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theory development as the chapter title notes, but it gave me more than that. Chapter two opened up my eyes to statistics, and this chapter opened up my eyes to what the author calls the "fundamental assumptions of criminal theory." We read about crime, statistics, and criminals, but far less often we read about the real, fundamental causes of crime, except when they are sensational, as the "devil made me do it" theory the author explores, or insanity. Most everyday crimes have far different causes, and this chapter helped spell them out and make them more understandable. I learned more about the science of crime, which blends with the statistical analysis of crime, and about always asking "why" when it comes to crime.
I also learned how important theories are to crime statistics and understanding, but that theories must always be tested to be proved true. Theories are the foundations…
Chapter Three: Research Methods and Theory Development.
Awareness in Multi-Casualty Incidents: Theory Development from the Field
Instructions: Use this form to critique the qualitative oral research presentation, the student in each of the areas specified below should document his/her critique under Comments. Be sure to comment on the study's strengths and weaknesses.
Has the research problem been clearly identified?
Does the problem have significance for nursing, re. practice, administration, education or policy?
Is the statement of purpose concise and clearly stated?
Does the literature review critically appraise and compare key studies?
Does the research describe a theoretical or conceptual framework for the study?
The research problem has been clearly identified, first in the title and then in the "research problem" section. This section clearly identifies the problem, which does have significance for multicasualty incident (MCI) management. Relationship to nursing theory is discussed in depth after the discussion section of the presentation. The statement of purpose is…
1. What is the difference between talking about theories of development versus talking about the development project? How did ideas about modernization and poverty enable powerful countries to intervene in the affairs of less powerful countries during the development project? In what sense did both theories of development and the development project create underdevelopment?
In essence, theories of development have got to do with social change. They are multidimensional in that one could, therefore, think of learning and human growth and not merely focus on the economic phenomenon in isolation. Development project focuses on the improvement and bettering of the quality and standard of living amongst human beings. Urbanization, according to McMichael (7), is seen as one of the defining consequences of development. One of development project’s most outstanding aspects was the perception of development as destiny (McMichael 7).
A new era of development was ushered in by “the extension…
Theory vs. Ideology
What is ideology?
Ideology is a belief system that supports and promotes personal or a group's social or religious agenda. In some cases its nature will be obvious to most people, but in other cases an ideology will be disguised as scientific fact based on nonexistent or reinterpreted empirical evidence. Ideologies are invariably supported by personally- or collectively-held religious or political beliefs, rather than extant empirical evidence or objective observation. Concepts within the ideology are typically framed in a black and white manner, such as right vs. wrong, just vs. unjust, and Evil Empire vs. God's Country. The use of such terminology has the effect of erasing the inherent complexity common to most social issues. From the perspective of a social scientist the most important characteristic is that ideologies are refractory to scientific inquiry and may go so far as to attack opposing beliefs to preserve its…
Cusac, Anne-Marie (2009). Cruel and Unusual: The Culture of Punishment in America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
theories currently being used in the field of nursing today. While each has their respective positive and negative points, all are useful in certain nursing settings, and can assist nurses in their positions. This paper will discuss two of those theorists, Jean Watson and Jean Piaget. Each theory will be discussed and explained, and examples of how each can be applied in the field of nursing will be discussed. This paper will show that both theories, though very different, can be useful in the field of nursing.
The Theory of Human Caring, created by Jean Watson, was originally developed based on Watson's experiences as both a teacher and in the nursing profession. According to Watson, the theory was created to explain those values of nursing that differ from the values of "curative factors," those of doctors and specialists. The Theory of Human Caring is devised based on the explicit values,…
Erci, B., Sayan, A., Kilic, D., Sahin, O., & Gungormus, Z. (2000). The effectiveness of Watson's caring model on the quality of life and blood pressure of patients with hypertension. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41 (2), 130-139.
Evans, R. (1973). Jean Piaget: The Man and His Ideas. New York, N.YE.P. Dutton & Co., Inc.
Watson, J. (1979). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring. Boston, M.A.: Little Brown.
Watson, J. (1988). Nursing: Human science and human: A theory of nursing. New York, N.Y.: National League for Nursing.
Organizational theory refers to the behavioral and social theories which help in the understanding of both informal and formal organizations. It makes references to a number of fields - anthropology, sociology, psychology, semiotics, economics, communications science, history and cybernetics (Sage Publications, n.d). The field has become popular with sociological researchers. Many of these researchers, drawn from such fields as medical sociology, social movements, political sociology and education, have realized the need to study this concept because of the role in empirical research that big organizations play. Scholars out of this field have always found discussions regarding organizational theory arcane. These scholars also hold the view that all that organizational theory concerns itself with is firms and so it is not applicable in other social situations. The formal or complex organization is the study object in organizational theory. Assumptions are made that there exists goals, rules, hierarchy and definitions of membership…
Ascher, W. (2000). Applying classic organization theory to sustainable resource & environmental management. Retrieved from http://law.duke.edu/news/papers/ascher.pdf
Boundless. (2014). Why Study Organizational Theory?. Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-theory-3/why-study-organizational-theory-28/why-study-organizational-theory-163-7564/
Cohen, D, & Prusak, L. (2001). In Good Company. How social capital makes organizations work. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Conner, D. (1990). The changing nation: Strategies for citizen action (Handout materials). Atlanta: ODR, Inc.ent document.
George's marriage to Ella is his second one; his first wife was from an arranged marriage in Pakistan that left him unhappy. Yet he was able to incorporate aspects of development theory within his own life to find a new wife who he is (mostly) pleased with in a Western environment, and even owns a successful fish and chips restaurant. In his romantic life and in his economic life, George is able to evince some of the best qualities of development theory and modernization by taking his best assets and (literally) marrying them with those from a Western society to update and contemporize his life and his source of income.
However, what George does not take account of is the fact that he must allow the same degree of leniency from his religion and tradition that he permitted himself in marrying Ella to his children. In this sense, East is…
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…
Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know
When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.
Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How
Web site: http://www.ehow.com/way_5403572_methods-teaching-tesol.html
Theory Methodology and Human Development
Analyze a selected topic from a social scientific perspective by doing the following
Explain the significance of a suitable question, which you have formulated, for social scientific analysis.
The impact that video games, as a form of media entertainment, have been a matter of concern for politicians, parents, and legislators. However, the results generated from the scholarly literature are not in agreement; researchers continue to disagree about the impact that video games have on people.
Analyze three research problems (i.e., subordinate questions) that will help answer the social scientific question that you have formulated.
For purposes of this research, a quantitative research design is utilized.
What is the relationship of playing video games to increased levels of obesity?
Walsh, Gentile, Walsh, & Bennett (2006, p. 2) found that "children who spend more time playing video games are heavier, and are more likely…
Bergman, E.F., & Renwick, W.H. (2008). Introduction to geography: People, places and environment (4th ed.)
Brown RIF. (1991) Gaming, gambling and other addictive play. In Kerr JH, Apter MJ, eds. Adult play: a reversal theory approach. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, pp. 101 -- 18.
Brown RIF. (1993) Some contributions of the study of gambling to the study of other addictions. In Eadington WR, Cornelius JA, eds. Gambling behavior and problem gambling. Reno: University of Nevada, pp. 241 -- 72.
Perry, J.A., & Perry, E.K. (2009). Contemporary society: An introduction to social science (12th ed.)
Theory Management Organization Development
Theory and Management of Organization Development
I work for a medium-sized company that provides services to more than 500 clients. The company was founded by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the company and has been in operation for more than a decade now. In particular, I work for the IT department of my organization as an IT/network administrator. In essence, my main task is to ensure that different devices across different departments in the organization are connected together to create networks that are not only fast, but also efficient. More so, I am accountable for maintaining the links and solving any issues that might come about with regard to computer networks.
One of the issues perceived within the job realm is compensation handed towards the employees within the IT department. It is imperative to point out that the IT department is well structured and fitted…
Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.
French, W. L., Bell, C. (1999). Organization Development: Behavioral Science Interventions for Organization Improvement (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for:
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…
MID ANGE THEOY OF SPIITUAL WELL BEING
Middle ange Theory of Spiritual Well Being in Illness
Nurse meta-theorists have recently been very much concerned about the different seasons of the patient's life, which has supported and promoted the development of middle range theories in the field of nursing. This is due to the reason that these theories focus on the specific health and illness issues instead of discussing the general issues. These specific health and illness issues focused in the mid range theories are extremely important for the practicing nurses as they spotlight on the particular problem and its solution.
History of Theory Development in Nursing
The practicing nurses started incorporating the nursing theories into their research and practically applying them to real situations during 1970s and 1980s. Majority of the early nursing theories fall in the category of grand theories of nursing because the concepts that described…
Barss, K. (2012). T.R.U.S.T: An affirming model for inclusive spiritual care. Journal of Holistic
Nursing. 30(1). 23-35.
Burkhart, L and Hogan, N. (2008). An Experiential Theory of Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice.
Qualitative Health Research, 18 (7), 929-940.
Newman's theory of HEC
The main purpose of nursing theories is to improve the nursing practice, hence improving the health as well as quality of life of people, families or the community at large (Parker & Smith, 2010). Nursing theories usually provide logical methods of approaching and viewing the care of people in their own environment. Through the use of the theoretical model in care organization, the nursing focus on quality care strengthens significantly (Parker & Smith, 2010). In addition, there is consistency in communication as well as related activities in the nursing care. The development of nursing theories together with theory-guided practice models significantly improves the discipline and the professional practice of nursing (Parker & Smith, 2010).
One of the most key issues facing the nursing discipline is the artificial isolation of nursing theory and practice (Parker & Smith, 2010). Practicing nurses have the responsibility of studying and valuing…
Basavanthappa, B.T. (2007). Nursing theories. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers.
Brown. J. (2011). Health as Expanding Consciousness: A Nursing Perspective for Grounded Theory ResearchNurs Sci Q. July 2011 24: 197-201.
Dorothy A. (2006). Newman's Health as Expanding Consciousness. Nurs Sci Q. October 2006 19: 330-332.
Kathleen M. & Paula N. (2011). Health as Expanding Consciousness: Implications for Health Policy as Praxis.Nurs Sci Q. July 2011 24: 279-286.
Sister Callista oy Theory
At the age of 14 years old, Callista oy had already started working in large general hospital where she moved from being a pantry, to maid to the nurse's maid. After considerations, Callista decided to join the Sisters of Saint Joseph Carondelet where she became a member for more that 40 years of her entire life. She joined college and pursued liberal arts program where she successfully completed a program in Bachelor of Arts majoring in nursing at Mount St. Mary's College in Los Angeles (The Trustees of Boston College, 2013).
She further pursed successfully her masters in Sociology and a doctorate in sociology as well both at University of California (Jones & Barlett, 2013). It was at this point that oy wanted to fuse both sociological approach and nursing approach to the nursing care of the patients. She is accredited for coming up with and…
Current Nursing, (2012). Application of Roy's Adaptation Model (RAM). Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application_Roy%27s_adaptation_model.html
Gonzalo, (2011). Theoretical Foundations of Nursing. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://nursingtheories.weebly.com/sister-callista-roy.html
Jones & Barlett, (2013). Nursing Theories: A Framework for Professional Practice. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://samples.jbpub.com/9781449626013/72376_CH10_Masters.pdf
The Trustees of Boston College, (2013). Sr. Callista Roy, Ph.D., RN, FAAN Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://www.bc.edu/schools/son/faculty/featured/theorist.html
younger brother's development since he was born in 1985, I would not have been able to until the beginning of this century. Until the early 1900s, no one was studying the changes that occurred in individuals from childhood to adulthood.
Now psychologists and other social scientists recognize that children go through similar behavioral, intellectual and mental, and physical steps while growing up. By using these theoretical steps as a guide, I can keep track of the development of my brother and any other child. It should always be remembered, however, that the time frames presented are averages and some children may achieve various developmental milestones earlier or later than the average but still be within the normal range. This information is presented to help interested parties understand what to expect from a child.
The idea that specific development stages exist for adults as well as children began with the initial…
Healy, Jane. Your child's growing mind. Galena, IL: Main Street Books, 1994.
Murray, Thomas. Human development theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999.
Singer, Dorothy. A Piaget primer: How a child thinks. New York: Plume, 1996.
Middle ange Nursing Theorist: ozzano Locsin
Dr. ozzano Locsin attained a PhD in nursing at the University of the Philippines in 1988. He is currently a tenured Professor of Nursing at Florida Atlantic University. Locsin has extensive experience in nursing research in a variety of nations: "Through the Fulbright Scholar Award, he developed the first Masters program in Nursing in Uganda while researching the phenomenon 'waiting-to-know' and the lived experiences of persons exposed to patients who died of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever" (ozzano Locsin, 2011, Pro-Libraries). His current research interests focus on themes of technology and caring in nursing and "life transitions in human health" (ozzano Locsin, 2011, Pro-Libraries). Locsin calls his mid-range theory the "technological competency as caring model."
Theory development: How the theorist came about to develop his/her theory
Locsin's theory arose because of the frustrations he perceived in nurses when they were coping…
Locsin, Rozzano C. (2005). Technological competency as caring in nursing.
Sigma Theta Tau International
Parker, Marilyn E & Marlaine C. Smith. (2010). Nursing theories & Nursing practice.
F.A. Davis Company.
Theory guides practice. This is true of many things, but is especially true of nursing. While many processes, actions, and rules are involved in becoming a great nurse, understanding and applying theory must be the most important aspect. Nursing theory allows for one to examine concepts and then attempt practical application of these concepts when theories are tested. Evidence-based practice for example, is the wonderful lovechild of theory and application in that when theories are constructed, they are then tested, and if they work, are applied to standard practice via modification. This essay aims to provide a deeper synthesis of nursing theory by examining two important nursing theories: Orem's Self-care Theory and Watsons Nursing Theory. Additionally, one will see how nursing theory has evolved since its beginnings.
Background on Nursing Theory
Many say nursing is as old as humankind. If there was someone sick, there was someone willing to…
nursing is both a discipline and a profession
All of these affect fundamental nursing values such as emotional support for patients and the importance of touch.
Imogene King's conceptual model includes three types of dynamic, interacting systems: personal systems (represented by individuals), interpersonal systems (represented by such dyadic interactions as nurse-patient dialogue), and social systems (represented by larger institutions such as hospitals and families). (Imogene King, J.P. Riehl-Sisca, 1989) further example of theory developing into concept and ultimately into model and practice is Katharine Kolcaba's Theory of Comfort. Holistic comfort is defined as the immediate experience of being strengthened through having the needs for relief, ease, and transcendence met in four contexts of experience (physical, psycho spiritual, social, and environmental) (Kolcaba, 1994)
The Concept of Philosophy in Nursing
Despite over a century of philosophical thinking in nursing, philosophical inquiry has yet to be positioned as contributing substantially to the field…
Austgard, K. (2008). What characterises nursing care? A hermeneutical philosophical inquiry.
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 314-319.
Barbara Pesut, Joy Johnson. (2008). Understanding Philosophical Inquiry in Nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 115-121.
Dr Sharon L. Van Sell, Ioannis a Kalofissudis. (2002). A Complexity Nursing Theory.
"From an historical standpoint, her concept of nursing enhanced nursing science this has been particularly important in the area of nursing education." ("Virginia Henderson's Need...," 2008) Principles of Henderson's theory, published in numerous primary nursing textbooks utilized from the 1930s through the 1960s, along with principles embodied by the 14 activities continue to prove vital in evaluating nursing care in thee21st century, not only in cases such as Keri's, but in a myriad of others benefiting from nursing.
Kearney, Kathleen M., the Nurse's Duty to eport Child Abuse vs. The Attorney's Duty of Confidentiality: The Nurse Attorney's Dilemma Journal of Nursing Law. Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.; January 25, 2007. etrieved September 25, 2007, at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1256366.
esuggan, ay N;PN;MN. (Last Modified: August 17, 2008). "Virginia Avernal Henderson." Nurses.info. etrieved September 25, 2007, from: http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_person_henderson_virginia_.htm.
Singleton, Joanne K. "Nurses' perspectives of encouraging clients' care-of-self in a short-term rehabilitation unit within…
Kearney, Kathleen M., the Nurse's Duty to Report Child Abuse vs. The Attorney's Duty of Confidentiality: The Nurse Attorney's Dilemma Journal of Nursing Law. Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.; January 25, 2007. Retrieved September 25, 2007, at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1256366 .
Resuggan, Ray RN;RPN;MRN. (Last Modified: August 17, 2008). "Virginia Avernal Henderson." Nurses.info. Retrieved September 25, 2007, from: http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_person_henderson_virginia_.htm.
Singleton, Joanne K. "Nurses' perspectives of encouraging clients' care-of-self in a short-term rehabilitation unit within a long-term care facility," Rehabilitation Nursing, January 1, 2000. Retrieved September 25, 2007, from: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P348282208.html .
Trail Ross, Mary Ellen. (1993). "Linking Ethical Principles With Community Practice." Journal of Community Health Nursing, Vol. 10. Retrieved September 25, 2007, at http://www.questia.com/read/95780716?title=Linking%20Ethical%20Principles%20W%20Community%20Practice .
Timeline: Historical Development of Nursing Science
Nurse Science Timeline
Timeline 1850-2010: Historical Development of Nursing Science
Florence Nightingale begins her nursing training in Alexandria, Egypt at the Institute of St. Paul.
Florence Nightingale, in Paris, visits the Daughters of Charity in their Motherhouse in Paris to learn their methods.
Florence Nightingale goes to Turkey with 38 volunteer nurses to assist in caring for the injured of the Crimean War. (October21)
Mary Seacole leaves London to establish a "British Hotel" at Balaklava in the Crimea. (January 31)
Biddy Mason is granted her freedom and moves to Los Angeles. She works as a nurse and midwife and becomes a successful businesswoman.
1857 -- Ellen anyard creates the first group of paid social workers in England and pioneers the first district nursing program in London.
1860 -- Florence Nightingale, Notes on Nursing: What it is and What it is Not…
"History and famous nursing theories." (2011). NursingAvenue.com Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.nursingavenue.com/Nursing-Theories.html
Kendall, C. (2010, Apri 15). The history of nursing. Helium Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.helium.com/items/1805546-nursing-history-theory-and-timeline
"Notable nurse timeline." (2011). timetoast Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/8652
"Nursing theory development bullets." (2011). Scribd, inc Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/14083218/Nursing-Theory-Development-bullets
It is important to understand nursing theory for a couple of reasons. The first is that nursing theory forms the basis for how the nursing role has evolved in health care today. There is a saying that in order to understand where one is going, it is necessary to understand where one has been. For this reason alone, it is important to understand how nursing theory has evolved over time, and how nurses today see their roles, and how those roles fit within the greater context of the health care system. If we look at seminal works like Jacox (1974) we can get a pretty good picture of how nursing was viewed up until the modern age, but then we need to see how the profession has evolved in the information age as well. The sorts of philosophical debates about what nursing is and what it should be form the…
Interdisciplinary Theory Evaluation
Middle range and interdisciplinary theories can significantly inform clinical practice. This is particularly true for Alberta Bendura's self-efficacy theory and Sister Callista oy's adaptation model. This paper evaluates the applicability of the two models in breast cancer care. First, a description of breast cancer is provided. Next, the two theories are summarized. Attention is then paid to critical evaluation of the two theories. Finally, the most appropriate theory for breast cancer care is highlighted.
Description of Practice Problem
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and top cause of cancer death in women across the globe (Jemal, 2011). Statistics indicate that breast cancer accounts for approximately a quarter of all cancers in women, with majority of the victims falling in the 40-49 years age group (Mousavi et al., 2007). Lifestyle factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and unhealthy eating have been found to be the…
Bandura A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191-215.
Jemal A., Bray, F., Center, M., Ferlay, J., Ward, D., & Forman, D. (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 61(2), 69-90.
Jeng, C., & Braun, L. (1994). Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 12(4), 425-436.
Kardong-Edgren, S. (2013). Bandura's self-efficacy theory. .. something is missing. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(9), e327-e328.
Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…
(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).
Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).
The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to
Ferbrache, C. P. (2009). Virtual team leader emergence: A model to objectively measure leader emergence (Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Fresno).
This dissertation focuses on leader emergence in virtual teams. The author discusses the formal and informal processes of virtual team leadership development, aiming for the emergence of an objective model or means of creating reliable, effective virtual teams. Ultimately, this research addresses a gap in the literature related to leadership within the virtual team setting. Due to the unique characteristics and processes defining virtual teams, the same leadership theories and models that work for face-to-face teams may not be applicable to the virtual team. Although preliminary, this research is also instrumental in that the author provides a quantitative method to predict leader emergence, thereby improving the capacity of virtual teams to flourish. One of the main findings is that in virtual teams, leaders emerge through organic processes, linked possibly…
Supply Chain Management - Logistics
The transitioning of the Defense Transportation System toward complementing best practices in supply chain management efficiently and securely.
"Best practices in military logistics aren't about warehouse management systems, or load optimization processes," according to Roger Kallock, a private sector executive who was named the U.S. government's Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Logistics (Trunick, 2010). In fact military logisticians know how to accomplish strategic goals on time and under urgent conditions. Military logistics staff also follow the same five R's of supply chain management (right product to the right place at the right time, right price and the right cost) as private sector logistics people. However a slip-up (failure) in the military supply chain could cost lives, not just time and money. Hence, military logisticians often think outside the box with more creativity than their private sector counterparts, Trunick explains.
According to a RAND National Defense…
Burnson, P. (2011). Ports first, politics second. Logistics Management. Retrieved April 8, 2016, from http://www.logisticmgmt.com .
Karatas-Cetin, C., and Denktas-Sakar, G. (2013). Logistics Research beyond 2000: Theory,
Method and Relevance. The Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics, 29(2), 125-144.
Peltz, E., Robbins, M., and McGovern, G. (2012). Integrating the Department of Defense
c. Other theorists (Modern Attachment Theories)
Upon the establishment and strengthening of Bowlby and Ainsworth's Attachment Theory, other theorists have developed new studies which either tested the theory or sought to apply it in different contexts or scenarios. Inevitably, most scenarios and contexts that new theorists and psychology researchers took is the path to explaining grief and bereavement. Others, however, have centered on specific aspects of the theory and sought to expound and/or test it, as Ainsworth did when Bowlby was still in the process of strengthening his attachment theory.
One such study was conducted by Schore and Schore (2008), which explored the emotion regulation aspect of the theory. In their study, the authors realized the potential of attachment theory in developing a "therapeutic intervention" from which coping on the loss of the attachment figure would be a healthier process for the individual. The authors shifted from the issue of…
Ainsworth, M. (1984). "Attachment across the life span." Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine.
Ainsworth, M. And J. Bowlby. (1991). "An ethological approach to personality development." American Psychologist, Vol. 46, No. 4.
Bartholomew, K. And L. Horowitz. (1991). "Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 61, No. 2.
Bartholomew, K. And P. Shaver. (1998). In Attachment theory and close relationships. J. Simpson and W. Rholes (Eds.). NY: Guilford Press.
Lee (2003) says that insecure attachments have been linked to psychiatric disorders to which the children are exposed to after the loss of the attachment figure. These children will form inability to form secure attachments, react with hostility and rejection to their environment according to Pickover, (2002). This is a phenomenon found among many immigrant children, especially who had the attachment figure back in their country of origin and yet they remained there. They tend to have a problem re-attaching themselves to any other person, hence may grow up to be violent and develop criminal trends Pickover, (2002).
Shortfalls of the attachment theory
The idea that the parents shape the personality and character is misplaced and instead it is the peers who influence character and behavior of the child. According to Harris (1998:Pp2) "parents do not shape their child's personality or character. A child's peers have more influence…
Chris Fraley, (2010). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Harris, J.R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press. In Lee J., (2003). The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. Pp.2 http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/lee.html
Klaus, M.H., Kennell, J.H., & Klaus, P.H. (1995). Bonding. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Pickover, S. (2002). Breaking the cycle: A clinical example of disrupting an insecure attachment system. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24, 358-367.
What are the major concepts of Ainsworth's theory?
Ainsworth's attachment theory is rooted in Bowlby's research on the bonds that develop between parent and child. Building on Bowlby's research, Ainsworth conducted a groundbreaking experiment known as the Strange Situation. esults of the Strange Situation experiment revealed three different categories of attachment styles. Ainsworth found secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment (Cherry, n.d.). Moreover, four categories of attachment style behaviors were observed. These four categories include separation anxiety, which refers to the emotional reaction to the caregiver leaving. The infant's willingness to explore in the caregiver's absence is another feature of attachment. Stranger anxiety refers to how the infant responds to strangers when the primary caregiver is absent. Finally, Ainsworth studied reunion behavior, which was how the child reacted to the return of the caregiver. Using these four parameters of attachment-related behaviors, Ainsworth developed the three primary attachment styles:…
Benoit, D. (2004). Infant-parent attachment. Pediatric Child Health 9(8): 541-545.
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Attachment theory. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Fraley, R.C. (n.d.). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved online: http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Main, M. & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Affective Development in Infancy. 95(124).
Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?
Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.
But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…
Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.
Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.
Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.
Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)
Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of rennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to…
Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1
Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.
Levine, Robert a. (2002) Attachment Research as an Ideological Movement: Preliminary Statement. Revised from presentation at the ISSBD, 2002, Ottawa. Harvard University.
Blizard, Ruth a. (1997) the origins of Disassociate Identity Disorder from an Object Relations and Attachment Theory Perspective. Journal of Dissociation. Vol. X No. 4, December, 1997.
203). Others who lose a loved one they had cherished for many years may have a disposition "towards compulsive caregiving" (Bowlby, p. 206). The welfare of others is of prime concern for these individuals; instead of experiencing "sadness and welcoming support for themselves" after the death of a loved one or family member that has been loved for many years, these individuals "proclaim that it is someone else who is in distress and in need of the care which then insist on bestowing."
This compulsive caregiving often manifests itself with the selection of a handicapped person to become that person's caregiver. Imagine the daughter who since adolescence has idolized her father, and never left the home but rather attended college nearby to her parents' home. She never made a lot of close friends and preferred to be home with her dad especially. So when he died, according to Bowlby's compulsive…
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume I / Attachment. New York: Basic
Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume II / Separation / Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John. (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume III / Loss / Sadness and Depression. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
theory: Its usefulness in the workplace today
Attachment theory has its origins in the study of animals. Watching geese 'imprint' upon the first living being they encounter after hatching or researchers observing how baby monkeys thrive when given terry cloth mothers, as opposed to wire mothers, are all examples of attachment theory in action. Attachment theory reinforces the psychodynamic notion that early experiences are seminal and seismic in shaping the human psyche and the way human beings relate to one another. As applied to humans, attachment theory suggests that parents who respond in a positive way to their infant's needs formulate the character of the child in such a way to enable him or her to feel secure in his or her relationships. In contrast, parents who create bonds of insecure attachment by being smothering or rejecting will foster behavioral patterns in their children that are negative, rather than positive.…
Attachment theory. (2002). Great ideas in personality research. Retrieved from:
Hinde, Robert A. (1976). On describing relationships. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 17, 1-19. Retrieved from:
While there are clearly circumstances where the civil society sector is at odds with the state, there are at least as many where the relationship is one of interdependence and mutual support…. The state has thus emerged in the modern era not as a displacer of nonprofit activity but as perhaps the major philanthropist… (Salamon & Anheier 1997, p. 63-64).
Calprig is an independent statewide student organization that works on issues such as environmental protection, consumer protection, hunger and homelessness. In essence, members of Calprig desire to build a better society through a plethora of volunteer activities. The group also provides students with the opportunity to practice their effective citizenship both on and off campus. This semester, the organization focused primarily on six campaigns: The Ocean and Plastic Ban is a short-term goal to ban plastic bags in Los Angeles California; Big Agriculture, although not a lot planned for…
Addams, Jane. Democracy and social ethics. United States, 1889.
Chung, L., & P. Gibbons. Corporate entrepreneurship: the roles of ideology and social capital. Group and Organization Management 22 (1997): 10-30.
Coleman, James. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (1988): 95-120.
-. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Theory of Group Development
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the group development theories or models that are used in today's societies and institutions. The validity of making and developing groups is geared towards equitable management of the available group and behavior of people within an institution or place of work. According to Cognitive Behavior Therapy, group development is a lucrative endeavor that has to be worked on in every institution. Group behavior development refers to the concept of relaying equitable avenues of growth and development within a unified sector of human and material togetherness. There is no doubt that all human beings exist in a form or the form of groups in society. The existence and services of these groups is detrimental to the general performance and productivity of the people.
Group working and development surpasses individual performances in many regards. This is the…
Agazarian, Y. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. London: Karnac.
Agazarian, Y., & Peters, R. (1995). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Two perspectives on group psychotherapy and group process. London: Karnac Books.
Arrow, H., Berdahl, J.L., & McGrath, J.E. (2000). Small groups as complex systems:
Formation, coordination, development and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Significance of cultural diversity
Theories permit us to determine the world around us coherently and also to act in the world with a reasonable approach. Numerous theories have developed throughout the previous century in western countries that make an effort to clarify how human character evolves, why all of us behave the way we do, what external circumstances encourage us to behave in particular ways, and the way these elements have been connected. A few of these concepts structure their arguments on essential physical as well as social-emotional situations within our very first years of existence; some around the impact involving external influences of our own family members, neighbourhood, as well as culture; a few on the unique learning and also thought procedures; a few on triumphant finalization of precise developmental "activities" at each and every phase throughout lifespan; plus some on the way a healthy-or perhaps unhealthy-sense…
Crandell, T., Crandell, C. And Zanden, J.V. (2011). Human Development. Chapter 2, 10th Ed. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, p. 1-768 .
Daniels, H., Cole, M., & Wertsch, J.V. (Eds.). (2007). The Cambridge companion to Vygotsky. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Eisenstadt, S.N. (1986). The axial age breakthroughs. In S.N. Eisenstadt (ed.), The origins and diversity of axial age civilizations. New York: State University of New York Press, pp. 1 -- 28.
Huntington, S.P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of the world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Piagetian, Ericksonian, And Freudian Stages of Development
Human beings progress gradually from childhood to adulthood, going through stages that are distinct, continuous, and improving. Developmental psychologists like Freud, Piaget, and Erickson came up with different theories concerning the stages that people often undergo as they grow from childhood. This study discusses the similarities and the differences between the three theories with examples of the stages mentioned by each given. The contrast and comparison will make people appreciate the importance of the three theories of human development
Erickson's theory had the highest number of stages of development compared to the other two. His theory covered eight main stages from birth to death of an individual. According to Erickson, the successful completion of a stage marked a good beginning of the next stage. Failure to fully exhibit and live a stage exhaustively will recur in the future through habits that will…
Psychology in Group Work
There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).
The learning theory of Bandura
The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one…
Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:
Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
For me personally, however, the empathy that I develop is directed by my spirituality and inclination to see beyond what is obvious. This combination has been most beneficial for me as a social worker (obbins, Chatterjee and Canda, 2006; Lesser and Pope, 2007).
Furthermore, the level of loyalty and dedication that I bring to my work is something I am very proud of. As I mentioned earlier, loyalty and dedication are some of the important traits that I look for in my friends and the main reason for this is the fact that these are the traits that I personally vibe-out as well. I feel that as a social worker, perhaps the most important aspect that an individual can bring to work is dedication; as part of this world, u have to truly have a passion for it to be able to withstand the constant setbacks, financial instability and lack…
Correll, D. (2005). News and Views…from ICSW. International Social Work. 48:5, 688-691.
Hofer B.K. And Pintrich, P.R. (1997). The Development of Epistemological Theories: Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing and Their Relation to Learning. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 67, No. 1, 88-140.
Long, D.D. And Holle, M.C. (2007) Macro Systems in the Social Environment (2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Thompson, Brooks/Cole.
Lesser, J.C. And Pope, D.S. (2007). Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Theory and practice. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of…
Over the years, there have been discussions surrounding the issue of intelligence and how it can be measured as well as what parameters determined who is more intelligent than the other. Controversy has surrounded the definition and measurement of intelligence and many scholars have opined that the controversy is mainly based on the fact that historically intelligence has been defined on the grounds of how much one knows rather than how well one processes (Fagan J.F., 2000:Pp1). IQ has been defined in perspective of how much an individual knows in relation to the age mates. This has been faulted several times and hence this paper will highlight some of the theories that have been historically used to define intelligence, the biases in the testing of intelligence and the controversies that have surrounded the entire aspect of intelligence.
On of the major theorists in intelligence is Galton, indeed, he is…
Golstein H., (2012). Francis Galton, measurement, psychometrics and social progress. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.bristol.ac.uk/cmm/team/hg/full-publications/2012/Galton.pdf
Fagan J.F., (2000). A Theory of Intelligence as Processing: Implication for Society. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~rakison/fagan.pdf
Kane H. & Brand C., (2003). The Importance of Spearman's g as a Psychometric, Social, and Educational Construct. The Occidental Quarterly. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from https://www.toqonline.com/archives/v3n1/TOQv3n1Kane-Brand.pdf
McGraw Kevin, (2009). Evolution of CHC Theory of Intelligence and Assessment. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.ibapnet.org.br/congresso2009/material/chctimeline2.pdf
Theory vs. Practice
When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within…
Social Control Theory of Juvenile Delinquency
Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory of deviance assumes that deviant behavior is largely a function of the connectedness of the individual to his or her society; more specifically, Hirschi's assumptions are that juvenile delinquency, and criminal deviance more generally, are inversely related to the following elements of connectedness between the individual and the community: involvement, commitment, attachment, and belief (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).
Structure of Theory
Hirschi used the concept of involvement to describe the manner and extent to which the individuals takes part in the so-called "conventional" activities, such as extracurricular school functions and other organized opportunities for socially productive youth recreation available in the community (Macionis, 2008). Hirschi used the concept of commitment, to describe the basic "acceptance" in the most general senses, of fundamental social and behavioral norms, values, and expectations in the individual's community…
Akers, R.L., and Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,
Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Button, D.M. "Social Disadvantage and Family Violence: Neighborhood Effects on Attitudes about Intimate Partner Violence and Corporal Punishment." American
Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 33 (2008):130 -- 147.
Psychosocial Development Theory
In the history of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was the first to delve into the unknown recesses of the human mind to identify reasons for neuroses. As such, he identified infantile sexuality to lie at the heart of most problems in the relationship with the self and others and used the three-dimensional model of the id, the ego, and superego to describe the various ways in which these neuroses manifested themselves. Today, many theorists use Freud's theories to build their own derivative theories. Even though many today reject some or most of the early philosopher's ideas, it is thanks to him that these theories have a reason for existence in themselves. Today, the theory known as psychosocial development bases many of its concepts on the early ideas conceptualized by Freud. As such, theorists like Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney have developed their own concepts of what…
Adler Graduate School. (2014). Alfred Adler: Theory and Application. Retrieved from: http://www.alfredadler.edu/about/theory
Beyers, W. And Seiffge-Krenke, I. (2010). Does Identity Precede Intimacy? Testing Erikson's Theory on Romantic Development in Emerging Adults of the 21st Century. Journal of Adolescent Research. 20(10). Retrieved from: https://biblio.ugent.be/input/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=941691&fileOId=967467
Davis, D. And Clifton, A. (n.d.) Psychosocial Theory: Erikson. Retrieved from: http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
Goodman, S.H., Connell, A.M., and Hall, C.M. (2011). Maternal Depression and Child Psychopathology: A Meta-Analytic Review. Clinical Child Family Psychological Review. 14. Retrieved from: http://psych.colorado.edu/~willcutt/pdfs/Goodman_2011.pdf
Participatory Approaches to Development Communication
It was confirmed by Everett ogers in 1976 that the dominating paradigm towards development of communication had passed. He negated all those theories, which have been prevalent in field of communication ever since the 10950s. These theories have been diffusion-ism, and it was replaced by the new participatory approach. It was a very important and significant declaration, especially when it came from ogers, who was a seminal personality in the field of diffusion study. Not only did this new theory point out the shortcomings of the existing belief, it has highlighted and brought forth the advantages of theories related to participation of community, and that of socio-economic structures towards analysis of communication process.
It is very important to study and highlight the findings of ogers almost thirty years after their being discovered, due to their validity till date and the substantial academic application. It is…
Edwards, M. (1999). International development NGOs: Agents of foreign aid or vehicles for international cooperation? Nonpro't and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 28(1), 25A37.
Ellerman, D. (2006). Helping people help themselves: From the World Bank to an alternative philosophy of development assistance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Gumucio-Dagron, A. And T. Tufte (2006), eds., Communication for Social Change Anthology: Historical and Contemporary Readings. New Jersey: Communication for Social Change Consortium.
Gumucio-Dragon, A. (2006). Knowledge, communication, development: A perspective from Latin America. Development in Practice, 16(6). Retrieved 20 April 2008 from http://www.development inpractice.org/apc_ae-v16n6x542370.html
Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory
Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…
Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. ISBN-13: 9781621785682
Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
Gonzalez-Prendes, A. & Resko, S. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory.
As the sessions proceeded, the therapist debriefed the client with the aim of de-escalating her psychologically. This enabled the client to explore and express a feeling of guilt and perception that she had failed to give her best to maintain her job. During the debriefing process, it was evident that the client believed that she was responsible for her job loss. She had been experiencing notable difficulties maintaining concentration and sleeping. Ultimately, this led to significant distress in social function.
After a week, the client reported to the therapist that she felt that she was not alone in the first time. As a result, she reported that she no longer needed the sedative medication, but remained compliant to the prescribed medication. After a while, the client related her belief in her ability to apply for new job opportunities. It is evident that the client's experience achieved the diagnostic criteria for…
Hillman, J.L. (2012). Crisis intervention and trauma counseling: New approaches to evidence-based practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Wainrib, B.R., & Bloch, E.L. (2008). Crisis intervention and trauma response: Theory and practice. New York: Springer.
Ziegler, S.M. (2010). Theory-directed nursing practice. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
For the 21st century, I feel that the Theory of Community Empowerment is a model that will work well. When we consider the challenges of health care in the 21st century, we realize that technology advancements and new drugs are doing a lot of the technical work on physical healing, but these are the sorts of remedies that come about only after someone gets sick. Ultimately, medical procedures and drugs are not a pathway to sustainable health. As I understand the Theory of Community Empowerment, one of the most important roles of the nurse is to work with people, connect with them, and then help them to help themselves. We, as a community, are responsible for our own health, for making the right choices that can help us avoid having health problems in the first place.
This theory has been expounded upon at length in nursing literature. To…
Fawcett, S., Paine-Andrews, A., Francisco, V., Schultz, J., Richter, K., Williams, E., Lewis, R., Harris, K., Berkley, J., Fisher, J., Lopez, C. (1995). Using empowerment theory in collaborative partnerships for community health and development. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 23 (5) 677-697.
Persily, C. & Hildebrandt, E. (2008). Theory of Community Empowerment, excerpt from Middle Range Nursing Theories. Springer.
Rappaport, J. (1987). Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory of community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 15 (2) 121-148.
Origin of Eukaryotes
Theory of Endosymbiosis
The evolution of eukaryotes has no fossil record. However, from the study of modern organisms, biologists deduced their theory that eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes through the endosymbiosis process. The state of one species living inside another species, known as the host, is called endosymbiosis.
Eukaryotes evolved from the Archaea domain of prokaryotes, whereby prokaryotic cell have engulfed aerobic bacteria instead of engulfing other prokaryotes. Membrane infolding is the first process that occurs in the development of eukaryotic cell. Around the nucleus, nuclear envelope is formed due to the inward folding of the plasma membrane. Later, attached to the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum is produced. The development process of mitochondria and chloroplasts completes the formation of eukaryotic cell.
Some of the researched evidences of biologists on the evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes are as follows. (Origin of Eukaryotes. (http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/acteria/symbiosis.html)
oth use RNA and DNA are…
Origin of Eukaryotes.
2003. George Washington University. 23 April 2003. http://www.gwu.edu/~darwin/BiSc151/Eukaryotes/Eukaryotes.html
Endosymbiosis in Evolution.
2000. Sidwell Friends School. 23 April 2003. http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Bacteria/symbiosis.html
overriding aim of globalization is to eliminate physical boundaries, uniting all the countries of the world into one massive village. So far, globalization has had both positive and negative influences, and has literally split the world into three -- the portion that is already reaping the benefits of globalization and is characterized by high standards of living and stable governments (the Core); that which is yet to reap any benefits and is still grappling with political repression and widespread disease (the Gap); and that which exhibits features of both the Core and the Gap (the Seam)[footnoteRef:1]. Most Americans tend to think that the problems the Core faces are a result of its association with the Gap; and hence, believe that cutting links would be the solution to the issues of drugs and terrorism. This, however, is not a valid argument because as long as the Gap is not enjoying the…
ADP 3-0, "Unified Land Operations," Department of the Army, http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014).
Barnett, Thomas, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War," Pentagon News Map, http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm. (Accessed 23 July, 2014).
Joint Publication 3-0, "Joint Operations," Department of the Navy and Department of the Army, http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014),
Prados, John and Ames, Christopher (Eds.), "The Iraq War -- Part II: Was There Even a Decision?" The George Washington University, http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB328 / (accessed 23 July, 2014
When most people think of the helicopter, they will often talk about commercial and military aircraft. As there is an emphasis on how the latest technology is changing the industry. A good example of this occurred, in May 2011 when the U.S. Navy Seals used a special rotor that could not be heard in surrounding area or seen on radar. This is illustrating the advancements in the helicopter technology over the last few years. To fully understand what is happening requires carefully examining its development. Once this takes place, is when the recent innovations will highlight a trend that has been occurring since the aircraft was first placed into active use during the Second World War. (Emspak, 2011) (Patillo, 2001, pp. 142 -- 148)
Early History of the Helicopter
The early history of the helicopter dates back to around 400 BC. This is when the Chinese theorized that some…
A History of Helicopter Flight. (2010). University of Maryland. Retrieved from:
Pioneers. (2012). Helis. Retrieved from: http://www.helis.com/pioneers/1900.php
Soviet and Russian Helicopter. (2012). U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. Retrieved from:
S. involvement in World War II.
Is it possible to have a general theory of war?
Perhaps the most well-known "theory" of war is articulated in Matthew 24:6: "You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. . . . Such things must happen" (New International Version 1984). Therefore, although it is possible to have a general theory of war, any such theory will be limited in its ability to explain the why's and how's of its occurrence. According to Gray (1999), in his seminal text, on War, Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz, set forth a modern general theory of war, but Sun Tzu's Art of War also addressed this issue. Clausewitz, though, is cited time and again in the relevant literature as having propounded a general theory of war. For instance, eid (2004) reports that, "In particular, he seeks to explain the methods to establish a general theory of…
Clausewitz, C.V. (1976) on War. Princeton, NJ.
Gray, C.S. (1999) Modern Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
-. The 21st Century Security Environment and the Future of War. Parameters, 38(4): 14-9.
Lichbach, M.I. (1989) "An evaluation of 'does economic inequality breed political conflict?'
Culture Care Universality and Diversity
Leininger conceptualized the theory of care was developed in the 1950s and provided a way to bridge a culture and nursing care. "Leininger theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality" (Garmon 2011 p 1) is derived from the understanding the fields of culture and anthropology and is credited for her contribution to the nursing theory by establishing the transcultural concept in the nursing care. Typically, culture care is a holistic method of understanding, interpreting, explaining, and predicting care for the nursing practice. According to Leininger, culturally congruent care had been missing in the nursing practice and knowledge. Thus, a creative process of reformulation and integration of cultural practice is very critical for the development of nursing practice and knowledge. Leininger holds that a cultural care provides the most important and broadest means to explain, study and predict the nursing care practice. To discover patterns, and…
Department of Commerce (2010). U.S. Census 2010. U.S. Department of Commerce.
Fitzpatrick, J.J & Kazer, M. (2011). Encyclopedia of Nursing Research, Third Edition. Springer Publishing Company.
Garmon B. S. (2011). Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. In J. Fitzpatrick, Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Leininger, M. (1988). Leininger's Theory of Nursing: Cultural Care Diversity and Universality. Nurs Sci Q.1 (4): 152-160
International relations theory refers to the study of the theoretical perspective of international relations. It provides a framework which is conceptual upon which analysis of international relations is done. International relations theories can also act like pairs of colored sunglasses which only allows the person wearing it to see what’s relevant to the theory. There are three most prominent theories available - constructivism, liberalism and realism. International relations theories are divided into rationalist and reflectivist theories. Rationalist theories are those that focus on analysis that is principally of state level. Reflectivist theories incorporate the meanings of security in an expanded manner from post-colonial security, gender to class.
International relations theories have a big role in helping policy-makers produce solutions that are effective instead of being regarded as being too abstract. In policy organizations that are foreign, people are not selected by their theories’ quality but by their quality of…
What is the Theory of Constraints?
There has been a continuous development of management from the time it was realized that it can be studied carefully to form a branch of knowledge and the individuals who had studied it generally performed better as managers than others who never spent time on the matter. The Theory of Constraints or TOC is basically a philosophy of management and improvement. The first person to draw the attention of the world to this was Eliyahu M. Goldratt and he brought it to the notice of others through his famous book, The Goal. The guiding principle behind this theory is that in any organization there exists a weak link, and this acts somewhat like a chain with a weak link. This tops the organization from performing even better than it is performing at any period of time. In short, it is important to remove…
Chaleff, Ira. (October, 1995) "Process Improvement for Knowledge Workers" AFSM International. Vol: 20; No: 3. Retrieved from http://www.ibt-pep.com/default.asp?ObjectID=257 Accessed on 29 May, 2005
'Constraint Management & Supplier Relations" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/supp1.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
"Constraint Management & the Market" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/mktg1.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
'Critical Chain & Project Management the TOC Way" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/projects.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
The McDonald's Menu and Charles erger's Uncertainty Reduction Theory
In the field of communication, extant theories and models aim to provide explanations about the nature and dynamics of relating and interacting with other people. These theoretical frameworks also delve into various kinds of communication, such as verbal or non-verbal and intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, and organizational. One of the most important aspects among these kinds of communication concern theories about interpersonal relationships, which serve as the common ground wherein further studies on communication among people from one-on-one, group, and/or organizational.
Among these interpersonal theories, Charles erger's uncertainty reduction theory figures as one of the most descriptive and analytical theory in studying communication at the most basic level. The uncertainty reduction theory describes the 'self-monitoring' behavior of communicators when initially establishing a relationship or interacting with another communicator or an agent of communication. The theory involves two important concepts: the objective…
Littlejohn, S. (1999). Theories of Human Communication. CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
Official web site of McDonald's-India: http://www.mcdonaldsindia.com/ourfood/veg/ .
Official web site of McDonald's-Canada: http://www.mcdonalds.ca/en/food/lighter.aspx
Official web site of McDonald's-Philippines: http://www.8mcdo.com/whatsnew.asp .
Humanistic psychology has made a tremendous impact on the overall field of psychology and the social sciences in general. Since Rogers first introduced the concepts of unconditional positive regard, the ideals of professional competence in psychotherapy have changed towards client-centered perspectives and practices (McArthur & Cooper, 2017). However, humanistic psychology often eschews quantitative research methods, diverges considerably from the views in cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, and has been occasionally perceived or portrayed of as too soft to be relevant to the social sciences (Wong, 2017). More recently, humanistic psychologists have gained ground in acquiring greater credibility for the contributions of their paradigm. In particular, humanistic psychology has a greater potential to offer multimodal interventions than other approaches to psychology, For example, psychological wellness is conceived of in a broad-minded manner encompassing multiple domains of life including the interpersonal, community, occupational, psychological, physical, and economic (Duff, Rubenstein &…
Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists' Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics" by William Easterly. In it he talks at great length about the various methods used by global banking institutions to promote growth in poor and developing countries. He describes several panaceas, or approaches, which have been used over the years by these financial institutions, such as the World Bank and the IMF. In most of the cases, there is a spotlight shone upon the shortcomings of each of the approaches.
Throughout his book, Easterly uses the expression "people respond to incentives."
The primary problem facing poor countries is the policies of institutions that should be helping them. Throughout Easterly's book he gives multitudes of examples in which the facts do not support the methods of aid that are currently being used. Some of the methods are even based on outdated or false economic theories.
One prime example is Domar's…
Shaping of Virtues in a Child
There have been many debates on the behavioral patterns of children and how they will grow up. Indeed, some scholars like Aristotle have indicated that virtues are innate and each child is born with his own set of virtues. The question that hence lingers in many minds is then how should one bring up a child if these virtues are innate?
The answer to this challenge is not a straight jacket answer that fits all but in this paper there will be attempt to try and explain how both nature and nurture marries to develop the real, not ideal, person that lives in the contemporary society. Many arguments abound on whether behavior is developed by nurture or endowed by nature, and the long running debate has come to a conclusion that behavior is shaped by both and these two play crucial roles in the…
Joseph, J. (2001). Is crime in the genes? A critical review of twin and adoption studies of criminality and antisocial behavior. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 22, 179-218. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/jones.html
Strategic Policy Brief, (2009). Theories of the Causes of Crime. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://www.justice.govt.nz/justice-sector/drivers-of-crime/publications-and-background-information/documents/spb-theories-on-the-causes-of-crime