¶ … High School Longitudinal Study Dataset Using SPSS Software

Scenarios 1.

This section determines African citizen's perceptions about their current level of democracy. The study uses 2015 Afrobarometer data to determine whether the current level of African democracy is statistically different from the value of 6.

Have series of reforms increased African views on the level of democracy?

The study uses the following variables to answer the research question:

Level of democracy: ten years ago (0-10 scale)

Level of democracy: today

The paper uses One-Sample Test statistics to answer the research question. The procedure is as follows:

In the SPSS Version 21, Start by Clicking:

Analyze ? Compare Means ?One Sample T Test

In Test Variable box:

Select

Q46b. Level of democracy ten years ago

Q46a. Level of democracy: today and Click OK.

The output of the One Sample T Test is as follows:

GET

FILE='C:UsersucerDownloads183172_Afrobarometer__student_8210__.sav'.

DATASET NAME DataSet1 WINDOW=FRONT.

T-TEST

/TESTVAL=0

/MISSING=ANALYSIS

/VARIABLES=Q46A Q46B

/CRITERIA=CI (.95).

T-Test

Notes

Output Created

11-JUL-2016 09:41:20

Comments

Input

Data

C:UsersucerDownloads183172_Afrobarometer__student_8210__.sav

Active Dataset

DataSet1

Filter

one>

Weight

one>

Split File

one>

N of Rows in Working Data File

51587

Missing Value Handling

Definition of Missing

User defined missing values are treated as missing.

Cases Used

Statistics for each analysis are based on the cases with no missing or out-of-range data for any variable in the analysis.

Syntax

T-TEST

/TESTVAL=0

/MISSING=ANALYSIS

/VARIABLES=Q46A Q46B

/CRITERIA=CI (.95).

Resources

Processor Time

00:00:00,06

Elapsed Time

00:00:00,06

[DataSet1] C:UsersucerDownloads183172_Afrobarometer__student_8210__.sav

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Q46a. Level of democracy: today

46940

5,52

2,883

,013

Q46b. Level of democracy: ten years ago (0-10 scale)

44909

4,90

2,995

,014

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0

t df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Q46a. Level of democracy: today

415,007

46939

,000

5,522

5,50

5,55

Q46b. Level of democracy: ten years ago (0-10 scale)

346,461

44908

,000

4,896

4,87

4,92

As being revealed in the SPSS output, the Mean value of the Level of democracy 10 years is 4.90 while the mean value of the Level of Democracy today is 5.52. Thus, the scale Level of Democracy today (5.52) is better than Level of Democracy in the last 10 years (4.90) in the African countries. The result reveals that level of democracy today in Africa has improved compared with the level of democracy 10 years ago. The major reasons for the improvement in the democracy include globalization, and the internet that lead to the transparency of African governments.

Scenarios 2

The recent social changes in North Africa make this study to determine whether there is a statistical difference in people's perceptions of Southern Africa and North Africa.

Research Question:

Is there a difference in people's perceptions about Southern Africa and North Africa democratic reform?

The study uses the Paired Samples T Test to determine the statistical difference between North Africa and Southern Africa.

The variables used to answer the research question is as follows:

Q47c. Level of democracy: South Africa (0-10 scale)

Country by region

Since the country of region consists of four regions (West Africa, East African, South African and North Africa), and the paper only wish to study the North African region, the study deletes West Africa, East African, and South Africa, which remains only North Africa.

How to delete.

Click Country of Region in the Values box.

Click West Africa, Click Remove,

Click East Africa, Click Remove,

Click South Africa, Click Remove.

Do not remove North Africa, then Click OK.

Thus, the paper uses Paired-Sample Test statistics to answer the research question. The procedure is as follows:

In the SPSS Version 21, Start by Clicking:

Analyze ? Compare Means ?Paired Sample T Test

Then Select

Country by region

Q47c. Level of democracy: South Africa (0-10 scale)

Click OK.

The output of the test is revealed below:

T-TEST PAIRS=COUNTRY.BY.REGION WITH Q47C (PAIRED)

/CRITERIA=CI (.9500)

/MISSING=ANALYSIS.

T-Test

Notes

Output Created

11-JUL-2016 10:25:47

Comments

Input

Data

C:UsersucerDownloads183172_Afrobarometer__student_8210__.sav

Active Dataset

DataSet1

Filter

one>

Weight

one>

Split File

one>

N of Rows in Working Data File

51587

Missing Value Handling

Definition of Missing

User defined missing values are treated as missing.

Cases Used

Statistics for each analysis are based on the cases with no missing or out-of-range data for any variable in the analysis.

Syntax

T-TEST PAIRS=COUNTRY.BY.REGION WITH Q47C (PAIRED)

/CRITERIA=CI (.9500)

/MISSING=ANALYSIS.

Resources

Processor Time

00:00:00,11

Elapsed Time

00:00:00,15

[DataSet1] C:UsersucerDownloads183172_Afrobarometer__student_8210__.sav

Paired Samples Statistics

Mean

N

Std. Deviation

Std. Error...

Level of democracy: South Africa (0-10 scale)

6,58

25222

2,674

,017

Paired Samples Correlations

N

Correlation

Sig.

Pair 1

Country by region & Q47c. Level of democracy: South Africa (0-10 scale)

25222

-,074

,000

Paired Samples Test

Paired Differences

t df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Pair 1

Country by region - Q47c. Level of democracy: South Africa (0-10 scale)

-4,348

2,959

,019

-4,385

-4,311

-233,356

25221

,000

The output of the statistics makes the study affirms that there is a difference in people's perceptions about Southern Africa and North Africa democratic reform showing that South Africa democratic reforms have improved more than the North Africa democratic reform. The Mean value of Level of democracy of South Africa is 6.58 which is greater than the Mean value of Country by region which is 2.3.

Scenario 3

This section investigates the perception of high school students on whether the mathematical utility changes between their freshman year and senior year. The study uses the Independent Sample T-Test to understand whether high school student's perceptions about mathematical utility changed between their freshman and senior year.

Hypothesis: Perceptions of high school students show that mathematical utility changes between their freshman year and senior year.

The study choses two variables selected from the High School Longitudinal Study dataset to test the hypothesis and the chosen variables are as follows:

T1 Scale of Student's Mathematical Utility

T1 Student's sex.

The procedure is as follows:

In the SPSS Version 21, Start by Clicking:

Analyze ? Compare Means ?Independent Sample T Test

Put T1 Scale of Student's Mathematical Utility in the Test Variable box

Put T1 Student's sex in the Grouping Variable box

Click Define Variable and input 1 in Group 1 and input 2 in Group 2

Click Continue, and Click OK.

The output of the Independent Sample T Test is as follows:

T-TEST GROUPS=X1SEX (1-2)

/MISSING=ANALYSIS

/VARIABLES=X1MTHUTI

/CRITERIA=CI (.95).

T-Test

Notes

Output Created

11-JUL-2016 14:31:58

Comments

Input

Data

C:UsersucerDocuments183172_HS_Long_Study__student_.sav

Active Dataset

DataSet2

Filter

one>

Weight

one>

Split File

one>

N of Rows in Working Data File

23503

Missing Value Handling

Definition of Missing

User defined missing values are treated as missing.

Cases Used

Statistics for each analysis are based on the cases with no missing or out-of-range data for any variable in the analysis.

Syntax

T-TEST GROUPS=X1SEX (1-2)

/MISSING=ANALYSIS

/VARIABLES=X1MTHUTI

/CRITERIA=CI (.95).

Resources

Processor Time

00:00:00,08

Elapsed Time

00:00:00,08

[DataSet2] C:UsersucerDocuments183172_HS_Long_Study__student_.sav

Group Statistics

T1 Student's sex

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

T1 Scale of student's mathematics utility

Male

,0140

1,01962

,01049

Female

-,0481

,97291

,01006

Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

T-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

T1 Scale of student's mathematics utility

Equal variances assumed

17,400

,000

4,276

18800

,000

,06216

,01454

,03367

,09066

Equal variances not assumed

4,277

18775,932

,000

,06216

,01453

,03367

,09065

The results differentiate the respond of male and female students. The Mean value of male student is 0.0140 while the Mean value of the female student respondent is -0.0481. The Mean value of the entire student is (0.0140+ (-0.481)

Mean Scale Value =-0.0341 The result on perception of student's mathematics utility is low because its Mean scale is negative.

Moreover, the significance (p value) of a Levene's test is .000 which is less than the ? level of .05. Thus, the study rejects the null hypothesis because the p is less than 0.05.

PART 11

This paper provides the critique of the article titled "Predictors of Prison-Based Treatment Outcomes: A Comparison of Men and Women Participants" (Messina, Burdon, Hagopian, et al. 2006 p 7).

The authors investigate "differences between men and women entering prison-based therapeutic community (TC) treatment and to explore the relationship of those differences to posttreatment outcomes (i.e., aftercare participation and reincarceration rates)." (Messina, Burdon, Hagopian, et al. 2006 p 7).

The data are collected from 4,164 men and 4,386 women across 16 prisons in California. The authors compare the prison based on TCs using the T-test and chi-square analyses. The T-Test is used to measure the therapeutic community among men and women because the TC has been identified as a way of substance abuse treatment. (Messina, Burdon, Hagopian). The T-test is appropriate for the study because it assists the authors to compare treatments of men and women in the California-based prison. The purpose of the t-test is to investigate the statistical significance between two group of…

Resources

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Elapsed Time

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Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research

Violence against pregnant women is a commonplace phenomenon and this research paper will explain the background of violence against pregnant women. Women undergo different forms of violence for instance, beating, threats, raping and unwilling prostitution. Some years back, it wasn't a big issue as approach towards women was a tad bit different back then. Men were treated as the dominant sex due to their physical strength. So is the case