Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Approach to Personality Psychology
Personality is defined as a person's exceptional deviation on the general evolutionary design for human temperament. A personality trait refers to a durable disposition to act in a certain manner in different situations. Personality traits represent some of the most significant sets of individual disparities in organizations. It is the comparatively set of psychological characteristics that differentiates one person from another. People should strive to comprehend fundamental personality attributes and the manner in which they influence a person's behavior (Griffin 2007).Most perspectives to personality presuppose that some traits are more fundamental compared to others. This concept underlie that a small number of basic personality traits determine other, more superficial traits. With respect to the biological approach to personality, personality traits are determined by human genetic inheritance, behavioral tendencies that develop from evolutionary history and human conduct that generate through intricate biological…… [Read More]
Once this has been done in a thorough and global manner, comparative studies can be conducted in order to assess any similarities among the historical threats to determine measures to take against potential future threats.
Capelli and Moore (2011, p. 25) go a step further in suggesting that targeted research, not only on language, but on the security environment in general, will greatly assist in both predicting and preventing insider threats in the online world. The organization CET (Computer Emergency esponse Team), for example, is part of the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University. The Team has investigated the problems and concerns surrounding insider cloud computing threats since 2001. During this investigation, a database of more than 300 criminal cases have been compiled where persons with online access to company information, such as former employees, contractors, or business partners have abused the access and trust placed upon them.…… [Read More]
As the individual will assume that this kind of behavior is appropriate given their ancestry and the way the reacted to different stimuli. (Plomin, 2008)
Moreover, many individuals will have select attributes that are passed down from previous generations. This will determine if the person is susceptible to certain mental conditions (i.e. schizophrenia and depression). These factors will play an important part in deciding biochemical and genetic causes affecting the behavior of the individual. (Plomin, 2008)
These ideas can explain human behavior by focusing on how genetic and biological elements are influencing the way someone reacts to various stimuli. This is compared with others in their family to understand the issues impacting them. When this happens, there is an emphasis on past challenges that influenced these relatives and how this is shaping the person. (Plomin, 2008)
Behavioral neuroscience is focusing on specific genetic factors which can be incorporated in understanding…… [Read More]
Theoretical Perspectives on the Family and Ethnic Groups
hen the average viewer consumes media content delivered by major news networks, including ABC, CBS, NBC, or their local affiliate stations, there is an unspoken expectation that the content being broadcast is objective and free of prejudice or bias. hile the advent of opinionated news debate programs has resulted in an increased rate of editorializing by today's news networks, traditional hard news reporters are still expected to present current events without inserting their personal views. A comprehensive random content analysis of television news programming, conducted by researchers Travis L. Dixon and Daniel Linz in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, revealed that, despite the prevailing notion of impartiality when it comes to the nightly news, "Blacks and Latinos are significantly more likely than hites to be portrayed as lawbreakers on television news & #8230; [and] are more likely to be portrayed as lawbreakers…… [Read More]
Anachy is but one aspect of the Realist paadigm. Anachy is the impetus fo all othe components of the Realist theoy to come into play. Elements such as powe, secuity dilemma's, balance of powe, polaity and alliances and ultimately wa ae all outcops of the existence of any eal centalized powe and an absence of tue legitimacy in the fom of a well established, espected, influential cental govenment. Each of these elements is now discussed in elation to the wa in Afghanistan.
Pio to Septembe 11th, 2001 the main souce of powe in Afghanistan ested in the hands of the Taliban. As Seth Jones' assets, the Taliban's ise to powe gew out of utte discontent with the govenment in Kabul within the tibal egions of the county. The Taliban's leade Mullah Oma successfully led a coup against the existing govenment in 1996 and quickly established a had-line eligious fundamentalist state…… [Read More]
Super ego. In Freud's model, the final element of personality to develop is the superego. According to Cherry, "The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society -- our sense of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments" (2010, para. 3). Freud believed that the superego first starts to emerge during early childhood, typically at age 5 years or so (Cherry, 2010). The super ego is comprised of two parts as follows:
1. The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value and accomplishment.
2. The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and…… [Read More]
Theoretical perspective of the approach
According to behavioral approach human behavior can be learned and unlearned. When a behavior is unlearned, new behaviors are learned in its place. This approach is primarily concerned with observable and measurable aspects of human behavior. Unacceptable behaviors are unlearned. This approach views development as a continuous process in which children play a positive role. This approach can be used in a clinical and educational set up. Behavioral theorists posit that real things are things that can be seen and observed (Bustamante, Howe-Tennant, & Ramo, 1996). The mind, the id, or the unconscious, cannot be seen, but people's actions, how they react, and behave can be seen. From ones behavior inferences can be made about the minds and the brain. However, the mind and the brain are not the primary focus of investigation. It is what people do that is subject of study and…… [Read More]
Constructivism is a theoretical perspective that asserts that people attempt to make sense of the world by developing their own set of personal individualized constructs. Personal experience, interpretation, social context, and linguistic factors define a person's subjective reality. Constructive psychotherapy focuses on individual experience, personal resilience, change, and the therapeutic relationship to assist people with change. The current article asserts that constructivism and constructive psychotherapies heavily draw from principles of past theorists such as George Kelly and Kurt Lewin, and constructivism and constructive psychotherapies do not represent facets of a new paradigm. In this sense constructive psychotherapy is not a unified form of psychotherapy but instead a form of integrated psychotherapy. Finally the article applies five basic principles of constructivism: activity, order, the self, social-symbolic relations, and lifespan development in the proposed psychotherapy of Sam, a man who is experiencing frustration and anger-management issues at his work and…… [Read More]
The topic of workplace diversity has attracted more and more scholarly attention in the past few decades. Indeed, the topic has become one of the most crucial organizational issues in the 21st century, with organizations in both the public and private sector increasingly seeking to tap the advantages diversity brings. Two major areas of focus have been the extent to which organizational members support diversity and the impact of diversity on work-related outcomes such as job satisfaction. This paper dwells on these two aspects. First, Soni's (2000) model of receptivity to diversity is discussed, along with a summary of her findings. Then, attention is paid to the relationship between diversity and work-related outcomes as presented by Pitts (2009).
According to Soni (2000), the success of any diversity management initiative is largely influenced by the degree to which members of an organization are receptive to the initiative. Without managers and employees…… [Read More]
Therefore Clinton can be said to have generally followed a realist foreign policy program in Kosovo, yet due to changes in the international system which made it problematic to cut too many deals with dictators and war-criminals like Milosevich, a more conflictive approach to the issue was created. National interest, while predominant, was no longer the only consideration.
One of the problems with a constructivist understanding of the war though, is to what extent the international system allows for freedom of choice. If constructivism were true, then there were no "real" constraints on the actions of ill Clinton during the crisis. Yet sending ground troops in for example, would have been politically infeasible, not only due to American public opinion, but because Russia might have seen that as a threat to its interests in the region and moved to act in a provocative way. The point is then, that if…… [Read More]
Theoretical Approach to Generational Poverty
Poverty is one of the most pressing social problems and the generational nature of poverty remains one of the reasons it is so difficult to eradicate poverty. While there are several different theories suggesting why poverty is transmitted from generation to generation and theorists sometimes strongly disagree on those reasons, there is almost universal acceptance of the idea that poverty is transmitted from one generation to another. In fact, there has been a significant amount of study directed at chronic poverty in the developed and developing countries. This research suggests that while poverty may be simplistically defined as a lack of money, the problem of poverty actually addresses the "absence of transfer of different forms of capital: human, social-cultural, social-political, financial/material and environmental/natural" (Moore, 2001). This more complex definition of poverty helps explain why simply providing financial resources to a family does not generally fix…… [Read More]
Family Theoretical Perspective
The family is a social institution that has attracted a lot of research. There are many things that revolve around this institution and hence the reason why it attracts a lot of attention and consequent research. The topic of this paper is family and the chosen article is, "Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds."
The structures of family forms vary just as their definitions. There is no single form of true family. In earlier years the nuclear family that comprises of a single set of biological parents and their children was prevalent. However, there has been a trend towards multiple generations of the same family living and working together in the same household. Today, there are many types of family forms that can be seen and they are due to the evolution of the family that started off as a result of a…… [Read More]
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:
Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.
Grand Nursing Theory:
There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…… [Read More]
Truth is a concept that can be subjectively interpreted based on the individual's experiences and social realities. This is because truth is associated with an individual's continuous search for knowledge; thus, as an individual obtains knowledge in his/her experiences, s/he learns to discriminate information that may be considered as true or false for him/her. In effect, truth is defined as the any information or event experienced and encountered by the individual which corresponds with his/her reality (as s/he perceives it). Since truth corresponds with reality, sources of truth may come from anything that exists within the individual's "sphere of reality": these are people, non-living entities, institutions, and other elements of the society that the individual encounters in his/her society everyday.
Since truth is subject to various interpretations due to different social realities experienced by each individual in the society, there exists more than one truth. Truth is based…… [Read More]
There are several theoretical approaches that have been developed by different personality theorists that focus on explaining the uniqueness of individuals. These theories have particularly been developed in the field of personality psychology that includes some popular thinkers or theorists like Sigmund Freud. Since these theories provide different approaches to understanding personality, they have been classified into different categories based on their focus and the psychologists who developed them. Some of the most common categories of personality theories include biological, behavioral, psychodynamic, trait, and humanistic and existential theories. In addition, some of the most common theoretical approaches in the personality psychology field include dispositional, learning, psychodynamic, and humanistic and existential theories or approaches.
The development of dispositional theories can be attributed to the work of Gordon Allport who stressed on the distinctiveness of the individual unlike any other personality theorist. Allport focused on an individual's uniqueness…… [Read More]
Theoretical foundation explored within this article is that there is a real relationship that exists between psychotherapists and clients, and that this relationship profoundly affects the outcome of the sessions (Gelso et al., 2012, p. 495). This relationship is couched with other working relationships between the therapist and the client. Moreover, the real relationship can be analyzed from the perspective of both the client and the therapist, so that it exists within a "dyad" (Gelso et al., 20102, p. 496.
One of the weaknesses of the literature review in the study completed by Gelso et al., "The unfolding of the real relationship and the outcome of brief psychotherapy" is that it is not distinguished within its own section. It is intertwined with the introduction of this document, and even extends into the hypothesis section. Additionally, the vast majority of the literature cited was conducted by the principal researcher in this…… [Read More]
Open communications and unambiguous formulations are two more features.
A competitive managerial style forces employees to compete against each other as well as against the manager. The main benefit of this approach is that of increasing constructive conflict, but it also increases tensions in the work place. The collaborative and sharing managerial styles stimulate communication and collaboration, creating a more relaxed and pleasant working atmosphere. Finally, an accommodative managerial style is similar to the human resource management strategies implemented in the immediate aftermath of a new employee being hired. It as such revolves around strategies that integrate the employees in a unified organizational culture and structure which functions based on the same values and principles and which works towards the same goals. Implemented on the long-term, this managerial approach stands increased chances of reducing operational efficiency and as such organizational profitability.
It is often argued that a good…… [Read More]
Theoretical approaches to ethics.
Normative ethical theory
Normative ethics is the descriptor that is applied to the entire caliber of a certain perspective of ethics that has various sub-categories to it. As general definition, normative ethics is the term given to the moral investigation that queries how one should act in an ethical manner. To this end, a quantity of ethical systems exists that seek to answer that question. To differentiate normative ethics from other philosophical ethical theories, meta-ethics, for instance, attempts to objectively examine standards for right and wrong in a comparative, phenomenological manner, whilst descriptive ethics -- another brand of ethics is an empirical investigation of people's moral beliefs.
Normative ethics may also be called 'prescriptive' since it recommends a certain moral route of conduct for an individual. So, for instance, descriptive ethics would be concerned with investigating and describing the proportion of people that hold ethnic discrimination…… [Read More]
Theoretical Approaches to Criminal Behavior
Different perspectives of crime are essential when an explanation of why individuals engage in deviant behaviors and just a few become a nuisance to the society. Therefore there are various theories that have been put up in a bid to find out the causes of crime. A thorough explanation of the theories and the perspectives help in explaining the different reasons for occurrence of crime and the identification of factors that make an individual become a criminal. With these theories in place there is an understanding of an individual's behavior that will provide an insight into the reasoning and minds toward crime related behaviors.
The two main theories are classical and biological theories. Focus on rationality of human nature forms the basis for classical theory of crime. This means that an individual who chooses to take part in crime does so willingly without any other…… [Read More]
Health -- Nursing
Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…… [Read More]
Later that night as the couple is preparing to go to bed, they rehash the events of the dinner, and we can see that they have grown apart. Barbara comments on Oliver's phony laugh, and Oliver defends his laugh and his behavior in interrupting Barbara's Baccarat story, by explaining that he has his eyes on the prize of becoming law partner, and if that means he has to force a laugh on occasion, then he is willing to do that for his family. Even at this point in the movie, however, the Roses do not recognize that they are in trouble as a couple and as a family. It is also clear that the love is fading, at the beginning or early days of their marriage, Barbara would never have criticized Oliver, but would have acquiesced without comment. It is perhaps that acquiescence that is at the root of their…… [Read More]
Analysing Organisation: Using relevant theoretical perspectives frameworks, critically analyse organisation choice.
Analyzing organization is the process of assessing the organizations systems, functionality and capacity so as to increase the organizations performance, efficiency and overall output. This is done by using various theories and models whose aim is to understand the structure of the organization, technology and behavioral relationships Bate, Khan, & Pye, 2000.
This should be a periodic and detailed activity that assists the organizations management to identify any inefficiency or problems that may have risen and have not been dealt with the management will then come up with strategies to deal with them.
Compulyzed Telecommunications is a telecommunications company dealing with telephone, cabling, and internet provision services for both home and corporate clients. Compulyzed Telecommunications had an increase of 1.7% operating profit in the fiscal year 2011 as compared to the previous year this was…… [Read More]
Prostitution and Feminism: Questions for a Modern Society
In answer to the question of whether prostitution is just another line of work, the most comprehensive and simplest answer is to say, no, it is not. The reason for this is that there are too many complexities associated with prostitution -- not just ethical and moral issues -- but also social, legal, economic, political, safety, and theoretical issues that color the sex industry. True, one could argue that any field of labor or industry could be discussed using the same terms, but the issue with prostitution is that it is a term that can be used without being properly defined. As Hallie Rose Liberto points out, when feminists discuss prostitution, they are discussing much more than the sex trade: they are discussing women's rights, women's alienation, women's health, and women's equality.[footnoteRef:1] Because the issue is those so charged with underlying meanings,…… [Read More]
Symbolic interactionism is the theory suggesting human beings are best understood in "interactive relation to their environment," (University of Twente, 2014). The three core principles of symbolic interactionism including meaning, language, and thought. Meaning refers to the fact that people ascribe meaning to their relationships, institutions, and other social structures. This meaning is what guides human emotion and cognition. Language is the symbolic type of human communication. Like meaning, language also impacts human emotional and cognitive states. Thus, the third component of symbolic interactionism is thought. How a person perceives, judges, and interacts with the world is covered by symbolic interactionism. Symbolic interactionism also suggests that the self is a mirror for others, and vice-versa in what is known as the "looking glass self," ("The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective," n.d.). Symbolic interactionism is an ideal sociological lens through which to understand how social media has transformed the nature of human…… [Read More]
From Skinner's perspective, Jane's abusive relationships with men are the result of being 'rewarded' for being stereotypically vulnerable or flirtatious in a feminine fashion: only by acting this way is she not beaten and rewarded with compliance from men. The causes of Jane's behavior are positive reinforcement for sexual behaviors and negative reinforcement for independence in the form of physical punishment. This pattern will continue throughout Jane's life, unless she is de-conditioned from such a behavior pattern. A therapist would try to find a new, alternative system of rewards for Jane, such as encouraging her to seek out an education, where she would be rewarded for qualities other than submissiveness and sexuality.
Neuroscience & biology
From a more physiologically-driven perspective, a therapist might see Jane's and her father's behaviors as a result of a chemical imbalance, such as a deficit or excess of certain neurotransmitters, like dopamine or serotonin. The…… [Read More]
One of the complexities of 21st century medicine is the evolution of nursing care theories in combination with a changing need and expectation of the stakeholder population. Nurses must be advocates and communicators, but must balance these along with an overall philosophy of ethics while still remaining mindful of budgets and the need for the medical institution to be profitable. It seems as if these issues comprise a three-part template for nursing: respect for patient value & individuality, education of patients, and cognition and respect for the realities of contemporary medicine. In many ways, too, modern technology has advanced further than societal wisdom, especially when confronting the issue of death. The modern nurse's role is to create a nurse-patient culture that encourages the individual to take responsibility for their healthcare and, in partnership with the nurse, to be involved in their recovery. The modern complexities of…… [Read More]
More specifically, children whose
transition through the Oedipal or Electra Complex and those whose parents neglected to fulfill their other crucial emotional needs during their developmental years retain long-
lasting negative psychological attachments to those areas in which their needs where unfulfilled. Alternatively, they may retain a fundamental psychological orientation that
corresponds to the precise stage of development (i.e. oral or anal phase, etc.) where their essential needs where unfulfilled within their family of origin (McWilliams, 2004).
Most significantly, whereas most children experience the psychological "loss" of the parent through this process, the manner in which parents interact with their children and the specific experiences of the child during that stage determines many aspects of the psychological issues that develop within the individual in connection with subsequent romantic urges and relationships (McWilliams, 2004). Similarly, Freud proposed that the other stages of infancy such as the oral phase and anal phase…… [Read More]
ill Gates is perhaps a good example in this sense: Microsoft during the early 70s was but a mixture of their programmers, but they selected ill Gates to coordinate and organize their efforts because they saw him as the best prepared among them. This is also what named him chief software architect at Microsoft (besides the fact that he owned the company at that point) and he retained the respective function even after he was no longer CEO.
There are other particularities of leadership in the software development industry as well.
ecause the work activity is based on the existence of development teams that generally incorporate developers, testers and writers and which are led by a team leader or project manager, there is a distinctive importance attributed to the project manager or team leader. His or her job is many folded, which means that he probably needs to have all…… [Read More]
theoretical paradigms: symbolic interaction approach, structural-function approach ( identifying manifest function, latent functions, social latent dysfunction) social-conflict approach analyzing euthanasia.
There is presently much controversy regarding the topic of euthanasia as even though the process gathered many supporters, most of the general public continues to criticize it. It is difficult to determine the exact effect that euthanasia has on the patient, given that some might be unable to fully comprehend everything related to the medical procedure when they are the ones responsible for ordering it. Although some communities are likely to accept euthanasia as being moral, others are very probable to condemn it and relate to it as something that is particularly wrong. There are a series of factors influencing people's perspectives in regard to euthanasia, ranging from the cultural standards that they were accustomed with and until their social status. Examining euthanasia by using theoretical paradigms makes it…… [Read More]
In the 21st century, great strides have been made that have decreased poverty, increased income and quality of life in the developing world, and brought the world closer together in a spirit of cooperation. However, there remains an evolving water crisis -- actually three separate paradigms that form a serious global crisis: decreased freshwater, problems with access to potable water globally, and large corporations' control over access to water. Too, climate change has, in many areas of the globe, resulted in a diminishing supply of potable water. This trend has occurred so much that it is becoming a measurement of national wealth and comparison between nations -- private interests or public/private interest dominant in terms of available water supplies. This is particularly serious from a human biological perspective -- water is required for survival, agriculture and industry. Without access to water, or with limited access, the gulf between…… [Read More]
The works of Borko and Putnam (1998) expressed the contemporary perspectives to the concept of contextual learning. Situated recognition (uses both social and physical contexts),social cognition (uses an individual's construction of a given knowledge) as well as distributed cognition which employs or relates to both the social and situated nature of cognition (Clifford and Wilson,2000). While employing this ideas, I emphasize on problem solving, recognition of the fact that teaching as well as learning must occur within multiple contexts, assist my students in the process of learning, anchor my lesson and teachings on various diverse real life context of my students, encourage my students to learn from one another while also employing an authentic assessment technique.
Audience Analysis and Considerations
The audience basically comprises of adult learners who are either interested in advancing their careers or leaning of better ways of running their own firms. Their learning style is based…… [Read More]
theoretical approaches to learning and explores possibilities of learning applications to special education. A matrix is presented and the information in the matrix is explained within a professional setting that deals with special education. The theoretical approaches to learning provide the framework for development of leaning skills and are examined in detail.
Keywords: Learning, Learning theories, Cognitive development, andura's social learning, Pavlov, Classical condition, special education, Erikson's theory, social development theory, experiential learning.
andura's Social Learning Theory
Social learning theory by andura highlights the societal processes in learning suggesting that people learn from each other using the means of observation and imitation. This means that children watch and learn behavior of adults and family members and during the process of observation they pick up skills which they imitate. The theory of social learning requires an analysis of the psychological processes of motivation, attention and memory and these three cognitive processes…… [Read More]
Sociology research review and critique: "oyz to Men"
Anoop Nayak's 2003 sociological study "oyz to Men: masculinities, schooling and labour transitions in de- industrial times" examines the adaptation (or lack thereof) of a representational group working-class ritish young men to a changing labor economy. Life in ritain has been profoundly altered due to shifts in the class structure. There is a dearth of stable factory jobs and a shift to "service sector economies, part-time work, fixed-term contracts and more 'flexible' patterns of labour" (Nayak 2003: 148). The study focuses specifically on the Northeast of England and details a specifically 'male' experience inside and outside of school. The perspective adopted is thus one of social constructivism, which seeks to understand how the subjects understand their own experiences in a social context and contextualizes those experiences within a wider cultural framework of interpretation which has many 'layers.'
The Northeast region was historically…… [Read More]
diverse population nurses must attend to, the concept of 'transcultural' nursing is important to understand. Instead of viewing health as a universal concept, transcultural nursing attempts to understand the conceptual building blocks of the nursing profession as cultural products that are socially-constructed. It strives to understand the similarities and differences between different health attitudes and practices (Leininger 1991). First developed by Madeline Leininger, transcultural nursing is founded upon the idea that the "health care providers need to be flexible in the design of programs, policies, and services to meet the needs and concerns of the culturally diverse population, groups that are likely to be encountered" (Transcultural nursing, 2012, Current Nursing).
Nurses must be culturally astute and adapt their practices to patient's cultural needs as well as to physical needs. This concept has been somewhat controversial within the nursing profession given that Western medicine's emphasis on preserving life and optimizing treatment…… [Read More]
Utility of the Knowledge of Nursing Theory in Patient Care
When people describe nursing theories and theoretical concepts, they frequently try to separate the theory from the practice of nursing. However, this is a critical mistake. Theory and practice are inseparable. While there are many established nursing theories, it is important to look at the origins of those theories. They developed, not in an isolated academic setting, but because they reflected the issues that were presented to nurses in the field and reflect how those nurses dealt with questions and concerns that frequently arise in the context of nursing practice. As a result, it is important to keep in mind that theory and practice are not distinct from one another. On the contrary, theory should be viewed as a type of practice because theories involve: asking certain questions, questioning the status quo, seeking the most plausible or meaningful answers, and…… [Read More]
662). In other words, individuals coalesce around environments repetitively to form the collective. The collective structure stays even when the individual is alone. This is close to the collective representations of Durkheim, but it is based on innate or genetic structures that connect during the repetition of social encounters (which in Allport are not religious). The social bonding function is similar: "The collective-structure event-format (so called 'reality of the group') is thus preserved, though the particular contacts of individuals may vary in space, time, and number" (Allport, 1955, p. 662).
This interweaving with the collective has lasting effects on the individual structure. He says, "It is also worth noting that the collective structure itself is often represented, usually in a schematic or abridged format, in the meaning-cycles of the individuals involved, on the basis of their contacts with other individuals in the regular and repetitive course of the structure's operation"…… [Read More]
Clinically meaningful differences between juvenile and adult participants were also found. Compared to adults, juveniles were more likely to be male, recall an earlier age at OCD onset, and have different lifetime comorbidity patterns. Significant outcomes were that children were less likely than either adolescent or adults to report aggressive obsessions and mental rituals.
The glaring - and possibly only -- distractions that I see with this study are that groups are ill matched. There is a large range of ages even amongst each group (children ranged between 6-12 whilst adolescents ranged between 13-18); they were ill-matched in OCD symptoms too; there were far less children than adolescents; and adults more than doubled the size of the juvenile and children group combined. Self-reported OCD symptom could have been produced by an alternate factor (another determinant) that was not taken into account. What could have been taken then as start of…… [Read More]
Learning & Teaching
Identify a behavior in the healthcare setting that you would like to change that involves extinguishing an undesirable behavior and replacing it with a healthier behavior (e.g., getting cardiac patients to reduce their high-fat diet and eat healthier foods; getting patients with low back pain to minimize their pain and become more independent in their activities). Describe how the behavior could be changed using the principles of a particular learning theory. Then describe how the same behavior could be changed using a different theory. Depending on the behavior to be changed and replaced, you might also discuss why one plan might work better for men than women, or for younger people than older people.
To start with the last sentence first, it is clear that the younger a person is, they are generally more pliable and "changeable" than with older and/or more mature people that are more…… [Read More]
School Cultural Theory
Any environments where human beings reside, there is an existing culture. The total time that the community members, teachers, and students spend in school environments develop cultural elements have a direct influence on how they act and function in their respective positions.
Developing a system of cultural awareness in schools is critical in activating teachers and school stakeholders to engage in growth promoting activities. Teachers in school settings make up the main components of a school organizational network. It is important noting that schools are forms of organizations that uphold a shared culture. Milner and Browitt (2013) in their study of organizational cultures argue that any organization strives to find a meaningful purpose together as a group that has a shared goal. They further discussed the organizational systems develop individual structures and behavioral patterns with actual means of accomplishing the processes. Organizations create the necessary tools for…… [Read More]
Marxist Perspective for Understanding Society
Although the United States and other Western nations fought a cold war against Communism for a significant part of the twentieth century, Western nations were not immune to the influence of Karl Marx, an intellectual and ideological founder of Communism. Even during the Cold War, Marxism entered disciplines in social sciences in the United States and students of sociology, history, political science, and a few other disciplines can no longer ignore Marxist perspective for understanding society today. Indeed, key components of Marxist perspective -- all of them revolving around the basic premise that societies can be defined by class struggle -- are very helpful in analyzing how a society functions. And Marxism today is not confined to the writings of Marx only but has been enriched by other scholars who helped to make Marxism a very useful and important tool for evaluating complexities of societies.…… [Read More]
Tracy is a thirteen-year-old, Caucasian female, who is being raised by her mother, Melanie in Los Angeles. Also living in the home is Tracy's older brother Mason, who is fifteen. Tracy's parents are divorced, with Melanie as custodial parent. Tracy is in regular contact by telephone with her father, Travis, who is now remarried with a new baby. Travis is employed with a decent salary but has suffered periods of unemployment in the past; Melanie is a high-school dropout who receives child support but otherwise makes a basic subsistence income as a hairdresser for children and women, operating out of her own home. She is a recovering alcoholic who attends weekly A.A. meetings, but most of her social circle is from the recovery movement. For example, Melanie's boyfriend Brady, who is about ten years younger than Melanie but still substantially older than the children, also regularly stays at…… [Read More]
Nursing Concepts and Theory
Conceptual-Theoretical Structure paper
Personal belief about nursing theory and knowledge development process for nursing practice
All nursing theories play an important role in defining nursing and giving the roles that nurses need to play. Originally, the role of nurses was simply to carry out activities as instructed by doctors, however, over the years, this role has been changed to include more responsibilities as the nursing world has evolved. Nursing theories describe, predict and explain the various phenomena in nursing practice and thus create foundations for nursing practice. They also help to generate knowledge in the field of nursing and to point the direction which the field should develop in future. This view is supported by Carper (1978)
who states that nursing theories elaborate nursing practice and create professional boundaries for the profession. Nursing knowledge comes from research that has been conducted on nursing which forms scientific…… [Read More]
The benefits of including family in therapy sessions extend far beyond addressing the parents' concerns in this situation, however, and can help to identify underlying problems that led to osa's drug abuse and potentially provide more highly effective long-term solutions to these issues.
Adolescent females were the subject of one study that specifically examined the efficacy of family systems therapy interventions in cases of anorexia nervosa, and the efficacy of this approach compared quite favorable to other therapy techniques (Eisler et al. 2005). Especially noticeable in this study was an increased expression of emotion by all family members, leading to greater openness and a greater ability and willingness to share problems and support each other (Eisler et al. 2005). This effect would likely be highly beneficial to osa and her family as well, as there is almost certainly an underlying stressor that led to osa's drug abuse and overall decline…… [Read More]
Half the Sky from a Feminist Perspective
In the last sixty years, women in estern countries and to a lesser extent the rest of the world have become outspoken about women's rights, demanding equal rights in political, economic, cultural, social, and domestic spheres. Their struggles and activism, generally known as feminist movements, helped to elevate the status of women in many countries. Yet, as Nicholas D. Kristoff and Sheryl udunn document in their book Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for omen orldwide, the struggle for gender equality is far from over. Kristoff and udunn demonstrate the deeply troubling picture of gender relations around the world where women and girls are systematically subjected to brutality, mistreatment, and discrimination. In their attempt to expose gender inequality in the world, Kristoff and udunn are largely successful, but their analysis is not well-grounded in feminist scholarship, which weakens their argumentation.
Kristoff and…… [Read More]
Fo instance, appoximately 33 pe cent of Thailand's wate souces ae categoized as having poo quality and the phenomenon is consideed a seious envionment poblem. Moeove, Thailand is anked among the last Asian counties based on amounts of fesh wate available pe capita (WWF, 2010).
In this context, the Thai govenment and the Thai people have commenced to pay moe attention to the effect of the envionmental poblems, as well as to the adjacent economics of the poblem. People make an effot to buy poducts which ae envionmentally hamless and, though them, to minimize the negative envionmental implications of consumption. A fist effot in this diection was the intoduction of the Thai Geen Label Scheme in 1993 and its fomal launch one yea late (Geen Label Thailand, 2010). In shot, the scheme suppots the development of the geen poducts secto by intoducing infomation fo consumes and standads fo businesses. Moe…… [Read More]
This idea is also strengthen by the example of the inhabitants from the northern region. Yet, the idea is not completely tolerated. There are, of course, groups which benefit from the current context, like the elite groups that one would furthermore refer to when analyzing social stratification.
Along with the political context of Somalia, which is the principal factor of the economical failure of the country, another significant reason consists in Somalia's vulnerability and lack of defense in front of the world's biggest states which transformed it, at the beginning of the 1990s in a sort of testing ground for all the issues they confronted with.
For example, one knows the fact that a significant amount of the local economy before the 1990 stood in natives' activity of fishing, as both the Aden Gulf and the Indian Ocean are known as being rich in piscicultural resources. After becoming independent in…… [Read More]
Over the course of time, this will lead to a dramatic rise in the number of cases that are being reported, based upon the kinds of foods that are being consumed by this demographic. (Dilip, 2001, pp. 81 -- 87) As a result, different cultural factors are having an impact on this problem. While at the same time, many individuals will feel pressure to consume this cuisine. Part of the reason for this, is because it is expected that they eat this to embrace their culture. If they do not, they risk the possibility of being seen as some kind outcast. (Cousins, 1992, pp. 549 -- 555)
To change what is happening, we need to leverage the relationship / expectations towards: shifting the way these foods are prepared and the frequency that they are consumed. As, we want to encourage people to begin cooking in vegetable / olive oil and…… [Read More]
Sustained Competitive Advantage Using Human esources
Theoretical Critique essay format. Within a challenging economic environment role strategic human resource management insignificant. Do approaches strategic
There has been tremendous growth in the strategic management field, and this has made it more popular amongst the practitioners and academics in the previous twenty years. For research structuring, industrial organization strategist rely on the SWOT framework. This has been the case since strategy became a recognized area in the management field Oliver, 1997.
ecently there has been other contributions made to the literature strategy, and this has emphasized the external part of the SWOT framework. The external part focuses mostly on the environmental impacts of the firm's performance. Models that focus on the environmental impacts of the firm's performance have little use to the practitioners though they are well received. These models communicate little regarding the manager's influence.
In strategic management, there has been…… [Read More]
Further, coercive and reward power are often highly distributed through the more agile organizations and as a result must be applied immediately to behavior to be effective.
In the context of Dr. Edgar Schein's (1983) analysis and presentation of results in his working papers referenced in this document, an industry's growth and culture is well defined in the following quote. In the working papers, Schein (1983) writes:
For an organizational culture to exist, there must be a definable organization in the sense of a number of people interacting with each other for the purpose of accomplishing some goal in their defined environment. The founder of an organization simultaneously creates such a group and, by force of his or her personality, begins to shape the culture of that group. But the culture of that new group is not there until the group has had its own history of overcoming various crises…… [Read More]
Wal-Mart Social esponsibility Analysis: An Employee Perspective
To begin the study "the purpose statement is "a statement that provides the major objective or intent, or "road map" to the study" (Creswell, 2009a, 104).Therefore, the purpose of this narrative is to discuss what employees at various Wal-Mart facilities around the Kansas City area have experienced regarding the social responsibility initiatives undertaken by the company. The method for this particular paper is a qualitative design. Because the desired conclusions were to be drawn from the specific experiences of individuals employed at Wal-Mart stores and Distribution Centers around the area, it was determined that the best method of gathering that information was via interviews with employees rather than the gathering of quantitative data which would not reveal individual interpretations of the policies put in place. The specific questions asked to the participants ranged from their impressions of environmental policies to treatment of employees…… [Read More]
economic crisis that hit the international community and the world economies has determined, since 2008, a slow, almost invisible shift in the doctrinal preferences of more and more people in terms of deciding on the right economic approach to be followed in order to avoid such crises from taking place in the future. Although there have been numerous attempts to convince on the benefits of capitalism, the economic crises that have taken place since the 70s on a cyclical basis have been used as counterarguments for the efficiency of capitalism and free market economies as we know it today. In this sense, more and more people, scholars, professors, and even politicians, advocate a more moderate approach to capitalism to include several aspects of apparently long-forgotten economic doctrines such as Marxism. However, Marxism in its purest form is not the solution; yet, it offers the justifications for what is now seen…… [Read More]
Whereas poor leaders avoid choosing competent members of their inner circle to avoid losing control, superior leaders establish the most talented and effective inner circles as possible. The manager in this case had the benefit of several subordinates who were capable of becoming part of her inner circle.
Instead of inviting their contribution, she deliberately maintained the maximum possible distance from them and insisted on always reviewing their decisions after the fact. Meanwhile, her own decisions were always hers alone and simply announced to the entire team together. Instead of allowing her supervisors to relay her decisions, the manager routinely announced them to supervisors and line employees together, further highlighting the complete non-involvement of supervisors in any meaningful decisions.
Finally, the manager made absolutely no attempt to identify leadership qualities in her subordinates, mainly because she feared any competent leaders as rivals. Effective leaders realize that it is essential to…… [Read More]
When first introduced to the market in 1998, Contemporary Management, by Jones and George made a large impact on the areas of modern management. Their unique combination of talents combined an easy to understand voice, thorough content, and pedagological approach to teaching, together with a uniquely designed package. Authors Gareth Jones, his wife Jennifer George and Professor Hill are dedicated to the challenge of making supplied managerial science concrete and applicable for students. As a team, they are uniquely qualified to write about both the strategic imperative for managers and organizational challenges that real managers face.
Gareth Jones specializes in both strategic management and organizational theory and is well-known for his research that applies transaction cost analysis to explain many forms of strategic behavior. He is currently focusing his study on strategy process and issues concerning the development of trust, and the role of which trust…… [Read More]
Crop Insurance Subsidies
Crop insurance has become highly subsidized due to the private sector being unsuccessful in providing crop insurance products to the industry. There are concerns as to the efficiency of crop insurance subsidies due to the costs being high. ut, crop insurance is the greatest risk management tool used by producers.
The rationale for public crop insurance subsidies includes the inability of the private sector to successfully provide all risk crop insurance products (Smith, 2012). There are high loading costs of associated crop insurance and producers use other strategies of risk management, such as futures and options, contracting, cultural practices, such as irrigation, pesticide use, herbicides, crop and livestock diversification, non-farm income, saving and borrowing, leasing, government price and support programs, and government disaster assistance payments. Moral hazard monitoring can be costly and raise premiums too high. Systematic risk or yield losses tend to be positively correlated across…… [Read More]
The pimp has become the spokesman for the hip-hop subculture and directly influences black males and indirectly white males into directions that are anathema to the rights and dignity of black women in particular and all women in general. In other words, black and white females in a cultural sense are literally swimming in a sea of cultural images that play to the lowest common denominator of humanity and makes women into sexual objects and a product in the packaging of hip-hop records, whether or not they want to be there.
Again, to quote my paper and illustrate in detail the content "This form of media is the primary means of information broadcasting for youth. Plus, the portrayals of hip-hop culture in the media is highly likely to influence African-American youths." An entire generation of black males is being brought up to see women as material sexual objects.
I am…… [Read More]
Therefore, the most different variable in the study is the change in treatment, i.e. The doubling of class time.
The following definitions are provided to ensure uniformity and understanding throughout this study. All definitions, not otherwise noted, have been developed by the researcher:
AYP -- Adequate Yearly Progress refers to the state-stipulated percentage of students by subject (math/English) by demographic (race/socio-economic strata) that must pass the HSPA. Schools that do not meet or surpass AYP are subject to sanctions. These may differ by state.
Class time -- The prescribed time during which a single class is conducted, i.e. one period. In this case, one period prior to the doubling of class time is initially equal to 42 minutes and subsequently equal to 43 minutes.
Doubling of class time -- Increasing class time from 42 minutes to 84 minutes plus the consumed passing time of 4 minutes for a total of…… [Read More]
Nola Pender theory Health promotion: background, Theoretical assertions propositions, concepts, elevant nursing practice.
Nola Pender's health promotion model
Nola Pender's health promotion model
Nola Pender's model of health promotion was intended to address what Pender saw as a deficit in existing nursing theories, namely the failure to promote wellness as well as cure sickness. The Pender model defines health as a positive and dynamic state, not merely the absence of disease. Pender identifies her rubric as a model, rather than a meta-theory, and states that it is complementary to a variety of nursing disciplines and perspectives. "The model focuses on following three areas: individual characteristics and experiences; behavior-specific cognitions and affect; behavioral outcomes" (Health promotion model, 2011, Nursing Theories). Health may mean different things for different people at different life stages. 'Health' for a young, athletic adolescent may be defined in a different manner than for someone at the end…… [Read More]
As the bicycle industry benefits from higher gas prices, it also suffers from low gas prices (NBDA, 2008), indicating a high inclination to substitute. There are low switching costs, as other means of transportation or exercise are all relatively affordable. The price-performance tradeoff is even throughout, and does not yield bicycles any particular competitive advantage.
The degree of rivalry in the industry is low. There is low industry concentration and few exit barriers. There are approximately 2000 firms and 100 brands in the U.S. (NBDA, 2008) and five firms in the mass market sector (NDBA, 2008). Industry growth is relatively slow, however, but high diversity among rivals allows for a relatively low degree of rivalry between them. There are, however, few product differences at the low end, and 99.53% of all bicycles in the U.S. are made in China or Taiwan (NDBA, 2008).
Overall, the industry is moderately favorable for…… [Read More]
SBFT focuses on the aim a couple wants to achieve. It centers on talking about the present and future conditions of both the partners. Some of the major contributions in the field were made by Milton Erickon, who provided the basics of hypnotic techniques. He asserted the use of hypnosis techniques to discuss with couples the existing and potential problems in their marital life. He focused on the effective and open two way communication regarding all issues of marital life including trust, expectations, sex, and excessive alcohol use (or abuse) by one of the partners and other similar issues (Erickson, 1976). Erickson made use of his proposed hypnosis techniques in counseling couples for solution of all the problems by letting them speak their heart. A
wide variety of hypnotic techniques is of great importance in marriage preparation for the couples who have some issues between them before marriage.
The basis…… [Read More]
Union at Risk, historian Richard Ellis confronts the most singularly formative event of Andrew Jackson's two presidential terms: The Nullification Crisis of 1832 and 1833. In response to tariffs enacted by the Congress in Washington in the late 1820s, the State of South Carolina declared their legal independence from national laws. Avoiding the tariffs, South Carolina poses a real threat to the Jackson administration with serious national repercussions; responsively, Jackson issued a Proclamation asserting the foremost power of the Federal government.
Because legal action means little to a state already refusing Washington's insistence, Jackson found executive support in the Force Act, allowing national laws to be enforced on a state-wide basis with troops. The assuagement of the crisis by Henry Clay brought solvent end to this doctrinal crisis between states' rights and national policy. Richard Ellis argues that this decisive moment in 19th century politics not only connected to other…… [Read More]