firearm. The practice exists on a thin line between protecting the rights of the innocent and protecting civilians (Howell & Lind, 2010).
After the September 11 attack, the federal embraced a range of actions to curtail…
Howell, J., & Lind, J. (2010). Civil society under strain: Counter-terrorism policy, civil society, and aid post-9/11. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.
Tsang, S.Y.-S. (2008). Intelligence and human rights in the era of global terrorism. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Security Studies, an imprint of Stanford University Press.
Salinas, F.A., Samuel, K., & White, N.D. (2012). Counter-terrorism: International law and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ryan, M.W.S. (2013). Decoding Al-Qaeda's Strategy: The Deep Battle against America. New York: Columbia University Press.
Terrorism elated Disaster Preparation Exercises
Terrorism-elated Disaster Preparation Exercises
In the recent years, terrorism has changed with the global sophistication, to complex and unmanageable standards. A country may consider itself a haven for its people, only to be surprised by a terrible terrorism attack. From these terror trends observed in different countries, governments must equip themselves with the necessary disaster management skills and equipment. Various disaster preparation activities can be undertaken to fight terrorism attacks. These disaster preparation exercises are meant to avoid or reduce terrorism casualties.
The foremost exercise should involve civic education on terrorism attacks. The public should be aware of what to do on receiving information on a planned terrorist activity, when in the midst of a terrorist attack or when in the aftermath of a terrorist activity (Bloomberg, Scoppetta, & Cassano, 2007). For instance, the public should be aware of the need to avoid an area…
Bloomberg, M.R., Scoppetta, N., & Cassano, S.J. (2007). Terrorism and Disaster Preparedness Strategy. Fire Department City of New York, 21-39.
Vasterman, P., Yzermans, C.J., & Dirkzwager, A.J. (2004). The Role of the Media and Media Hypes in the Aftermath of Disasters. Oxford Journals, 3-7.
Tragedies from deadly terrorist attacks have made the international communities to pervasively fear and loath terrorism. Terrorism is undertaken by individual with motivations that are complex for the understanding of security agencies and individuals. Definition according United States statutes states terrorism to be politically motivated, premeditated, violence against noncombatant individuals, private property by clandestine agents or subnational groups, with an intention to obtain audience (Launtenberg, 2011). This definition is adopted for purposes of this paper.
Attempts to shed some light on terrorism highlight the motives of the perpetrators while they give some appropriate measures to resolve the problem. The organizations linked to supporting terrorism by State Department stood at 22 in the year 2001. In three years' time, the list of identified terrorist groups had grown to 36 with more groups being listed as unofficial terrorist organizations. One might mistake terrorism industry for a thriving economic entity or the…
Launtenberg, F. (2011). Homeland Security and Fighting Terrorism. Retrieved 19th October 2013, from http://lautenberg.senate.gov/issues_update/homesec_terror.cfm
McCarthy, Timothy, P., & McMillian, J. (2008). The Radical Reader: A Documentary History of the American Radical Tradition. (Vol. New Press): New York.
Morag, N. (2004). The Economic and Social Effects of Intensive Terrorism: Israel 2000 -- 2004. Retrieved 19th October, 2013, from http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2006/issue3/jv10no3a9.html
Ridgeway, J. (1990). Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Nazi Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White Culture. New York: Thunder's Mouth,.
War on Terror
Terrorism has always been with society, but since 2001 the elements of how it is handled have changed to some extent. In order to understand how that has taken place, it is vital to look carefully at the historical events of terrorism. These events were significant in that they caused serious harm to a number of people and structures, but they also matter because they provide a timeline of how things have changed and how terrorism -- and the responses to it -- has evolved over the years (Coaty, 12). As the terrorists have focused on doing different things, the people who are trained to respond to terror have also changed their focus. It is both of these sides of the terrorist issue that have to be examined to provide a proper understanding of what terrorism does and how those who combat it and fight against it…
Coaty, P. (2012). Understanding the war on terror (3rd ed.). IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing.
Financial and law enforcers, military and reporting of intelligence are carried out by respective agencies drawn on limited coordination efforts (Whitmore, 2002). While agencies can pull and push intelligence data, these structures lack a centralized system for collecting intelligence. This limits the ability to conduct a meta-analysis of data across inter-agencies systems. Lack of proper coordination efforts reduces the usefulness of financial intelligence thus making it difficult to link the financial intelligence with other useful information. Critics claim that financial evidence is useful in supporting a case; it does not lead to prevention of terrorism attacks (Linden, 2007).
However, a centralized system of coordination may be an effective way of exploring financial data through linking it with other useful information. This can be made useful if the agencies improve their overall understanding of the financial networks of terrorists. The new homeland security departments are signals that there are efforts for…
Amos, M. & Petraeus, D. (2009). The U.S. Army Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field
Manual. New York: Signalman Publishing
Center for Excellence Defense against Terrorism (2008). Responses to Cyber Terrorism.
California: IOS Press
Barbary Terror: America's 1815 ar against the Pirates of North Africa
During the 19th century, pirates were far from an abstract threat on international seas. Nor was piracy merely due to the actions of some rogue elements. The nations of Algeria, Morocco, Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli used state-sponsored piracy to profit off of ransom money. Sailors who were not ransomed in a system of state-sponsored forced labor. European nations had long taken the attitude that piracy was inevitable, and rather than fight it, they rationalized that "paying Barbary rulers a 'license' for trade was less expensive than constantly convoying ships or attacking the Barbary powers in their heavily fortified ports" (Leiner 14). Remarkably, the still relatively weak and young American nation under the leadership of President James Madison was able to challenge and defeat the Barbary nations at the piracy game. The book The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815…
Leiner, Frederick. The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North
Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
obert Conquest's The Great Terror: A eassessment is a book that is an absolute 'must read' for anyone who is interested in the history of Communism, and more important, the issue of human rights. In fact, it can be said that the book is perhaps one of the most powerful arguments in favor of human liberty, rights and the democratic process of government. It is also of interest to note that Conquest's book contains the only really exhaustively researched, historical record of the reign of terror unleashed by Stalin's purges. Though Conquest wrote the original The Great Terror some twenty years ago, this version assumes higher importance given recent new evidence, which emerged during the glasnost period. And also because the new references help put to rest any doubt over the accuracy of the source material (Conquest, 1990, p.viii), or earlier speculation that Conquest derived his material from the…
Conquest, Robert. (1999, February). Liberals and totalitarianism. New Criterion, 17,4.
Conquest, Robert. (1990). The Great Terror: A Reassessment. New York: Oxford U.S..
Wikipedia. Robert Conquest. 4 Reference Web site. Retrieved Jan 19, 2004:
Of course, not all of the counterterrorism methods will work, and there will certainly be changes, alterations, and even the disbanding of some of the things the government has done to help prevent further attacks.
Clearly, the nation has learned quite a bit from the terrorist attacks of 9/11. The people learned the country was vulnerable to attacks never before imagined. They learned that thousands of people could die in a few minutes at the hands of terrorists, and that the borders, the cities, and even the rural areas were susceptible to attack. They learned that weapons such as biochemical agents and other poisons could enter the water and food supplies and could kill thousands, or even millions. They learned that the country has to be increasingly vigilant to protect the citizens and their way of life. They also learned that Americans could stand together with pride in the face…
Chomsky, N. (2001). September 11. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Cordesman, A.H. (2002). Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Homeland. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Klinger, D.A., & Grossman, D. (2002). Who Should Deal with Foreign Terrorists on U.S. Soil? Socio-Legal Consequences of September 11 and the Ongoing Threat of Terrorist Attacks in America. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 25(2), 815+.
Posner, Gerald. (2003). Why America Slept: The Failure to Prevent 9/11. New York: Random House.
Del O'Conner, head of the British chapter of the Hammerskins, carried out a nail-bomb attack on a gay pub in England that injured several; he was hidden for years in Texas by his Hammerskins brethren (Reynolds, 2002).
All of these crimes by Hammerskins leaders meet the definition of terrorism for the following reasons: the violence was repeated; the violence was criminally and politically motivated (the crimes were committed against groups like gays and blacks that the Hammerskins politically oppose); and the victims were targets of opportunity or symbolic, such as black or gay people who happened to be using a park or having a drink at a pub at the wrong time. Further, the acts of terrorism committed by Hammerskins leaders have the effect of encouraging terrorism among rank-and-file members. The average member would be right to deduce that those who practiced violence would be protected by the group and…
Corcoran, P. (2004, April 3). Hammerskin Nation member arrested. Pioneer Press, p. B-4.
Gibbs, J. (2006, July 27). Jury convicts Rowlett carjacker on 8 federal offenses. The Courier-Gazette, p. 1.
Hall, J. (2001, November 22). Two found guilty in 1999 hate crime attack. North Country Times, p. 1.
Lejtenyi, P. (2003, January 30). Hate under the sleeve. The Montreal Mirror.
In your explanation, compare and contrast domestic and international terrorism. Also, please indicate whether either type of terrorism is subject to defeat. or, in a free society such as ours, must we simply learn to live with the annoyance and tragedies of ideological, political, and/or religiously-motivated violence?)
Domestic terrorism is much more statistically common than foreign terrorism, as those who feel they have cause to be angry enough to act against anything are much more likely to act against something they see as wrong in their own environment, Opportunity and ease of access also plays a role in this observation. Though terrorist acts are exceedingly rare they do occur on a somewhat regular basis if definitions are kept broad and are more likely to be domestic in nature than foreign born. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Domestic and international terrorism are similar in some ways, they both experience the kind of…
Daniels, D.J. (2002, December). The Challenge of Domestic Terroism to American Criminal Justice. Corrections Today, 64, 66.
Hamm, M.S. (September 2005) Crimes Committed by Terrorist Groups: Theory, Research and Prevention Retrieved April 1, 2008 http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/211203.pdf
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Lewis, C.W. (2000). The Terror That Failed: Public Opinion in the Aftermath of the Bombing in Oklahoma City. Public Administration Review, 60(3), 201.
The new landscape that has developed within the criminal justice system in recent times has presented many challenges that are difficult to solve and present no real easy solution. The ever present threat of terrorist activities has placed this system in a unique situation where a balance between human rights and the protection of the citizens. In legal attempts to thwart terrorist efforts, advanced and debatable interrogation techniques have begun taking place. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the ethical dilemma that is present in finding and achieving this balance between what is right and wrong. This essay will suggest that there is not general right or wrong and that each case must be handled with reason and rational thought in order for the criminal justice system to maintain a useful place within society.
The 9/11 attacks collectively spooked out everyone in America, despite the…
Millar, S. (2008). Extraordinary Rendition, Extraordinary Mistake. Common Dreams, 30 Aug 2008. Retrieved from https://www.commondreams.org/view/2008/08/30-5
Contemporary Political Issue: The War on Terror
On September 20th, 2001, President George W. Bush proposed the new Office of Homeland Security to help confront a new threat to national security in the first step of what became the War on Terrorism (Select Committee on Homeland Security, 2004). One week earlier, Congress had signed off on the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), allowing the president broad scope for using military force against countries or organizations who “planned, authorized, committed, or aided” terrorism (Ackerman & Hathaway, 2011). 17 years and more than $2 trillion later, the War on Terrorism continues with no sign of easing up (Amadeo, 2018). Though President Trump ran a campaign on getting American soldiers out of the Middle East and letting other countries handle the ISIS threat, the war on terror rhetoric out of the White House has continued unabated, with sights now set…
It is difficult to state that the national security apparatus is underperforming when you have clear statistical results: no attacks in the last five years. This means that something must be functioning at full parameters there and that the informational community is also operating with those in other countries to obtain these results (the attacks planned for London and stopped are a good example in this sense).
On the other hand, a counter argument to this statement is that the war is not against national terrorism: it is a global war on global terrorism, the U.S. have pledged to wipe out terrorism on a global scale and this, as shown in the article, is not yet giving full results. Indeed, the attacks in London and Madrid are a good example in this sense, if we consider only some of the most important cases of extremist Arab terrorism.
As to the…
1. Foreign Policy and the Center for American Progress. The Terrorism Index. July/August 2006. On the Internet at http://web0.foreignpolicy.com/issue_julyaug_2006/TI-index/index.html
Foreign Policy and the Center for American Progress. The Terrorism Index. July/August 2006. On the Internet at
Comprehending September 11 attacks through the eyes of Emile Durkheim
This research paper discusses a current event through the eyes of a social theorist. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.
Societies form individuals and social orders of different kinds produce different individuals. Hence our research paper will revolve around the following thesis statement:
An individual is the product of his/her own society therefore those who take extreme measures to become what they grow to expect themselves to be and those who strive hard to cooperate with certain groups even at the cost of their own lives, do so as a result of the social external forces that are at work. Both social as well as political elements, primarily cultural components play a pivotal role in forming various groups including the main example of terrorist groups and suicide commandos including those that made the orlds' skyscrapers disintegrate into…
Social Problems. Retrieved April 7, 2003 at http://www.soc.duke.edu/courses/soc11/11syls02.htm
Arthur & Kroker. Terrorism of Viral Power. CTHEORY THEORY, TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE VOL 24, NO 3.
Achenbach J. THE CLASH; Two professors, two academic theories, one big difference. depending on which is right, September 11 may mark a brief battle against terrorism, or an endless struggle between Islam and the., The Washington Post, 12-16-2001, pp W17.
Goska D. Islam & Terror. Retrieved April 7, 2003 from: http://answering-islam.org/Terrorism/islam_terror.html
Preventing Terrorist Attacks on the Water and Wastewater Systems Sector
Terrorism is nowadays an already established threat that is part of every security strategy of modern states. It is not only an un-conventional threat at the address of national security but also it drove the re-definition of the term of security as it was understood and worked with some twenty years ago. Currently, there is talk about economic, political, social security as part of the areas that the state must take into account when drafting and enabling a national security strategy. At the same time though, especially after the events from September 2001, the security of the infrastructure and that of natural resources has become an increasingly important aspect to consider.
Currently in the United States, the country considered to be the most targeted by terrorist threats, an important part of the security strategy is related to the economic sectors…
Copeland, C. 2005. "Hurricane-Damaged Drinking Water and Wastewater Facilities: Impacts, Needs, and Response" CRS Report for Congress. Available at http://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=463973
Copeland, C. 2010. "Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector" Congressional Research Center Available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32189.pdf
Dept. Of Homeland Security. 2013. Water and Wastewater Systems Sector. Available online at http://www.dhs.gov/water-and-wastewater-systems-sector
Leuven, L. 2011. "Water/Wastewater Infrastructure Security: Threats and Vulnerabilities" in R.M. Clark et al. (eds.), Handbook of Water and Wastewater Systems Protection, 27 Protecting Critical Infrastructure, available online.
The resolution of this policy counsel meeting is the endorsement of a refinement of Australia's terror policy with respect both to the preservation of constitutional rights and in terms of approach its relationship to the United States with balance and diplomacy. Recognizing the severity the security threat but simultaneously recognizing the need to refine policies so as to diminish the tendency toward inflaming the political and ideological anger of the developing world, Australia must spend the coming decades finding ways to quell such hostility. This will mean a closer consideration of the economic, political and trade policies that often have run aground of the interests of the developing world. Likewise, it means that Australia must function as a continued partner to the U.S. But also as a voice of conscience with respect to the discretionary use of military force or diplomatic finesse.
Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim…
Aly, a. (2007). Australian Muslim Responses to the Discourse on Terrorism in the Australian Popular Media. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 42(1).
Australian Federal Police (AFP). (2009). Fighting Terrorism in Australia. www.afp.gov.au
BBC News. (2006). Australian Loses Terrorism Appeal. BBC News.
Brown, M. (2009). Al-Shabaab terrorists 'living in Australia.' ABC News. Online at http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/09/23/2693927.htm?section=justin
Therefore the consequences of such restrictions and regulations have further complicated the case, the research activities have been either shunned or go unreported to avoid any confrontation with the investigation agencies, 'the climate of fear created by the Butler case is even threatening the ability of the United States government to detect bioterrorist activity, the labs in one state are no longer reporting routine incidents of animals poisoned with ICIN, a deadly toxin found in castor beans, for fear of federal investigation'. Stanley Falkow, a respected researcher at Stanford University in California, in his letter to the former attorney-general of the United States revealed that, 'Trying to meet the unwarranted burden of what the government considers 'bio-safety' is simply not coincident with the practice of sound, creative scientific research'. The government introduced a policy which highlighted the need for tight control over the biologists 'with access to dangerous pathogens', in…
Robyn L. Pangi, Arnold M. Howitt. Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. 2003. MIT Press. pp. 341
Anthony Kubaik. Stages of Terror: terrorism, Ideology, and Coercion as theatre History. 2000. Pp. 154.
Jamie Lewis Keith. Regulation of Biological Materials under Export Controls and Bioterrorism Laws. University of Florida Press. 2003.
Debora MacKenzie. U.S. crackdown on Bio-Terror is backfiring. New Scientist Publication. November 2003.
Terrorist Activity Since 9 11
The Oklahoma City Bombing was a domestic terrorist attack perpetrated in 1995 by Timothy McVeigh—a Gulf War Veteran—and Terry Nichols, a former Army serviceman who had obtained a hardship discharge after only a year in service. The two targeted the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in retaliation for the Ruby Ridge and Waco stand-offs. More than 150 people were killed in the blast and nearly 700 more were injured (Collins, 1997). The Orlando Nightclub shooting occurred in 2016 and was committed by Omar Mateen at Pulse, a gay nightclub in Florida. Mateen was motivated to act by the killing of Abu Waheeb in Iraq and swore allegiance to the Islamic State before being shot and killed by Orlando Police after a brief standoff (Doornbos, 2016). Mateen killed 49 and wounded 53 more.
These two attacks serve as good comparison points because each contains actors…
Best, R. A. (2002). Intelligence to Counter Terrorism: Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service: CRS Report for Congress.
Collins, J. (1997). Oklahoma City: The weight of evidence. Retrieved from http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,986240,00.html
Doornbos, C. (2016). Transcripts of 911 calls reveal Pulse shooter's terrorist motives. Retrieved from https://www.orlandosentinel.com/news/pulse-orlando-nightclub-shooting/os-911-calls-released-orlando-shooting-20170922-story.html
Greenwald, G. & Hussein, M. (2018). As the trial of Omar Mateen’s wife begins, new evidence undermines beliefs about the Pulse massacre, including motive. Retrieved from https://theintercept.com/2018/03/05/as-the-trial-of-omar-mateens-wife-begins-new-evidence-undermines-beliefs-about-the-pulse-massacre-including-motive/
Michel, L., & Herbeck, D. (2015). American terrorist: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma city bombing. BookBaby.
Robotic drones have been in use by the United States as a strategy of attack against terrorist groups for several years now, beginning in the administration of George . Bush. They have been effective and yet there is and has been controversy with the use of these robotic technologies. This paper will point to the criticisms and the supportive positions as well. In this paper the writer uses opinion articles by Daniel Byman and Kenneth Anderson to point to how drones actually work and to arguments against the continued use of drones as well as arguments in support of the policy of using drones.
This paper supports the use of drones as a very successful way to combat and kill certain key terrorist leaders who use violence to kill innocent people as they push their twisted Islamic ideologies on society. There is no doubt that innocent people have been killed…
Anderson, Kenneth. "The Case for Drones." Commentary. Retrieved February 23, 2015,
From http://www.commentarymagazine.com . 2013.
Byman, Daniel. "Why Drones Work." Foreign Affairs, 92.4 (2013): 32-43.
There are numerous reasons as to why terrorists deliberately target those who are considered innocent people, such as civilians and non-combatants. One can argue that the very definition of a terrorist organization is one which challenges "the peace of mind of everyday people" (Augustus & Martin, 2010), which is done effectively by targeting them. In many instances, terrorist organizations lack the resources to scale a full-fledged military assault -- such as that which typifies wars -- due to a paucity of numbers, dearth of finances, and lack of requisite hardware (weapons). In these instances, one of the most viable options for these organizations and their objectives (which are almost always political) is to make figurative 'statements' in the form of targeting innocents. There are fewer ways of expressing one's political ambitions and extremism for such causes than by destroying the lives of innocents who happen to represent the…
Augustus, C, Martin, G. (2010). Essentials of Terrorism: Concepts and Controversies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Braithwaite, A., Foster, D.M., Sobek, D.A. (2010). Ballots, bargains and bombs: terrorist targeting of spoiler opportunities. International Interactions. 36(3), 294-305.
Habeck, M. (2006). Knowing the Enemy. Yale University Press. New Haven, Connecticut.
Jasper, W. F. (2009). Terrorist targeting of police. New American. 25(17), 17-20.
Over the last two decades or so, the nastiest and most active terrorist groups really have to be ISIS/ISIL and Al Qaeda. Although the former is much "younger" than the latter, they have certainly made up for lost time given what they are currently doing in the Middle East. Even so, the top question becomes which of those two groups is the most active and deadliest right now. Indeed, a case could be made for both in their own rights. Al Qaeda has had more staying power but ISIS is running roughshod over the Middle East much more so as of late than Al Qaeda has been doing anywhere. While Al Qaeda is certainly still a threat, ISIS is clearly the more clear and present danger right now.
If this question were posed a mere ten to fifteen years ago, the answer would be Al Qaeda and…
PBS. (2016). Bill Moyers Journal. Brief History of al Qaeda -- PBS. PBS.org. Retrieved 21 May
2016, from http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/07272007/alqaeda.html
Yuhas, A. (2016). NATO Commander: ISIS 'Spreading like cancer' among refugees. The Guardian. Retrieved 21 May 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016
Lewis' the Crisis of Islam
On page 160 of The Crisis of Islam, Bernard Lewis states, "There is no doubt that the foundation of Al-Qa'ida and the consecutive declarations of war by Usama bin Ladin marked the beginning of a new and ominous phase in the history of both Islam and terrorism." Indeed, based on the historical outline of Islam that Lewis provides, the new and ominous phase applies equally to non-Muslim cultures. The Crisis of Islam examines the origins of Islamic fundamentalism and its deadly application as terrorism. The September 11 attacks made Americans more conscious than ever about the threat of anti-American sentiment, a threat that existed far before Al-Qa'ida. In his book, Lewis offers several insights into Islam's current social and political crisis. First, the author describes the flourishing of Islamic culture, noting in particular its theocratic foundations. The theocratic foundation of Islamic culture and religion allow…
Lewis, Bernard. The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. New York: The Modern Library, 2003.
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…
Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
Therefore, regardless of their system of manifestation, they are considered by the law suspicious of any possible acts of violence.
The government is the highest authority to impose rules and regulations. Despite the fact that there are local governments as well, at the level of the federal one, action needs to be taken. For instance in schools, the government may offer free access to the internet. Possible programs that would ensure the communication may be available for getting to know one's country and develop a sense of acceptance of different vaues.
5. Give your overall assessment of the U.S.A. PATIOT ACT. Do you think it has contributed to the lack of terror attacks in the United States since 9/11? If you were in Congress, would you vote to renew the act as is? Would you change anything? Why or why not?
The U.S. Patriot Act is the result of the…
Gregory, a. (2005). Nationalism and Anti-Americanism. 24 Jan. 2008 http://www.lewrockwell.com/gregory/gregory97.html
Principles of the Just War. (2006). 24 Jan. 2008. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pol116/justwar.htm
The Detroit Arab-American Community. (2008). Arab Detroit. 24 Jan. 2008 http://www.arabdetroit.com/arabamericans.php
Seaports Vulnerability to Submersible Vessels
All countries of the world are struggling hard to provide peace to its residents and masses. After all the efforts and struggle, countries are still not completely safe from the dangerous attacks on the borders including dry ports and seaports. In America, it is a severe issue to understand how to secure and protect the seaports of the country. The topic of discussion is also related to the protection of seaports of the country from different types of attacks such as nuclear attacks and submersible vessels (Jaffee and Russell 1997).
It is very important to understand all the seaports security issues and then suggest roadmap for protection policies development as well as its implementation immediately. There are three large seaports in America such as Los Angeles, Long Beach, and Oakland. These are the largest seaports of America and these ports are most vulnerable to…
Chalk, Peter, Bruce Hoffman, Robert T. Reville, and Anna-Britt Kasupski. Trends in Terrorism: Threats to the United States and the254 Future of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation MG-393-CTRMP, 2005.
Crist, Phillipe. Security in Maritime Transport: Risk Factors and Economic Impact. Paris: Maritime Transport Committee, Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2003.
Flanagan, William. "CSI Operations and Overview," presentation to Fifth International Conference on Export Controls. Public, Hungary: Budapest, 2003.
Flynn, Stephen E. "America the Vulnerable,. Public, Washington D.C: " Foreign Affairs Department," 2002.
Media and Terrorism
The role of the media and its impact in reporting terrorist cases has attracted significant concern in the recent past given the increase in terrorist activities across the globe. The increased concern has contributed to controversy and debates on whether the media helps in advancing the agenda of terrorists. Actually, some scholars argue that too often the media assists in advancing terrorists' agenda while others disagree. However, the determination of whether the media promotes terrorists' agenda requires an evaluation of the intentions of terrorists and the goals of the media during coverage of terrorist attacks.
While terrorists carry out their activities for various reasons including ideological, religious and nationalist objectives, some terrorist groups and organizations utilize the media as a means of obtaining recognition or publicity for the causes and goals of their groups. In contrast, media's role in coverage of terror attacks is to providing information…
Anderson, T. (1993). Terrorism and Censorship: The Media in Chains. Journal of International
Affairs, 47(1), 127.
Mahan, S. & Griset, P. (2008). Media Coverage of Terrorism. In Terrorism in perspective.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
U.S. Invasion into Iraq:
After the 911 terror attacks, the ush Administration launched the war on terrorism in attempts to deal with the threats of global terrorism and enhance homeland security. The war on terrorism was characterized by a successful American military campaign to destroy Afghanistan's Taliban regime and interrupt the operations of the Al Qaeda terrorist network. In the aftermath of this successful mission, the United States military invaded Iraq due to its probable source of strategic surprise and the huge danger to U.S. national interests. The onset of the invasion was marked with huge debates regarding the continued use of international sanctions and the inspections by United Nation's arms to contain Iraq. These debates also focused on the denial of imports that would be helpful to Iraq in rebuilding and modernizing Saddam Hussein's military. While U.S. invasion into Iraq was geared towards fighting the threat of terrorism, it…
Baker Boys: Inside the Surge. Directed by Ken Konwiser and Written by Jon Steele. 2010.
Chatsworth, CA: Gigapix Studios, Inc., 2010. DVD.
GRANT REBECCA, 'Saddam's Elite in the Meat Grinder', Air Force Magazine, [web page]
The proliferation of non-conventional weapons has contributed to the increase of the threat of non-conventional terror in the recent past. This has come at a time when there are various efforts towards the war on terrorism, which is a major security threat across the globe. Terrorists have now turned to non-conventional options because of the increased access to materials that enable them to develop chemical, biological or nuclear devices. These devices are in turn used to plan and carry out attacks that are aimed at killing thousands or millions of individuals or groups.
There are various types of non-conventional terrorism including Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), biotoxins, anthrax, germ warfare installations, chemical weapons, and gas attacks. The most difficult non-conventional terrorism to plan and to execute is Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). While WMDs have been used by several groups, warriors, and countries for several years, the likelihood…
Combs, C.C. (2012). The New Terrorist Threat: Weapons of Mass Destruction. In Terrorism in the twenty-first century (7th ed., Chapter 14). London, UK: Longman.
Lowther, A.B. (2008). Terrorism and the Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat to the United
States. Midsouth Political Science Review, 9, 95-118. Retrieved from http://www.arkpsa.org/MPSR%20articles/5%20Lowther.pdf
Evolution of CBNE Incidents
Weapons that were out of the ordinary, such as chemical, biological, nuclear, radiological, and explosive (CBNE), have been used since nearly the beginning of warfare. People sent infected individuals into the midst of enemy camps in attempts to harm the soldiers with biological weaponry. Nuclear weapons are owned by many countries, and have been tested to the point that all it would take is one ruler of one country deciding to do something drastic and the entire world could potentially be wiped out. Terror plots have been foiled that have included chemical and radiological weapons (Eldridge, 2006). Explosives, of course, are often used. Bombs and dynamite have been used in the past, but terrorists can also use larger-scale explosives to damage buildings and to create fear and worry in the hearts of people throughout a country or a region of the world. This was done, for…
Eldridge, J. (ed.). (2006). Jane's nuclear, biological and chemical defense 2006 -- 2007 (19th ed.). Coulsdon, Surrey, UK; Alexandria, Va: Jane's Information Group.
Morel, B. & Olson, K. (1992). Shadows and substance: The chemical weapons convention New York: Westview Press.
Through experience, the FBI has acquired insights into the fact that there are no dividing lines distinguishing foreign intelligence, terrorist and criminal activities. Foreign intelligence, terrorism, and criminal organizations and activities are interdependent and interrelated (Abele, 2005). Files belonging to the FBI are full of investigation cases where the sharing of information between criminal intelligence, counterintelligence, and counterterrorism investigations is essential to the ability of the FBI. This is in regards to the protection of the nation from criminal activities, foreign intelligence activity, and terrorists. Some investigations beginning as counterintelligence investigations end up becoming criminal cases. In some cases, the FBI initiates the counterterrorism, counterintelligence, or parallel criminal cases in maximizing their ability to conduct effective investigations. This has helped in addressing and identifying various threats to the U.S. hence implementing protective measures to protect vulnerable methods and sources. The success in the provision of accurate assessments of intelligence threats…
Abele, R.P. (2005). A user's guide to the U.S. Patriot Act and beyond. Lanham, MD: Univ. Press of America.
Alexander, Y., & Kraft, M. (2008). Evolution of U.S. counterterrorism policy. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.
Bidgoli, H. (2006). Handbook of Information Security Volume 2. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Dempsey, J.S., & Forst, L.S. (2012). An introduction to policing. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.
Fundamentally, the insurgents are fighting an enemy with superior weaponry, technology, and resources, so therefore, must seek avenues to mitigate these disadvantages. In other words, insurgent forces out vastly outdone in the traditional aspects of warfare, so they are forced to resort to unconventional modes of attack.
Early in his book, the Army and Vietnam, Krepinevich provides the broad game plan an insurgent force must follow to achieve final victory:
As developed by Mao in China and adapted by Giap in Vietnam, contemporary insurgency is a third world phenomenon comprising three phases: first, insurgent agitation and proselytization among the masses -- the phase of contention; second, overt violence, guerrilla operations, and the establishment of bases -- the equilibrium phase; and third, open warfare between insurgent and government forces designed to topple the existing regime -- the counteroffensive phase."
Primarily, this form of warfare consists of the formation of a political…
Anonymous. 2004. Imperial Hubris. Washington, D.C.: Brassley's, Inc. Page, xxi.
Barringer, Mark. 1999. "The Anti-War Movement in the United States." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press Available: www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/vietnam/antiwar.html.
Bush, George W. 2002. "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." Speeches delivered September 17 and June 1.
Butler, Smedley D. War is a Racket. New York: Feral House, 2003.
Combatting Future Terrorism
Fighting future terrorism
Over the years, the U.S.A. government and the entire world has been battling with the issue of terrorism. This is because the act of terrorism has diverse faces, from the rebel terrorists, the insurgents, bioterrorism to the religious sect terrorism. The U.S.A. has in particular been busy figuring out the various ways to not only stop the terrorism act before it happens, but more significantly to hinder the development of the terror groups from developing into fully fledged organizations. The U.S. is not alone in this and many nations have invested heavily in the same and some of the internationally known counterterrorism forces are S.A.S. (Special Air Service), the GSG-9, The Navy SEAL Team 6, SFOD-D (Delta Force), and CIA Special Activities Division (SAD). The SAS belongs to the British Military and the GSG-9 Germany. The Navy SEAL, Delta Force, and SAD are United…
Adam Szpiro et.al., (2007). Health Surveillance and Diagnosis for Mitigatinga Bio-terror Attack.
Lincoln Laboratory Journal. Vol.17 No.1. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from http://www.ll.mit.edu/publications/journal/pdf/vol17_no1/17_1_5Szpiro.pdf
Counter Terrorism, (2011). Community Preparedness. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from http://www.counterterrorismtraining.gov/comm/index.html
Daniel J. Dire, (2011). Biological Warfare. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/biological_warfare/article_em.htm
Terrorism has emerged as one of the major security threats across the globe in the past several years. The severity of this global threat has been evident through the various terrorist attacks that have occurred in the past few decades, especially the 9/11 attacks. Actually, the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks was characterized with increased fears that terrorist groups like al-Qaeda will attempt to carry out other large attacks against the United States. One of the major reasons for the increase in terrorism is the use of various tactics by these individuals or groups. As the world continues to experience tremendous changes, terrorists and terror groups continue to develop new, sophisticated means and tactics of carry out their activities. While some of these activities may be carried out for similar reasons, they tactics employed in achieving these goals vary from time to time.
ecent Terrorists Tactics:
Carafano, J.J., Bucci, S. & Zuckerman, J. (2012, April 25). Fifty Terror Plots Foiled Since 9/11:
The Homegrown Threat and the Long War on Terrorism. Backgrounder: The Heritage Foundation -- Leadership for America.
Moran, N. (2007, September 24). The Evolution of Improvised Explosive Devices. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from http://www.rightsidenews.com/2007092429591/world/terrorism/the-evolution-of-improvised-explosive-devices.html
Singer, P.W. (2012, February). The Evolution of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). Retrieved
ole of Media in eporting Terrorism:
Terrorist attacks have developed to become part of an indirect strategy to achieve political objectives through their impacts on an audience. In this process, the attention of the media has also served as an important channel that terrorists communicate with their audiences. Consequently, one of the major objectives of terrorist groups is to affect the degree and tone of media attention to their specific acts and attacks (Walsh, 2010). In the past decade, recent history has demonstrated numerous examples of the mutually beneficial relationship between terrorist groups and the media. Some of the recent terrorist attacks indicate that the perpetrators of terrorism use the media for various purposes such as propaganda schemes, operational efficiency, recruitment, collecting information, and fund raising. Moreover, this history also indicates that the media has had a positive impact in lessening the effectiveness of terrorists.
Media as a Force Multiplier…
Bilgen, A. (2012, July 22). Terrorism and the Media: A Dangerous Symbiosis. Retrieved February 22, 2014, from http://www.e-ir.info/2012/07/22/terrorism-and-the-media-a-dangerous-symbiosis/
Walsh, J.I. (2010, December). Media Attention to Terrorist Attacks: Causes and Consequences.
Retrieved from Duke University website: http://sites.duke.edu/ihss/files/2011/12/IHSS_Research-Brief_Walsh.pdf
They point out that if a suspected terrorist gets on a plane and gets off at a place like Copenhagen or Toronto and demands asylum, even if he is not granted asylum, he's pretty much got a safe haven to operate in because he can' be deported or extradited back to where ever he came from. They believe that such lenient 'European' laws create a huge gap in security, which need to be tightened and that human rights conventions such as the Convention Against Torture make it almost impossible for states to gain a reasonable and necessary degree of assurance against devastating attacks in an age of asymmetrical warfare against international terrorists.
Former U.S. officials such as Michael Scheuer, who helped to set up the CIA's rendition program during the Clinton administration, are more forthcoming about commenting on the nature and existence of 'extraordinary' renditions. Scheuer has in different statements…
Begg, Moazzam. "Rendition: Tortured Truth." New Statesman 26 June 2006: 19.
Below the radar: Secret flights to torture and 'disappearance.'" Amnesty International Report. April 5, 2006. February 5, 2008 http://www.amnesty.org/en/alfresco_asset/5d82f002-a2d8-11dc-8d74-6f45f39984e5/amr510512006en.html
Charter, David. "Britain accused on secret CIA flights." Times Online. November 29, 2006. February 5, 2008. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article653418.ece
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment." Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1987. February 5, 2008. http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/h_cat39.htm
Fort Hood Shooting
On November 5, 2009 at Fort Hood, a military base close to the city of Killeen Texas, a U.S. Army major and psychiatrist opened fire on the people. Thirteen people were murdered and thirty-two other people were injured (Kenber 2013). One of the victims was pregnant and the baby was lost when she died, so some put the figure of murder victims at fourteen. Nidal Malik Hasan has since been convicted of those shootings and has been sentenced to death by a military court. Hasan has never denied being the killer, nor has he wavered in the explanation of his motives behind the actions. He has stated repeatedly that he is a Muslim and that the United States is at war with Islam. His actions, he claims, are a direct result of his Muslim extremism. Hasan was due to be shipped to Afghanistan where he would have…
Crabtree, S. (2012, Oct. 22). Pentagon will not label Fort Hood shootings as terrorist attack. The Washington Times.
Definitions of terrorism in the U.S. code. (2013). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism-definition
Esposito, R., Abraham, M., & Schwartz, R. (2009, Nov. 12). Major Hasan: soldier of Allah; many ties to jihad web sites. ABC News.
Hsu, S.S., & Johnson, C. (2009, Nov. 8). Links to imam followed in Fort Hood investigation.
Terrorism Affects the International Tourism Industry
There is an undeniable relationship between terrorism and tourism. This is because of the industry power tourist sites are attractive avenues for terrorists to cause unprecedented magnitudes of economic and social disruption. The 21st century economy is dominated by three sectors namely information technology, tourism, and telecommunications. Tourism generates ten percent of international employment with a surplus of 30% in the Caribbean region. World tourism organization estimates that over two hundred million people across the world will be employed in the industry by 2015. The tourism and travel sectors have expanded by 700% in the last two decades (Gabbay & Ghosh, 2013). It is further projected that tourists will spend twice as much in foreign nations on tourism activities. For most developing nations, tourism is the leading source of income in terms of GDP thus a key influence in the economic growth. The issue…
Beirman, D. (2013). Restoring tourism destinations in crisis: A strategic marketing approach. Crows Nest, N.S.W: Allen & Unwin.
Gabbay, R. & Ghosh, R.N. (2013). Tourism and economic development: Case studies from the Indian Ocean region. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Keyes, D.C., & Jonathan L.Burstein. (2010). Medical response to terrorism: Preparedness and clinical practice. Philadelphia [u.a.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Huggett, C., & Pownall, D. (2010). Teaching travel and tourism 14. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Having known the mounting dangers, many public health and bio-terrorism experts, members of Congress and some well-positioned ush administration officials convey increasing discomfort about what they think are flaws in the country's bio-defenses. Over the earlier years, awareness steps have been made, mainly in the large cities. ut most of necessary equipments are not available.
The federal government's standard answer to the anthrax assaults of 2001 and the warning of upcoming bio-terror attacks has been to accumulate huge amounts of drugs and vaccines to take care of or vaccinate sufferers or possible sufferers. However, these medicines are ineffective if there is no dependable system in place to quickly distribute and give out them to the disturbed populations early enough for the drugs to be successful. Regrettably, as of now, we do not have this strong, competent system in position in the United States. At the close of 2003, only two…
Analysis: U.S. Unprepared for Bio-Attack. NewsMax Wires. Retrieved from: http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/11/10/114328.shtml . Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Biological Threat to U.S. Homeland is Very Real. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.aviationnow.com/content/ncof/view_19.htm. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Biological Weapons and Threat Detection. Osborn Scientific Group BADD white paper. April, 2002. Retrieved at http://osborn-scientific.com/PDF/osg_wp_bw_041802.pdf. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Brennan, Phil. Bio-terrorism Threat to U.S. is Real & Deadly. October 4, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/10/3/142304.shtml . Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Counter Terrorism Operations
Counter terrorism incorporates techniques, practices and strategies that the governments, military or police departments within a country adopt in their attack on terrorists and their threats. The main tactic that is used against the terrorist is terrorism itself. Counter terrorism involves both the detection of potential acts and the response to related events.
can boast of successful counter terrorism on Afghanistan. The U.S. successfully invaded Afghanistan in a bid to prevent another terrorist attack in the U.S. that was eight years ago. This was successful since before the 9/11 al Qaeda managed to attack the U.S. three times only at their African embassies in August 1998; the U.S.S. Cole incident in October 2000 and finally the September 11, 2001 attack.al Qaeda however have failed to attack the U.S. On its soil. This is a great failure to the al Qaeda and victory to the effective worldwide counter…
The Washington Times, (2012). Counter-terrorism gains. Retrieved October 23, 2012 from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/oct/23/counter-terrorism-gains/?page=al
Calahan, A. (2005). Countering terrorism: the Israeli response to the 1972 Munich Olympic massacre and the development of independent covert action teams. Retrieved October 23, 2012, from http://www.fas.org/irp/eprint/calahan.htm
For communities and agencies alike, an emergency plan is the arrangement of dealing with a crisis that contains procedures on how to prevent injuries and fatalities, lessen damages and speed up the resumption of normal operations. It's important for these agencies and the community to have an emergency plan since it helps them to prevent multiple losses of resources and lives. Some of the major components to include in the emergency plan include possible emergencies, emergency preparedness procedures, lists of personnel and maps with evacuation routes ("Emergency Planning," 2005). This is because these elements provide the agency's staffs or the community with instructions of the possible emergencies and how to tackle them, their emergency duties and evacuation routes to enable them to handle the emergency effectively. To ensure that the agency or community is aware of the provisions in the emergency plan, community or agency awareness and education…
"Emergency Dispatch Service." (n.d.). Specialty Answering Service. Retrieved June 15, 2011,
"Emergency Planning." (2005, May 25). Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety.
Retrieved June 15, 2011, from http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/hsprograms/planning.html
These have led to various problem areas which have had a dramatic affect on Muslim life. They include the increase in terror activities in Europe; the rise of anti-Semitism within the Muslim community and the increase in the prevalence of right - wing parties that are often violently opposed in their actions and rhetoric to Islamic fundamentalism.
A fundamental issue that should be considered in attempting to understand the impact of the events of 9/11 on Europe is that these attacks have an effect on the balance between security and civil liberties. In other words, whereas before 9/11 there had been a focus and effort to maintain equilibrium between issues of security and democratic rights for all, including Muslins; yet after 9/11 this balance was upset and the focus tended to move more towards security, with civil rights being neglected. This change in emphasis has had an effect on the…
Reference List www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000735268
Al-Rawandi, I. (2002, Spring). Islam and Armageddon: Looking Behind the Myths. Free Inquiry, 22, 36+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000735268 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007356086
Benthall, J. (2004). Islam in Europe. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 10(3), 733+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007356086 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008837850
Gottlieb, S.F., Williams, K.J., Dale, L., Balch, M., Wile, F., Kupersmith, W., et al. (2005, March). Islam and Europe. Commentary, 119, 8+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008837850 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102127987
Hunter, S.T. (Ed.). (2002). Islam, Europe's Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape / . Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102127987 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002489980
Criminal Justice System
Challenges of Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) to law enforcement
Law enforcement agencies view the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) the most harmful street gang in the U.S. The aggressive nature of MS-13 members have led to a variety of killings and terrible beatings. Various trials held in New York and Maryland have led to significant jail terms even extending to life imprisonment for MS-13 members. The FBI was first attracted by violence, but proof of the gang's escalating level of organization has drawn public attention. Organization is an indicator of a future where MS-13 is will be a transnational network of criminals extending from the United States to suburban communities in a multitude of U.S. towns (Mandel, 2013).
Despite functions of violence, it is worrying to note that MS-13 movement is improving its structure and organization. Many major security experts are comparing it to the illegal groups of the 50s…
Erbschloe, M. (2001). Information Warfare How To Survive Cyber Attacks. New York: Osborne/McGraw-Hill.
Mandel, R. (2013). Global Security Upheaval Armed Nonstate Groups Usurping State Stability Functions. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Scheck, B. (2010). 250 Exonerated, Too Many Wrongfully Convicted: An Innocence Project Report On The First 250 DNA Exonerations In The U.S. New York: Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, Yeshiva University.
Siegel, L., & Senna, J. (2009). Essentials of Criminal Justice (6th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
There have been various definitions and views of terrorism that have beenfronted over the years. It has been described as a strategy and at other levels as a tactic, some have called it a crime and yet other refer to it as a holy/noble duty; some consider it an inexcusable abomination yet others consider it a systematic reaction to oppression. Obviously, a lot depends on whose point-of-view is being represented, be it theological, political or psychological. Also terrorism can be seen as willful destruction (killing) of people or destruction of property by people not acting on behalf of an established government to redress a real or imaginary injustice attributed to an established government. However it is important to note that not all cases of willful destruction of people or property are acts of terrorism (ed Cross Organization, 2007).
Some of the important definitive characteristics of terrorism include among others;…
Commonwealth of Kentucky, (2011). Community Preparedness. Retrieved November 20, 2011
Counter Terrorism, (2011). Community Preparedness. Retrieved November 20, 2011 from http://www.counterterrorismtraining.gov/comm/index.html
Homeland Security, (2011). Preparedness, Response & Recovery. Retrieved November 20, 2011
Cause of Armed Conflict
In the aftermath of 911 and as an effect of the 'War on Terror', religion can be clearly seen as major cause of armed conflict. Such views, however, have fallen on fertile ground, following the massive debates about Samuel P. Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis, and the increased analytical attention to the interface between religion and conflict throughout most of the 1990s. Although few analysts will argue that religion is a more prominent factor in conflict now than before, the alteration of awareness is in itself a significant change. This reflects, as Oliver McTernan points out, the "opinion of a number of academics that have recognized in the midst of social, historical, political, cultural and economic factors the salience of religion also" (McTernan 2003: 87-88).
eligion may feed conflict when its normative system is considered to legitimize the use of violence. As Elise Boulding has pointed…
McTernan, Oliver. 2003. Violence in God's Name: Religion in an Age of Conflict. New York: Orbis's Books.
Boulding, Elise. 1986. "Two Cultures of Religion as Obstacles to Peace." Zygon
Appleby, R. Scott. 1996. "Religion as an Agent of Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding." Pp. 821-840 in The Challenges of Managing International
Staffing and Staff otational Aspects of esponses to Terrorist Event
Staffing and Staff otational Aspects of esponses to a Pentagon Terrorist Event
During the Pentagon September 11 terrorist attack, many Arlington County Fire Department employees were caught off-guard as they were busy with their daily activities. Some were being trained while others were busy preparing for an upcoming conference organized the fire department (Eversburg, 2002).
As seen from the staffing and staff rotation responses as an element of operation tempo, several weaknesses were common among the fire personnel during the Pentagon event. However, two of the weaknesses were the Arlington County Fire Department lacked an emergency recall plan with notification devices and associated systems. Besides, they also lacked effective Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) for recalling and assembling the firefighters who were off duty (Titan Systems Corporation, 2002).
First, the lack of an emergency recall plan with notification devices and associated…
Eversburg, R. (2002, January 11). The Pentagon Attack on 9-11: Arlington County (VA) Fire Department Response. Retrieved September 15, 2014, from Fire Engineering: http://www.fireengineering.com/articles/print/volume-155/issue-11/features/the-pentagon-attack-on-9-11-arlington-county-va-fire-department-response.html
Titan Systems Corporation. (2002). After-Action Report on the Response to the September 11 Terrorist Attack on the Pentagon. . Arlington County, 16-65.
Part 6.1. I would seek to change the cognitions of the employee in order to change the affects and the behaviors. The cognitions underlie the other two traits, so any change must start with the underlying values and beliefs. It is important for managers to have an understanding of organizational behavior because managers are responsible for guiding that behavior in directions that support the organization's objectives. Knowledge of OB is more important at lower levels because those are the managers that must deal directly with the organization's rank and file. Higher level managers dedicate more time to strategy formulation and environmental analysis, which involves setting directions for the organization, but the lower level managers are the ones that must implement the strategies and that means dealing with the human elements of the organization.
2. Of the four components of emotional intelligence, the one that I feel is most important for…
Rafaeli, A. & Worline, M. (1999). Symbols in organizational culture. Technion. Retrieved September 18, 2010 from http://iew3.technion.ac.il/Home/Users/anatr/symbol.html
Geert-Hofsted.com. (2009). Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions. Geert Hofstede.com. Retrieved September 18, 2010 from http://www.geert-hofstede.com/
QuickMBA.com (2007). SWOT analysis. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved September 18, 2010 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/SWOT/
Porter, M. (2008). The five competitive forces that shape strategy. Harvard Business School. Retrieved September 18, 2010 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYF2_FBCvXw