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Trail of Tears was an important experience that forever changed the history of the Cherokee Nation and the United States. Several thousand Cherokee Native Indians lost their lives when forced to leave their homelands through laws put in place by Federal authorities. The beginning of the negotiation of several treaties to establish land boundaries and trade routes started in 1776 between the nation of Native Americans and the United States. The influx of European-Americans and other countries desiring more of the fertile southern lands for farming and homesteads continued to encroach upon the lands of the Native owners.
The beginning of the end came when a smaller representative delegation of Cherokee Natives who did not have authority were either coerced or agreed to sign a treaty in 1835. The Echota Treaty signed in Echota, GA was accepted as a legal document and ratified by the United States Congress in 1836.…
Document A .The Cherokee Constitution. 1827
Document D. Andrew Jackson's Second State of the Union Address. 1830.
Document F. "Memorial of a Delegation of Cherokee Nation of Indians" (Message to Congress From a Cherokee delegation, 1830.
Document H. "Memorial and Protest of the Cherokee Nation." 1836.
This must have made the sting of their losses in court -- and their losses despite winning in court -- even more bitter. They had learned and played by the new rules even though that system was unfair to begin with (in all fairness, the Americans should have used the Cherokee legal system to try and get what they wanted), but the system refused to give them fair access. This is more evidence that the American and Georgian governments really did not want to see the Cherokee as equal or deserving the same protections and rights under their own laws as they themselves were, and that they were willing to do whatever it took to get the land that the Cherokees had lived on for generations. The advancement of Cherokee language and culture would have been an indicator to any eye, even a heavily racist and otherwise biased one, that…
Disease ran through our people like wildfire, while others were simply to young or old to make the journey and gave up, to die alone by the side of the road. Some of the soldiers were kind to us, but others brutalized us and tormented the young women. My young daughter survived the trip, and together, we are trying to build a new life in the Indian Country. I will never forget the forced march in the coldest part of winter, when so many of my people died. The rest of you should not forget, as well.
The Trail of Tears changed my life and my people's lives forever. Thousands of us lost family and loved ones. We were forced to live on the dry plains, where food and animals were totally different from our home. Our entire way of life was gone forever, and I lost everyone but my…
Burnett, John. "John Burnett's Story of the Trail of Tears." Cherokee.org. 1890. 10 Jan. 2007. http://www.cherokee.org/home.aspx?section=culture&culture=culinfo&cat=R2OKZVC/B7c=&ID=JY45S/LKJQ0=
Duncan, Barbara R., ed. Living Stories of the Cherokee. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
Cherokee Nation can be described as the government of the Cherokee people that is recognized by the federal government in the United States. Throughout its history, the Cherokee Nation has remained committed to safeguarding its people's intrinsic sovereignty while promoting and preserving the language, culture, and values of the Cherokee people. Moreover, the Cherokee Nation is increasingly committed to enhancing the quality of life for subsequent generations of Cherokee people or citizens. However, the Cherokee Nation has experienced tremendous challenges throughout its history that has generated considerable impacts on these people. One of the major events or incidents that had significant implications on Cherokee people or Cherokee Indians is the Trail of Tears. The Trail of Tears can be described as the Cherokees' march that was forced and directed by the United States Army during the removal of American Indian tribes. In essence, the Trail of Tears is the forceful…
Conley, Robert J. Mountain Windsong: A Novel of the Trail of Tears. Oklahoma City, OK:
Kidwell, Clara Sue. "The Effects of Removal on American Indian Tribes." National Humanities
Center. accessed October 27, 2015. http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nattrans/ntecoindian/essays/indianremoval.htm
President Andrew Jackson built his political and military career on an aggressive approach to Native Americans. His exploits began well before 1838-9, when his Indian Removal Act signaled the deplorable state of affairs in North America. Around 4000 Cherokee died during the forcible removal program dubbed aptly the "Trail of Tears," as many more Indians were displaced and deprived of rights that had been previously been guaranteed by federal law. The Indian Removal Act violated several tacit and implicit agreements between tribal governments and their American counterparts. By the time of the passing of the Indian Removal Act, five tribes in the Southeastern United States including the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole (which were technically and historically a branch of Creek) had been assimilating into the colonial European society. Yet mastery English and avid participation in the colonial economy failed to enable the Southeastern tribes to stave off the…
Goldberg, Carole E. "Public Law 280: The Limits of State Jurisdiction over Reservation Indians." 22 UCLA L. Rev. 535 (1974-1975) .
Goss, George William. "The Debate Over Indian Removal in the 1830s." (2011). Graduate Masters Theses, Paper 44, 2011.
Howe, Daniel Walker. What Hath God Wrought. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
"Indian Removal." PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html
Antebellum Period: Different Perspectives
Woman in a White Slaveholding Family in Virginia
My name is Matilda Baldwin originally of the Richmond Portmans that being my maiden name. I was born and raised outside of Richmond on my poppy's tobacco plantation. My husband's land is not very far away. I spend most of my summer afternoons with Mama. We sit fanning ourselves sipping mint-iced teas wondering if my baby sister will have a successful introduction into Richmond Society. Three years prior, my own debutante ball was glorious. It was where I met Robert Baldwin and many other suitors. He was clearly smitten with me from the start for the next day he asked Poppy for my hand in marriage. My father appreciates fine things in life; a good hand rolled cigar, two fingers of French Brandy and a man who knows what he wants but is not afraid of getting it.…
Carlisle Indian School: founded 1879; Indian boarding school; Pennsylvania; forced assimilation of native children; abuse of children
11. Cheyenne Tribe: Plains Indians; a Sioux name for the tribe; currently comprises two tribes; ties with Arapaho; hunters; ghost dance
12. ed Cloud: leader of Ogala Lakota; fierce warrior opposed U.S.; ed Cloud's War 1866-1868; Wyoming, Montana; became leader on reservation
13. Comanche Tribe: Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma; Plains Indians; hunter-gatherers; about 14,000 remain; speak Uto-Aztecan language related to Shoshone
14. Joseph Brant: Thayendanegea; Mohawk; American evolution fought with British to help Indians; became Mason; active political leader for Six Nations
15. Trail of Tears: massive relocation of Native Americans; affected Choctaw, Cherokee and other southern Indians; move to Oklahoma Indian Territory; 1830s; related to Indian emoval Act; represented treaty violations
16. Pontiac's War: 1763; Great Lakes region; Pontiac was Odawa leader; war against British after Seven Years War; British…
"Red Cloud." PBS. Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/i_r/redcloud.htm
Saunders, R. (2007). "Chief Pontiac's War -- 1763." Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://colonial-america.suite101.com/article.cfm/chief_pontiacs_war_1763
(Famous Cattle Trails)
The Trail in fact aided in the collection of herds of cattle from San Antonio, Helena and Texana in the south and Uvalde, and also from Comanche and Fort Worth, from further north. From Fort Worth, the Chisolm Trail goes straight northwards, and crosses the ed iver at ed iver Station, and when it reaches the Indian Nation Territory, it passes through ush Springs, Kingfisher and Hennessy on through to Kansas. In fact, what made this particular trail very important was the fact that along the route, there were present, three important cattle terminals, which were Wichita, Abilene, and Newton. Abilene was in fact one of the largest cow towns in Kansas, and it was a mere hamlet of twelve red roofed cabins in the year 1867, which was the year when Joseph Mc Coy, a cattle dealer from Chicago, happened to arrive at Kansas.
Abilene, History" Retrieved at http://www.kansascattletowns.com/abilene/abilene.html. Accessed 7 August, 2005
Beef Farming" Retrieved at http://www.face-online.org.uk/resources/factsheets/pdf_doc/beef.pdf. Accessed 7 August, 2005
Biodiversity and Conservation: a Hypertext Book by Peter J. Byrant" Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/\?\?Z[??[?K?X????[X??H?[Y\?X?[?L??Y??[?X??\??Y
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…
Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.
Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
Politics makes strange bedfellows, we are told, with the implication that those brought together by the vagaries of politics would be best kept apart. But sometimes this is not true at all. In the case of the Black Seminoles, politics brought slaves and Seminole Indians politics brought together two groups of people who would - had the history of the South been written just a little bit differently - would never have had much in common. But slaves fleeing their masters and Seminoles trying to lay claim to what was left of their traditional lands and ways found each other to be natural allies in Florida and in time in other places as well. This paper examines the origin of this particular American population, describing how the Black Seminoles changed over time and how their culture reflected both African and Seminole elements.
The Black Seminoles began in the early 1800s…
Amos, Alcione M., and Thomas Senter (eds). The Black Seminoles. History of a Freedom-Seeking People. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 1996.
Hancock, I. The Texas Seminoles and Their Language. Austin: African and Afro-American Studies and Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 1980. http://members.aol.com/angelaw859/movement.html http://www.nps.gov/foda/Fort_Davis_WEB_PAGE/About_the_Fort/Seminole.htm
Jahoda, G. The Trail of Tears. Kansas City: Wings Press, 1995.
Oklahoma has only been a state in the U.S. since 1907, yet Oklahomans were around well before then. Oklahoma is known as the “sooner” state because settlers had arrived in the territory before it had even been declared part of the United States. In the first half of the 19th century, the region was part of Arkansas Territory. The Native Americans were forced on the Trail of Tears and made to settle in Indian Territory in modern-day Oklahoma. In the latter half of the 19th century, cattle ranchers from Texas drove their cattle through Indian Territory to states up north and out west, paving cattle trails along the way. More and more whites began to settle in the area as a result of these cattle trails and the expansion of the railroad. Then when oil was found, Oklahoma became a major focus for the oil industry and Tulsa became…
He was viewing them as little children who required guidance. He tended to believe that the policy of removal had great benefits to the Indians. Majority of the white Americans were thinking that United States was not capable of extending past Mississippi. The removal was capable of saving the Indian nationals from the white's depredations Foreman 1932).
The removal could make them to govern themselves peacefully
It was assumed that the removal was to resettle the Indians in a region where they were capable of governing themselves peacefully. However, a number of Americans viewed this as being a mere excuse for a cruel and appalling course of action, and complained against the removal of the Indian nationals. Their complaints however could not prevent the southeastern populations from being removal. The first lot of people to sign the removal treaty was the Choctaws. They did this in September 1830. A number…
(415 pp., 14 ill., 6 maps, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932.)
Gibson, Arrell M. Oklahoma: A History of Five Centuries. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1981
Lindberg, Kip and Matthews, Matt. "To Play a Bold Game: The Battle of Honey Springs" North and South Magazine December 2002: pgs. 56- 61.
As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation faced reality when in 1837 foreign investors came to banks to collect. The speculative bubble of 1837 burst in what historians accurately termed the Panic of 1837. English and other European bankers called in the many outstanding loans the states had out as well as many private investors. Paying back these loans instantly crushed the nation's gold supplies which created a ripple affect where many local and state banks could not pay their debts, investors or the governmental reserves. These events lead to many forced bank failures and a national recession ensued.
The Missouri Compromise
In hindsight, we as a nation know now that the southern states who were in favor of slavery were prepared to defend their right to own…
Brulatour, Meg. Transcendental Ideas: Reform: Social and Political Changes in the Time of Emerson and Thoreau: The 19th Century at a Glance. Ed. Meg Brulatour. VCU. Retrieved on 21 Nov. 2004, from http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/ideas/reformback.html .
Lorence, James J. Enduring Voices: To 1877 the Enduring Voices, a History of the American People. 4th ed., vol. 1. ADD CITY: Houghton Mifflin Company, ADD YEAR.
Pessen, Edward. The Many-Faceted Jacksonian Era: New Interpretations. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1977.
Welter, Rush. The Mind of America, 1820-1860. New York: Columbia UP, 1975.
Mirror of the Face of America
Robert Takaki's book A Different Mirror is a history of the people of the nation of America. The book is not, however, a history of America that a reader might expect when he or she first opens an introductory text. The subtitle of A Different Mirror is A History of Multicultural America. The book attempts to give a fuller history of America. It tries to give a fuller history of the America of nationalities such as the Native Indian peoples of America, African-Americans, Mexican-Americans, Japanese-Americans, Chinese-Americans, Irish-Americans, and of the people of the Jewish religion in America. By telling the different stories of these different groups, Robert Takaki demonstrates that more conventional American history books are incomplete. The history of A Different Mirror is not simply the history of many different American groups -- it is a more complete history of America itself. The…
Takaki, Robert. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Boston: Back Bay Books, 1993. Reprinted 1994.
And farther west on the Great Plains were the Teton Sioux, among them the Oglalas, whose chief was Red Cloud, and among the Hunkpapas, was Sitting ull, who together with Crazy Horse of the Oglalas, would make history in 1876 at Little ig Horn (rown 10).
After years of broken promises, conflicts and massacres, came the Treaty of Fort Laramie, said to be the most important document in the history of Indian-white relations on the Great Plains (Marrin 94). The treaty basically set aside a Great Sioux Reservation on all of present-day South Dakota west of the Missouri River up to and including the lack Hills, and barred all whites except government officials from the reservation and from a vast "unceded" territory lying between the lack Hills and ighorn Mountains (Marrin 94). Under the treaty, these lands belonged to the Lakota "forever" unless three-quarters of the tribes' men agreed to…
American History since 1865: Wounded Knee
1988. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Amerman, Stephen Kent.
2003. Let's get in and fight!" American Indian political activism in an urban public school system, 1973. The American Indian Quarterly. June 22. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web sit.
......starting around noon, I visited the art gallery at the Woolaroc property. The property itself is a sprawling celebration of the landscape and wildlife unique to this part of North America: there are herds of buffalo on the property although we did not get to see any when we arrived. I headed straight to the gallery, which is locally renowned for its collection of paintings from the Taos group. Many of the artists on display I had heard of before, and was eager to encounter first hand and was not disappointed. Although I relished the paintings themselves for their objective aesthetic beauty, I came away from the experience with profound mixed feelings about the way Native Americans have been appropriated for use as subjects by white artists.
The objectification of Indians in European-American art parallels their subjugation as a people. Caldwell (n.d.) points out the "longstanding history and tradition of…
It is impossible in six short pages to fully comprehend the attitudes that hite Americans had to Native Indians and black Americans in the early centuries of our nation's founding. That was m not my intent. My goal rather, was to illustrate first that although we are often presented a dominant narrative as the narrative, the truth is that in surveying American attitudes towards American Indians and Blacks a single cohesive narrative does not exist. If such a narrative did exist the Native American Seminole tribe of Florida would not exist. The Seminoles were a tri-racial tribe composed of Creek Indians, remainders of smaller tribes, runaway slaves and whites who preferred to live in Indian society (Loewen). The First and Second Seminole wars (1816-18, 1835-42) in which the Seminoles fought against invading hites who demanded that they surrender their African-American members, were fought not for economic value but to eliminate…
Jordan, Winthrop D. White Over Black:American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812. University of North Carolina Press., 1995.
Loewen, James. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Miller, Eric. George Washington and the Indians. 1994. 25 March 2010 .
Root, Maria. Love's Revolution: Interracial Marriage. Temple University Press, 2001.
. . The most sustained on record" whilst the American Indian: The First Victim (1972) maintained that American civilization had originated in "theft and murder" and "efforts toward . . . genocide."
In the Conquest of Paradise (1990), Sale condemned the British and American people for pursuing a genocidal program for more than four centuries (Lewy, 2004).
It was not only masssacre; epidemics were introduced by the White people too, one of which was smallpox that destroyed entire tribes at one go. Measles, influenza, syphilis, bubomic plague, typhus, and cholera were only a few of the other plagues that the "visitors" bequeathed to the inhabitants already living on this soil. Approximately 75 to 890% of the deaths of American Indians resulted from these pathogens.
There was forced relocation of Indian tribes. The removal of the Cherokee from their homeland in 1838 -- an experience that was later called the Trail…
Lewy, G. Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide? History News Network, 2004. Web. http://www.hnn.us/articles/7302.html
Stannard, D. American Holocaust USA: Oxford University Press, 1993
As the costs were considerably less, the profit margins were greater and they were adaptable to host of different weather conditions. ("A rief History of Slavery")
How did the ritish and American ways of viewing representative government differ? How did these differences lead to problems between ritain and America?
The ritish believed that Parliament should address the different issues affecting the colonies. However, the colonists were not given any kind of representation or a way of discussing their grievances. This is different from the American views, where people felt that everyone should be allowed to speak directly with their representatives, about a host of issues.
Over the course of time, this would lead to problems between ritain and America. As the colonists felt that Parliament was not willing to listen to their concerns or to discuss them, by ensuring that they had some form of representation. This is was problematic,…
Brewer, Lawanda. "Religion in Colonial America." UNCP, 2001. Web. 11 Feb. 2011
"A Brief History of Slavery." Religious Tolerance, 2006. Web. 11 Feb. 2011
Geise, Robert. American History to 1877. Hauppauge, NY: Baron's Educational Services, 1992. Print.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
imperialism is necessary for cultures to progress. The United States is not often thought of as an imperialistic nation, because we like to think that we would not subjugate or take over other countries. However, that is just what we did when our forefathers came to this country and shoved aside the Native Americans. We subjugated and eradicated a culture and way of life, and that is the textbook definition of imperialism. Imperialism is wrong and shameful, but it seems that as much it may be hard to say, it is necessary for securing our way of life, and it is crucial in developing new trade and commerce.
First, it is necessary to define imperialism. Imperialism is the name for larger, more powerful nations to take over smaller, weaker nations, usually because of the promise of wealth or resources they can exploit. There is a long history of imperialism throughout…
Alam, M.S. "U.S. Imperialism and the Third World." Northeastern University. 2006. 14 Dec. 2009.
Amin, Samir. "Imperialism and Globalization." Monthly Review June 2001: 6.
Bonner, Robert E. "Slavery, Confederate Diplomacy and the Racialist Mission of Henry Hotze." Civil War History 51.3 (2005): 288+.
Social ideals and ethics are secondary. As such, if it were most beneficial to the State to commit genocide while conquering another nation, that would be the course of action taken. However, again thanks to increased media coverage, the world and governing bodies such as the U.N. Would not sit idly by. For this reason, this perspective is quickly becoming antiquated. Idealism, in contrast, is on the other end of the international relations spectrum.
Idealism surmises that a State's internal policies should be reflected in their foreign policies -- what they wish to occur within their boundaries is what they should support outside of their boundaries. Followers of idealism live by the Golden un -- Do unto others as you'd have them do unto you. The promotion of human rights globally would be incredibly important, from this perspective, as they too would want to enjoy the benefits of human rights…
Human rights timeline: From antiquity to the Magna Carta. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline1.cfm .
Human rights timeline: From European expansion to the Enlightenment. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline2.cfm .
Human rights timeline: From the American Revolution to Napoleon. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline3.cfm .
Human rights timeline: From the Indian Removal Act to the U.S. Sedition Act. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline4.cfm .
Still, many prospered -- visitors such as Alexis de Tocqueville from France marveled at American's drive to acquire wealth, American faith and sociability, as well as the profound racial divisions that characterized American society. American society was poised in continual paradoxes -- religious yet money-hungry, disdainful of social hierarchies yet dependant upon oppressing or disenfranchising races to secure advancement of poorer whites. America was also land-hungry in a way that put it into conflict with its neighbor Mexico, despite its insistence upon being against colonialism, having been born of resistance to colonial Britain. This resulted in the Mexican-American ar and the eventual incorporation of Texas into the Union.
Texas and the est itself is still another paradox of the American experiment. For those unable to become wealthy through capitalism, striking out on one's own in the west seemed a better alternative to the increasingly civilized and also socially entrenched east.…
Wilentz, Sean; Jonathan Earle; Thomas G. Paterson. Major Problems in the Early Republic,
1787-1848, 2nd Edition. Wadsworth, 2008.
The slave trade and the cotton economy grew during this time, but many Northerners wanted the practice to stop. This would ultimately lead to the Civil War, along with other events that boiled up during this time. Blacks were subjugated, had no rights, were often cruelly beaten, or whipped for any infraction, and it was a low point in their history as well.
This was a time of great strides in transportation, with the first railroads developing, canals constructed, roads built, and the growth of industry and business. It became possible to ship goods for long distances, and with the invention of the steam engine and other technologies, it became possible to automate many factories, creating more jobs in the industrial North and drawing labor from the farms to the cities. It was a time when immigration was extremely high, too, bringing the famous "melting pot" to the country, from…
Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty! An American History. New York: W.W. Norton Company, 2004.
If we are honest with ourselves, we can admit that we live in a society of tyranny and oppression. It might not be as blatant a case of civil rights violations as were the Jim Crow laws of the South, and it might be a more complicated issue when it comes to matters of personal faith. In the arena of public affairs, however, it is exactly the same. Either all people are equal, or none are free.
It cannot be the purpose of a democratic government to legislate morality. John Stuart Mill warned us of the danger of a tyranny of the majority -- the situation wherein the bulk of a society's people have made an arbitrary moral determination and proceed to impose on those small factions that do not adhere to the same beliefs. Such tyranny was seen time and time again in all forms of government -- the…
.. [of] her father, a gunsmith, she writes...'All he ever cared about were guns. All I ever cared about was art'" (Martin 2000). Vowell's anti-gun politics and assassination fascination thus may have a personal dimension -- in the act of remembering violent American history, Vowell comes to terms with her past although retains her liberal politics.
Vowell does tie the issues raised by violence and assignations in the past to present-day attitudes Regarding one unwitting casualty in the attempt on Ronald Reagan's life, Reagan's press secretary James Brady who must spend the rest of his life in a wheelchair due to his injury, Vowell is proud that she is part of their campaign and writes how moved she is: "that he and his wife, Sarah, turned this rotten luck into the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence is downright heroic. And not the soft-focus treacle that 'heroic' often implies. I'm…
Beato, Greg. "On the road with wisecracks and historical oddities.' The San Francisco
Chronicle. April 17, 2007. C3.
Handy, Bruce. "Assassination Vacation: Dead Presidents." The New York Times. May 8
Marin, Rick. Radio Daze. The New York Times Magazine. April 4, 2000.
uh.edu). He also made the electing process more democratic by having conventions where he had representatives from every state nominate a presidential candidate to represent their individual parties. This would provide a more accurate representation of who the people themselves saw as President.
Jackson also had great influence on the economic situation of that era. In order for Americans to start to buy more American goods, Jackson wanted to pass a tariff on all English goods. Although this meant that America would get more of their things sold and purchased, it also meant that Americans had to pay more for necessary goods that came from abroad (McGraw-Hill, p.338). This angered the South who owned property and were most affected by the rise in these tariffs. This was the beginning of the Nullification Act. This act was made as a compromise to steadily reduce the tariff placed throughout the years, but…
McGraw Hill. The American Republic to 1877: Unit 5: The Growing Nation:
Chapter 11: The Jackson Era. The McGraw Hill Companies and Glencove.
2004, 2nd edition. Print.
"Learn about the Jacksonian Era." Digital History. n.d. n.p. 27 May 11
13166 require that public entities receiving federal funds must have all vital documents available in every language that their clients speak" (Schultz, 2011). Of course, it is worth noting that state laws and federal laws approach the idea of an official language differently. There are state laws that have made English the official language in just over half of the states in the United States. This may be appropriate because states are more likely to have homogenous groups than the nation as a whole. However it is critical to realize that Title VI applies even to those states that have declared English as an official language. In other words, states cannot overrule the federal government's protection for non-English speakers.
If the majority of the United States speaks English, one may wonder why anyone would worry about protecting the right to speak a different language. Having a single language would certainly…
Brunner, B. (2011). Urdu spoken here: the U.S. is more multilingual than you might think.
Retrieved October 1, 2011 from Infoplease website: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/multilingual1.html
Crawford, J. (1990). Language freedom and restriction: a historical approach to the official language controversy. Retrieved October 1, 2011 from Effective Language Education Practices website: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/NALI2.html
English First. (2011). About English first. Retrieved from http://www.englishfirst.org/about
Decentering of Culture in Native American Groups in the Later Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
While Westernization has created tremendous problems for a wide variety of indigenous cultural traditions, there is little question that the introduction of Westerners to the Americas resulted in some of the most massive destruction of an indigenous culture ever seen in history. The vast majority of this destruction occurred prior to the 19th century. When Europeans first came to the Americas, they decimated native populations with disease and violence. Later, Native Americans were forced off of their land. The infamous Trail of Tears in which many Native American groups were forced from their traditional lands and onto reservations occurred in the early 19th century. Therefore, by the end of the 19th century, it is fair to say that Native American culture had already been indelibly impacted by the Western expansion. However, it is important to…
Bear, C. (2008, May 12). American Indian boarding schools haunt many. Retrieved May 20,
2011 from NPR website: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16516865
Grant, U. (1871, December 4). State of the Union Address. Retrieved May 20, 2011 from Infoplease website: http://www.infoplease.com/t/hist/state-of-the-union/83.html
Johansen, B. (1998, September). Reprise / forced sterilizations: Sterilizations of Native
This intervention by U.S. In a foreign country, in literal words, changed the course of history for the whole world and still its outcomes are yet, to be decided.
The attack on U.S. By Al-Qaeda, on 11th September, 1998, changed the course of American paradigm of Muslims and gave a strong cause for George Bush's "ar against Terrorism." here thousands of American citizens died in Twin Towers, so did the global efforts of maintaining peace between estern and Muslim countries.
Right after, this attack, U.S. invaded Afghanistan initially through Missile attacks and then landed its troops into this land of rocks, physically. Thousands of American soldiers were deputed there and made to fight the mujahids of Al-Qaeda who were rather well-versed with the seasonal feasibility of their land.
Therefore, initially, U.S. army did faced a lot of difficulties, mainly because of weather and foreignness of the war field. However with…
Bean, Lowell John. "Mukat's People: The Cahuilla Indians of Southern California." Berkeley, California: University of California Press.1972
Bean, Lowell John. "Cahuilla," in California" pp. 575 -- 587. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, vol. 8. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 1978
Bean, Lowell John, Sylvia Brakke Vane, and Jackson Young. " the Cahuilla Landscape:
Brown, Glenn . "Chapter XX Sculpture." History of the United States Capitol. Government Printing Office. 2007
Sociologists explain their condition through a culture-of-poverty theory or the theory of internal colonialism. Under the first theory, Appalachia families, for better or worse, simply cope with poverty. The second theory, on the other hand, ascribes poverty in Appalachia to structural causes. The theories offer insights but are both found to be quite deficient (Billings and Blee).
The first theory on culture-on-poverty became popular in the 60s and drew its premise from Appalachia's ethnic geography in the late 19th century. It was then perceived as a distinct region and race that entered the American consciousness only after the Civil War (Billings and Blee 2002). Imaginative fictionists only conjured images of the mountain and upland cultures, which were vastly out of step with the lowland's, culturally ad economically. At the turn of the century, Willim Goddell Frost, president of Berea College of Kentucky, discoursed on the people of the southern amounts…
Billings, Dwight and Blee, Kathleen M. Rural Poverty in Appalachia. Fathom Knowledge Network, 2002. http://www.fathom.com/features/122206
Coats, Lauren. Crafting Appalachian Identity: Regional Handicrafts and the Politics of Culture. University of Pennsylvania, 1997. http://www.history.upenn.edu/phr/archives/97/coats.html
Hagedorn, Jake. The Music of Appalachia. http://webpages.charter.net/jakehagedorn.appalachia.html
Lewis, Ronald and Billings, Dwight B. Appalachian Culture and Economic Development. http://www.wvu.edu/pdfiles/lewisarc.pdf
This instructor has learned to proactively educate his Navajo students about the need to reveal certain information they normally keep among themselves, such as burial grounds, because federal law now protects them from violation -- but only if their location is known. What this suggests to me is that I may simply have to accept that some cultural distinctions may be important to my Native American students and that it may not be part of their culture to explain it to me. If an issue is important then it may be up to me to explain why something is important in the school's culture so the child can be more successful, but without suggesting that the school culture is better or superior.
Finally, I think it will be important to incorporate literature from the cultures of minority students, recognizing that it isn't enough that the story be "Hispanic." A story…
Allison, Sherry R., and Vining, Christine Begay. 1999. "Native American Culture and Language." Bilingual Review, p. 193.
Amselle, Jorge. 1997. "Adios, Bilingual Ed." Policy Review Vol. 86, pp. 52+.
Araoe, Lisa, and Nelson, J. Ron. 2000. "A Comparative Analysis of Teachers', Caucasian Parents' and Hispanic Parents' Views of Problematic School Survival Behaviors." Education & Treatment of Children 23:3.
Bardwell, Tracey; McMahon, Rebecca, and Saunders, DeLaura. 1996. "Increasing Young Children's Cultural Awareness with American Indian Literature." Childhood Education 73:2, pp. 105+.
I do not use a pattern to design these sacred baskets. My grandmother and my mother taught me the skills to construct them, how to doubleweave a flexible basket-within-a-basket with a single common rim, for example, but the actual design comes from listening to the cane itself. It speaks to me as it moves through my hands. It tells me what it wants to be, how it wants to be shaped, what is will be used for.
It is not the first time this has happened. Stands of cane all around us have been destroyed. The white settlers do not understand Cherokee ways, and they think women's work is unimportant. I overheard one say not long ago to another white man that Cherokee "squaws" are "beasts of burden" because we do the farming work. I could tell by his tone of voice he was ridiculing us. The white settlers don't…
In return, Lincoln denounced Garrison and other abolitionists as "zealots" who would destroy the Union and dismantle the constitution for their cause.
In summary, DiLorenzo challenges the very foundations of classical Lincoln scholarship. He paints Lincoln as a power-hungry politician who put economic interests of his own group ahead of the interests of the country. He craved dictatorial power and willingly prolonged a bloody war in order to further his statist agenda. Finally, Lincoln's actions regarding colonization, his defense of slaveowners and his contempt for abolitionists belie his reputation as the Great Emancipator.
Analysis of arguments
DiLorenzo makes provocative arguments, ones that have been gleefully reported by right-wing columnists like Walter Williams and Joseph Sobran. However, a cursory reading shows that DiLorenzo's statements are hardly new. Instead, much of these are a rehashing of pro-Confederate writers from Jefferson Davis.
Some of DiLorenzo's statements are supported by facts. For example, Lincoln…
Education of Little Tree" directed by Richard Friedenberg and "Thunderheart" directed by Michael Apted. Specifically it will compare and contrast the main characters search for their native roots in the two films. Each of these films shows Native Americans struggling to understand their roots and their heritage. They learn in different ways, but they both come to an understanding of who they are and what their heritage means to them.
Both Little Tree and Ray Levoi are part white and part Native American. Levoi is a Sioux and Little Tree is a Cherokee. Little Tree does not know he has a Native American background, while Levoi has tried to bury his in his subconscious. Their quests for their roots are similar because they learn from the elders of their tribes (Little Tree learns from his grandparents, too), and they learn about the history and culture of their people. They also…
The Native American struggle for Civil ights is perhaps more tragic than that of African-Americans -- particularly when one considers how much land, people, and culture Native Americans lost in myriad wars and armed conflicts against people of European descent in the United States. It is because of these losses that the struggles and the oppressive measures faced by Native Americans were so considerable. Already marginalized from the mainstream of the country and continent that they once inhabited with autonomy, Native Americans had to contend with the latest in the long line of chicanery and deceit propagated against them by the American government after World War II -- the reneging of promises that gave them what few land and cultural resources they had on reservations.
Due to the popularity of the governmental practice of termination, which resulted in the re-appropriation of land and natural resources that previous legislation had…
Faragher, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H. (2009). Out of many: A history of the American people, Volume II (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux, is an account of the U.S. conflict with the Sioux, which gives a unique insight into the Sioux's version of events.
Main Idea: American authors/historians have only given U.S., side of events.
American historians give one side of history, incomplete picture.
Indians presented as violent primitive barbarians.
Anderson finally gives accurate account.
Main Idea: The Native Americans were treated very badly by U.S.
White settlers had no respect for natives or their customs.
Indian emoval Act 1830: forces all natives to move west of the Mississippi.
Native Americans cannot win.
Anderson's book gives accurate account.
Little Crow used as example, gives Sioux point-of-view.
Little Crow, and the Sioux, are a real people with a real culture and real feelings.
C. Anderson presents the Sioux side by delving into the Sioux's history and culture.
D. This is how to present an accurate portrait of events.
Anderson, G.C. Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux, St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Press. 1986. Print.
"Bingham Hall: Dakota Conflict 1862 New Ulm Minnesota" Bingham Hall: New Ulm Bed and Breakfast Lodging. Web Apr. 1, 2011. www.bingham- hall.com/DakotaConflict1862NewUlmMinnesota.html.
Hoover, Herbert T. "Review of Little Crow: Spokesman for the Sioux" Digital Commons. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 1988. Web.
French and the Native American: A Mutually Beneficial elationship
When considering the history of the United States and its inception, the most common conception is of Native American tribes being tortured, murdered, and generally emaciated from their contact with the Europeans. And certainly, this was generally the case. However, in the often sad history of contact between the new entrants into the Americas and the native tribes, there are also a few sparks of light, where the native tribes and Europeans in fact benefited from their interactions with each other. Although these benefits were often not without their complications, the relationships between the French and the native tribes with whom they came into contact were generally of a far less violent and murderous nature than most other Indian-European interactions. Indeed, the mutual benefits of these relationships began based upon the fur trade and later progressed to intermarriage and intercultural relationships.…
Templeton, K.A. (n.d.). Trail of Tears: The Native American "Problem" in the New World. Retrieved from: https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~katster/Hist16p.htm
University of Ottawa (n.d.). European Colonization and the Native Peoples. Site for Language Management in Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.slmc.uottawa.ca/european_colonization
White, S. (2013). Wild Frenchmen and Frenchified Indians: Material Culture and Race in Colonial Louisiana. University of Pennsylvania Press
Native Tribes and American Identity
It is reasonable to suggest that the United States would not exist in its current form without the contributions and influences of the millions of Native Americans who already lived here when the first colonists arrived. Not only did these early Native Americans teach the new European arrivals how to survive in the New World, in some cases they even freely supported them for years while they awaited assistance from Europe, all with no real expectation of being repaid in kind or turn. Without this assistance, the settlement of the American continent might well have been delayed for several more decades.
In addition, and although many modern Americans may not realize it, the so-called “melting pot” that would characterize the American identity during much of the 19th and 20th centuries was the direct result of the influences of Native American tribes. Moreover, Native American tribes…
The Cherokee Tribe in North Carolina is part of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, a federally-recognized independent Native American Cherokee tribe whose home base is in Cherokee, North Carolina, south of the Smoky Mountains. The Eastern Band is comprised of the descendants of the approximately 800 Cherokee who did not join the Trail of Tears—the forced migration of the Native American nations from the Southern U.S. region to the western U.S. region designated by the U.S. government as Indian Territory following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This relatively small number of Cherokee (compared to the 16,000 Cherokee who were relocated) avoided relocation by living on privately owned land, as opposed to communal land. For example, some 400 Cherokee lived on acreage owned by William Holland Thomas in the Smoky Mountains. Thomas had been taken in by the Cherokee in his youth and now returned the favor in…
maturation process, but it comes easily only to a few. Of course there are choices that usually generate little anguish such as what to have for breakfast or which route to take when going home, but when a person is a diabetic or inclement weather makes every road hazardous, even these choices become difficult. This paper discusses a poem and a short story by two of the greatest American authors of the twentieth century. Both Robert Frost's poem "The Road Not Taken" and illiam Faulkner's short story "Barn Burning" are about the difficult choices people are often confronted with. The stories reflect both real and intangible choices that the protagonists had to make (in Frosts poem the main character is assumed to be the author himself) and what the outcome of the choices were. This paper will begin with a literal summary of the two works, the real choices that…
Cornett, Michael E. "Robert Frost on 'Listen America': The Poet's Message to America in 1956." Papers on Language and Literature 29.4 (1994): 417-429. Print.
Faulkner, William. Barn Burning 1939. Web.
Loges, Max L. "Faulkner's Barn Burning." The Explicator 57.1 (1998): 43-46. Print.
Pauwels, Pamela, & Carol Hess. "The Road Less Traveled." Kappa Delta Pi Record 37.4 (2001): 164-170. ProQuest Direct.
The groundskeeper explained to the golfers, you are lucky to be alive, "You were sitting on a box of dynamite." The headline of small yet front page article LEOPOLD and LOEB OUGHT to READ THIS. A completely unrelated story of luck, becoms a very sobering reminder to the Sheboygan readers of the nationally infamous Chicago trial, still taking place and likely nearing the sentencing stage. On the same front page of the paper the details of the trail are played out in a larger article where the Sheboygan paper describes details of the trial findings, including the usage of phrases such as "death blow" submitting for public perusal the findings, as to who was the actual killer, (Loeb) and using descriptive testimony of witnesses with regard to Leopold and Loeb's varying psychosis. One passage describes a moment when Leopold began to show sympathy and then promptly apologized for doing so.…
Abrahamsen, David. The Psychology of Crime. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.
ALIENIST DECLARES LEOPOLD and LOEB ARE DEVOID of SOUL; Quotes One as Saying He Could Think of Killing Just Like Choosing Pie." New York Times August 5, 1924; 1.
Busch, Francis X. Prisoners at the Bar: An Account of the Trials of the William Haywood Case, the Sacco-Vanzetti Case, the Loeb-Leopold Case, the Bruno Hauptmann Case. 1st ed. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1952.
Cannon, Carl M. "The Problem with the Chair - a Conservative Case against Capital Punishment." National Review 19 June; 1.
hare a meaningful nursing encounter (2 to 3 pages) that takes your reader into the complexities of your nursing practice. Using the first-person (I), write a narrative (a story) about a recent or memorable nursing experience you have had. The term nursing practice experience is used broadly here to include practice related to direct patient care, educational and managerial practice with colleagues.
Write your story with yourself as the main character telling the story; tell your reader how the situation was experienced by you. Take us into your world -- the context of your surroundings, the nursing concerns you attended to (aspects of the patient/colleague experiences), your nursing responses/actions (or non-actions) and your emotions. ome ideas for the types of stories are identified below, but if you have any questions or are uncertain about how to proceed, please seek guidance from your instructor.
In her landmark book, "From Novice to…
Bass, BM (2008) The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications Simon and Schuster
Benner, P. (2001). Novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Robinson, M. (2012) Pictured: The 11 workers who admitted a campaign of cruelty, neglect and abuse against vulnerable patients in a care home from hell. Mail online. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2184499/11-workers-admit-campaign-cruelty-neglect-abuse-aimed-vulnerable-patients-care-home-hell.html
Robert Wood Johnson Nurse Fellows Program. Available at: http://www.futurehealth.ucsf.edu/rwj/
com). Sedate it is definitely not. e read, "Even from this distance the tower's abundant ornamentation is clear. Its Northern Italian Gothic style adds exotic elements to the neighborhood's skyline." (iboston.org). Trinity Church cannot be overlooked when examining the history and architecture of Boston. It is said, "James O'Gorman described Trinity as 'a cultural event of the first importance in American history'" (O'Gorman qtd. In iboston.org). Trinity church is significant because it "represents a departure of the Boston's mind from its Puritan past, and emergence of American creativity as a force in architecture" (iboston.org). The churches of Boston are not special to Bostonians. It is written in the Catholic Historical Review that in 2005, "The National Trust for Historic Preservation announced... that it had included the Historic Catholic Churches of Greater Boston, Massachusetts, in its 2005 list of America's Eleven Most Endangered Historic Places" (Catholic Historical Review). The churches of…
The Old State House Museum." Boston History Online. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.bostonhistory.org
Old State House." Story of Boston Online. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.storyofboston.com
Boston History and Architecture. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.iboston.org
Historic Places." Catholic Historical Review. Gale Resource Database. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
FID Technology in the Military
adio frequency identification (FID)
adio frequency identification (FID) is a term used to refer to an electronic system that transmits in form of serial numbers that are distinct, the identity of a person or an object in a wireless manner with the aid of radio frequencies. The FID is categorized under the wider automatic identification technologies category (Association of Automatic Identification and Mobility, 2011). The FID are intelligent bar codes that are connected to a networked system and can communicate back and forth with it.
The FID is nowadays used all around us, from the supermarket items to the pet ID tags, toil booths, gas stations and several security items. Unlike the predecessor UPC bar-code, the FID does not require any contact or line of sight in order for communication to be enabled between the tagged item and the centre of the system. The data…
Army of Robots, (2011). Development of Military Robots. Retrieved September 10, 2010 from http://www.armyofrobots.com/discussion-development-military.html
Association of Automatic Identification and Mobility, (2011). Technologies: RFID / What is
RFID? Retrieved September 10, 2010 from http://www.aimglobal.org/technologies/RFID/what_is_rfid.asp
Brian F, (2011). Pros and Cons of RFID Technology. Retrieved September 10, 2010 from http://ezinearticles.com/?Pros-and-Cons-of-RFID-Technology&id=522015
Abraham Path Initiative
The Abraham Path: The evolution of the enterprise over time
One of the most divisive regions of the world is the Middle East. The Middle East is fraught with conflict not simply because of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian territorial dispute but also because of a host regional and sectarian struggles that are tearing this area of the world apart. With this in mind: "in the face of daunting barriers, the Abraham Path Initiative envisions uncovering and revitalizing a route of cultural tourism that follows the path of Abraham and his family some 4000 years ago across the Middle East…As it takes fuller shape, the Path variously serves as a catalyst for sustainable tourism and economic development, a platform for the energy and idealism of young people, a beacon for pilgrims and peacebuilders, as well as a focus for seemingly endless media inquiries from reporters, producers" (Leary, Sebenius, &…
Leary, K., Sebenius, J. & Weiss, J. (2009). Negotiating the Path of Abraham. Harvard Business
School Working Paper. 10-049.
Lost Boys Never Forget" had always thought my childhood to be quite memorable. Birthday parties, family reunions, road trips, football games... It was a very active and eventful life when I was growing up, and I always seemed to have an exciting adventurous tale to tell in class the first day after summer break, or when my parents asked me how my day had been at the dinner table. I loved playing outdoors, and the nearby woods offered endless games of make-believe. However, when I was barely twelve years old, I chose to take a walk down the old, rarely used hiking trail in those woods with my friend Kenny. Down that path I would find something unlike anything I had ever seen before, and I would have such a life-changing experience that my entire twelve years of life before would seem almost like an empty slate with nothing…
The film version of the 'GodFather' became famous. The reason is that it was essentially a portrayal more on the family and emotional side rather than the gun toting violence. Thus the viewer shows the discernment between a good and bad movie by analyzing the depth of the portrayal rather than stunts. The argument that violence in cinema begets violence in real life falls flat. The viewers are not imbeciles, although many film producers take that for granted. Scarface 1932 version was all about the real gang rule of America. However the film not only depicted the violent lives of these people but also examined the psychology of the gangster and challenged the administration and there was depth in the portrayal. The viewer was absorbed in the passions of Tony to which they could relate, if not with the violence. Could that film have goaded viewers to become criminals? It…
Youtube. (2011) "Scarface movie that released in 1932" Retrieved 11 June 2011 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3qx6DhjaAP8
Youtube. (2011) "Scarface" Retrieved 11 June 2011 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g3jin2t_sJM&feature=related
Pells, Richard H. (1998) "Radical visions and American dreams: culture and social thought in the Depression years" University of Illinois Press.
Lyons, Charles. (1997) "The new censors: movies and the culture wars"
"Here there is no why"
Primo Levi, Survival in Auschwitz.
Attempting to determine what Franz Kafka really meant in any of his stories is a difficult undertaking, given the absurdity and irrationality of the situations he describes and characters that do not seem to function or react as 'normal' human beings. This is especially true in his unfinished novel The Trial, where the young and successful bank executive Joseph K. is arrested and put on trial without charges and for no apparent reason, then taken out and murdered a year later. He never knows why all of this is happening to him, and perhaps Kafka's main point is that there is no 'why'; there is no reason for any of it, and indeed the characters and society he portrays are not acting in a rational manner. Like Primo Levi in Auschwitz, who was thirsty and broke off an…
Environmental and Organizational Pressures Sample
Create a table where at least three (3) organizational pressures and at least three (3) environmental pressures in the organization are illustrated and rank those pressures according to their influence.
Carbon emissions and overall sustainability
anking and promotion characteristics with the military.
Dependency on natural resources and their overall depletion
The ability to attract, hire and retain talented individuals to serve in the military
Identifying and using alternative energy and packaging solutions
Cultural sensitivity and its meaning within the organization.
Describe in detail the environmental and organizational pressures that exist in the organization and how they have evolved over time.
In regards to organization pressures within the military, much has changed due to varying societal norms. What was once deemed unacceptable by society has now become acceptable for society overall. As such, these changes have manifested themselves in…
1) Visser, Wayne, Dirk Matten, Manfred Pohl, and Nick Tolhurst (Editors) (2007). The A to Z. Of Corporate Social Responsibility. London, England; New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-72395-1
2) Armstrong, Scott (1977). "Social Irresponsibility in Management." Journal of Business Research (Elsevier North-Holland Inc.) 15: 115 -- 203. http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/ideas/pdf/armstrong2/social.pdf .
3) Kalinda, B. (Ed.). Social Responsibility and Organizational Ethics. (2001). Encyclopedia of Business and Finance (2nd ed., Vol. 1). New York: Macmillan Reference
Uns-El-Wujood and El-Ward Fi-L-Akmam is a tale of love, separation, and reunion. Set in legendary kingdoms in times of yore, Chapter 18 of Arabian Nights is a quintessential romance. The daughter of the king's Weezer falls in love with one of the king's soldiers. Both become completely smitten with one another, but when their affair is discovered, the Weezer fears that the Sultan will not approve. The Weezer, Ibraheem, consults his wife, who prays for guidance. The parents of El-Ward Fi-L-Akmam decide that their only recourse is to send their daughter to a land far away, in "the midst of the Sea of the Kunooz...on the Mountain of the Bereft Mother," (p. 200). There, they will build an "impregnable palace" in which she will spend the rest of her days in isolation (p. 200). The lovers, who have been exchanging verses of love poetry since they first fell for each…
Meanwhile in the journal Du Bois Review (Parker, et al., 2009, p. 194) the authors point to racism and patriotism as key themes for the 2008 Democratic primary election. "Race was a consistent narrative" used by those opposed to Obama, Parker explains (p. 194). Both Clinton and the Republicans "used racial references" to attack Obama, including the attacks on Obama "for his perceived inability to connect to 'real working Americans'" (p. 194).
The Republican sideshow called "Joe the plumber" attacked Obama with the charge that Obama was "seeking to take money from hardworking 'real Americans' to give it to 'those people'" (p. 194). Clinton questioned Obama's patriotism suggesting that he was not a "real" American. Parker notes that when Governor Dukakis ran for president as a Democrat, he was attacked but no one questioned whether he was "a real American as they did with Obama" (p. 195).
The authors present…
Alter, Jonathan. "Leading Democrats to Bill Clinton: Pipe Down." Newsweek. (2008).
Retrieved March 17, 2010, from http://www.newsweek.com.
Balz, Dan, and Johnson, Hanes. The Battle for American 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary
Election. New York: Viking, 2009.
Other Congressional Democrats too are withdrawing their support of the president, including Senator Paul Kirk, Jr. Of Massachusetts. Health care reform too has seen a parting of the ways for some Democrats and the president.
Health care reform was one of the primary issues President Obama focused on during his campaign. The historic vote in the House of epresentatives brought him one step closer to seeing this reform come to fruition. However, the vote revealed a significant decline in the president's support. Whereas all but one epublican voted for the bill, almost 20% of Democrats voted against Obama's flagship piece of legislation, allowing to pass by a very slim 220-215 vote ("Final vote," 2009). The Senate has yet to vote on the bill, but with a similar composition as the House, the vote is certainly to be close. Immigration reform too was a topic Obama espoused to voters along the…
Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA history). (2009). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.nyse.tv/dow-jones-industrial-average-history-djia.htm .
Final vote results for roll call [HIDDEN] (10 Oct 2002). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2002/roll455.xml .
Final vote results for roll call [HIDDEN] (7 Nov 2009). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2009/roll887.xml .
Groen, J. & Polivka, A. (Mar 2008). Hurricane Katrina evacuees. Monthly Labor Review Online, 131(3). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/03/art3exc.htm .
Attaining a sustainable global environment requires rigorous reevaluation of our energy policies and practices, transformational leadership, creative technologies, and substantial changes in human behavior."
Sustainable improvement, rather than symbolic gestures are the focus of the Plan. In 2009, the university noted a one percent measurable decrease in greenhouse gas emissions by staff, faculty, and students. The operational means used to achieve this reduction were applying "alternative technologies and alternative fuel options to decrease emissions from the central power facility;" expanding "energy conservation through retrofits in existing buildings across campus;" designing "new construction and renovations to use 50% less energy than required by current energy code to at least a LEED Silver equivalency;" and finally including experience in leading-edge sustainable design as a criterion for the selection of architects (Sustainability Plan, 2008, Princeton University). Most radically Princeton has applied an internal voluntary so-called CO2 tax on all operations -- in other…
Sustainability Plan. (2008, February 18). Princeton University. Retrieved November 21, 2009 at http://www.princeton.edu/reports/sustainability-plan-20080219/
The death penalty is not unconstitutional and is even mandatory for certain crimes with the judge and jury having little discretion in the matter in order to avoid violating the provision that prohibits 'cruel and unusual punishment' the methods used for execution of the death penalty should be humane and sensible. While the criminal may lack in possessing any compassion whatsoever that this complete lack of the ability to have or posses real compassion that resulted in their being sentenced to death is a consideration in the regard given those sentenced to death. Finally, there should be no lack of certainty that the individual being put to death was the perpetrator of the crime committed.
VI. The ISSUES & the DEATE[S]
The issues and debates surrounding the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Eighth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution are becoming more heated with each passing day and while the general public…
Constitution of the United States (nd) U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) Access: Sixth Amendment Rights of Accused in Criminal Prosecution. Online available at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/
Rasmussen, David W. And Benson, Bruce L. (1994) the Economic Anatomy of a Drug War: Criminal Justice in the Commons. The Independent Review. Vol. 1, No. 2 Fall 1996. The Independent Institute.
Jones, Ben (2008) Sex Offenders May Get Special Tags. USA Today. 23 Oct 2008. Online available at http://www.usatoday.com/printedition/news/20070502/a_licenseplates02.art.htm
Michael Cooley (1972) has suggested that the drawing office has been downgraded in importance as a result of the finer division of labor in engineering that began in the 1930s. He described how the creative design element had become increasingly separated from the work of executing drawings. The fragmentation of shop floor jobs was, according to Cooley, paralleled by fragmentation of the job of the designer/drafter. Until the 1930s, drafters in ritain were responsible for designing a component, stress testing it, selecting materials for it, writing the specifications, and liaising with the shop floor and customers. ut starting in the 1930s, these functions were progressively broken down into separate jobs and taken over by various specialists, such as stress testers, metallurgists, tribologists, methods and planning engineers, and customer liaison engineers, leaving drafters with only the job of drawing (3D Systems Corporation, 2001).
In effect, in the ritain of the 1930s,…
3D Systems Corporation. 2001, 3D Systems. Retrieved Nov 3, 2011. from the World Wide Web: www.3dsystems.com/
Brown, Richard D. 2009, Knowledge Is Power: The Diffusion of Information in Early America, 1700 -- 1865. New York: Oxford University Press.
Chandler, Alfred D. Jr., 1977, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Cooley M. 1972, Computer-Aided Design-Its Nature and Implications. Richmond, Surrey: AUEW/TASS.
Military Draw-Down from Afghanistan
hen terrorists attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, there was very little hesitation on the part of then President George . Bush -- and the United States Congress -- to mount a retaliatory military campaign in Afghanistan, the place where bin Laden was training terrorists to kill Americans. The Taliban militants were control of Afghanistan at that time and they had provided training camps for bin Laden and al Qaeda to plan their terrorist activities against the United States. Bush gave the Taliban time to either hand over bin Laden (which they were not about to do) or prepare for a bombardment by U.S. military. The American public was fully behind the 2001 military engagement in Afghanistan, but few citizens at that time imagined that more than ten years later American soldiers would still be in Afghanistan, fighting the resurgent Taliban militants.
Aymeen Jawad, al-Tamimi. 2012. Rethinking U.S. Strategy in Afghanistan. Middle East
Quarterly 19 (Winter) 1-15.
Jones, Jeffrey M. 2011. Americans More Positive on Afghanistan After Bin Laden Death.
Gallup Poll. Retrieved January 29, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com .
Internet: Security on the Web
Security on the Web -- What are the Key Issues for Major Banks?
The age of digital technology -- email, Web-driven high-speed communication and information, online commerce, and more -- has been in place now for several years, and has been touted as a "revolutionary" technological breakthrough, and for good reason: This technology presents enormous new business opportunities. For example, by moving the key element of marketing and sales from local and regional strategies onto the global stage, and by providing dramatically improved customer convenience, the Web offers medium, small and large companies -- including banks -- unlimited growth potential.
That having been said, there are problems associated with online services, in particular online banking services, and security is at the top of the list of these issues. Some of the most serious security issues associated with Web-banking keep customers away from this technology, in…
Anti-Phishing Working Group (2004), "Committed to wiping out Internet scams and fraud: Origins of the Word 'Phishing'," Available: http://www.antiphishing.org /word_phish.html.
Arnfield, Robin (2005), "McAfee Warns on Top Viruses," (News Factor Network / Yahoo! News), Available:
http://www.news.yahoo/news?tmpl=story& cid=75& u=/nf/20050104/tc_nf/29450& printer=1.
Bergman, Hannah (2004), "FDIC Offers, Solicits Ideas on Stopping ID Theft," American Banker, vol. 169, no. 240, p. 4.
The female wolverine delays implantation; the egg cells float in the uterus for some time attaching to the uterus wall. Delayed implantation means that the young can be born at the right time, from January to April, regardless of when mating takes place. The female produces one litter every two or three years. She digs out a den in a snowdrift, in a tree hollow, or under a rock, where she has her young, called kittens. Two or three kittens are born each year. The kits are born furry and their eyes are closed. The kittens feed only from their mother for two or three weeks. During this time she rarely leaves them, feeding on food she has stored. Later the mother brings food to the den, but the kittens are eight to ten weeks old before they are weaned. They reach adult size by early winter but may stay…
Campbell, N.C. (1996). An introduction to ecology: distribution and adaptation of organism.
Biology (pp. 1080). Menlo Park California: The Benjamin / Cummings Publication Inc.
Campbell, N.C., Mitchelle, L.G. & Reece, J.B. (1997). The Biosphere. Biology Concept and Connections (pp. 681). Menlo Park California: The Benjamin / Cummings Publication
Because ranchers have long distrusted wolves, most ranchers in the surrounding area saw the wolves as a threat to their livestock and their very way of life. They also cite history that shows wolves are quite difficult to dissuade from attacking vulnerable livestock, and that many ranchers and farmers saw eliminating the wolf as the only real way to protect their stock and their families. Writers Smith and Phillips continue,
Although several methods have been developed to minimize or prevent depredations, few have proven successful. Guard dogs have been used widely, but with marginal results. Generally one guard dog is not sufficient, as several dogs seem necessary to deter a wolf attack. Another approach requires farmers and ranchers to intensify husbandry of livestock (e.g., confine sheep to structures overnight, develop calving areas near ranch headquarters, or monitor open range stock daily). Ultimately, killing the wolf or wolves responsible for the…
Donnelly, K.J. (1999, January). Canine in the wild. World and I, 14, 180.
Editors. (2005). Gray wolf. Retrieved from the National Wildlife Federation Web site: http://www.nwf.org/wildlife/graywolf / 26 Aug. 2005.
Jones, K. (2002, March). Fighting outlaws, returning wolves: Karen Jones examines the significance of the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park. History Today, 52, 38+.
Li, J. (2000). The wolves may have won the battle, but not the war: How the west was won under the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf recovery plan. Environmental Law, 30(3), 677.
In the opinion of the reporter George Putnam, while one fights for freedom somewhere else in the world, one could at that moment be in fact losing one's own freedom. He also states, on air as well as in other media that the United States of America is being invaded by an inordinate number of aliens, and unless this is controlled, the citizens of America could well lose their own freedom. He goes on to emphasize on the fact that being a Californian, and sharing a common border with Mexico, has meant that he has been suffering both economically as well as culturally, in the hands of foreign illegal invaders, who have been completely responsible for violating the very sovereignty of the state. This in turn has led to the miserable state of affairs present in the 'Immigration and Naturalization Services Department', and, in the opinion of the reporter…
Activists say Minutemen causing fear, ACLU offers training in El Paso. Associated Press. 28
August, 2005. Retrieved From
Accessed 31 August, 2005