Title IX and its Impact on Collegiate Athletics
Among the more influential pieces of federal legislation to spring forth from the heady days of America's civil rights movements is Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments. This critical provision, officially found under Section 20 of the United States Code, states unequivocally that "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance" (Title 20 U.S.C. Sections 1681-1688) and in essence paves the way for the inclusion of women into collegiate athletic programs. Originally enacted as an amendment to Title IX the 1964 Civil ights Act, which delegitimized systemic discrimination on the basis of race, religion and national origin, the 1972 version sought to address the issue of rampant gender inequality afflicting academia and…… [Read More]
The Social issue
Even if all colleges and universities correctly apply Title IX to give men and women equal opportunities, which may not be sufficient to meet Title IX's proportionality requirements. Title IX has only been in effect about 35 years; not sufficient to effect a cultural change for women and sports. Therefore, it is to be expected that women may not seek to participate in sports at the same level as men. Female participation in sports declines with age; in addition, a greater number of women than men seek post-graduate educational opportunities, which may suggest a greater emphasis on education than on athletics. Title IX does not give colleges or universities the ability to assess cultural relevance to determine whether proportionality is an appropriate goal.
While it is an over-simplification to say that Title IX has caused a decline in men's minor sports, such as wrestling, the reality…… [Read More]
S. Congress went ahead and passed the Civil ights estoration Act of 1988, furthermore recognized as the Grove City Bill, over a rejection by President onald eagan (Priest, 2003). That rule abolished Grove City College v. Bell and then made the bill plainly obvious that if any part of a school makes the decision to accept federal aid, then every part of the school will then be subject to Title IX guidelines (Walton, 2003).
Contemporary Importance of Title IX
esearch shows that the Title IX is one of the well-known civil rights achievement stories in all of education, and it really does owe a lot to the determined funding of politicians like Vice President Biden. Previously to the Title IX, in 1972, there was something like fewer than 30,000 female students that were actually participating in recreational and sports programs at NCAA member organizations. That amount has risen approximately six-fold…… [Read More]
To that extent, an attempt is made to get a balanced legal perspective by employing at least two bodies of legal expertise.
Ann Weatherall, like Harrimon, will be utilized to gain a supporting and, or, contrasting social, environment, political and relationship perspective on gender equity. Weatherall approaches the issues by looking at several different facets of information than does Hariman. In this way, we get an expanded view of those areas not covered by Hariman, but nonetheless of social, political, academic and personal significance in the relationship between men and women.
Madeline Arnot (2002) contributes a collection of essays on educational theory and feminist politics. Arnot explains the usefulness of her work this way:
This book charts my contribution over the last twenty-five years to the emerging field of gender scholarship in education. This is a field which comprises some of the most sophisticated research in education. It engages with…… [Read More]
Ancient as Egypt
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C.S. § 1681-1688 law established in 1972 was a groundbreaking law prohibiting sex-based discrimination in much of education. 20 U.S.C.S. § 1681(a) states that "no person in the United States shall on the basis of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance." Many may wonder how such a "new age" law could be relevant to ancient history. Taking a look back into the time of the Ancient Egyptians, one will see how women's rights were put into existence as early as 3100 B.C.E. In many cultures, women were not respected and did not play important roles in society. Egypt was the first group to develop a respect for women and even have them as pharaohs. Because of the high…… [Read More]
Awareness of legal considerations and implications can help educators follow what the law requires and avoid legal entanglements (Imber & Van Geel, 2004).
4. How are legal issues and financial issues related in education?
Legal issues are related to financial issues in education because if the school gets sued for a legal infraction committed by a staff member, then the school could end up in serious financial trouble. Schools have very limited budgets as it is, and teachers who break laws by crossing inappropriate lines with students, or any other type of transgression, can result in a civil suit that can be extremely damaging to the school's financial status, as well as its reputation. Under the current funding structure there are numerous problems that need to be resolved, and just as many potential solutions, all with their own sets of pros and cons. Currently, "The local school districts, then, are…… [Read More]
college athletic programs in America are out of control. The excessive budgets of athletic programs make many large state universities appear like sports teams with a few tenured professors hanging around irrelevantly. The demands of athletic programs are so excessive that if they were professional, they would violate labor laws, and student athletes at Northwestern University have engaged in an abortive effort to unionize. There is very little procedurally that holds back these excesses, but one of the few things that does try to guarantee some sense of moderation and equity is the government's Title IX mandate. Title IX applies only to state-funded schools, because it is part of a governmental education mandate, but in practice this includes almost all schools in America because of the way that federal funding is disbursed even at institutions where the government is not the primary funder -- in all of these institutions Title…… [Read More]
Critics of Title XI argue that by requiring institutions of higher learning to provide equal funding and equal opportunities for men and women is not valid, because there is less public interest, amongst both men and women, in collegiate sports. But such thinking shows how Title IX "threatens the privileged male culture of athletics by challenging assumptions that activities, money, and fame belong to men. Through Title IX, many women have concluded that they have the right to expect equal treatment in athletics. Assumptions of equality -- when they challenge a privileged world -- inevitably create angst and anger. Universities where discrimination against women athletes is substantially greater...find it exceedingly difficult to state that women athletes are as important as men...To the big athletic schools. Title IX can seem like a challenge to bowl games, March Madness, and alumni enthusiasm." (Lazerson, Marvin & Ursula agener, 1996, p.8)
It may indeed…… [Read More]
Secondly, the report alluded to by CSC asserts that in "gender symmetric" sports there are "far more scholarships available for women (32,656) than for men (20,206)." The third bullet point in the CSC press release points out that men's volleyball is the "by far the most difficult" scholarship at the Division I level; there are reportedly 489 high school athletes for every full ride NCAA scholarship.
The "underlying" data that CSC used to put together their press release comes from two NCAA reports: "1981-82-2006-07 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rate Report" and "2006-07 NCAA Division I Manual." Also factored into the report is data from the national Federation of State High School Associations. And so what is the College Sports Council calling on the federal government -- and the Department of Education (DOE) -- to do? The press release says that "women are accorded far more opportunities to compete and…… [Read More]
A principal, for instance, will advertise on Ed Join for, say, a third grade, second grade or whatever opening he or she has, screen and hire the candidates, and then notify Personnel.
At the io Linda Union School District, job candidates still bring in their applications in person. They bring portfolios to interviews. Not nearly as much is done online, in the screening and hiring processes, as it is at within other districts nowadays. The io Linda Union School District's still-centralized hiring, according to Barker, allows for greater consistency in hiring. Barker also added, however, that unlike in the past, she now considers it best for principals to select their own new hires from a pool of recently hired candidates, in order to best meet the needs of, and have the best fit with, that principal's own school. This, Barker said, is because unlike in the past, schools today must…… [Read More]
arriers Female Educators Experience With Regard to Promotion Positions in Management and Leadership
Gender-ased Employment iases in Educational Fields:
An Examination of the arriers Experienced by Female Educators with Regard to Promotion and Management Positions in Education
While the plight for gender-equitable workplace has long been thought to have a potential solve within the halls of academia, the disparate employment equation between men and women has long been under-observed. The feminist's battle cry for equality rallied the forces around professional gender streamlining, and in the face of affirmative action for races, the professional inequality across genders gained widespread attention in the second half of the last century. Much of the increased discourse was cemented by the Title IX legislation, passed in 1972 and cementing the importance of gender balance in academic fields.
Title IX most notably prohibited sexual discrimination in education for students, but its legal boundaries included educators and…… [Read More]
Homeschooling Quality of Education
The Need for and the Purpose of the Project
Definitions and Abbreviations of Terms
Methodology for investigating problems identified as subproblems
Note on the Anti-Homeschooling Debate
Specific data by subproblem
Conclusion by subproblem
Growth in Homeschooling, 1978-1999
NCES Reasons for Homeschooling
The Need for and the Purpose of the Project
Homeschooling is providing a child's main educational program at home. (ebster) Homeschooling takes the place of full-time school attendance, whether at public or private schools, and should meet all the state requirements for each grade and for graduation from high school and the interim graduations, such as middle-school and so on.
Homeschooling is not a new idea, but rather one that has returned to the forefront of educational discussion in the past generation.
Until public education became widely available in the United States during the…… [Read More]
College sports and recreational activities are traditionally dominated by men. Although there have been dramatic increases in women's involvement in sports at the college level, men continue to make up the majority of the participants and spectators of events and activities. The availability of high-quality recreational facilities for athletic training as well as general fitness and maintenance is necessary and integral to sports programs in colleges. It may be assumed that these types of facilities are mostly utilized by men due to their predominant participation in sports and recreation activities.
Even though participation in campus sports and recreational activities still involves men more than women, this doesn't necessarily mean that men value the importance of sports and recreation in college more than women. Milton (1998) was interested in this concept and investigated beliefs among men and women in college as to whether the development of new, high-quality sports and recreation…… [Read More]
Americans have traditionally celebrated the diversity of cultures that comprises the United States. Despite some reservations, much of the country still believes that the amalgamation of different ethnicities contributes to the richness of American culture.
The merging of cultures in the United States has also given rise to conflicts and collisions, as established concepts are confronted and challenged. New belief systems, often developed over centuries, have already redefined prevailing estern cultural concepts.
This paper examines how prevailing estern cultural concepts regarding the soul and spirituality, gender and healing have been challenged and redefined by a growing awareness of cultural alternatives. Some of these concepts, such as gender, were redefined largely within an American context. Many, such as healing and spirituality, have been influenced by Eastern and African cultures and religions.
The first part of the paper looks at the various cultural meanings of healing, as practiced by the…… [Read More]
Social Change Through omen's Sports
Promoting Social Change Through omen's Sports Leadership
The problems that cry out for social change solutions
No one who is intelligent, literate, and who is paying attention could avoid the fact that much of the world today is in need of fresh and creative ways to resolve cultural and social conflicts and to build better communities where families feel safe and futures seem secure. ar, bloodshed, racial rage, and mindless military carnage -- in addition to the disturbing, ongoing violence against women -- make up too much of the front pages of daily newspapers. Dramatic social changes are desperately needed, and the plans for those changes have yet to be drawn up by present political leadership in the United States and elsewhere.
Over the first week in October, for example: suicide bombers killed 19 innocent tourists in Bali; car bomb blasts killed numerous citizens and…… [Read More]
Male vs. Female
Is it Harder to Grow Up Male or Female in America?
There is strong evidence that indicates it is no longer a man's world. Women now make up the majority of students in America's colleges and universities in addition to making up the majority of those receiving bachelor and master's degrees. Women are now entering business and law schools in record numbers. Michelle Colin reports that in the United States, women earn 57% of all BA's and 58% of all master's degrees. There are 133 woman getting BA's for every 100 men. By the year 2020 it is projected that there will be 156 women per 100 men earning BA degrees. This paper will examine this phenomenon in light of Title IX of the education amendments of 1972, which opened doors of opportunity for women. (Collin)
Title IX of the education amendments of 1972 is…… [Read More]
But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,
2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html
Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh
Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. etrieved September 21,
2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm
Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.
etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm
Witt, Jon. (2006). The…… [Read More]
Kenneth Burkes Dramatism Theory and Seton Hall
Today, Seton Hall University is attended by nearly 10,000 male and female students, but it has not always been that way. Just over a half century ago, Seton Hall University was a male-only institution that only accepted female students into its main South Orange campus after a series of debates that spanned more than 4 years. The artifacts of interest for this study are two newspaper articles from issues of the Setonian in 1963 and 1967, with the first announcing the student vote concerning whether Seton Hall should be a co-educational institution and the second announcing the approval of the initiative. This paper reviews the relevant literature to connect these articles to Kenneth Burkes' Dramatism Theory concerning the reasons women are treated less fairly than men and why they have not experienced the same academic fairness as men. Finally, a summary of the…… [Read More]
This is because; there are consortiums of regulations that provide no clear policy. The Colorado Court of Appeals sided with the NCAA. They felt that these rules were within the scope of their authority of controlling the actions of athletes and the college sports. These facts can be used to demonstrate that the policy of coaches breaching their contracts is in compliance with legal guidelines and case precedent. ("Bloom v. National Collegiate Athletic Association")
The biggest challenge against this policy is Law v. NCAA. Under this ruling, the U.S. Court of Appeals found that any kind of attempts to restrict a coach's salary is considered to be in violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. At the same time, they found that the rule is discriminating against coaches by limiting their salaries and the numbers that can serve on a team. This is supposed to maintain the competitive balance inside the…… [Read More]
The disparity in income of male vs. female heads of household is striking. Analysis of census data revealed that, in 1949, approximately thirty percent of households headed by white males were living in poverty, compared to just under thirteen percent a decade later. For women, more than half lived in poverty in 1949; by 1959, that figure declined to thirty-eight percent. The prosperity of the 1950s was not universally enjoyed. Female heads of household at the end of the decade were not better off than their male counterparts had been ten years earlier.
Financing for decent, inexpensive homes was readily available to servicemen returning from World War II. Coontz (1992) argued that this boom in home ownership led to "increasingly pervasive and sophisticated marketing [that] contributed to socially constructed perceptions of "need" and to unprecedented levels of consumer debt (Edwards, 2001). It was new consumer values that helped propel mothers…… [Read More]
The Freedom Information Act of 2002 reported 2,351 occurrences of forcible sex offenses on campus and 1,670 in residence halls; 2,953 aggravated assaults on campus; 2,147 robberies on campus and 29,256 burglaries also on campus; and 1,098 arsons on campus in that year alone. This was the summary of campus crime statistics released by the U.S. Department of Education (Security on Campus 2004).
This document and national studies reveal the prevalence of sexual assault on both male and female college and university students. In a number of these recent surveys conducted in approximately 6,000 schools, one of four female students admitted to having been subjected to forced sexual contact or forced sexual intercourse and that 90% of them knew their offenders. At the time of assault, 75% of these male students and 55% of the female were either drunk or under the influence of drugs (Security on Campus).…… [Read More]
234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.
Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…… [Read More]
ace to the Top-District fa Analysis
School Grant Programs
On May 22, 2012, the Secretary of Education made public the U.S. Department of Education's (ED) intention to build upon recent achievements in education through the ace to the Top-State programs (ED, 2012a) by offering an additional $383 million in grant funding to local school districts in 2012 (ED, 2012b). The goal of the ace to the Top District (TT-D) Competition is to continue advancing bold innovation and educational standards made possible through state ace to the Top grants. This essay examines the requirements and criteria that must be met in order to apply to the TT-D program.
Eligibility for applying to the TT-D is limited to Local Education Agencies (LEAs) or a consortium of LEAs (ED, 2012c). Based on Title IX, Section 9101, subsection 26, an LEA is defined as a public board of education or other public…… [Read More]
Gender Bias in the Workplace
Even after great advancements made by mankind in possibly all the fields of life, gender distinction between a man and woman still exists. The portraiture of power and the roles of gender in a prevalent culture reverberate meaningful patrimonial control, with the maneuvering of a female gender an appurtenant element of its objective. Women working in a professional environment have to prove their importance within the acrimonious periphery created by men. Despite the changes, which have been brought in by many laws and movements, women today still do not enjoy a working environment where they would be given a status equal to that of a man.
In order to promote equal opportunities for both men and women in a working environment, the United States passed an act called Equal Employment Opportunity Act during the year 1972. This Act aims at eliminating illegal discrimination in a…… [Read More]
As a state institution receiving federal funding, Midstate University cannot fund organizations that discriminate upon race. However, if the university wishes to extend the same prohibition against individuals based upon sexual orientation, they must add this to the university's own set of written policies and guidelines. Discrimination is prohibited on the basis of race, color, and national origin by Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; sex discrimination by Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972; discrimination on the basis of disability is prohibited by Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and age discrimination is prohibited by the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, but not discrimination based upon sexual orientation (Discrimination in education, 2009, Findlaw).
Crane, S. Colt. (2009, February 2). Students sue Ohio State. The Arbiter Online. Retrieved May
17, 2009…… [Read More]
WOMEN'S MODEN HISTOY
Critical Moments in Women's Modern History
Critical Moments in Women's Modern History
In the United States of America, for the first time in its short history, there is a convention held in Seneca Falls, NY for women's rights.
In Brooklyn, NY, Margaret Sanger opens the first clinic to offer birth control in the United States. The clinic was shut down and she was arrested ten days later.
Title VII of the Civil ights Act formally makes illegal discrimination with respect to employment on the basis of race and sex. Title VII simultaneously establishes the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Women have held the position of Secretary of State to the President of the United States.
The convention for women's rights is included on the timeline because this is the first time in the prominent country of the U.S.A. that women have formally gathered under the transparent…… [Read More]
African-American and Mexican-American
Civil Rights in Texas
This essay discusses African-American and Mexican-American civil rights in Texas. The goal is to discover what some of the key events was in each the African-American and the Mexican-American battles for their group's civil rights. The secondary objective is to see how these movements resembled each other and how they differed from one another and if one was more effective than the other. As the United States and its individual states like Texas become more racially diverse, all new criteria will arise that may be more closely linked to India's caste system than to what we understand and take for granted here in the United States. Economic barriers and not racial barriers are gradually becoming the underlying motivator of the civil rights movement. In other words, being black or Mexican will not matter in regard to civil rights. If the respective…… [Read More]
Winning teams are in the news, both on a local and national level (Frank 2004). This then serves as an unprecedented spotlight for national advertising. In 1984, Boston College saw a 12% increase in applications after winning the Orange Bowl (Frank 2004). This win was not any average win. It was an extremely close and exciting game that ending with a miracle passes from Doug Flutie that finished off the game. This excitement and the subsequent media coverage of the game afterwards created a firestorm that provided Boston college with free national advertising. This advertising serves not only to generate more students, but also as a way to increase alumni donations. When a school's name is present in daily or weekly national media, the alumni are constantly reminded of their school and the success it is attaining in the field of athletics. This reminder serves as a powerful marketing tool…… [Read More]
Other departments dealing with issues relating to sexual harassment are Foundation Personnel, Judicial Affairs Officer, or even the University Police Dispatch (in case of sexual assault).3
VIOLENCE PREVENTION POLICY at CUMB
Violence is defined as "to use force so as to injure or damage." It is recognized as part of CUMB policy that violence is as a result of emotional distress. Also that it is a rare occurrence which results from such extreme frustration so as to make the student break all the barriers of emotional control. Another reason cited as the instigator of violence is the undue use of liquor or other drugs. The recommended course of action in such a situation is to stay calm, and to seek help (through the Public afety Department), to stay safe (to have some form of defense like furniture between the student and yourself), and in no circumstance to coerce or threaten…… [Read More]
Minority Rights Revolution
The Civil Rights movement of the 1960s brought about several concordant social changes in the United States. What began as primarily an attempt to liberate African-Americans from continued systematic oppression in the form of school segregation Jim Crow laws turned out to be as much of a boon to American women and minority groups other than blacks, especially Latinos. Among the issues shared in common by all oppressed groups include voting rights, equal access to education, and equal employment opportunities. Creating social programs and institutions to provide especially for the needs of all minority groups was a logical extension of the Civil Rights movement, which appealed to women and Latinos as well as to African-Americans. The design of blanket-institutions and legislation was definitely a step in the right direction, as oppressed groups do suffer from similar forms and consequences of discrimination. However as John D. Skrentny points…… [Read More]
AFROCENTRIC CURRICULUM FOR K-12 African-American STUDENTS
African-American culture has made enormous contributions to the cultures of the world. The impact is particularly significant in the American context because African-American culture is a major component of what constitutes being American (Asante & Matson, 1991, p. vi).The Recognition of Diversity: The Salad Bowl of the U.S.
Since the middle of the twentieth century, American society has undergone major social transformations, such as changing attitudes towards various ethnic groups and the strengthening of civil rights. Events related to these changes included the civil rights movement, the desegregation of schools, and the decline of the melting-pot ideology, which is the belief of relinquishing one's own cultural heritage and adopting a new American identity. Ethnocentrism, the belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group, is a phenomenon that exists across cultures and is by no means a problem limited to the United States or…… [Read More]
Gender Equity in Education
Taking the Field: Women, Men and ports (Michael a. Messner)
Chapters One, Two, Three & Five
Women and men are clearly different, in ways far beyond mere physical composition, as Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus discusses in deep detail. But, the author (Messner, 2002) of Taking the Field: Women, Men and ports also wonders: where children are from, how children "do gender," how the American Youth occer Organization (AYO) does gender, and he wonders about the cultural symbolism of the process of sports. These are valid investigative questions.
Other questions posed by Messner: is gender a "thing" that one "is" or "has" - or is it situation-constructed through one's performance on the soccer field, for example? Those questions came to mind after the author witnesses the "Barbie Girls vs. ea Monsters" soccer contest - with "boys...unwittingly constituted as an audience for the girls"…… [Read More]
Book Critique on the book boys adrift
Book critique: Boys Adrift
For many years, there was a great deal of concern expressed about the poor performance of girls in schools. Although girls often excelled during the early grades, boys tended to edge out girls in terms of grades and on standardized tests, particularly in the sciences and math. However, girls have begun to catch up with their male counterparts in the wake of the influence of the feminist movement, which has profoundly changed the ways in which women are educated and viewed by the educational system. Now women are beginning to surpass their male counterparts according to some indicators such as college attendance. Women have not yet become able to earn as much money as men for the same work but their role in society has clearly changed. This has provoked a great deal of anxiety amongst some…… [Read More]
Sexual harassment is one of the most common forms of gender-based discrimination that has spread in the recent past despite its impact on victims with regards to depriving them equality and dignity. Generally, sexual harassment involves sexual discrimination that infringes civil rights through unwanted sexual advances, verbal or physical sexual conduct, and requests for sexual favors in a manner that affects a person's work performance or social relations. The victims of this form of gender-discrimination and crime usually feel powerless and have low self-esteem because its most common injuries are emotional. The prevalence of this crime is evident in its current spread in the education environment as well as other workplaces.
Actions Constituting Sexual Harassment in the Education Environment
Given its current spread, sexual harassment has become common in the modern education environment. Similar to other workplaces, sexual harassment in the education environment occurs between teachers and their employers. However,…… [Read More]
Oreto, 37 F.3d 739 (1st Cir. 1994). The 2st Circuit rejected the defendant's claim that requiring two predicate acts for conviction under one theory of liability but only one act for conviction under "loan sharking," violated equal protection.
Due Process. The forfeiture provisions of RICO have been criticized for violating the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Numerous cases have rejected this criticism including U.S. v. Nichols, (10th Cir. 1994).
Tenth Amendment. Arguments that RICO unconstitutionally intrudes upon state sovereignty in violation of this Amendment have all been summarily rejected. U.S. v. Thompson, 685 F.2d 993-1001 (6th Cir. 1982).
Most experts agree that RICO has been abused since its first effective use against the Mafia in the 1980s. For certain, it has virtually destroyed the Mafia -- lakey's intended goal and its only intended purpose at the time. However, even prior to the first Mafia convictions under its statutes,…… [Read More]
In those days prior to 2003, TADOC gave recruits nut-and-bolt basics, then sent the new Soldiers to their units where the real training started....nTo achieve "Soldier" status, recruits now spend 21 days in the field during basic training. The training focus has changed dramatically from what was primarily a standards, discipline and soldierization process to one of intensive combat skills. (Leipold, 2009)nHowever, such changes have tended to come about without any sort controlled, rigorous study. There is nothing wrong about changes that come from within and that grow organically out of the requirements of an organization. However, a controlled experiment offers certain key advantages because it can cast off old attitudes and biases.nI have already described the control group in this experiment. The three experimental groups add different elements to the equation. The first of these experimental groups is actually one that I predict will reduce the overall fitness of…… [Read More]
Under eno's direction, on April 22, 2000, under the scrutiny of national and international media and news cameras:
"Armed INS officers entered the home (where the child had been living with close relatives) before dawn and within three minutes carried Elian out to a waiting government van. Hours later, the boy was reunited with his father at Andrews Air Force Base near Washington, D.C., and eventually they returned to Cuba (Emert 2005 p. 144)."
eno's role in handling the case of Gonzalez was highly controversial and politically provocative. eno withstood with the assault of the Hispanic and Cuban communities around the country, but held firm in her position on handling the matter. It was not, however the first time that eno came under attack for handling a controversial matter. She likewise was responsible for the attack on the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, where David Koresh was the spiritual…… [Read More]
Holly Schroth, a management consultant and senior lecturer at the Haas School of Business and Management, describes the management style of Coach Jack Clark. Clark is the coach for the University of California's rugby team, and, under his leadership the team has won 21 national championships in the past 25 years. The article focuses on different aspects of Clark's leadership. The first part focuses on his leadership and development of the team under normal circumstances. The second part focuses on how Clark dealt with this team being downgraded from varsity to dub status as a result of budget cuts, which talks about how he leads in crises.
Clark was an athlete who attended the University of California as a football player. Like many football players, he played rugby at the end of football season, and fell in love with the sport. He played some professional football, and some professional rugby,…… [Read More]
history of the League of Women Voters rightly begins with the very inception of the Women's Movement and the fight for liberation in the United States. During the early history of the United States there was little, if any respect for the principles of women's rights. In an intensely patriarchal society a man " ... virtually owned his wife and children as he did his material possessions. If a poor man chose to send his children to the poorhouse, the mother was legally defenseless to object." (Women's History in America) The history of women's movements in the United States is largely a reaction to this system of exclusion and male-dominance.
The start of the history of the fight for women's rights begins with a tea party hosted by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, in New York. Mrs. Stanton expressed her feelings of discontent at the situation of women in society. This meeting…… [Read More]
Brown vs. Board of Education
A landmark court case that occurred in the early 1950's resulted in the desegregation of public schools. This historic Supreme Court case was known as Brown vs. Board of Education. The place was Topeka, Kansas, 1951. A little girl named Linda Brown and her father, Oliver Brown, attempted to enroll Linda in a neighborhood elementary school that accepted whites only. The request was denied, by the hite elementary school. The little girl only lived a few blocks from the hite elementary school, which would have been a good fit for her. Instead, she ended up traveling about a mile each day to attend the nearest Black school.
Brown decided to request the help of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The NAACP was glad to help in the fight. Mr. Brown and the NAACP moved forward and challenged the segregation law.…… [Read More]
ecent high profile bankruptcies in the U.S. corporate sector such as the ones filed by Enron, WorldCom, and Global Crossing in 2001 have highlighted the importance of financial ethics in business since lack of ethical practices were identified as the main cause of their failures. The business scandals underlined the importance of stricter regulation of the corporate sector and forced the U.S. legislature to pass the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 that contains a number of important provisions relating to business ethics. This paper about business ethics focuses on the impact of financial ethics in business.
Greed and an over-riding focus on increasing the profits and "share-holder value" usually leads managers and business leaders to disregard financial ethics in business. Although the impact of such "over sight" may be beneficial in the short run, it is invariably disastrous in the long run -- both at the individual as well…… [Read More]
In many of the cases Music is termed as 'Universal Language', a language that has no word but still has lot to convey. Music therefore has positive consequences on different front of societies including social, cultural and economical (Music industry and Tourism foster economic growth).
All these factors have convinced the school management to introduce and teach Music as formal subject in their schools, the Music subject has equal factor in terms of grade evaluation as compare to any other subject, Music has to be necessarily considered as core subject for teaching, "The term 'core academic subjects' means English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography"(No Child Left Behind Act of 2002).
Following facts and figures are listed to support the case,
According to College-Bound Seniors National eport: Profile of SAT Program Test Takers, Students having involved in the environment or…… [Read More]
The lack of such legislation was attributed to the fact that many institutions mainly enrolled male students.
The second major challenge for advocates of coeducation in the 1960s was that the existing legal framework and policies promoted single-gender education in which most boys attended dame schools in America. Since these schools were primarily for boys in order to prepare them for town schools, the educational institutions beyond these schools were exclusive to wealthy families, private, and isolated by sex. Coeducation supporters has to deal with this challenge because the existing legal framework did not allow girls to attend dame schools and mainly focused on preparing boys for admission to single-sex town education institutions. Moreover, when girls were eventually admitted to dame schools, they attended at different times of the day than their male counterparts or attended when boys were absent.
Generally, the major legal barrier that had to be overcome…… [Read More]
When ordinary 'beat cops' act unethically, it immediately garners negative media attention because it affects the public in such a visceral and immediate fashion. Police officers are the average citizen's main source of contact with the justice system and so they are carefully watched. However, prosecutors may decide to proceed with a prosecution despite questionable evidence or act unethically in other ways, and unless it comes to the media's attention or there is very stringent oversight over the office from an outside authority, prosecutors' transgressions may go unnoticed. Prosecutors and police officers both have the most serious and complex obligations of members of the justice system: not to get a conviction, but to pursue justice.
What suggestions might you offer to avoid errors in human inquiry?
First and foremost, to prevent errors in human inquiry causing errors in judgment, it is essential that members of law enforcement staff are cognizant…… [Read More]
standard joke about America in the 1960s claims that, if you can remember the decade, you did not live through it. Although perhaps intended as a joke about drug usage, the joke also points in a serious way to social change in the decade, which was so rapid and far-reaching that it did seem like the world changed almost daily. This is the paradox of Todd Gitlin's "years of hope" and "days of rage" -- that with so much social and cultural upheaval, the overall mood at any given moment in the 1960s must surely have seemed contradictory. How then can we assess the three most important themes in this broad social change? I would like to make the case that the three longest-lasting social changes came with America's forced adjustment to new realities on the international scene, with Vietnam; on the domestic scene, with the Civil ights movement; and…… [Read More]
Progymnasmata legislation on ERA
In the United States, legislation geared towards non-discrimination, human rights and equal treatment have made such overt discrimination against women things of the past. Title IX, for example, addresses discrimination against girls in the areas of education and sports. Federal laws also prohibit discrimination in hiring as well as in compensation.
However, statistics show that women continue to experience discrimination in a number of social structures. Currently, women occupy only 14% of seats in Congress. Though far from equitable, this figure represents a record high for the number of women in the national legislature.
Statistics from the Bureau of Labor show that despite pay equity laws, salary disparities continue to exist between men and women across a broad range of occupations. For example, in the service industry, female cashiers earn an average of $292 per week, only 89.3% of the median salary of male clerks.
Female…… [Read More]
Gender and Society
Sexism in the Media: Portrayal of Female Athletes in Media Coverage
Sexist portrayal of men's versus women's athletic events and sporting events has prevailed in the media for some time. Armstrong and Hallmark (1999) note that until very recently, women in profession NCAA Division I women's basketball teams, though popular, had received "virtually no television exposure" during key station segments; women also suffered unfavorable practice times and "hand me down uniforms" (p. 1). Perhaps no other area of media portrayal reveals as much gender inequality as the portrayal of women athletes. This is not because of a lack of interest in female sports necessarily. More and more women are participating in sports formerly considered male only. However the media portrayal or lack of adequate portrayal of women's events has contributed to the perceived lack of enthusiasm and interest in following women's events. The media utilizes sexist attitudes,…… [Read More]
Jennifer in this situation?
Two factors could be affecting Jennifer based on the description of case. First, the learning environment is not conducive for Jennifer because of the gender stereotypes. Moreover, Jennifer has once been the victim of sexual harassment making her to be uncomfortable among male counterpart in the classroom. Essentially, gender stereotype plays a critical role in the classroom environment where male students dominate the classroom. In a classroom where male students outnumber female students, male students will be portrayed as brave, inventive, and active, while female students will be portrayed as being dependent. Within Jennifer's classroom environment, male students' activities will capture more of the teachers' attention than female counterpart will. Thus, the male students will receive more praise, more behavioral reprimands and more academic help than female students. (NCWGE, 2002).
Sexual harassment is another factor affecting Jennifer, and sexual harassment has a negative effect on education…… [Read More]
Men from the Girls: The Gendered Language of Televised Sports, Michael Messner, Margaret Carlisle Duncan, and Kerry Jensen discuss the different ways that men and women are presented in television broadcasts of sporting events. To do this, they analyzed the commentary that accompanied specific gendered sports events: the "Final Four" games of the men's and women's 1989 National Collegiate Athletic Association championships and the mixed doubles matches of the 1989 U.S. Open Tennis Tournament. What they found is that sports commentators use different types of speech to describe male and female athletes, in a manner that they believed would result in the marginalization of those athletes.
They began the article by describing the history of men's and women's sports coverage. What prior research revealed is that men received a greater amount of coverage for sports. This gives the impression that men are participating in sports to a much greater extent…… [Read More]
The challenges families face include lack of social support, lack of guidance, lack of information, prejudice, and hostility. Gender roles and norms are entrenched in the society, making it difficult for children and their parents to resist or subvert conformity. The media and all social institutions perpetuate gender roles and norms. Yet when parents are willing to encourage gender fluidity or gender nonconformity, children and their parents are liberated from constraints to their creativity and self-expression. Specific challenges to resisting conformity include locating gender-neutral toys and games for young children, and finding strong social support networks for the child and the parents. Gender neutrality scares people for many reasons, not least of which is its perceived kinship with homosexuality, but also its being symbolic of social deviance. A person who does not fit into the neatly arranged categories of male and female may be viewed as an outright threat…… [Read More]
Policies and Procedures
Health and Safety Guidelines
There are several elements to health and safety guidelines that must be adhered to. The presence of equipment, hot water, and chemicals all represent safety hazards to the workers. Furthermore, to the extent that the operation carries cash, and may be at risk for robbery, there are other safety considerations that need to be taken into account. There will be electrical equipment in this environment, a risk given that water will be everywhere on site and its spray uncontrolled. A further risk is that customers will be operating the car wash, meaning that employees do not have full control over the equipment. OSHA has published a list of the common citations specific to the car wash industry, including fall protection, hazard communication, scaffolding, respiratory protection, control of hazardous energy, machines, wiring and more (Lawless, 2012).
A lot of health and safety guidelines can…… [Read More]
Personal Values in Sports
As with most dimensions of life, personal values and beliefs have a demonstrable effect on what is rendered in the form of behavior on the sports field of play and with the activities that surround the same. Beyond that, this paradigm is clear and visible irrespective of whether one is talking about the athletes, the coaches or even the parents of child (or sometimes college) athletes in some instances. This research report shall focus on the factors that most significantly engage and affect people when they are operating within the sports realm. The work of Donghun Lee (2011) will be a major focal point of this report but other sources will be looped in as well. While there are many factors and things that can influence somebody when it comes to sports, it is the free will and moral fortitude of an individual and the resolve…… [Read More]
Employment Opportunities for Women
The importance of diversity in today's workplace cannot be overemphasized. An important aspect of diversity relates to gender diversity. Historically, the representation of women at the workplace has been significantly skewed, especially with respect to key organizational positions such as board chairperson, CEO, and senior management (Nielsen & Huse, 2010). Women are usually concentrated in administrative, clerical, and other less demanding jobs (Paludi, 2012). This is particularly true for the author's organization, where all board and management positions are currently held by men. This paper provides a plan for increasing employment opportunities for women at the organization. The plan specifically includes a rationale for intentional employment of women in key organizational leadership positions, a strategy, and a profile for recruitment.
ationale for Increased Employment opportunities for Women
Whereas consensus is yet to be reached, research has increasingly demonstrated the benefits that may be brought about by…… [Read More]
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…… [Read More]
Jesus through the Old Testament
Christopher J.H. Wright's Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament is a book written to connect the two halves of scripture, in a way that helps Christians better understand that "…it is Jesus that gives meaning and validity to the events of Israel's Old Testament history."[footnoteRef:0] Wright is an Old Testament scholar -- an Ulsterman whose own parents had been Presbyterian missionaries in razil, although he would convert and become ordained in the Anglican church, and now resides in London where he directs an international ministry. His academic background is in historical study of the Old Testament, and his first full-length book was a study of economic ethics in the Old Testament. (He confesses endearingly, but unnecessarily, in the present work that he feels much less at ease with the New Testament as a scholar.) Knowing Jesus through the Old Testament is his second work, first…… [Read More]
The above quotation refers to forms of intuition and perception of the spiritual that in fact advocates the "blocking' of the normal modes of understanding and apprehension. As one commentator state;
The spiritual is all that is beyond the conscious awareness and would include God or gods, demons, spirits and nature spirits, ghosts, non-incarnate entities, angels, devas, guardians of the threshold, guardian angels and all the intangible entities and realities of the religions where the cloud of the unknowable things exists.
(Roze, Janis, Toward the New Humanity: From Emotional Intelligence
to Spiritual Intuition)
It is this perception of the intuitive forms of spiritual intelligence that, it also needsto be taken into account in a discussion of this subject.
2. Literature review
There are many modern as well as more traditional perspectives on the issue of spiritual intelligence. A broad and inclusive view of the central terms in this study…… [Read More]
K-12 Curriculum and Instruction: Changing Paradigms in the 21st Century
This is not your grandfathers' economy or his educational paradigm however; today's curriculum still appears as such and therein lays a very significant and challenging problem that presents to today's educators and leaders. According to Sir Ken Robinson, "We have a system of education that is modeled on the interest of industrialism and in the image of it. Schools are still pretty much organized on factory lines -- ringing bells, separate facilities, specialized into separate subjects. We still educate children by batches." (rain Pickings, 2012) Make no mistake in the opinion of Robinson who believes that divergent thinking most emphatically is not "…the same thing as creativity" because according to Robinson in his work proposing a new educational paradigm. Indeed this is also spoken of in the work of Zeng-tian and Yu-Le in their work "Some Thoughts on Emergent Curriculum"…… [Read More]
Attendance will be required for all group members to optimize the effect of the sessions. Group members will be allowed to leave the group as long as the intention to leave is provided in writing. No reasons will be required.
Because of the nature of the group, a mutual confidentiality agreement will be signed by all group members, including leaders, at the first meeting of the group. There will generally not be homework, apart from the requirement to apply what has been learned to the work and home environment. Group members may report on results if they feel they want to.
There is no need for a formalized institution to determine the ground rules and structure of the meetings. This will be a collaborative process between me and the group members.
IX. Group essions
Group dynamics generally consist of four stages: forming, storming, norming, and performing (Group Dynamics, Unit 10).…… [Read More]
"Their activities emphasized the sensual, pleasure-seeking dimensions of the new century's culture and brought sexuality out from behind the euphemisms of the nineteenth century (1997). This was seen in the dances of the era (e.g., the slow rag, the bunny hug, etc.) as well as the dress styles of American women. Women's appearance changed. They no longer were buried under petticoats and big skirts, restricted by their corsets. The silhouette was now slender and smaller, allowing a greater freedom of movement as well as more exposure of arms and legs. Women who worked were now considered "bachelor girls" as opposed to "homeless women" or "spinsters" (1997). By 1920, the image of the flapper girl was everywhere; this can be viewed as an example of just how far women had come.
Unit III: 1921 -- 1945:
Zelda Fitzgerald, wife of novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald, said in 1924: "I like the jazz…… [Read More]
XIII: The question can be raised of whether or not women, children and slaves have virtues such as courage and justice or whether they are solely physical and servile creatures. If they indeed have virtues, then the question arises of what separates them from the freemen.
I: Virtue is both intellectual and moral. In states, legislators make the citizens good by instilling good habits in them. In poorly run states, they instill bad habits into their people.
II: Too much or too little food or exercise can destroy the health. Similarly, too many or too few virtues lead equally to problems.
III: Moral excellence concerns itself with things that bring both delight and pain. All souls are concerned with things that make them either better or worse. People measure their actions by whether they cause pain or pleasure.
IV: Arts and virtues are dissimilar. A piece of art…… [Read More]