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(World Bank, 2007) Modern approaches to plant cloning or tissue culture techniques have been utilized by various nurseries in Thailand and the U.S. To bring rare and new species of plants in the commercial market, sometimes even before the botanists can manage to give the species a name. (Ogden, 2007)
Tissue engineered products have a bright marketing potential since they provide better alternatives to other forms of treatments. Cartilage and skin products have already been clinically approved and are available commercially. The Department of Health and Human Services in the U.S. has estimated that the future worldwide market for products of tissue engineering will be around $500 billion by 2010. A report published by the National Security esearch Division of AND corporation in 2006 has emphasized that tissue engineering will have a positive effect on more than one-third of the issues concerning a country's development including social structure, individual health,…
Atala, Anthony. (2007) "Principles of Regenerative Medicine"
Bullis, Kevin. (2008, Jan/Feb) "Tiny Living Machines" Technology Review, Retrieved 1 May, 2008 at http://www.technologyreview.com/Nanotech/19874/
Friedman, Yali. (2007) "The Business of Biotechnology: Profit from the Expanding Influence of..." Logos Press.
Heart Valve Tissue Engineering enefits
Tissue engineering came about as early as the 1960s with advances in tissue culture technologies to propagate skin cells (Vesley, 2005). It has advanced to other areas of cells through the years, including heart valve tissue engineering. One in eight people aged 75 years and older suffer from a form of valve disease showing an increasing trend with age (Mol, 2005). For adults, the need arises mostly from an aging population. For children, the need arises from birth defects and other illnesses, such as rheumatic fever. The number of patients that will require heart valve replacement is expected to triple over the next five decades.
The main causes of cardiac valve dysfunction are calcification of leaflets, endocarditis, rheumatic fever, myxomatous degeneration or congenital malformations, leading to stenosis or insufficiency in the valve. Rheumatic fever has been the main cause of heart disease in children and…
Mendelson, K. & . (2006). Heart Valve Tissue Engineering: Concepts, Approaches, Progress, and Challenges. Ann Biomed Eng. 34(12).doi:10.1007/s10439-006-9163-z, 1799-1819 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1705506/ .
Mol, A.S. (2005). Tuissue engineering of heart valves: Advances and current challenges. Expert Rev. Med. Devices, 63(3), 259-275 Retrieved from http://www.mate.tue.nl/mate/pdfs/10563.pdf .
Schmidt, D. & . (2005). Tissue engineered heart valves based on human cells. Swill Med Weekly, 135, 618-623 Retrieved from http://smw.ch/docs/pdf200x/2006/39/smw-11400.PDF .
Vesley, I. (2005). Heart Valve Tissue Engineering. Circulation Research, 97.doi:10.1161/01.RES.0000185326.04010.9f, 743-755 Retrieved from http://circres.ahajounals.org/content/97/8/743.full.
Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).
Leades in Bitish Engineeing
Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…
references of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. This relates to the achievement of sustainable development thus improving living conditions of the citizens. Global warming is a problem affecting growth and development of the economy. This is through increasing the sea water level because of the high temperatures thus melting of ice caps. In order to minimize the effects of global warming, it is ideal to focus on the transformation of the engineering systems in the United Kingdom (Nuvolari et al. 2009 p.700).
Possible predictions about the future of British engineering
In order to address challenges affecting the current and future populations, it is essential to train engineers with the ability to make intelligent decisions in relation to maximum protection and quality life on the planet than endangering forms of life. Engineers will have to make decisions with reference to professional environment in relation to interactions between technical and nontechnical disciplines. The modern system should focus on the preparation of the engineers to become valuable facilitators of sustainable development and implementers of appropriate technology. This aims at addressing social and economic challenges facing the current engineers because of the modern systems and mindset of engineers in the context of the United Kingdom. This is essential in becoming an effective and efficient body of engineers with the aim of providing leadership to the world engineering body (Burgess 1972 p.10).
Future development in relation to the engineering systems and subsystems in the United Kingdom should focus on adequate implementation of technology in addressing essential needs of the future population. Technological developments should also focus on the improvement of conditions such as sufficient water, protection of the environment, and adequate infrastructure. This is vital in the achievement of the millennium development goals and objectives as outlined by the United Nations under the influence of its General Assembly. Future engineering should focus in the achievement of sustainable development thus addressing current and future needs of the world's population. It is vital to note future engineering should integrate numerous aspects in addressing social, economic, and political effects on the planet.
1. What are the leading causes of death in the United States?
Accidents are considered to be the fourth leading cause of death after heart disease, cancer and strokes.
2. When the overall cost of an accident is calculated, what elements make up the cost?
The elements making up the cost of an accident are lost wages, insurance administration, medical expenses, motor vehicle damage, fire-related losses, and indirect costs.
3. What are the five leading causes of accidental deaths in the United States?
Motor vehicle, poison, falls, drowning, and fire-related accidents.
4. What are the leading causes of death in the United States of people between the ages of 25 and 44?
Motor vehicle, poison, falls, drowning, fire-related accidents, heart, and cancer disease.
5. Explain how today’s rate of accidental work deaths compares with the rate in the early 1900s.
Per a population of 100,000, accidental work deaths have reduced…
Prototyping is a great and exciting way to allow for faster manufacturing across numerous fields. Things like bioprinting allow for prototyping reaching new levels of science and technology. Prototyping has become an important aspect of things like tissue engineering. This means society can cross-new frontiers in the world of medicine and treatment thanks to prototyping. The one thing that surprised me the most about prototyping is the ability of organizations and people to use it in a variety of fields, especially in medicine like the aforementioned tissue engineering.
In article titled: "Printing and Prototyping of Tissues and Scaffolds" by Brian Derby, the author discusses the various ways in which prototyping opens new avenues for manufacturing. "New manufacturing technologies under the banner of rapid prototyping enable the fabrication of structures close in architecture to biological tissue. In their simplest form, these technologies allow the manufacture of scaffolds upon which cells can…
Derby, B. (2012). Printing and Prototyping of Tissues and Scaffolds. Science, 338(6109), 921-926. doi:10.1126/science.1226340
Advancement of nanotechnology has gained significant attention in the self -- assembling characteristic of a variety of molecules, which is a vital requirement for the growing bottom -- up design of nanoscale structures. hen these molecules go through molecular self -- congregation, the consequential structural elements, for instance nanotubes or vesicles, can be further transformed to give specific charactistics to the components. Like nanotubes can be covered with metals or partially -- conducting substances to fabricate nanowires.
Smart polymeric gels are classified on various structural properties. Superporous hydrogels (SPHs) are utilized to augment the responsiveness of hydrogels. In this case, the augmented responsiveness to stimuli is accomplished by manufacturing interconnected absorbent networks. Superporous hydrogels (SPHs) correspond to a rapid -- swelling group of hydrogels with pore dimensions much bigger than the usual network of a normal hydrogel. These were firstly created as modern gastric retention devices to augment the duration…
Annaka, Masahiko and Tanaka, Toyoichi, Multiple phases of polymer gels, Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, 2005, pp. 430-432
Darmawan, Adi; Smart, Simon; Julbe, Anne; Diniz da Costa, Joao Carlos, Iron Oxide Silica Derived from Sol-Gel Synthesis, Materials, ISSN, Volume 4, Issue 2, 2011, pp. 448-456
Heitfeld, Kevin a, Smart membranes: Hydroxypropyl cellulose for flavor delivery, ISBN 9780549027560, 2007, 15.
Hu, Jinlian, Adaptive and Functional Polymers, Textiles and Their Applications, ISBN 1848164750, 2011, p. 416
Healthcare -- Administration and Legal
Many vectors -- science, research funding, social acceptance or rejection -- influence how and whether medical technology is eventually adopted into medical praxis (Hogle, et al., 2012). Undergirding the choices and changes is a shared body of ethical standards and law, the establishment of which is often not consensual or efficacious. Any emerging technology can encounter unanticipated social resistance and ethical concerns that can change the course of how medical science research progresses (Hogle, et al., 2012). Medical technology often poses questions about access to expensive innovations and considerations about race, gender, and social justice that are inseparable from the socio-economic levels of patients (Hogle, et al., 2012). In contemporary society, there are the inevitable considerations about patent issues, clinical practice, and the commercialization of medical innovations (Hogle, et al., 2012). The recent court decision finding in favor of Myriad Genetics, Inc. provides a good…
Cho, M. (2010, November 1). Patently unpatentable: implications of the Myriad court decision on genetic diagnostics. Trends in Biotechnology, 28(11), 548-551. Retrieved http://www.cell.com/trends/biotechnology//retrieve / pii/S0167779910001411?_returnURL= http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167779910001411?showall=true
Hogle, L., Tobin, S., Gaba, D. And Yock, P. (2012). Web-Based Research Integrity Training for Biomedical Engineers and Medical Device Researchers (Public Health Service). Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford School of Medicine. Retreived http://bioethics.stanford.edu/research / programs/science_and_society.html
Morrison, E. (2011). Ethics in health administration: A practical approach for decision makers. (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Stempel, J., Steenhuysen, J., Wallace, J., Grebler, D. And Orr, B. (2012, August 16). Myriad wins gene patent ruling from U.S. appeals court. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved http://www.reuters.com/assets/
Stem Cell Differentiation
The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of…
Wang, J., Collins, J. et al., (2012). Functional analysis of transcription factor binding sites in human promoters. Genome Biology, doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-9-r50
Guillot PV, Cui W, Fisk NM, Polak DJ. (2007). Stem cell differentiation and expansion for clinical applications of tissue engineering. J Cell Mol Med. 11:935-944.
Gerrard L, Rodgers L, Cui W. (2005). Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Neural
Lineages in Adherent Culture by Blocking Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling. Stem Cells 23: 1234-1241.
"Given the rising prevalence of obesity with age in both childhood and adult life, the prevalence of adult obesity cannot be predicted from childhood data, but increasing childhood obesity heralds a greater health burden in adult life"(James & al 2001, p. 232S). Thus, the future focus is on child obesity and how it can be treated to bring well-being for the adult.
esearch for adipose cells is not at the beginning, but has become increasingly intensive in the last years. Obesity is rapidly spreading across the globe but all the scientific breakthroughs won't do magic in the presence of disinterest and neglect towards the human body, so the first step should come from each individual.
Albright, AL & Stern, JS 1998, "Adipose Tissue," Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science, vol. 15
Bosello, O & al. 1980,"Adipose tissue cellularity and weight reduction forecasting," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33,…
Albright, AL & Stern, JS 1998, "Adipose Tissue," Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science, vol. 15
Bosello, O & al. 1980,"Adipose tissue cellularity and weight reduction forecasting," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 776-782
Gomillion, CT & Burg, KJL 2006, "Stem cells and adipose tissue engineering," Biomaterials, no. 27, pp. 6052 -- 606
Greenberg, AS & Obin, MS 2006, "Obesity and the role of adipose tissue in inflammation and metabolism," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 461-465
How long this process takes and whether it will prevent the loss of seeded cells probably depends to a significant extent on the surrounding tissue and therefore represents another unknown.
HIF-1? And VEGF are also involved in osteogenesis, so the influence of these growth factors on the differentiation choices being made by the seeded stem cells is unknown (Polzer 7). The impact of prolonged hypoxic conditions on the seeded cells is another. Although Polzer and colleagues examined the timing of cell seeding relative to prevascularization, they discovered that the artificial scaffold rapidly filled with connective tissue. This process effectively clogged the matrix and prevented efficient seeding.
By comparison, researchers conducting spinal cord injury research into the efficacy of regenerative medicine techniques have been producing promising results (Sykova et al. 1113-1114). Hydrogels seeded with mesenchymal stem cells or bone marrow stem cells have produced positive results in both animal models and…
Park, Alice. "Cancer Patient Received a Man-Made Windpipe." Time.com, 12 Jan. 2012, Online. Internet. 1 Jul. 2013. Available http://healthland.time.com/2012/01/13/cancer-patient-receives-a-man-made-windpipe/ .
Polzer, Hans et al. "Comparison of Different Strategies for in Vivo Seeding of Prevascularized Scaffolds." Tissue Engineering: Part C, published online May 21 ahead of print. Online.
Sifferlin, Alexandra. "Toddler gets New Windpipe from Her Own Stem Cells." Time.com, 1 May 2013, Online. CNN.com. Internet. 1 Jul. 2013. Available http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/01/health/toddler-stem-cells-windpipe .
Sykova, Eva et al. "Bone Marrow Stem Cells and Polymer Hydrogels -- Two Strategies for Spinal Cord Injury Repair." Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 26.7-8 (2006): 1113-1129.
To elaborate, he used his 'transistor' to build logic circuits that program each cell's behavior. For instance, he was able to tell a cell to change color in the presence of both a specified two enzymes. Remarked Kleem (online): "Endy envisions plant-based environmental monitors, programmed tissues and even medical devices that "make Fantastic Voyage come true," (Kleem, 04.02.13).
In the first (grainy) image below, Endy's DNA "buffer gates" flash different colors according to their situation. In the image below that, we have a string of DNA -- we see the code of the a's, C's, T's and G's -- that has been programmed by synthetic biologist Eric Winfree of the California Institute of Technology --.
(Excerpted from Keim, B Computers Made Out of DNA, lime and Other trange tuff
Timothy Lu, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is taking this idea further by building cellular computers…
Brumfiel, G (March 29, 2013) Tiny DNA Switches Aim to Revolutionize 'Cellular' Computing. NPR. http://www.npr.org/2013/03/29/175604770/tiny-dna-switches-aim-to-revolutionize-cellular-computing
Lovgren, Stefan (2003-02-24). Computer Made from DNA and Enzymes. National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/02/0224_030224_DNAcomputer.html
Heaven D (02 April 2013) DNA transistors pave way for living computers Newscientishttp://www.newscientist.com/article/dn23337-dna-transistors-pave-way-for-living-computers.html
Strain D (June 2, 2011 ) Flexible DNA computer finds square roots Science News http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/330621/description/Flexible_DNA_computer_finds_square_roots_
165) and he argued for a change in consciousness to go along with the economic globalization. Arias argued that the current climate is not interdependent, but actually fiercely independent and insular and moreover dedicated to self-aggrandizement, not cooperation to spread economic justice around the globe. Other voices are also arguing this, again presupposing that globalization is no longer an issue, but a fact, but that the globalization that exists is one of independence, not interdependence. Two of those voices specifically argue the twin issues of social justice in global interdependence, and ethics.
Social justice as a measure of global interdependence
Polack proposes that currently, "social work is confronted with a global system in which the world's people are bound together in a complex web of economic relationships. People's lives are now linked to lives of distant others through the clothes that they wear, the energy that warms them, and even…
Bartholomew, S. (1997). National systems of biotechnology innovation: Complex interdependence in the global system. Journal of International Business Studies, 28(2), 241+. Retrieved March 14, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Breitenfellner, a. (1997). Global unionism: A potential player. International Labour Review, 136(4), 531+. Retrieved March 14, 2005, from Questia database,
"Nothing endures but change."
Developing Human Development
The "learning organization" is without a template. Writers have tried to give it an ideal form or a template in "which real organizations could attempt to emulate." (Easterby-Smith & Araujo 1999). The learning organization, however, can be best characterized by saying that it's an organization where both individual and collective learning are crucial. Donald Schon has come up with a theoretical framework associating the experience of living in a situation of an increasing change with the need for learning. He states:
The loss of the stable state means that our society and all of its institutions are in continuous processes of transformation. We cannot expect new stable states that will endure for our own lifetimes. We must learn to understand, guide, influence and manage these transformations. We must make the capacity for undertaking them integral to ourselves and to our…
Barger, Nancy. 1995. The Challenge of Change in Organizations: Helping Employees
Thrive in the New Frontier. 1st Intercultural Press, Boston.
Castells, M. 2001. "Information Technology and Global Capitalism" in W. Hutton and A.
Giddens (eds). On the Edge: Living with Global Capitalism. Vintage, London.
freshman students, who may be have taken this subject as a major or have opted for a course in any computer-related field such as rtificial Intelligence.
Robotics is a branch of engineering that deals with the conception, design, manufacture and operation of robots. This field is a combination of electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology and bioengineering. The first person to coin the term 'robotics' was Isaac simov, author of science fiction books in the 1940's. This term was used in a short story, where simov used three principles to illustrate the behavior of robots as smart machines. The three principles are as follows:
Robots must never harm human beings.
Robots must follow instructions from humans without violating rule 1.
Robots must protect themselves without violating the other rules.
robot is defined as follows:
reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions…
A robotics - a what is definition, http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,sid9_gci520361,00.html
Robot Institute of America, 1979
The Author of Robots Defends Himself - Karl Capek, Lidove noviny, June 9, 1935, translation: Bean Comrada
Robotics: How Close Are e to Creating a Bionic Man?
hile the creation of a 'bionic man' similar to the Six Million Dollar Man of the 70s television series or the gun-slinging robot of estworld may still be the realm of popular sci-fi, technology has developed to a stage where we are closer to such a possibility than ever before. Some of these technologies include robotics, the development of organic polymers that could be used as artificial muscles, nano-technology, and artificial intelligence (AI). In this paper we will review the latest developments in the relevant technologies to find how close we are to developing a 'bionic man.'
Apart from the availability of the required technology, one of the factors that would eventually determine if (or how soon) we are able to develop a bionic man is -- the urgency or need for such a development. This is because technology does…
Barnes, Peter. "Bionic Limbs for Amputees." September 23, 2002. Tech TV Website. October 1, 2002. http://www.techtv.com/news/scitech/story/0,24195,3400267,00.html
Battles without Troops." Article in Newsweek International: Special Issue. December 2001-February 2002. pp. 38-40
Bekey, George A. "Robot." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.
McCarthy, John. "What Is Artificial Intelligence?" Stanford University: Computer Science Department Website. July 20, 2002. October 1, 2002. http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/whatisai.html
Allen is saying that all of the wonders of technology can never replace tow people connecting and trusting each other. I completely agree with these concepts and given Mr. Allen's wit and comedic sense, am thankful it was made. Finally any film made during a specific period of time can't help but reflect the values of society at the time. The open discussions about sexuality and sex make light of society's open and free attitudes about these areas of the human experience in 1973.
Why Sleeper is a Classic
Sleeper will always be a classic because it combines Mr. Allen's slapstick and vaudevillian comedic approaches while integrating his favorite music, which is jazz and ragtime. In addition the triumph of the human spirit and human emotions, as chaotic and mercurial as they can be, will always be superior to technology. The use of technology as a means to coerce and…
George O'Har. "Technology and Its Discontents " Technology and Culture 45.2 (2004): 479-485.
A fully functional tooth developed for the mouse as a result of the experiment. The authors proposed the use of such technology as a model for future organ replacement therapies. "The bioengineered tooth, which was erupted and occluded, had the correct tooth structure, hardness of mineralized tissues for mastication, and response to noxious stimulations such as mechanical stress and pain in cooperation with other oral and maxillofacial tissues" (Ikedaa 2009, p. 113475).
The ability to regenerate fully functional adult teeth could yield considerable improvement in the ease and lifestyle quality for individuals who would previously have to have dental implants.
The clinical implications for the success of the study extend far beyond that of the field of dentistry. Stem cell therapy has the potential to restore the partial loss of organ function of neural cells in patients with Parkinson's disease and to generate new organs for…
Ikedaa, Etsuko. (2009, et al.). Fully functional bioengineered tooth replacement as an organ replacement therapy. PNAS. 106 (32): 113475-113480. Retrieved November 4, 2010 at http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/07/31/0902944106.full.pdf+html
Buying a 17 acre farm with the inheritance left him at age 21 by his father, Burbank got to work on producing better strains of plants and trees to increase yield, promote disease resistance, resist environmental changes, and resistance to insects and fungus'. Burbank cross pollinated all the flowers of plants by hand and planted all the resulting seeds. From these seeds, he then selected the most promising plants to cross with other ones to ensure the best was achieved. From the book, "The Cavalcade of America," the unknown author refers to Burbank as the "Plant Wizard" and writes of the many lasting accomplishments he made in regards to the field of agriculture. (Cavalcade, 1946, pg 129). Many scientist dispute Burbanks and his work due to the documentation kept was not in line with 'proper' scientific documentation.
The opinion of this researcher is that while Mendel studied hybridization and…
Stegemann, S. & Bock, R. Exchange of genetic material between cells in plants tissue
Grafts. Science, pg 649-651. Retrieved on April 1, 2010 from www.sciencemag.com.
The cavalcade of America. (1946). Retrieved on April 7, 2010 from http://www.otrr.org/FILES/Scripts_pdf
Should e Fear Artificial Intelligence TechnologyIntroductionArtificial intelligence technology and implementations are generating a lot of buzz, both for their possibilities and for the potential threats they may offer. Artificial intelligence applications are various, and the opportunities are vast; and owing to current advances in computer hardware, several AI algorithms already outperform today\\\'s specialists(Mannino et al.,5). Robots are already influencing our day-to-day activities. AI is being used in many applications such as search engines, self-driven cars, and even drones. In addition, AI continues to pose fundamental questions to society, such as views on using AI in the military arena.As AI capacity improves, its field of application will continue to grow. Futuristic and former journalist of The ashington Post, Dominic Basulto, sums up this when he talks about \\\'existential reward\\\' in an article on \\\"why the world\\\'s most intelligent people should not be so afraid of artificial intelligence.\\\" He claims that it…
Works CitedBasulto, Dominic. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Why the World\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Most Intelligent People Shouldn\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'t Be so Afraid of Artificial Intelligence.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Washington Post, 20 Jan. 2015, www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2015/01/20/why-the-worlds-most-intelligent-people-shouldnt-be-so-afraid-of-artificial-intelligence.Lawson, Dominic. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"I for One Welcome the Rise of the Robots. They Can Do the Work While I Play.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Comment | The Sunday Times, 20 Mar. 2016, www.thetimes.co.uk/article/i-for-one-welcome-the-rise-of-the-robots-they-can-do-the-work-while-i-play-xwv2ttv2d.Mannino, Adriano, et al. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Artificial intelligence: Opportunities and risks.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Policy Papers of the Effective Altruism Foundation2 (2015): 1-16.
HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments
Description of APM Terminals
Review of the Health and Safety Management System
Health and Welfare Hazards
Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding
Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise
Action Plan 1 - Management System
Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks
Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist
Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.
The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…
S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…
Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.
Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC
Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall
Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
Stem Cell Ethics
Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells
The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…
Antiniou, Michael. "The Case Against & #8230;" Nature Medicine 7.4 (2001): 397-399. Web. The author argues that the use of embryonic stem cells for research and medicine poses significant ethical and moral issues that cannot be overcome. Of particular concern is the potential for reproductive cloning, a door that the author believes was opened when the UK government approved the use of embryonic stems cells for research and medicine.
Blow, Nathan. "In Search of Common Ground." Nature 451.7180 (2008): 855-858. Web. The author presents several issues facing researchers who work with stem cells and discusses why they are important to advancing this field of research. Of primary concern is developing standard protocols for producing stem cells and creating the necessary protocols and reagents that will allow the therapeutic use of stem cells in humans.
Leeb, C., Jurga, M., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Thallinger, C., Moriggl, R. et al. "New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research: Beyond Embryonic Stem Cells." Cell Proliferation 44.1 (2011): 9-14. Web. The focus of this article is the promises and limitations of embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, from the perspective of scientists working in this field. The ethical decisions concerning the use of embryonic stem cells are only mentioned in passing.
Power, Carl and Rasko, E.J. "Promises and Challenges of Stem Cell Research for Regenerative Medicine." Annals of Internal Medicine 155.10 (2011): 706-713. Web. The authors discuss in detail the three main types of stem cell technologies: embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent. Ethical issues are mentioned occasionally, but not discussed.
water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)
Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?
There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:
To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.
To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.
To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening
In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.
Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…
FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm
Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight/ )
Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges. http://greenopolis.com/goblog/joe-laur/top-10-environmental-success-stories-and-10-future-challenges
Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding DailMail.com http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1236659/Copenhagen-climate-change-conference-World-leaders-reach-Copenhagen-agreement -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ
People can exercise their free choice at the grocery store by choosing organic foods, although because of generally higher costs of organic products, this will not be a solution for everyone. People in lower socioeconomic groups often get food at discount chains or even food pantries where organics are not even a choice at all.
There is no incentive for makers of agricultural chemicals to modify their products in response to charges about obesogens. As the documentary films the Future of Food and King Corn pointed out, the use of pesticides is very big business. Though detrimental effects of pesticides and genetically-modified seeds and food have been shown, further research is needed to prove the link between pesticides and genetic modifications that lead to obesity in infants and children. When and if that link is proven, the public will have to demand that the government take action. Consumer advocate organizations…
Adler, N.E., & Stewart, J. (2009). Reducing obesity: motivating action while not blaming the victim. Milbank Quarterly 87 (1), pp. 49-70. Retrieved from Academic Search
Premier database December 29, 2010.
Baillie-Hamilton, P.F. (2002). Chemical toxins: a hypothesis to explain the global obesity epidemic. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 8 (2), pp. 185-192.
DOI: 10.1089/107555302317371479. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database December 29, 2010.
Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and James Cameron's Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines have come to occupy similar positions in American popular culture -- largely, for their iconic appeal -- but they are also comparable in more subtle ways. Specifically, each tale depicts the emergence of human nature within entities that superficially seem nonhuman. Frankenstein's monster and the T-101 both come forward as compelling and sympathetic characters because they learn and express themselves in terms that human beings are able to understand. The T-101's apparent progression from a methodical killer into an unwavering companion within the Terminator movies is mirrored by the monster's progression from an infantile murderer into a sensitive literature aficionado. Additionally, it is significant that both are brought into creation through clandestine scientific practices; thus, similar themes surrounding the T-101 and the monster make themselves apparent. Essentially, both characters represent the volatile nature of too much knowledge: they…
1. Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. New York: Modern Library, 1993.
2. Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines. Feature film. WGA, 2003. 109 min.
Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.
Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…
1. Alpha nutrition Programs. Indoor Air-More Contaminated Than Outdoor Air?
2. Ammann, Harriet M. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health?
Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health
In summary, this exercise showed that quality management is much more integrative and synchronized in nature. Quality cannot be dictated into an organization; it must become part of its culture, and it is apparent from this balsa wood glider that the organization producing them is lackadaisical in their commitment to the principles mentioned in this analysis.
Foster, ST & Gallup, L 2002, 'On functional differences and quality understanding', Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 86 -- 102
Galbreath, J & ogers, T 1999, 'Customer relationship leadership: a leadership and motivation model for the twenty-first century business', The TQM Magazine, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 161 -- 71
Kraines, GA 2001, 'Are you L.E.A.D.ing your troops?', Strategy & Leadership, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 29 -- 33.
Kruger, V 2001, 'Main school of TQM: "the big five," The TQM Magazine, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 146 --…
Foster, ST & Gallup, L 2002, 'On functional differences and quality understanding', Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 86 -- 102
Galbreath, J & Rogers, T 1999, 'Customer relationship leadership: a leadership and motivation model for the twenty-first century business', The TQM Magazine, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 161 -- 71
Kraines, GA 2001, 'Are you L.E.A.D.ing your troops?', Strategy & Leadership, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 29 -- 33.
Kruger, V 2001, 'Main school of TQM: "the big five," The TQM Magazine, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 146 -- 55.
hat is Genetic Engineering? hat is its purpose?
Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher of San Francisco State University explains that "genetic engineering" is also called "genetic modification," or "genetic manipulation" (Steinbrecher, 1998). The three titles for the same process really refer to " ... the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another," and the "basic biology" behind genetic engineering begins with the smallest living unit, the cell. Humans have 3,000,000,000,000 cells, and the cells are stacked together to form tissues, organs, and skin, for example, and in plants, cells make up leaves, fruit, trees, and the rest of the natural world; living things.
Genetic engineering uses technologies to alter the genetic makeup of cells, including "the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms" (Union of Concerned Scientists -- ucsusa.org). hen a gene is moved from one plant or animal to another,…
Caplan, A.L., McGee, G., and Magnus, D. (1999). What is immoral about eugenics? British
Medical Journal, Volume 319, retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.bmj.com .
Genetics Education. (2016). Fact Sheet 19 / Ethical Issues in Human Genetics and Genomics.
Retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.genetics.edu.au .
Ian Wimut and Keith Campell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated emryo cells. (History of Cloning)
Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to e cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly y Ian Wilmut, an extensive deate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on Decemer 5, 1997 aout his ojective of cloning a human eing prior to an of the process y enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lam from skill cells grown on a la and with its alteration genetically to incorporate…
bibliography_pages/cloning.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Cloning Fact Sheet" Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Cloning: what's stopping us? Law" (22 October, 2004) Ivanhoe Broadcast News. Retrieved at http://www.genpol.org/news55.pdf . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Economic Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/cheburashinka/economic.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Gabby. (17 May 1999) "Cloning for Medical Purposes" Retrieved at http://www.humancloning.org/gabby.htm . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Te need for so many new workers will tend to elp women enter fields were tey ave been istorically under-represented since tere is suc a need for so many new workers.
Wile tis synergy of so many different factors is useful for workers at all stages of teir careers, it may be tat it is especially elpful to new graduates. Higly skilled and qualified senior workers are likely to ave more opportunities open to tem tan are younger workers and so are likely to suffer less during economic downturns. Younger workers, especially tose just finising teir undergraduate work, will fare better in an environment tat as a range of opportunities and an overall good business climate. In fact, tis may be te only kind of business environment in wic new graduates will reliably be able to find jobs tat matc teir training and ambitions. Tis may be especially true for…
http://www.extremetag.com / http://www.mimotec.ch/Francais/Produits/produits.html
This has been the traditionally used mode of treatment for non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas, but the fact remains that there have not been many clinical trials conducted that would reveal the benefits of CHOP in comparison to various other chemotherapy options for the treatment of CLL, which is a very slowly growing form of cancer and is therefore conversely very difficult to treat and cure because of the fact that all the traditional methods of treatment, whether chemotherapy or radiation, are meant to quickly and rapidly destroy the fast growing cancerous cells. (Cancer Treatment and Prevention)
Curing a patient with the CLL or SLL forms of cancer is considered to be highly unusual, but it is true that these patients will b able to lead productive lives even after 6 to 10 years after the cancer have been diagnosed for them. A patient when he is making the choice of treatment for…
Bischof, Delaloye a. (2003) "The role of nuclear medicine in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)" Leuk Lymphoma. Volume: 44 Suppl 4; pp: S29-36
Cancer Treatment and Prevention" Retrieved at http://patient.cancerconsultants.com/treatment.aspx?id=782Accessed on 26 December, 2004
CHOP - complementary considerations. Lymphoma-tion" (2 October, 2004) Retrieved at http://www.lymphomation.org/chemo-CHOP.htm . Accessed on 26 December, 2004
CHOP Patient Information Sheet" Newcastle General Hospital, Northern Center for Cancer treatment. (June, 2005) Retrieved at http://www.newcastle-hospitals.org.uk/v2/PDF/patientleaflets/NCCT/Standard/CHOP.PDFAccessed on 26 December, 2004
Hair is also in contact with chemicals in shampoos, and any dyes, gels, sprays or other cosmetics that may be placed on the hair (11).
Since there is no standardized method for cleaning these external contaminants off of the hair prior to analysis, the potential for inaccurate results from external contamination is widespread. There is no way to tell in the laboratory if a chemical is contained within the hair, and therefore came from with in the body, or if it is on the surface of the hair and did not come from within the body (12). An enormous amount of scientific research studies have indicated that hair analysis is unreliable as a diagnostic tool in crime solving. For example, in one study, the researchers took hair from the head of a single individual and sent portions of the sample to six laboratories; the results varied widely from laboratory to…
43. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
44. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
45. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
Proteinaceous Infectious Particles"
Recent cases of Mad Cow Disease have focused the public attention on prion diseases and the small proteins that are believed to cause them. The scientific community has been slow to recognize this mechanism of disease, since prion-caused encephalopathies can demonstrate diverse symptoms, and share characteristics with other disorders, such as dementia.
Prions, as the acronym (Proteinaceous Infectious Particles) suggests, are small proteins that are typically expressed in brain tissue, and may exist in a normal or abnormal shape. The prion protein is encoded by a gene found on the human chromosome 20. Usually, the prion protein is translated in neural tissue, folds into its normal conformation, carries out its cellular role, and is eventually degraded by enzymes. The abnormal prion, however, folds differently from its normal counterpart. This different shape makes it more difficult to degrade, and leads to the brain damage that is seen…
Inherited prion disease. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2004, at http://www.st - marys.nhs.uk/specialist/prion/factsheets/inheritedpd.htm
Kightly, R. (n.d.). Prion replication and spread at the cellular level. Retrieved April
21, 2004, from Mad Cow Disease Images & BSE Pictures
Web site: http://www.rkm.com.au/BSE/index.html
Pathogens and Diseases:
Pathogens are common characteristics of everyday environment as soil contains huge number of bacteria per cubic centimeter while air contains fungal spores. The existence of pathogens in everyday environment emanates from the fact that microorganisms are deposited through touching of various surfaces like tables. Pathogens can be described as disease-causing agents such as infectious microbes, and parasites. While the infectious microbes include viruses and bacteria, parasites include protozoa and fungi. Notably, microbes are only considered as pathogens if they cause harm or diseases since not all microbes are harmful (Koo, 2009). There are opportunistic pathogens, which are organisms that are normally part of the natural flora of the body. These organisms become harmful or pathogens after an invasion like the occurrence of an accidental injury or surgery.
Spread of Pathogens:
Since pathogens are common disease-causing agents, they spread in various ways to cause harm or illnesses. Some…
ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), How Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,
ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,
Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (2007), Infection Prevention and Control Best
Practices, Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance, viewed 17 April 2012,
Ethics of Human Cloning
In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).
Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.
The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…
Annas, George. "Scientific Discoveries and Cloning: Challenges for Public Policy." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Bailey, Ronald. "Cloning is Ethical." Ethics. Brenda Stalcup, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Garcia, Jorge L.A. "Cloning Humans is Not Ethical." The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Lisa Yount, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Kass, Leon. "The Wisdom of Repugnance." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Kimberly-Clark Corporation is a global manufacturing and marketing company in the consumer products business. The Company is currently concentrating new marketing efforts on emerging markets of Asia, ussia and Latin America. Historically, the Company was an integrated (pulp to finished product) paper products business. It has been reducing its exposure to the basic commodity pulp manufacturing capacity in an effort to improve its profitability in the consumer tissue business. The Company operates with a high degree of ethical behavior. "Doing the right thing" is a critical aspect of the Company's business strategy. The Company's Code of Conduct sets out guidelines for all employees (worldwide) on the topics of freedom of association (right to organize), diversity and non-discrimination, global human rights, workplace safety, and fair dealing with customers, suppliers, competitors and each other. The Company was ranked fifth among the top 100 large U.S. companies by the Corporate esponsibility Magazine. Cost…
Asaada, Jason N. (2011, February 1), Kimberly-Clark Corp, Standard & Poor's, Stock Report
CRO, (2011, January), Corporate Responsibility Magazine, Retrieved February 23, 2011 from http://thecro.com/content/corporate-responsibility-reports
Dillon, C.A. & Kelly, Edward J. (2011, January 26), Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Credit Suisse, Equity Research Report
Kimberly-Clark, Code of Conduct, Office of the Chairman of the Board, Retrieved February 23, 2011 from www.iflo.com/fls/Kimberly-Clark
Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes or eukaryote is the organism that makes up the microbial world. Prokaryotes are deficient of internal unit membranes and are self-sufficient cells or organisms. The best-known prokaryotic organisms are the bacteria. The cell membrane in prokaryotes makes up the cell's primary osmotic barrier and consists of a phsopholipids unit membrane. The ribosome carries out translation and protein synthesis and is present in the cytoplasm. Normally, the nuclear regions consist of circular, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid.
Plasmids, the accessory self-replicating genetic structure is present in many prokaryotes with extra not necessary cell functions like encoding proteins to inactivate antibiotics. On the other hand, the eukaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane, well-defined chromosomes, mitochondria, a sector device, an endoplasmic reticulum and digestive system with many cell types. The prokaryotes are deficient of structural multiplicity and consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organism, which is well-known among eukaryotes…
Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes" Retrieved at http://www.cryonet.org
Engineering desiccation tolerance in Escherichia coli" Billi, Daniela; Wright, Deborah J; helm, Richard F. Pricket, Todd; Potts, Malcolm; Crowe. John H. Retrieved at http://www.nencki. gov. pl
Major groups of prokaryotes" Retrieved at http://www.bact.wisc.edu
Mechanisms of plant desiccation tolerance" Hoekstra, Folkert A; Golovina, Elena; Buitink, Julia. Retrieved at http://www.plantstress.com
(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…
AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human
Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/
Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"
Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB
Medical Advancements in Medicine and Health
Write a three-page paper on what you believe is the most significant medical advancement (s) in medicine and health and support your argument.
Genetic engineering is one of the most significant medical advancements of the century and will have a major impact on medicine, health, politics and church and state relationships.
Genetic engineering. A controversial issue or a blessing in disguise? The Human Genome Project (HGP), sponsored in the United tates has created the field of genomics --understanding genetic material on a large scale.
But what actually is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering in theory, allows cells to grow in a petri dish, with the end result of creating the type of genetic alteration you want. Imagine the medical ramifications of being able to genetically create the characteristics we want in a species. Think of the benefits to mankind and the enhancements that would be…
Sources of Information:
Publications www.ornl.gov/hgmis/publicat/genechoice/index.html" Your Genes, Your Choices --a downloadable booklet describing the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the project
Books www.ornl.gov/hgmis/publicat/hgn/v9n1/15cshl.html" Toward the 21st Century: Incorporating Genetics into Primary Health Care
Human Genome News --the newsletter of the HGP sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Biological and Environmental Research Program
3). While additional research is needed in this area, these findings suggest that the attributes of non-thermal plasma hold significant promise for the regulation of mammalian cell activity and inducement of apoptosis in targeted cells. In this regard, Sensenig et al. conclude that, "Plasma-induced DNA damage in turn may lead to the observed plasma-induced apoptosis. Since plasma is non-thermal, it may be used to selectively treat malignancies" (2010, para. 4).
The foregoing findings were also congruent with previous research by Kligman et al. (2007). According to these researchers, the floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge plasma (FE-DBD) plasma treatment has been found to invoke apoptosis in melanoma cancer cell lines, and it accomplishes this without causing necrosis while still possessing the ability to initiate apoptosis in the targeted cells (Kligman et al., 2007). The "floating" designation in this application is derived from the manner in which the plasma is generated. Simply…
Clark, W.R. (2002). A means to an end: The biological basis of aging and death. New York:
Cleveland, C.J. & Morris, C. (2006). Dictionary of energy. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Di Quinzio, M.L., Dewar, R.A., Burge, F.I. & Veugelers, P.J. (2005). Family physician visits and early recognition of melanoma. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96(2), 136-139.
Fridman, G., Shereshevsky, a., Jost, M.M., Brooks, a.D., Fridman, a., Gutsol, a., Vasilets, V. & Friedman, G. (2007). Floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge plasma in air promoting apoptotic behavior in melanoma skin cancer cell lines. Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 27(2), 163-176.
All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).
Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…
Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.
Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.
Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.
Stryker Organizational Strategic Plan
Stryker is a world leader in medical technology and works to make healthcare much better. Stryker offers innovative medical devices and technologies reported to include "reconstructive, medical and surgical, and neurotechnology and spine products to help people lead more active and more satisfying lives. Stryker products and services are available in over 100 countries." (Stryker.com, 2014, p. 1) Stryker reports having spent $471 million on research and development during 2012 and 5 to 6.3% of its sales invested each year since 2000 are in research and development having assisted 4,768 patients on a global basis in 2012. Stryker has been recognized by Fortune 500 and is a Gallup Great Workplace Award Winner as well as being recognized by Fortune Magazine as one of the top 100 that are best to work for. While Stryker is a successful company it has recently reported a problem with an…
Customer Care (2014) Stryker. Retrieved from: http://neptunecustomercare.com/new-home/?reg=usa
Stryker Surgical (2014) Retrieved from:
Genomics and Implications for the Future
The Human Genome Project has completed its monumental mapping of the genetic sequence in human DNA, and the field of genomics is taking advantage of these initiatives and innovations in technology to pursue scientific inquiries that could not have been imagined just a few years ago. More importantly, perhaps, new applications are being discovered based on the growing body of scientific evidence being developed by this emerging science. To determine what genomics is and how it is being used today and may be used in the future, this paper provides an overview of the biochemistry involved in the study of genomics, followed by an analysis of current and future trends in this field. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Background and Overview.
Today, genetic-engineering techniques are increasingly being applied to a growing number of life forms,…
Dooley, Erin E. (2004). "Y. F. Leung's Functional Genomics." Environmental Health
Genome news. (2003, September). Body Bulletin 4(9):6.
Goodman, Alan H., Deborah Heath and M. Susan Lindee. (2003). Genetic Nature/Culture:
It was used by Michael Faraday in the 1800s in his experiments on electromagnetism. Other inventors improved on the battery's original design and these improvements produced telegraphs and doorbells. Napoleon onaparte was so impressed with the invention that he recommended honors for Volta, including making him a count in 1810 (CIRL, Rubin, Scratch, Corrosion Doctors).
From this first and crude battery evolved electrochemistry, electromagnetism, and modern applications of electricity (CIRL, 2011; Rubin, 2011; Scratch, 2011; Corrosion Doctors, 2011). Even the defeated principles of Galvani on animal electricity served as the initiative to the development of electrophysiology and modern biology. From Volta's name came the unit of electromotive force, called volt, while from Galvani's name was coined the galvanometer, the instrument for detecting and measuring small electric currents (CIRL, Rubin, Scratch, Corrosion Doctors).
Significance and Influence during the Industrial Revolution
It is when power is cut off that ancient means of…
CIRL. Alexander Volta Center for Integrating Research & Learning: National High
Magnetic Field Laboratory, 2011. Retrieved on February 21, 2011 from http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/prioneers/volta.html
Corrosion Doctors. Alexander Volta. Corrosion Doctors.com, 2011. Retrieved on February 21, 2011 from http://www.corrosion.doctors.org/Biographies/VoltaBio.htm
HBCI. Nature Obeys Rules, Too. Hiawatha Broadband Communications, Inc.: Hayden
Computed tomography, more commonly know as a CT or CT scan, is an X-ray technique that is used to produce very detailed images of internal organs located in various parts of the body, such as the head, chest, and abdomen. Doctors use the images produced through this procedure to help diagnose and treat diseases. Other terms for the technique are also called computerized tomography or computerized axial tomography (CAT). While conventional X-ray exams produce two-dimensional images, CT scans uses an X-ray-sensing unit that rotates around your body and a large computer to create cross-sectional images of the inside of your body. This paper will address vital educational information including a brief history, uses for computed tomography, and the effects that it may have on the patient.
British engineer, Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Laboratories, England and Allan Cormack of Tufts University in Massachusetts invented computed tomography. Their…
Imaginis.com. Computerized Tomography Imaging. Accessed April 1, 2004, at http://www.imaginis.com/ct-scan/how_ct.asp .
International Medical News Group. (2001). CT scan radiation. Family Practice News, 31 (6) 35.
Frush, D. (2003, Nov. 1). In planning CT dese reduction, one size does not fit all - Body size, imaging indication, and scanner engineering create complex formula for success. Dianostic Imaging, p. NA.
MayoClinic.com. (1998-2004). "Mayo Clinic Health Information." Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.
Use tools and equipment that are properly designed to reduce the risk of wrist injury, (Zieve & Eltz 2010)
Workstations, tools and tool handles, and tasks can be redesigned to enable the worker's wrist to maintain a natural position during work, (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke 2010).
Ergonomic aids, such as split keyboards, keyboard trays, typing pads, and wrist braces, may be used to improve wrist posture during typing, (Zieve & Eltz 2010)
Training and awareness; the encouragement of frequent breaks; yoga classes offered for free at the workplace; job rotation.
Employers can develop programs in ergonomics, the process of adapting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of workers, (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke 2010)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and other nonprescription pain relievers, may ease symptoms that have been present for a short time or have been caused by strenuous…
"Tension Neck Syndrome" (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.rsi.org.uk/text_only/conditions/tension_neck_syndrome.asp
Zieve, D. & Eltz, D.R. (2010). Carpal tunnel syndrome. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001469
iopsychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes through a biological approach (Cooper 2000). Practitioners in this field believe that biological processes may explain certain psychological phenomena, such as learning, memory, perception, attention, motivation, emotion, and cognition, particularly problems and issues connected with these phenomena. iopsychology is also called biological psychology, psychobiology, behavioral biology or behavioral neuroscience (Cooper).
Practitioners in this new field use varied and overlapping fields of study: cognitive neuroscience, which primarily examines the brain to understand the neural workings of mental processes; psychopharmacology, which deals with the effects of drugs on psychological functions; neuro-psychology, which is concerned with the psychological effects of brain damage in humans; behavioral genetics, which deals with behavior and psychological traits; evolutionary psychology, which is involved with how psychological processes have evolved; and comparative psychology, which compares findings among different species (Cooper). The last science centers on ethology, which…
Chudler, E. (2001). Biopsychology. http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.html
2003). The Mystery of the Human Brain. The Quest Team. http://library.thnkques.org/TQ0312238/cgi-bin/view.cgi
Cooper, Cat. (2000). Biopsychology. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Online Encyclopedia. http://www.angelfire.com/az2/MystiCat/biopsychology.htm
Cummings, Benjamin. Behavioral Biology. Pearson Education, Inc. http://biosci.usc.edu/documents/bisc121-fuhrman_11/403.pdf
Cloning has been a hot issue in the news media in recent years. Many feel that it is a good idea and that there could be many benefits to mankind. However, there are those who feel that the issue is beyond our human capabilities and that we are playing with fire. There have been many surveys conducted on public opinion concerning the issue. Some of the studies have been formal, conducted by the research community, and others are informal, conducted by parties such as the news media. Many of these studies failed to separate answers according to gender, age and other demographic issues. Not knowing the demographics of the sample population and taking into account the number of members in each demographic group could essentially add sample bias to the answers.
It is a commonly accepted idea in the academic community that there are significant differences in opinions expressed by…
America's next ethical war." The Economist. Print Edition. April 12, 2001. Washington, D.C.
Bailey, M. (1994, April). "Women and support for the animal rights movement, 1948-1985."
Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago,
Genomes and Comparative Genomics
Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.
The Role of DNA
One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…
Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56
Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist
Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist
TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999
1-2). Based on previous research that found that Akirin proteins were ubiquitous in flies and humans and strictly nuclear, Tufet sought to determine if the Akirin homologues had a similar function in mice. While the experiment using Akirin-1 failed to produce any meaningful results, the tests using Akirin-2 showed that it acts in tandem with or downstream of NF-B in the regulation of TL- and IL-1-inducible gene expression (Tufet).
This author concludes, "This study has identified a previously unknown nuclear factor that, together with or downstream of NF-B, can regulate innate immune responses. Further studies will be needed to determine precisely how Akirin proteins control gene expression" (Tufet, p. 3). The strengths of this summary were two-fold: (a) the author provides an understandable overview and background of the investigation and its rationale, and (b) the timeliness of the study results makes it a valuable addition to the existing body of…
Beutler, B. & Moresco, E.M. (2008, January). Akirins vs. infection. Nature Immunology, 9(1), 7-9.
Goto, a., et al. (2008). Akirins are highly conserved nuclear proteins required for NF-B- dependent gene expression in Drosophila and mice. Nature Immunology, 9, 97-104 in Tufet and others.
Gough, N.R. (2008, January 8). Akirins clarify NF-B signaling. Scientific Signaling, 1(1), 6.
Hayden, M.S. & Ghosh, S. (2008, February). Shared principles in NF-?B signaling. Cell, 132, 344-362.
Surface irregularities are often seen when using the scanning electron microscope, but these are absent using the AFM. One such analysis is described below:
Occasionally, the cartilage surface exhibits local discontinuities where an underlying fibrous network is distinguishable. Digestion of the cartilage surface with chondroitinase AC exposes this fibrous network more systematically so that the individual fibers are visualized with great clarity by AFM. When imaged at higher magnification, these distinct fibers exhibit a 60nm repeat, indicating that they are assembled from collagen fibrils. (Miller, Aebi, and Engel para. 4)
The AFM has been shown to be valuable in similar analyses of biological materials and processes. While AFM images also offer a view of the atomic detail of solids, the process is not useful for analyzing biomolecules such as proteins because they are designed to undergo conformational changes and form flexible supermolecular assemblies, meaning they are mechanically "soft" so that…
Automatic Tip Evaluation Broadens AFM Applications." R & D (1 July 1998). September 15, 2005. http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:21007984&num=31&ctrlInfo=Round17%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=&FreePremium=BOTH .
Atomic Force Microscopy." 2005. September 16, 2005. www.swan.ac.uk/chemeng/afm.htm.
Ball, Philip. Molecules. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Baselt, David. "How AFM Works." Atomic Force Microscopy. 1993. September 16, 2005. http://stm2.nrl.navy.mil/how-afm/how-afm.html#General%20concept.
Animal Production: Biotechnology
Biotechnology has achieved some dramatic advances in recent years in both crop and livestock production. Food production results from the interaction of humans, animals, land and water; to help speed up this process, make it safer and more efficient, biotechnology has been involved. These include transferring a specific gene from one species to another to create a transgenic organism; the production of genetically uniform plants and animals (clones); and the fusing of different types of cells to produce beneficial medical products such as monoclonal antibodies. Today, biotechnology has a number of applications in livestock production. It is being used to hasten animal growth, enhance reproductive capacity, improve animal health and develop new animal products. In 1999, FFTC carried out a regional survey to draw up an inventory of technologies and products which have been developed using biotechnology for livestock production. Some of these are now being applied…
Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).
Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)
Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
PET represents a new step forward in the way scientists and doctors look at the brain and how it functions. An X-ray or a CT scan shows only structural details within the brain. The PET scanner gives us a picture of the brain at work. - What is PET?
The epigraph above is reflective of the enthusiasm being generated among clinicians concerning the advent of positron emission tomography and its potential for imaging the human brain. The introduction of sophisticated neuroimaging techniques such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has shifted the emphasis of neuropsychology from lesion localization to diagnosing the etiology of diseases (Maruish & Moses, 1997).
Behavioral neurology also benefited from innovations in neuroimaging techniques. The advent of improvements in the imaging of brain anatomy through computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MI), as well as functional imaging with single photon emission…
Charney, D.S., Hoffer, P.B. & Kosten, T.R. et al. (1995). Opiate Dependence and Withdrawal: Preliminary Assessment Using Single Photo Emission Computerized Tomography. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 21(1), 47.
Imaging Parkinson's. (December 14, 2002). Science News, 162(24), 382.
Jensen, K.B. (1991). Humanistic scholarship as qualitative science: Contributions to mass communication research. In K.B. Jensen & N.W. Jankowski (eds.). A handbook of qualitative methodologies for mass communication research (17-43). New York: Routledge.
Lincoln, Y.S., & Guba, E.G. (1990). Judging the quality of case study reports. Qualitative Studies in Education, 3(1), 53-59.
Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…
Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.
Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.
Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24
Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
The first is that some nanotoxicological effects are the direct result of new nanotechnologies: There is a strong ethical argument that can be made that as humans develop new technologies we must also -- and as simultaneously as possible -- develop strategies to counter any detrimental effects of the new technologies. (This is a corollary of the second lesson of global warming.) This could also be seen as a sort of corollary of the Hippocratic Oath: If at first you can do no harm than as quickly as possible move to fix the harm that we as humans have caused.
ut there is another aspect of nanotoxicology that fascinates a number of job seekers, which is the fact that nanoparticles act in ways that cannot be easily predicted from larger particles. This makes nanotoxicology in many ways a complex new that needs a number of different types of workers in…
Bainbridge, William and Mihail Roco (Eds.) Managing Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno Innovations: Converging Technologies in Society. New York, Springer, 2006.
Barhard, Amanda. "Nanohazards: Knowledge Is Our First Defense." Nature Materials 5, pp. 245-8.
Berger, Michael. Toxicology - from coal mines to nanotechnology, http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=1382.php
Environmentalists are worried about the possible risk associated with Nanosilver,
Additionally, the water intake near Chelsea may be used, at times, to supplement New York City's water supply, during times of drought. The Town of Waterford and the Town of Halfmoon both get their muncipal water supply from the Upper Hudson iver ("Hudson iver PCBs," 2008).
GE's Involvement in the Build Up of PCBs in the Hudson iver
From 1947 to 1977, the General Electric Company discharged as much as 1.3 million pounds of PCBs into the Hudson iver, polluting 197 miles of the river and creating America's largest Superfund site. Two of GE's facilities, one at Hudson Falls and one at Fort Edward are reported to be the source of the pollution. As Angelo (2009) notes, PCBs were used as high-temperature insulators in the manufacturing process of transformers and capacitors, at the GE facilities. Even today, more than three decades later, PCBs still leak into the river from GE's…
Angelo, W. (25 Feb 2008) Hudson River PCB cleanup projects under construction. Engineering News Record, 260(7). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database.
(1 Jun 2009). PCB remediation work starts in the Hudson River. Engineering News Record, 262(17). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database.
Historic Hudson River cleanup to begin after years of delay, but will General Electric finish the job? (23 Mar 2007). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/hhudson.asp .
Hudson River PCBs. (31 Dec 2008). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.epa.gov/region02/superfund/npl/0202229c.pdf .
The scanner's ability to translate typewriter characters into bit-mapped image into ASCII text depends on a number of factors, including the sensitivity of the device itself and the legibility and method of preparation of the original document; however, improvements are being made all of the time and even formerly graphic-based scanning systems such as Adobe's notoriously slow PDF applications have incorporated character recognition systems that allow for textual scanning. Some of these character recognition systems incorporate features that provide output options to convert the text into a format used by common word-processing programs such as TF, Word and so forth. According to Dry and Lawler, the term "scanning" is frequently used today to describe the process of creating digitized images; in this approach, a graphic picture of the page, rather than an actual transcription of the text itself, is stored in the computer. "While this provides an effective means of…
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Kai Hung Fung Artwork
Instrument of Expression and Communication
Kai Hung Fung and his Artwork
Kai Hung Fung is a radiologist known for his 3D creative work on human body. He gained attention in 2003 when he started using computed tomography (CT) to visualize human body parts. His creative work is based on a complete background research for example he researched about color usage in 3D image of computed tomography. He is also considered to be a pioneer of developing ainbow Technique. Through this technique contour line can be rendered into the rainbow colors to confine the 3D space.
By using ainbow Technique, Mr. Fung won first position in 5th International Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge. His artwork won the award of Best Science Photo 2007. He had won gold, silver and bronze awards for his creative work in various categories in the year of 2007. Again in 2008 he…
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Clandestine Drug Labs and the Fire Service
hat are the risks and inherent dangers when firefighters are facing a blaze that resulted from a meth lab? hat should firefighters do when they suspect a fire has been caused by the existence of a meth lab? Are clandestine meth labs more prevalent then they were a few years ago? These questions and others will be addressed in this paper.
hat States' Firefighters have the biggest Threats from Meth Labs?
According to the U.S. Department of Justice (and the Drug Enforcement Agency) the states with the most meth labs (as of 2011) are Missouri (2,684 busts in 2011), Indiana (1,364 busts in 2011), Kentucky (with 1,084 busts) and Tennessee (1,130 busted meth labs). Other states that have a great deal of meth lab activity include Oklahoma (916), Michigan (365 labs busted), Mississippi (269 labs shut down) and Iowa (380 labs busted) (DOJ,…
Hadlock, Tim. (2010). Clandestine Drug Labs Present Hidden Dangers for Firefighters.
Fire Engineering. Retrieved September 14, 2012, from http://www.fireengineering.com .
Jordan, Larry P. (2011). Calhoun firefighters lean about dangers of meth labs. The Times and Democrat. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from http://thetandd.com .
Lindsey, William, and DeNicola, Michael. (2010). Trust Your Instincts. Fire Chief. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from http://firechief.com .
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).
Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)
% of Total
% of Total
gC m-2 y-1
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Anderson, J.M. 1991. The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grassland and coniferous forests. Ecological Applications 1:326-347.