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Eyewitness and Recalling Shook Hands I Shook

Words: 2111 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62015673

Eyewitness and ecalling

Shook hands

I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?

I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?

Literature on Schemas

Literature on Schemas and Stereotypes and their role in Eyewitness

I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?

Introduction

To investigate and prosecute crime the criminal justice system heavily depends on eyewitness identification (Wells & Olson, 2003). An eyewitness goes through different psychological procedures prior to the courtroom testimony. It is evident that before…… [Read More]

References

Brewer, W.F., & Treyens, J.C.(1981). Role of schemata in memory for places. Cognitive Psychology, 12(2), 207-230

Charman, S., & Wells, G.(2008). Can eyewitnesses correct for external influences on their lineup identifications? The actual/counterfactual assessment paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14(1), 5-20.

Christianson, S., & Hubinette, B.(1993). Hand up A study of witnesses' emotional reactions and memories associated with bank robberies. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 7(5), 365-379

Duffy, E.L.(1948). Motivational theory of emotion. Psychological Review, 55, 324-328.
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Federal Reserve IMF CBO Forecast Aggregated Supply and Demand Is-Lm-Bp Models

Words: 3667 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88601341

Alan Greenspan's testimony starts with a comparison between the state of the U.S. economy in July 2004, time of his present testimony, and the state of the economy in February 2004, the time of his previous testimony in front of the U.S. Congress.

In February 2004, the main problem of the U.S. economy, as identified by Greenspan, was the fact that the company's increase in income and net profits were related to a better use of human resources rather than on an increase in employment. In other words, despite the fact that the economy was on the rise, it failed to produce new jobs. This was a direct consequence, in Greenspan's opinion, of the risks associated with increased employments, more notably "corporate accounting and governance scandals," a "decline in stock prices" and the overall "geopolitical tensions"

As compared to the unemployment situation in February 2004, the period up to July…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Testimony of Chairman Alan Greenspan Federal Reserve Board's semiannual Monetary Policy Report to the Congress. July 2004. On the Internet at  http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/hh/2004/july/testimony.htm 

2. CBO's Current Economic Projections. January 2005. On the Internet at  http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=1824& ; sequence=0#table3

3. Yen Heads for Fourth Straight Week of Declines on Economic Growth Concern. Bloomberg. On the Internet at  http://www.bloomberg.com/news/markets/currencies.html 

4. International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook. Chapter 2 -- The Global Implications of the U.S. Fiscal Deficit and of China's Growth. Page 64. On the Internet at  http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2004/01/pdf/chapter2.pdf
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Complaints From Community Members the Fact That

Words: 1108 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88268416

Complaints From Community Members

The fact that Officer Daniels has received complaints filed by multiple different members of the community in a relatively short period of time would raise immediate concerns. Whereas an isolated complaint could be the result of a misunderstanding, an unfounded act of retribution by someone for appropriate police action initiated by the officer, or the result of a single bad momentary decision, the fact that there are multiple such complaints suggests it is more likely that Officer Daniels may not be performing his duties optimally. Moreover, the fact that the complaints involve three different types of unrelated conduct suggests that there might be a common underlying issue such as psychological fatigue, burnout, or unresolved psychological trauma, as opposed to a an issue of poor or insufficient training (Miller, 2007). As a police psychologist, I would approach the situation as a possible unconscious request for help by…… [Read More]

References

Lindsey, D. (2007). Police Fatigue: An Accident Waiting to Happen. FBI Law

Enforcement Bulletin, 76(8): 1-8.

Malmin, M. (2012). Changing Police Subculture. FBI Law

Enforcement Bulletin, 81(4):
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Defense Witness Immunity the Supreme

Words: 6352 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41754631

Judge roderick concluded that the Compulsory Process Clause of the Sixth Amendment does not give a defendant the right to require immunization of a witness, but that such a right is "probably" contained in the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. Id. However, he declined to accord the defendants the benefit of this "probable" Fifth Amendment right to defense witness immunity for two reasons. First, he ruled that the defendants' motion was untimely, since it should properly have been made at the beginning of the trial. Second, he concluded that defense witness immunity would be available only to secure testimony that was material and exculpatory and that the defendants had not shown that any of the witnesses for whom they sought immunity would give material, exculpatory testimony."

The only federal appellate decisions that have ruled in favor of defense witness immunity are stated to appear to be the Third…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cornell University Law School (2009) "Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. United States Constitution. LIT/Legal Information Institute. Online available at: Cornell University Law School. "Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School

Charters of Freedom - The Declaration of Independence, The Constitution, The Bill of Rights

Sosnov, Leonard N. (nd) Separation of Powers Shell Game: The Federal Witness Immunity Act. Temple Law Review.

UNITED STATES of America, Appellee, v. Norman TURKISH, Defendant-Appellant. United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit May 27, 1980 623 F.2d 769. Online available at:  http://www.altlaw.org/v1/cases/557484
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Roland William Dube Robbed a

Words: 903 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 16064411



There are some potential problems with the use of lay testimony. One is that lay testimony is always subject to interpretation. Lay witnesses are testifying about personal sensory experiences (Nordberg, 2007). All such experiences are interpretative to some extent. Another potential problem with the use of lay testimony is that it may not be interpreted as credible relative to expert testimony. Clearly in the Dube case it was, but this is a substantial risk for a legal team to take. Expert witnesses have credibility that stems from advanced training and perceived objectivity. Lay witnesses can merely interpret their own experiences. This brings us to another weakness of lay testimony -- it can only reflect personal experience. hereas experts do not need to have direct involvement in the case events, lay witnesses do. They are therefore unable to comment on anything other than what they saw directly. The prosecution in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

United States of America v. Roland William Dube. Retrieved April 7, 2009 from http://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/520/520.F2d.250.75-1034.html

Nordberg, Peter. (2007). The Daubert Worldview. Daubert. Retrieved April 7, 2009 from  http://www.daubertontheweb.com/Chapter_1.htm
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Rule the Case of Christophersen

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 83795140

Miller admitted that there were three main models used to test for such causation, but also admitted that he did not use them. The plaintiffs clearly thought that by putting an MD on the stand who would agree with their case, that would be sufficient. Perhaps they felt a jury would be sympathetic to their case, if the decision came down to a proverbial "battle of witnesses." However, in this case there was no such battle. Dr. Miller was not an expert and while his testimony was not excluded on those grounds, it could have been. Nonetheless, his lack of expertise showed through in his faulty methodology.

This hints at another point of significant from this case regarding expert testimony. hile Dr. Miller could have been excluded on Rule 702, since he was clearly not an expert, the district court did not use this as grounds for excluding his testimony.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Christophersen v. Allied-Signal Corporation. Retrieved April 12, 2009 from  http://altlaw.org/v1/cases/518069 

Faulk, Richard O. (1992). The Unanswered Questions of Christophersen v Allied-Signal Corporation. Villanova Environmental Law Journal. Vol. 4.1 pp 21-39.
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Use of the Scientific Method

Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51595503

Reliability of Eyewitness Testimony
The Scientific Method

The scientific method is one of the most commonly utilized mechanisms in physical science to develop and conduct experiments. This method consists of several sequential steps, which are reflections of what happens during the scientific process. The use of the scientific method in conducting experiments is influenced by its ability to help lessen experimental bias and errors, which contribute towards poor results. Through lessening bias and errors in experiments, the scientific method enhances the reliability and accuracy of the results, which in turn enhances the researcher's confidence. The sequential steps in this method contribute to achievement of accurate results through proper organization of thoughts and procedures by scientists when performing an experiment (Science Made Simple, n.d.).

As a result of its capability to produce accurate results in experiments, the scientific method can be applied to problems or challenges in a particular field of…… [Read More]

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Federal Rules of Evidence the

Words: 2542 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62577670



Rule: Any out-of-court statement offered to prove the truth of the matter asserted is generally inadmissible as hearsay. (801-802) However, hearsay may be admitted, in a prosecution for homicide or in a civil case, if the declarant, while believing the declarant's death to be imminent, made the statement about its cause or circumstances. (804(b)(2).

Application: Here, the defense attorney's objection is premised on the fact that the deceased Sam's statements are I inadmissible as hearsay, as an out-of-court statement by a person unavailable for trial, offered to prove that the other driver was driving on the wrong side of the road. However, Trooper Jones may offer this statement because it falls under the (804(b)(2) hearsay exception, as a statement in a civil case that the declarant made while his death was imminent.

Conclusion: The basis for the defense attorney's objection is hearsay because the deceased Sam's statement is an out-of-court…… [Read More]

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Akutagawa Uses Perspectivism in His Story in

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48366917

Akutagawa uses perspectivism in his story In a Grove here the main focus is on the incident that is being investigated by the high police commissioner. Here Takehiko is found murdered and the police highly suspect Tajomaru "The man that I arrested? He is a notorious brigand called Tajomaru." Tajomaru, confesses to the murder and gives a detailed description of the occurrence of the incident he began with agreeing and the "…when I disposed of him, I went to his woman and asked her to come and see him… (6)" then "...I was about to run away from the grove, leaving the woman behind in tears, when she frantically clung to my arm…"(6) and finally "…Then a furious desire to kill him seized me.(6)" As much as this appears to be an easy case to solve, matters get complicated when the wife of the slain Samurai testifies. She confesses to…… [Read More]

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Investigations and Privatization

Words: 1569 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34892480

Corporate Criminal Justice

The following study is a critical analysis of four articles or book passages relevant to the study of criminal justice in a corporate context. Each essay or book excerpt will be analyzed in turn and in the context that each has a significant intellectual contribution to make to the contemporary study of corporate criminal justice. hile this is a relatively new specialization within the corporate and criminal justice fields, it is nevertheless a very important one. The IRS indicates that crime has recently been categorized in terms of motivation, not in terms of the victim (Internal Revenue Service). This means that greed has become an enormous criminal category, one that must consider the excesses of white-collar crime. Additionally, there is the matter of corporate security and management of asset securities. For corporations, this means achieving a delicate balance between complying with the law, relying on federal law…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dalton, Daniel R. Security Management: Business Strategies for Success. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. 1-37.

Internal Revenue Services. Financial Investigations: A Financial Approach to Detecting and Resolving Crimes. INSERT REMAINING CITATION INFORMATION.

Keller, Kimberley S. "Securing Security Expert Testimony: Overcoming the Daubert Challenge to Reach the Witness Stand." Security Journal 17.3 (2004): 21-29.

McCrie, Robert. "Three Centuries of Criminal Justice Privatization in the United States." Police. Ed. EDITORS. PLACE OF PUBLICATION: PUBLISHER, DATE. 12-26.
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Officer Accountability

Words: 1736 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40357023

Officer Accountability

A police officer's proven dishonesty is not a minor matter. Ignoring or covering up that dishonesty, if discovered, could be devastating to the police department's credibility. Furthermore, due to Due Process laws in the United States, his/her dishonesty could affect the outcome of past cases in which he/she testified and future cases in which he/she may testify. Finally, the prosecution is required to hand that information to defendants' attorneys. Simultaneously, the officer has served the department for 15 years with only 2 "bad" incidents. Handling this officer's proven dishonesty will require swift action that is fair to the department, the Prosecutor's office and this officer.

Decision: Remove The Officer From Active Duty And Offer Him An Alternate Departmental Job That ould Never Entail His Testimony In Court

Facts:

You are the Chief of Police of a municipality. Your Deputy Chief of Police advises you that one of your…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bernstein, C., & Woodward, B. (2012, June 8). Woodward ad Bernstein: 40 years after Watergate, Nixon was far worse than we thought. Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from www.washingtonpost.com Web site:  http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/woodward-and-bernstein-40-years-after-watergate-nixon-was-far-worse-than-we-thought/2012/06/08/gJQAlsi0NV_story.html 

Justia. (n.d.). Brady v. Maryland - 373 U.S. 83 (1963). Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from Supreme.justia.com Web site:  http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/373/83/case.html 

Justia. (n.d.). Giglio v. United States - 405 U.S. 150 (1972). Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from supreme.justia.com Web site:  http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/405/150/case.html 

Justia. (n.d.). United States v. Bagley - 473 U.S. 667 (1985). Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from supreme.justia.com Web site:  http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/473/667/case.html
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Gordon Betty N Baker-Ward Lynne and Ornstein

Words: 514 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12683359

Gordon, Betty N., Baker-Ward, Lynne, and Ornstein, Peter A. (June 2001) "Children's testimony: A review of research on memory for past experiences."

Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review. Volume 4(2), 157-181. Retrieved at http://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/1096-4037 on December 7, 2003. Document Link URL:

http://www.wkap.nl/issuetoc.htm/1096-4037+4+2+2001

The goal of the article was to evaluate several recent studies on children's memory the implications for the accuracy of children's testimony in the legal system. Although the studies were not all purely focused on sexual trauma recollections, the implications for legal court battles focusing on these recollections are of particular interest to the authors.

Pertinent to evaluating importance of article is how thoroughly it deals with the question of how memory develops in children over the course of the development process and how this memory may be tampered with.

The article also touches upon the idea, slightly more tangentially of how subjective is autobiographical and/or eyewitness testimony…… [Read More]

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H-1B Shortage in Today's Society

Words: 10207 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 8476703



To protect themselves, many Americans chose to avoid working with or becoming friends with those who immigrated. A lack of trust permeated everything that the Americans did in regards to the immigrants, at least with the men. This was not always true of the women, as they often got along together and shared the trials and difficulties of raising families. However, many men who owned shops and stores would not hire an immigrant laborer (Glazer, 1998).

They believed that immigrants took jobs away from people in the U.S., and they did not want to catch any diseases that these immigrants might have brought with them. The general attitude during this time period was that immigrants were so different from Americans that they could never mesh into one society, but that attitude has obviously changed, as today America is a mix of all kinds of people (Glazer, 1998; Sowell, 1997).

What…… [Read More]

References

13 MEXUS 45, P52

21 BYE J. Pub. L. 153 P. 157

U.S.C. Section 1101(a)(15)(F)(i) (2006

U.S.C. Section 1184(g)(1)(a)(i) (2000
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Labor & Union Studies Discharge

Words: 1249 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41035767



In refusing to bargain or negotiate with Mr. Bolton, attorney for Mr. Allen, the Postal Service was upholding its contract with the Union to consider the Union the sole bargaining agent for Mr. Allen and other rural mail carriers. The Union's claim that management discounted the information provided by Mr. Bolton because he was a non-bargaining agent is a gross misrepresentation of the occurrence; no real information was provided by Mr. Bolton that had bearing on this case, and management politely but firmly denied to further correspond with the attorney for matters it had contracted to negotiate through the union. Management had stated that Allen would be reinstated should the charges be dropped or Allen acquitted, and until that time the grievance and dismissal were solely labor -- and not criminal -- concerns.

There is no reason that the Union should not be allowed to provide character witnesses attesting to…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance

Words: 2234 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36804280

Threat or perception of threat is best described by protection motivation theory:

This theory states that the extent to which people show preventive behavior in light of a threat depends on their protection motivation (. W. ogers, 1975, 1983). According to this theory, the level of protection motivation depends on the seriousness of the threat, the probability that the threat will manifest itself, the judged efficacy of the recommended behavior (called response or outcome efficacy), and the self-efficacy expectation relating to that behavior. (Wiegman & Gutteling, 1995, p. 235)

In a practical sense what this theory says about the perceived threat is that as incidences of observation occur in the lives of individuals, be they real or imagined they will likely become more protective and therefore attempt to engage in avoidance of behaviors that have been identified with the production of environmental threat. By doing so this the individual, and…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (1985). A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency. Social Forces, 64(1), 151-167.

Lesko, Wayne a (2006). Readings in Social Psychology (6th ed).

New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Lyddon, W.J., & Sherry, a. (2001). Developmental Personality Styles: An Attachment Theory Conceptualization of Personality Disorders. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 405.
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Malpass R & Devine P 2003 Increasing

Words: 808 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65297155

Malpass, R. & Devine, P. (2003). Increasing Eyewitness Accuracy in the Lineup Procedure Is All in How You Ask the Question.

The author of this brief overview of the research presents a very clear and concise problem statement for the research undertaken. Eyewitness accuracy when it comes to lineups is the primary issue of concern to the researchers, and the problem statement given at the top of the summary article specifically identifies the issue of false identifications -- witnesses wrongly identifying the wrong person in a lineup and leading to false arrests and even false convictions -- as the area of primary concern. This relates directly to the experiment the researchers design and carried out and to the results of this experiment, making this clearly focused and very concise problem statement relevant throughout the entire research study. The purpose of the research is clearly and immediately identified, helping the reader…… [Read More]

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U S V AOL

Words: 1215 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28863072

U.S. v AOL:

AOL case was a lawsuit involving collusion between the executives from AOL and PurchasePro Inc. (PPO) with the sole intention of overstating revenue. The 37% overstated revenue would make executives to believe that PurchasePro Inc. had achieved its sales forecasts, which would in turn contribute to inflation of the company's stock price. Due to their contributions, some of the executives involved in this illegal agreement and fraud would obtain large bonuses and the company's stocks. However, the jury in the case acquitted the three defendants in the much publicized five-year investigation into fraudulent accounting practices between AOL and PurchasePro. Notably, the case offers an example of criminal offenses conducted through the use of computers and necessitates the use of computer forensic tools and procedures in order to resolve.

The Use of a Computer to Commit the Crime:

As previously mentioned, U.S. v AOL is a lawsuit involving…… [Read More]

References:

"Certification: GCFE." (n.d.). GIAC Certified Forensic Examiner (GCFE). Retrieved December

5, 2013, from  http://www.giac.org/certification/certified-forensic-examiner-gcfe 

Easttom, C. & Taylor, J. (2011). Observing, Collecting, Documenting, and Storing Electronic

Evidence. In Computer crime, investigation, and the law (1st ed., Chapter 7, 236-244). Cengage Learning.
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Ending the Outreach of Terrorist Organizations

Words: 371 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 74740830

Dr. Jones' testimony in detail, providing examples of how the facts that he presents have had an impact on your own pre-conceived ideas and perceptions. How did Dr. Jones' testimony alter your opinions on exploiting weaknesses and what would you change about our efforts against international terror groups like al-Qaeda and al-Shabaab?

According to Dr. Jones, rather than solely focusing on how terrorist groups begin, there should be equal attention devoted in the literature to how they end. esearch indicates that the most common methods of termination are localized ways, either incorporating the group into the political process or using local intelligence agencies to kill critical members. Outside military force or, conversely, the group using force to achieve victory, is extremely rare (Jones 2008:1). Interestingly, while religious groups tend to be less likely to achieve victory, they are also amongst the most difficult to eliminate. Also, when terrorist groups become…… [Read More]

References

Jones, S. (2008). Defeating terrorist groups. RAND. Retrieved from:

 http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/testimonies/2008/RAND_CT314.pdf
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Social Psychology in Court the

Words: 965 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18590267

Social psychologists have shown that a group can be heavily influenced by the dominating, authoritarian decision making of one or more strong supporters of the death penalty.

Despite the democratic process of picking jury members, many typical jury selection practices later lead the group of twelve picked to be of a certain caliber, based on the characteristics of those chosen and how those characteristics relate within a group setting. Since the 1970's, social psychologists have been used by counsel to help ensure victory in the outcome of certain cases. Due to the influential potential of a jury's opinion, venue becomes essential in the outcome of the case. The trial of the police officers in the Rodney King beating was set in Simi Valley; the general population being extremely conservative and too many, racist. Modern professionals trained in jury selection based on social psychology findings are known in today's industry as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cleary, Audrey. "Scientific Jury Selection: History, Practice, and Controversy."

Villanova University. 2005. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at  http://www.publications.villanova.edu/concept/2005/jury_selection.pdf 

Hughes, Brian. "Psychology in Court: An Overview." Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at:  http://nuigalway.ie/law/GSLR/1998/art2.html 

Liner, Douglass. "O. J. Simpson Trial." Pittsburgh University. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at  http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/trials10.htm
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Criminal Justice- Investigation a Buy-Walk

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88843303

To that end, proof is sufficient evidence or argument for the truth of a proposition. This might include evidence from witnesses, forensic investigation and so on to prove the underlying conclusion. Testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of the matter. Testimony would most likely be used in court in the form of witness recollection in order to further the proof and evidence in a case. Admissibility is any testimonial, documentary, or tangible evidence that may be introduced to the jury or the judge in order to establish or to further a point that has been made in a court case. With admissibility, comes relevance which describes how pertinent, connected or applicable something is to a given matter. A thing is relevant if it serves as a means to a given purpose- relevant evidence, proof or testimony helps the admissibility of the justice process. Also, materiality is "significant…… [Read More]

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U S Federal Reserve System A

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81026741

The overall credit conditions have for example been severely affected by housing market and other economic trends. This has been exacerbated by energy and commodity price increases, which have affected household buying power negatively.

Concomitantly, the inflation rate has remained high at nearly 3.5% for the first five months of 2008. Chairman ernanke also noted that the trend in rising prices was likely to further increase inflation. Furthermore, oil production has risen only slightly, despite sharp price increases. This indicates tighter government control over oil reserves.

The declining value of the dollar in foreign markets also seems to be a matter of concern for congress that both result from and in turn affect the volatility of oil prices. There does not seem to be a particular emphasis on any single aspect of inflation or the recession. Instead, the general consensus appears to be that all the elements within the economic…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bernanke, Ben S. Testimony: Semiannual Monetary Policy Report to the Congress. Before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, U.S. Senate. July 15, 2008.  http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/testimony/bernanke20080715a.htm
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Memorandum of Points and Authorities

Words: 1898 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 836995

Authorities

This firm's client, Franklin Olsen ("Olsen") was arrested and subsequently charged with burglary of the home of Lindsay Young ("Young"). Young informed the police that she had found Olsen in her home on October 15, 2010, at dusk and observed Olsen for approximately one minute prior to his leaving the property. Young described Olsen as being dark haired, wearing all black clothing and being extremely tall. At that time that Olsen was taken into custody.

Young was asked to make identification of the suspect to the burglary in a police lineup. Olsen was one of six white males in the police lineup and had an attorney present to represent him. All the participants in the lineup other than Olsen were between 5'8: to 5'10" in height and all wore clothing that was light in color however, Olsen was instructed to wear all black clothing. Olsen was additionally the only…… [Read More]

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Parental Custody Case

Words: 970 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79753776

Parental Custody

Child Custody

Parental Custody Case

Memorandum for Mother

The issue at hand regards the legal custody of minor child Chastity Bright and whether her mother or father should be her legal custodian.

Short Answer

In the state of Arizona, custody is based on several factors. The wishes of the parents, wishes of the child, child interaction with parents, health of all participants, child's adjustment, parent primarily responsible for care, which parent will allow contact, any duress or coercion attempted, and whether false allegations were raised are to be considered subsequently.

Statement of the Facts

Based on the testimony of the mother, father and minor child, the facts of the case are these. Both the mother and the father want to have primary custody of the child, and the mother has had that custody prior to this trial. The mother has retained promise of a job in another state,…… [Read More]

References

Arizona State Legislature. (2009). Child custody and visitation. Retrieved from  http://www.azleg.gov/ArizonaRevisedStatutes.asp?Title=25 

Owen v Blackhawk. (2003). 1 CA-CV 02-0363.
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Innocence Project Case John Kogut Analysis

Words: 3518 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40016343

DNA Exonerations: John Kogut

The Path To Exoneration: John Kogut

The Path to Conviction

When 16-year-old Teresa Fusco left work at 9:45 PM on November 10, 1984 she became one among several young girls reported missing over the past several years [Centurion Ministries, 2013; Innocence Project, n.d.(a)]. In contrast to her predecessors, however, her body was discovered a month later in a wooded area several blocks from the roller rink where she worked. According to the autopsy, Teresa had been raped and murdered. Semen and sperm were collected from her body and the marks on her neck revealed that she had been strangled with a rope or cord. Also found at the scene were her jewelry and the murder weapon. The coroner's office, however, failed to conduct a blood type analysis on the semen.

The Nassau County police were under tremendous pressure to solve these disappearances, especially Teresa's rape and…… [Read More]

References

Centurion Ministries (2013). Dennis Halstead, John Kogut, & John Restivo, Long Island, NY. CenturionMinistries.org. Retrieved 6 Oct. 2013 from http://www.centurionministries.org/cases/dennis-halstead-john-kogut-and-john-restivo/.

Drumm, David. (2013, May 11). Why the FBI doesn't record interrogations. JonathanTurley.org [blog]. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from  http://jonathanturley.org/2013/05/11/why-the-fbi-doesnt-record-interrogations/ .

Editors. (2013, Jan. 1). America's retreat from the death penalty. New York Times, A18. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from  http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/03/15/maryland-death-penalty/1989977/ .

Gootman, Elissa. (2003, Jun. 12). DNA evidence frees 3 men in 1984 murder of L.I. girl. New York Times, B1, B5. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from  http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/12/nyregion/dna-evidence-frees-3-men-in-1984-murder-of-li-girl.html .
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Truman Capote Was One of

Words: 1569 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 84336030



8. How does Capote develop and reveal his attitude in the description of the prison on pages 309 and 310? First, Capote sets the idea of the Leavenworth Prison as more of an economic (therefore tactical) boon to the local economy. His prose tells the reader that the Penitentiary for men is almost medieval in nature (turreted black and white palace), but built in the Civil War (therefore outdated and brutal). He uses terms like "stony village," "twelve gray acres of cement streets," and "the Hole," to paint the institution as both archaic and inhumane. Death ow, however, "is reached by climbing a circular iron staircase," almost an ascent into heaven, but the "coffin-shaped edifice" again emphasizes Capote's disdain and cruelty of the prison -- never allowing an inkling of the idea that people who are placed in institutions like this are not being rewarded -- on the contrary.

9.…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Capote, T. In Cold Blood. Vintage, 1994.

9. Clarke G. Capote: A Biography. Da Capo Press, 2005.
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1892 Borden Murders Lizzie Borden

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67914412

Both Andrew and Abby had been killed in a similar manner -- crushing blows to their skills from a hatchet (Tetimony of Bridget Sullivan in the Trial of Lizzie Borden).

Just prior to the murder there was a great deal of conflict at the Borden house. The two living Borden sisters, Lizzie and Emma, occupied the front of the house, while Andrew and Abby the rear. Meals were rarely served as a family; Andrew was very tight and rejected many modern conviencences and the two daughters, well past marriage age for this time period, argued with their Father about his decision to dive the valuable properties among extended relatives before his death instad of the estate going to them. Lizzie did not hate her step-mother, but did not really enjoy her company and the combination of Andrew's monetary views, the new social mores of the time, and Andrew's insistence that…… [Read More]

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Forcasting the Years Ahead Pose

Words: 3138 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16506223



The forecast provided by Allen Sinai gave the reader a somewhat accurate analysis of the macroeconomic phenomenon. However, there are also a few problems. Sinai estimates a 0.4% increase in 2005 for the consumer price index, which is not actually correct, but it's not to far from reality either. Given the increase of the interest rate, people will probably feel not so comfortable in buying as much as during the previous years, so a slight decrease can be expected. After all, January is known as a slow month. 0.4% means about 4% a year, which is much more than the economy is currently able to take.

The estimated trade balance was larger than the recorded one, therefore proving the pessimism of Mr. Sinai. After all, many analysts expected worse trade deficit results than the one that were published in November 2004. It would seem that the low-value dollar policy promoted…… [Read More]

Reference:

1. Testimony of Chairman Alan Greenspan Federal Reserve Board's semiannual Monetary Policy Report to the Congress. July 2004. On the Internet at  http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/hh/2004/july/testimony.htm 

2. CBO's Current Economic Projections. January 2005. On the Internet at  http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=1824& ;sequence=0#table3

3. International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook. Chapter 2 - the Global Implications of the U.S. Fiscal Deficit and of China's Growth. Page 64. On the Internet at  http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2004/01/pdf/chapter2.pdf 

Agregate Demand, IS-LM, AD-as information on the Internet at 4. www-rcf.usc.edu/~yongkim/305n2004p2.pdf
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Nature of Science Even in

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97594194

Smith notes that it may be impossible to unequivocally prove something with one hundred percent accuracy; rather, scientists seek probability.

The term theory is often misconstrued: Smith states that "theories always explain facts." Moreover, there is no clear demarcation between a theory and a hypothesis. Theories are basically broad hypotheses. Laws, on the other hand, are more restrictive and are often derived from theories. The practice of science entails experimentation as well as presentation to the scientific community. When the research is presented to other scientists, it is usually done so through peer-reviewed journals. Often other scientists will critique and critically evaluate the scientific experiment and attempt to replicate it. When the experiment has been replicated the hypothesis may become part of the canon of established science and from there, common knowledge.

Because science can only deal with what is observable and measurable, it can not apply to philosophy, aesthetics,…… [Read More]

Reference

Smith, David. "The Nature of Science."
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Psychology Social Psychology in the

Words: 419 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94982989

..]; and (b) external factors that involve juror and defendant demographic characteristics" (Gordon & Anderson, 1995, p. 455-456). These factors can be difficult, if not impossible to overcome, and lead to numerous problems in the court system, from hung juries to incorrect decisions about guilt or innocence.

Trial lawyers are exceedingly good at using social psychology methods during trials. These lawyers use the principles of how people relate to each other and get along in life to make their clients seem more sympathetic and innocent to the jury and judge. For example, a murder suspect comes to court with his young baby in the front row for all the jury and courtroom to see. These psychological persuasion tactics are quite influential to many jurors, who have their own belief systems and ideas about what is right and wrong and the lawyers understand this and use it to their advantage.

eferences…… [Read More]

References

Gordon, R.A., & Anderson, K.S. (1995). Perceptions of race-stereotypic and race-non-stereotypic crimes: The impact of response-time instructions on attributions and judgments. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16(4), 455-470.

Ebbesen E.B. & Konecni, V.J. (1989) Eyewitness memory research: Probative v. prejudicial value. Retrieved from the University of San Diego Web site:  http://psy.ucsd.edu/~eebbesen/prejvprob.html27  July 2006.
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Joseph Smith and the Book

Words: 6695 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24061704

On June 27, 1844, hundreds swarmed the jail and brutally murdered the Smith brothers, leading their followers to conclude that they were martyred (Sisk).

At Joseph's death, righam Young was president of the Twelve Apostles of their church and became the leader of the largest faction within (Sisk 1992). Some who separated from Young's group formed their own, called the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, under the leadership of one of the brothers of Joseph Smith. In 1846, Young's group declared that the "saints" would leave Nauvoo and they settled in Utah the following year and, for the next 20 or so years, many moved to Salt Lake Valley to join those "saints (Sisk)." The growth was so tremendous that many ascribe greater magnetism to Young than to Joseph himself in attracting followers. It is noted that the current-day Mormon Church has millions of such followers…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bowman, Robert N., ed. Mormonism. Christian Research Journal, 1989. http://www.mustardseed.net/html/tomormonism.html

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Joseph Smith: a Prophet of God. Intellectual Reserve, Inc., 2004.  http://www.lds.org/library/display/0,4945,104-1-3-2,00.html 

Griffith, Michael T. The Book of Mormon - Ancient or Modern? Could Joseph Smith Have Written the Nephrite Record? Refuting the Critics: Evidence of the Book of Mormons in Authenticity. Horizon Publishers, 1993. http://ourworld.cs.com/mikegriffith1/id108.htm

Institute for Religious Research. Translation or Divination? Mormons in Transition. Institute for Religious Research, 1999.  http://www.irr.org/mit/divination.html
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Nixon and the Legacy of the War

Words: 1242 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21025361

Nixon and the Legacy of the War in Vietnam

Nixon & Vietnam

Nixon Doctrine

President ichard Nixon set out policy goals for the conflict in Vietnam in a speech to the nation on November 3, 1969. At the time the country was deeply divided over the question of our presence in the region. In this speech Nixon claimed a nation cannot remain great if it betrays its allies and down its friends and that a unilateral withdrawal of all United States forces would humiliate our nation and promote recklessness in the councils of those great powers who have not yet abandoned their goals of world conquest and spark violence wherever the nations commitments helped to keep the peace. A withdrawal of American forces would in the final analysis cost more lives and not bring peace, but more war. Nixon asserted that for these reasons he would not end the war…… [Read More]

References

Kerry, J. (1971, April 22). Vietnam war veteran John Kerry's testimony before the senate foreign relations committee, April 22, 1971. Ernest Bolt (Ed.). University of Richmond, Online ACS Course Fall 1999. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from https://facultystaff.richmond.edu/~ebolt/history398/JohnKerryTestimony.html

Nixon, R. (1969, November 3). Nixon's 'silent majority' speech. Watergate.info Retrieved November 30, 2012, from  http://watergate.info/1969/11/03/nixons-silent-majority-speech.html 

Nixon, R. (1973, January 23). Nixon's 'peace with honor' broadcast on Vietnam. Watergate.info Retrieved November 30, 2012, from  http://watergate.info/1973/01/23/nixon-peace-with-honor-broadcast.html
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Rise of Business and the New Age

Words: 1562 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11553680

rise of business and the new age of industrial capitalism forced Americans to think about, criticize, and justify the new order -- especially the vast disparities of wealth and power it created. This assignment asks you to consider the nature and meaning of wealth, poverty and inequality in the Gilded Age making use of the perspectives of four people who occupied very different places in the social and intellectual spectrum of late nineteenth-?century America:, the sociologist William Graham Sumner, the writer enry

George, a Massachusetts textile worker named Thomas O'Donnell, and the steel tycoon

Andrew Carnegie.

For Andrew Carnegie, wealth was a good thing. In his "Gospel of Wealth," Carnegies talks about the problem of "our age" which is the proper administration of wealth. e has his own philosophy of how wealth has come to be unequally distributed with the huge gap existing between those who have little and those…… [Read More]

Henry George, Progress and Poverty, Major Problems, pp. 20-?22.

Thomas O'Donnell Testimony before a U.S. Senate Committee, 1885 U.S. Congress,

Capital (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1885
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Mervyn Leroy's the Bad Seed

Words: 1476 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Movie Review Paper #: 41118264



The theory involving Christine being determined to put an end to Rhoda's life can be related to her ration intervening, influencing her to take action before Rhoda continued her killings.

Rhoda pays special attention to the way that her mother sees her, and, even though she knows that her mother has the power to denounce her, she does not attempt to murder Christine. The next in Rhoda's list of killings would have been Monica Breedlove, taking into consideration the fact that the women had been closely connected to her, and that it had been possible for her to endanger Rhoda with the information that she knew.

The ending of the movie is most probably intended to present the audience with what it wants to see, someone finally punishing Rhoda, not through putting her into a mental asylum (as should have been the case), but by physically hurting her.

Sidney Lumet's…… [Read More]

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Remarks for Presentation to the

Words: 982 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14609613



As you know, the Fourteenth Amendment clearly states: "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." Furthermore, it is impossible to determine how many otherwise-qualified individuals were dissuaded from serving in the armed forces because of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy, but it is also reasonable to suggest that the figures are high and the need for their service is great.

The United States is proud of its heritage of being a nation of laws, and the laws that apply in the case of Don't Ask, Don't Tell make it abundantly clear that this archaic relic of the past is no longer relevant in the…… [Read More]

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Conadep in 1976 Life Changed Dramatically in

Words: 1047 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16804305

CONADEP

In 1976, life changed dramatically in Argentina. On March 24, 1976, a military coup took place. In an attempt to wipe out all dissenting opinion, they began a campaign of terror where thousands of people literally disappeared. The testimonies of the survivors of torture and kidnapping are brutal to read. The methods used to torture them; including electrical prods and live burials left lasting scars, both physical and mental on these survivors. The patterns in these testimonies are all the same. The torturers were sadistic and brutal, and would stop at nothing to get the information they wanted. They tortured loved ones in front of their family members, they took whole families from their homes, and they killed thousands with no remorse.

The patterns are patterns of extreme violence, and the violence seems to stem from fear. They feared the recriminations of the left-wing dissidents, they feared their reaction…… [Read More]

References

Editors. "CONADEP." Yendor.com. 2009. 17 Nov. 2009.

.
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Cold Blood Qs the Description

Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 14757392



Using Bobby Rupp's testimony to interrupt the story of the killers creates an abrupt and deeply personal shift of focus. His description of Nancy, his on-again/off-again girlfriend, shows how much the Clutter's were cared for and respected in the community: "Nancy was wearing socks and soft slippers, blue jeans, I think a green sweater" -- Rupp's memory of details helps the reader to clearly picture this victim (51). The abruptness of the shift in focus also mirrors the abrupt change in circumstances -- for the community, the murderers, and most obviously the Clutters themselves -- that the murders created with shocking suddenness.

3)

Capote creates a concrete and palpable tone in the section beginning "The cider-tart odor.." On page 206 of in Cold Blood by using words that evoke the sense of death and decay now that the murders have been committed. His language choices juxtapose images of life and…… [Read More]

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Rba on Australian Monetary Policy Outline and

Words: 1898 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71560297

Rba on Australian Monetary Policy

Outline and critically appraise the Reserve ank of Australia's rationales for the current stance of Australian monetary policy.

In a scenario where Australia has been witnessing a unique mix of economic and monetary indicators, the Australian monetary policy strives to fathom the market mechanisms, both domestic and global, and lead it onto the path of sustained economic growth. The U.S. And Chinese economies have been showing an emerging trend, and seems to be all set to drive the global economy with their strong economic statistics. Nonetheless, the consumer confidence reflected even in the Australian share market in 2004, has already prepared a strong ground for it to enter the current year with enhanced prospects. The latest consensus forecasts a global growth of 4.2% in 2005, which though lower than the estimated 4.9% in 2004, is considerably a modest slowdown. Though the global economic growth may…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. The testimony of the Governor of the RBA, before the House of Representatives Economics Committee, 18 February (Sydney). File: "MonthReviewFeb05.pdf"

2. Reserve Bank of Australia (2005) Statement on Monetary Policy, 7 February. File: "statement_on_monetary_0205.pdf"
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Evidence in Criminal Law the

Words: 1006 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72112259



3) All of this evidence is admissible. Even if the police informant elicited the information in the jail cell when he was not uniformed so as to avail the defendant of the knowledge that he was talking to a cop, it is still admissible. This is the case even if the defendant requested council - the idea here is, confessions cannot be forced when a defendant believes he is under the duress of police custody; if he does not believe he is being forced to talk or threatened to talk, there can be no duress, so the evidence is admissible.

And the officer can testify to what the defendant said, but it has to be in the form of exceptions to hearsay evidence. As he would be testifying to matters for the truth of the matter asserted, they have to meet hearsay exceptions - the most important one here would…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barbri Criminal Procedure Review. (2005). New York: Barbri.

PMBR Criminal Procedure Review. (2005). New York: PMBR.
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Greek Philosopher Socrates

Words: 1174 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11528946

pious is what all the gods love, the opposite, what all the gods hate, is the impious." How does Socrates react to this definition? Why is this not an adequate definition, and why does it fail to reveal the form?

Socrates is not satisfied with Euthyphro's definition of pious because Euthyphro's definition fails to reveal the form of pious. Socrates believes that forms are perfect models of reality. They are independent and universal. So when Socrates asks Euthyphro to explain what pious means, he expects Euthyphro to provide him with the form of pious. In other words, something Socrates can use and refer to in the future as what it means for something or someone to be pious.

Euthyphro has been engaged in this dialogue because he has claimed to know many things about the gods, what is divine and consequently what is pious. At first, Euthyphro offers his own…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Grube, G.M.A. Plato: The Five Dialogues. Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company, 1981.

Pojman, Louis. The Quest for Truth (Fifth Edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
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Civil Issues Liability Damages Harassment and Discrimination

Words: 824 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85226921

Cognitive Bias in Jury Damages

Utilizing Cognitive Biases to Legal Advantage

Assuming that the putative view of an ordinary citizen, unaffiliated with the judicial system, is one that the merits of a case are based solely based upon a presentation of facts is common. However, several psychological predispositions illustrate the strategic role that attorney's assume in jury selection. Understanding the philosophy underlying the moral psychology of the mind offers insights into how both the case for plaintiffs and defendants are open to suggestive framing.

The determination and award of damages in cases that comprise compensatory damages is easily quantified, however considering pain and suffering compensation presents fertile ground for legal study. Empirical studies of jury awards demonstrate that the framing of damage by plaintiffs is influential to the outcome. Similarly, preconceived notions of sexual harassment and prior psychological trauma bear influence upon cases that counsel must be aware of to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kovera, M.B., & Cass, S.A. (2002). Compelled Mental Health Examinations, Liability Decisions, and Damage Awards in Sexual Harassment Cases. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 8 (1), 96-114.

McAuliff, B., & Bornstein, B. (2009, May 22). All Anchors Are Not Created Equal: The Effects of Per Diem vs. Lump Sum Requests on Pain and Suffering Awards. Law Human Behavior, 164-174.
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Movie Nuts

Words: 1460 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73710096

Competent to Stand Trial

The 1987 film Nuts is a film portrayal of a true story about a woman from a well-to-do family who becomes a high priced hooker and is charged with first degree manslaughter when she kills a violent customer (aka a "John"). Ostensibly in an effort to protect their daughter (and themselves) from the public embarrassment of a trial, the woman's parents encourage therapeutic institutional intervention. In the hearing to determine the woman's ability to stand trial, the woman, stunningly played by Barbara Streisand, insists that she is sane and fights -- quite literally -- for her right to stand trial. A reluctant court appointed attorney -- played by ichard Dreyfus -- eventually comes to believe that his client is sane and able to contribute to her own defense -- he is able to work past her pugnacious exterior and comes to understand and support her in…… [Read More]

References:

Insanity defense. (n.d) The Legal Dictionary. Retrieved  http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Insanity+Defense 

Nuts. (1987) The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). Retrieved  http://www.imdb.com  / title/tt0093660/

Melton, GB, Petrila, J, Pytheress, NG, and Slobogin, C. (2011) Psychological Evaluation for the Courts: A Handbook for Mental Health Professionals and Lawyers (2nd ed.) Guilford Publishers. Retrieved  http://www.guilford.com/cgi-bin/cartscript.cgi?page=etc./courts_updates.html&cart_id=#part_two 

Roesch, R, Zapf, PA, Golding, SL, and Skeem, JL (2004, February) Defining and Assessing Competency to Stand Trial. Golding Publications. Retrieved  http://www.unl.edu/ap-ls/student/CST%20assess.pdf
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Evidence Admission and Suppression

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96461856

Admissibility of Evidence at Trial

If the goal for a trial is the search for justice, why should there be rules that limit a juror's ability to render a verdict only to that information gathered in compliance with the Constitution and approved by the judge?

Part of the search for justice is making sure that the evidence admitted at trial satisfies the constitutional criteria distinguishing admissible evidence from inadmissible evidence. In large part, the rules of evidence in a criminal trial are expressly designed to protect the constitutional rights of persons suspected of criminal activity by the police. If there were no such rules, it would be difficult if not impossible to control the ways that police secured evidence on the street. In fact, prior to the modern era of American criminal justice, police routinely arrested suspects without probable cause, deprived them of counsel, food, water, and bathroom facilities, and…… [Read More]

References

Schmalleger, F. (2010). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st

Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Zalman, M. (2008). Criminal Procedure: Constitution and Society. New Jersey: Prentice

Hall.
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Laurel v Hardy Main Issue Laurel and

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 75183423

Laurel v. Hardy

Main issue: Laurel and Hardy, a professional comic duo, entered into a contract that agreed if they ever disbanded their partnership, they would refrain from using each other's material without compensation to the other party. After the duo disbanded, Hardy continued to use the materials without paying Laurel. Laurel is suing Hardy for $500,000. Hardy travels and has thus not been properly served Court Papers and refuses to read the local paper or respond to the suit. Laurel motions for a default judgment and Court Costs, which is granted. Hardy appeals this because he has not been properly notified.

Relevant Legal Concept: Contractual law and Service of Summons and Judgment

Procedural Due Process: Service by registered mail and publication in local newspaper; the Court is not responsible if the person being served pleads ignorance.

Relevant Definitions: Substituted Service of Court documents

Relevant Case Law: Dorsey v. Gregg,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Best, R. (2006). California Physician-Patient Privileges. Retrieved from:  http://california-discovery-law.com/physician_patient_privilege.htm 

Cornell University. (2012). Rule 501. Privilege. Retrieved from:  http://www.law.cornell.edu/rules/fre/rule_501 

Logan, M., et al. (2010) Product Liability: Protection for the "Innocent" Seller. Kane Russell Coleman and Logan. Retrieved from:  http://www.natlawreview.com/article/products-liability-protection-innocent-seller-texas 

Schubert, F. (2010). Introduction to the law and the Legal System. 10th ed. Mason, OH: Cenage.
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Internal Revenue Service's Use of Circular 230

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89380305

Internal evenue Service's Use of Circular 230 to egulate Tax Preparers

An oft repeated maxim in American history states sardonically that "in this world nothing can be said to be certain, except for death and taxes" (Franklin, 1840), and under the modern statutes of federal tax code that observation has never been more prescient. With taxes imposed by local, state and federal governments throughout the entirety of our natural lives, Americans living in 2012 may be facing the most extensive excises ever levied by one nation on its citizenry. Considering the dreaded annual income tax, the sales taxes added to the cost of consumer goods, and property taxes attached to home valuations, the average person is compelled to contribute thousands of dollars annually to support the revenue shortages of a mismanaged federal government. Even the choice to gift a sum of money to your child, spouse or lifelong friend, perhaps…… [Read More]

References

Franklin, B. (1840). Letter to m. le roy on the affairs of france. In J. Sparks (Ed.), The works of Benjamin Franklin: containing several political and historical tracts not included in any

former edition, and many letters, official and private, not hitherto published; with notes and a life of the author (Vol. 10th). Retrieved from  http://books.google.com/books?id=weTtwiiGUYQC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ 

ge_summary_r&cad=0

Fraud in income tax return preparation. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight of the Committee on Ways and Means, 109th Cong. 1 (2005).