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Allport's point through all of his studies and research is that, in knowing personality traits of an individual and classifying them, we can better relate to them and they to us, and both understand and predict their behavior. (Allport & Allport, 1922).
Gordon Allport's point-of-view is supported by David Charles Funder in his book, Personality Judgment, (1999). Funder says of Allport: "his work on the conceptualization and measurement of personality is today regarded as definitive of mainstream personality psychology" (Funder, 1999, p. 13).
Funder believes, as did Allport, that personality traits are real attributes of individuals. The focus of Funder's research carries on with Allport's emphasis on the importance of identifying personality traits (trait theory). He has created what he calls the Realistic Accuracy Model (RAM) which says that accurate personality judgment is the result of a four-stage, social-cognitive process. His resultant point is that accurate personality judgment is very…
Allport, G.W., & Allport, F.H. (1922). Personality Traits: Their Classification and Measurement (article). Journal of Abnormal Psychology edited by Morton Prince (peer-reviewed), 6-40.
Funder, D.C. (1999). Personality judgment: a realistic approach to person perception. St. Louis, MO: Academic Press (peer-reviewed).
The central premise in the argument that leaders tend to be taller than followers is based on a logical fallacy concerning the nature of trait theory and leadership in general. Leadership theory focuses on what makes leaders effective, not the characteristics that put people into a leadership position in the first place. This essay will break down the argument for trait theory, why trait theory fell out of favor and why the point about leaders' height is irrelevant to the entire argument.
Trait theory is based on the assumptions that people are born with inherent traits, and that many of those traits are suited to leadership -- those who make good leaders are those with the right combination of traits in the right amount (ChangingMinds.org, 2011). In general, trait theory was based on personality traits as opposed to physical -- adaptability, assertiveness, decisiveness, self-confident, tolerant of stress, intelligence…
Bolden, R.; Gosling, J.; Marturano, A. & Dennison, P. (2003). A review of leadership theory and competency frameworks. Centre for Leadership Studies, University of Exeter. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from http://www2.fcsh.unl.pt/apsociedade/Lideran%C3%A7a.pdf
Case, A. & Paxson, C. (2008). Stature and status: Height, ability and labor market outcomes. Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 116 (3) 499-532.
ChangingMinds.org. (2011). Trait theory. Changing Minds.org. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/trait_theory.htm
Doyle, M. & Smith, M. (2009). Classical leadership. InFed. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from http://www.infed.org/leadership/traditional_leadership.htm
Psychological Trait Theory in Criminology:
The field of criminology can basically be described as the scientific study of criminals and criminal behavior since professionals in this field try to develop theories that explain the reason for the occurrence of crimes and test the theories through observation of criminal behavior. The criminological theories in turn help in shaping the response of the society to crime in relation to preventing criminal behavior and reacting to such behaviors after they occur. Generally, the field of criminology has evolved in three different phases since the inception of this discipline in the 18th Century. While crime and criminals have existed for as long as societies have existed, the systematic study of these incidents began in the late 1700s. Prior to this period, crime and criminal behavior were mainly equated to sin i.e. The infringement of a sacred obligation.
Evolution of the Discipline of Criminology:
Lynch, J.P. (n.d.). Criminology. Retrieved from University of Colorado Boulder website:
See, E. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Applications. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from http://roxbury.net/images/pdfs/ct4ssg.pdf
"Trait Theories." (2011). Chapter 5. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from http://ebooks.narotama.ac.id/files/Criminology%20(11th%20Edition)/CHAPTER%205%20Trait%20Theories.pdf
For instance, this theory holds that extraverts have low levels of cortical arousal and introverts high leaves, meaning extraverts need more stimulation for socializing and being outgoing, while introverts receive enough stimulation from their own physical make up. Since each person has differing levels of brain chemicals, there are thousands and thousands of factors that can be combined to make up unique personality dimensions. This view is more biochemical in nature, and believes that expression of traits will emerge regardless of the nurture factor (Eysenck, 2008).
Trait theory has a number of positives and negatives. It takes the general theme of the personality and breaks down certain factors that seem to retain vibrancy throughout the individual's life, at least when compared to larger groups. However, it also assumes that people remain rather stagnant as they age, and do not change in terms of their basic personality. It is likely, according…
Trait Approach. (2010). Leadership Theory and Practice. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/30933_Northouse_Chapter_2.pdf
Daft, R. And Lane, D. (2008). The Leadership Experience. Mason, OH: Thompson Learning.
Dholakia, R. (1978). Personality Trait Theory and Consumer Behavior. Vikalpa. 3 (2): 111-119. Retrieved from: http://www.vikalpa.com/pdf/articles/1978/1978_Apr_Jun_111_119.pdf
Eyseneck, H. (2008). The Biological Basis of Personality. New York: Transaction Publishers.
Definitions / Descriptions of Trait Leadership
According to Peter Northouse's book, trait leadership focuses on identifying several qualities: intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity and sociability. Published in 2009, Northouse's book (Leadership: Theory and Practice) goes into great detail as to what constitutes trait leadership and what behaviors and values do not qualify vis-a-vis trait leadership. Northouse isn't alone in providing narrative that defines and describes trait leadership. A University of Cincinnati publication (Army Leadership Traits & ehaviors) explains that leadership trait theory focuses on a leader's: a) values and beliefs; b) personality; c) confidence; and d) mental, physical, and emotional attributes (www.uc.edu).
In the book The Anatomy of Leadership (West, 2000), the author asserts that trait leadership "makes the assumption" that there are "distinctive physical and psychological characteristics" -- above and beyond standard leadership -- that account for the effectiveness of a leader. Those traits include "height, attractiveness, intelligence,…
Bazerman, Max H., and Tenbrunsel, Ann E. 2011. 'Ethical Breakdowns,' Harvard Business Review. Retrieved January 10, 2013, from http://hbr.org .
Dowie, Mark. 1977. 'Pinto Madness,' Mother Jones. Retrieved January 10, 2013, from http://www.motherjones.com .
Gioia, Dennis A. 1994. 'Pinto Fires and Personal Ethics: A Script Analysis of Missed Opportunities', in The Ford Pinto Case: A Study in Applied Ethics, Business, and Technology, D. Birch and J. Fielder, Eds. State University of New York: Albany, NY.
Leggett, Christopher. 1999. 'The Ford Pinto Case: The Valuation of Life As It Applies To The Negligence-Efficiency Argument,' Retrieved January 10, 2013, from http://www.wfu.edu .
Theory vs. Ideology
What is ideology?
Ideology is a belief system that supports and promotes personal or a group's social or religious agenda. In some cases its nature will be obvious to most people, but in other cases an ideology will be disguised as scientific fact based on nonexistent or reinterpreted empirical evidence. Ideologies are invariably supported by personally- or collectively-held religious or political beliefs, rather than extant empirical evidence or objective observation. Concepts within the ideology are typically framed in a black and white manner, such as right vs. wrong, just vs. unjust, and Evil Empire vs. God's Country. The use of such terminology has the effect of erasing the inherent complexity common to most social issues. From the perspective of a social scientist the most important characteristic is that ideologies are refractory to scientific inquiry and may go so far as to attack opposing beliefs to preserve its…
Cusac, Anne-Marie (2009). Cruel and Unusual: The Culture of Punishment in America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z
Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.
Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.
Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly…
Barney, J. (2004). "An Interview with William Ouchi." Academy of Management
Executives.18 (4): 108-117.
Daft, R. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management."
Academy of Management Executives. 18 (4): 117-22.
leadership theories and how they are influencing an organization. As, we carefully examine the different ones and discuss how this will impact the long-term sustainability of the firm. This is the point that we can determine how and when these different ideas should be used to motivate subordinates.
When most people hear the word leadership they will often think of a person that is sure of themselves. As they are using: their experiences and courage to help inspire everyone around them during the most challenging of times. Yet, when you look a little further, it is clear that genuine leadership is more than just an image or an ideal. Instead, it is common form of thinking and a way of life that can help to transform the world as we know it. To fully understand how this is taking place requires: providing a basic definition of this concept and examining…
Alasdair MacIntyre, 2011, Wikipedia. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011].
Concepts of Leadership, 2010, NW Link. Available from: [9 Nov. 2011].
Traditional Theories of Leadership, 2011, E How. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011]
Cherry, K, 2011, Leadership Theories, About. Available from: [9 Nov. 2011].
The case of former colonel ussell Williams offers insight into the psychology of criminal behavior. Williams's confession interview was released to the public and aired on The Fifth Estate, offering criminologists, sociologists, psychologists, and law enforcement officials unique access to the mind of a criminal. Analysts interviewed for The Fifth Estate documentary note that Williams presents a conundrum for psychologists and criminologists, as his reactions to the police interview did not fit any previously known profile, such as that of a psychopath. Williams exhibits traits that resemble psychopathic behavior, in accordance with individual trait theory. For instance, he meticulously recorded his crimes and kept the photographic and video imagery as souvenir mementos.
Yet Williams also denies his right to an attorney, permits a foot imprint of his incriminating boots, and also states in the interview that he "was hoping" that he would not have raped or killed again had…
"Dr. John Bradford won't work Magnotta case because of PTSD," (2014). CBC. Mar 13, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/dr-john-bradford-won-t-work-magnotta-case-because-of-ptsd-1.2571463
Fifth Estate (2010). The Confession. [Video documentary].
Friscolanti, M. (2014). Russell Williams's wife knew he was a predator: victim. Maclean's. Retrieved online: http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/russell-williamss-wife-knew-he-was-a-predator-victim/
La Salle, L. (2013). Colonel Russell Williams where have you been? I've been to London to fly the queen and back to collect artifacts. All Things Crime. Dec 11, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.allthingscrimeblog.com/2013/12/11/colonel-russell-williams-where-have-you-been-ive-been-to-london-to-fly-the-queen-and-back-to-collect-artifacts/
And certainly those men and women that have the ability to be trained, and have the character and judgment and willingness to be led before they are ready to lead, are certainly ready become military leaders. And just as a diamond must have three properties to become a diamond -- carbon, head, and pressure -- a leader must have three properties as well -- "character, knowledge, and application" (UC).
In conclusion, inspiring troops as they go into harm's way is the solemn, august responsibility of military leaders. The traits that a leader must have in order to lead and inspire, include: engendering trust; be willing to assume the same risks as those he is leading; be competent and cooperative and have sound judgment; and have the character and knowledge to know what to do and when to do it.
Crandall, Doug. (2006). Leadership Lessons from est Point. Hoboken,…
Crandall, Doug. (2006). Leadership Lessons from West Point. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Harvey, Robert. (2008). Maverick Military Leaders: The Extraordinary Battles of Washington,
Nelson, Patton, Rommel and others. New York: Skyhorse Publishing.
Sweeney, Patrick J. (2010). Do Soldiers Reevaluate Trust in Their Leaders Prior to Combat
Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.
ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…
Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/
Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.
Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.
Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ) is based on trait theory of leadership, which suggests that individuals possess specific personality or behavioral traits conducive to leadership like expressiveness, sensitivity, and determination. The questionnaire does not measure one's efficacy or effectiveness as a leader. ather, the questionnaire is designed to measure self-perceptions and perceptions of others. Because it takes into account both self-reports and the perceptions of others measured on the same scale, the LTQ is robust and reflects prevailing literature that shows that personality assessed using both self and observer ratings explains more variance in leadership than self ratings of personality alone," (Colbert, Judge, Choi & Wang, 2012, p. 670). Answers on the LTQ will reflect more about the leadership style one exhibits than one's innate abilities or prior successes as a leader.
Some of the qualities listed on the LTQ include self-confidence, trustworthiness, and sensitivity. Most of the qualities on the…
Colbert, A.E., Judge, T.A., Choi, D. & Wang, G. (2012). Assessing the trait theory of leadership using self and observer ratings of personality. The Leadership Quarterly 23(4): 670-685.
Zaccaro, S.J. (2007). Trait-based perspectives of leadership. American Psychologist 62(1): 6-16.
e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…
House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf
Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf
Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-
78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf
Different Ways of Organizing in Supervision and Management
Organizing constitutes a crucial management function. It is essentially concerned with task allocation, division of labor, chain of command, lines of authority and communication, delegation, span of control, as well as supervision and coordination (Shafiee, Razminia & Zeymaran, 2016). The manner in which these processes are organized significantly influences organizational effectiveness and efficiency. It determines how quick or slow decisions are made and implemented. This is particularly important in a constantly evolving environment, in which agility is a crucial parameter of competitive advantage (Felin & Powell, 2016). Organizational structure also shapes relationships between superiors and subordinates (Shafiee, Razminia & Zeymaran, 2016).
There are different ways through which the organizing function may be executed. For instance, organizational structure may adopt either the centralized or decentralized form. The former entails concentrating decision-making authority in top organizational positions, while that latter involves distributing…
The four lanchard leadership styles include:
3) coaching; and 4) delegating. (Clawson, 1989)
2) House's Path Goal Theory of Leadership - the motivational function of the leader consists of increasing personal payoffs to subordinates for work-goal attainment and making the path to these payoffs easier to travel by clarifying it, reducing roadblocks and pitfalls, and increasing the opportunities for personal satisfaction en route. (Clawson,1989)
V. CHARISMATIC THEORY
Charismatic leadership is measured by: (1) Followers' trust in the correctness of the leader's belief; (2) similarity of followers' beliefs to the leader's beliefs; (3) unquestioning acceptance of the leader by followers; (4) followers' affection for the leader; (5) followers' willing obedience to the leader; (6) emotional involvement of followers in the mission of the organization; (7) heightened performance goals of followers; and (8) belief of followers that they are able to contribute to the success of the group's…
Liu, W., Lepak, D.P., Takeuchi, R., and Sims, H.P (2003) Matching Leadership Styles with Employment modes: Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective. Human Resource Management Review. 13 (2003).
Clawson, J.G. (1989) Leadership Theories. University of Virginia Darden School Foundation. Charlottesville, VA. Online SSRN Research.
Stodgills Handbook of Leadership (1981) revised Bernard M. Bass New York: The Free Press 1981.
Mintzberg, Henry (1973) Mintzberg's Ten Managerial Roles -the Nature of Managerial Work 1973.
"Our leadership development and training programs push each and every delegate to gain a rigorous personal insight into what makes them tick and then, with that understanding of themselves, to stretch the boundaries of what's comfortable for them" (Leadership development - Leadership skills and training, 2008, Impact Factory). Leadership training through the organization stresses emotional rather than technical skills, unlike GE. Human perception, creativity and out-of the box thinking is what is defined as leadership skills by Impact Factory and by the companies that use its services to train new and older employees alike, employees defined as leaders, and lower level employees as well. Key to success for individuals and the organization as a whole include: "Determining how well you perceive what's going on around you...polishing interpersonal skills and communication skills" (Leadership development - Leadership skills and training, 2008, Impact Factory).
The influence of leadership theory of a 'great man'…
General Electric: Imagination at work. (2008). GE. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008. http://www.gepower.com/commitment/en/integrity.htm
Ethos. (2008). The Impact Factory. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008 at http://www.impactfactory.com/ factory.shtml
Impact Factory. (2008). Impact Factory Homepage. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008 at
Personality Theory Blog
Personality Theories and Conducting Assessment
According to the humanistic psychologist's theory of personality, people in their endeavor, try to reach superior levels of mental functioning and personal growth that they also evaluate through objective measures and individual reflections. Even though objective measures are not biased, they do not offer a lot of information. An objective measure of personality is one that uses research to get results. For instance, a pen and paper pre-employment test is very likely an objective measure, other examples of which include: the Second Edition (MMPI-2), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and other major assessments of personality/intelligence (Heffner, 2015). Humanistic psychologists use objective tests to understand better how the patient views his/herself. In these tests, choices that when chosen by the patient will give a clear description of the patient are presented as compared to the unstructured and structured personal interviews…
Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/persintro.html
Evans, R. (2012, November). Japan and blood types: Does it determine personality? Retrieved from BBC News Magazine: http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-20170787
Fletcher, R. (2014, August 21). Cross Cultural Personality Research. Retrieved from Randall Fletcher: https://randallnf.wordpress.com/2014/08/21/cross-cultural-personality-research/
Heffner, C. L. (2015, Novemeber 1). Assessment Theories. In AllPsych (Ed.), Personality Theory: An Introduction. AllPsych. Retrieved from All Psych: http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/assessment_theories/#.VjZkw1TnUV4
Psychologists have described personality as specific way of feeling, thinking and self-conduct (Mcleod, 2014) of an individual. Personality is the constantly changing system in the minds of individuals and made up of specific psychological traits that influence their specific self-conduct and thinking. Personality is the combination of behavior that distinguishes a person. The personality of a person is affected by genetic and biological factors as well as factors such as upbringing, environment etc.
Personality theories are broken down into two classes:
• Trait theories of personality that believe that personality depends more on biological factors
• State theories, which see upbringing and societal factors as the major determinants of personality
This paper will be exploring two personality theories: Hans Eysenck's Personality Theory and Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory.
Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
This theory of personality believes that our differing personalities arise from the communication between what Sigmund Freud…
Boundless. (2016, August 17). Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Boundless Psychology: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/personality-16/psychodynamic-perspectives-on-personality-77/freudian-psychoanalytic-theory-of-personality-304-12839/
McLeod, S. (2014). Theories of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/personality-theories.html
Theoretical Perspective of the Approach
The approach's personality models are grounded on biological models. The models are based on empirical human and animal findings concerning the associations between neurological system functions and personality dimensions. Traits that are measured are reward-dependence, harm avoidance, novelty-seeking etc. The hypothesis is that they are grounded on genetic and neurochemical influences. For instance, sensation-seeking and explorative tendencies like drug usage make use of dopaminergic pathways, and such a characteristic corresponds to novelty-seeking behavior in Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TQP). People who are high on the novelty-seeking spectrum tend to be impulsive and take a lot of risks. Serotonin is linked to harm and punishment avoidance. Lower serotonin levels result in a "neurotic" personality. eward dependence is linked to noradrenaline. People that lean more towards harm avoidance tend to be more affectionate and sentimental. Those on the other end of the scale tend to be pragmatic and…
Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: H. Holt and. Company. Biological Approaches.(n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2015, from http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/psych101/personality/section5.rhtml
Cattell, R. B. (1965). The scientific analysis of personality. Baltimore: Penguin Books.
Eysenck, H. J. (1952). The scientific study of personality.
Eysenck, H. J. (1966). Personality and experimental psychology. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society.
Tenets of Traditional and Contemporary Psychodynamics
One of the founders of traditional psychodynamics is Sigmund Freud with his approach of psychoanalytic theory with which he attempted to explain the behavior of human beings by looking at the mind and the inner thinking process of individuals, right from the time of birth. Due to his work, Freud influenced several other scholars in the line of psychology who later on came up with various arguments around the mind and the aspects that influence human behavior. Firstly and significant here, the traditional psychodynamic theory argues that there are psychological energy within the individual that are related to the attachments, continuous conflict and the motivations that the individual has. The theory further indicates that the behavior of an individual at the adulthood is widely influenced by the early childhood experiences.
The traditional psychodynamics also gave an indication that the psychological development took…
Cherry K., (2015).Trait Theory of Personality. Retrieved July 11, 2015 from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/trait-theory.htm
Mullen W., (1996). Study Challenges Freud's Theory of Subconscious. Chicago Tribune. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1996-09-20/news/9609200240_1_subliminal-messages-popcorn-sales-anthony-greenwald
Sage Publications, (2008).Psychoanalysis in Theory and Practice. Retrieved July 11, 2015 from http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/23240_Chapter_5.pdf
The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology.
Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment. Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality.
Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment. He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief…
Lee (2003) says that insecure attachments have been linked to psychiatric disorders to which the children are exposed to after the loss of the attachment figure. These children will form inability to form secure attachments, react with hostility and rejection to their environment according to Pickover, (2002). This is a phenomenon found among many immigrant children, especially who had the attachment figure back in their country of origin and yet they remained there. They tend to have a problem re-attaching themselves to any other person, hence may grow up to be violent and develop criminal trends Pickover, (2002).
Shortfalls of the attachment theory
The idea that the parents shape the personality and character is misplaced and instead it is the peers who influence character and behavior of the child. According to Harris (1998:Pp2) "parents do not shape their child's personality or character. A child's peers have more influence…
Chris Fraley, (2010). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Harris, J.R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press. In Lee J., (2003). The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. Pp.2 http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/lee.html
Klaus, M.H., Kennell, J.H., & Klaus, P.H. (1995). Bonding. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Pickover, S. (2002). Breaking the cycle: A clinical example of disrupting an insecure attachment system. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24, 358-367.
In ode to get beyond such shallow viewpoints, they need to meely use such diffeences as the stating point fo thei conception of people fom othe ethnicities, and actually get beyond that bing about an impovement in inteacial elations.
As such, it is extemely inteesting to note how sociological concepts of standpoint theoy and systems of pivilege typify many of the esponses that Chistenson had to opinions and statements voiced by othe men in the video. Fo the most pat, Chistenson's esponses eithe contained an element of ignoance o outight disbelief to many of the social baies and misconceptions that the men of colo spoke about. These poclivities of Chistenson can widely be ationalized via standpoint theoy, which poses the notion that people's system of beliefs is geatly affected by the social goup they ae a pat of. Moeove, this theoem places a fai amount of emphasis on hegemony, a…
references within this article, he explains how people tend to follow those who are in authority, and also display the tendency to not desire to deviate from the norm. Doing so within the social context of interracial relations, for instance, would require regarding people with less power and privilege in a manner in which there is social equality -- which is a character trait that is not generally part of human nature, which tends to follow an established tradition. Meyer's article implies that nice people would rather go along and do what everybody else is doing, adhering to any authority figures along the way, that deviate and actually think for themselves and treat people differently as a result. This article denotes all the more reason why it is important to merely use the differences in various ethnic groups as a starting point for the nature of interracial relations.
In summary, there is a plentiful amount of evidence that denotes that there are pronounced differences afforded to people of different social standings. Privilege theory and standpoint theory indicate that these differences can account for the bulk of the way that people view and, ultimately, treat other people. Johnson's first two chapters in his manuscript confirm the degree of privilege afforded to those of historical majority groups in the U.S. Meyers' indicates that people will tend to conform to such unfair treatment of others -- unless they make a conscious decision to only use ethnic differences as a starting point, not ending point, for the basis of treatment between races.
unsuccessful leaders in modern society, one will notice modern leaders considered successful are those that embrace change and work to empower subordinates and followers in a non-threatening manner, and in a manner that is consistent with other's ideologies and spiritual beliefs (Siegel, 2001). This confirms the theory of transformational leadership where leaders work to enable change in an uncomplicated and organized fashion. This theory of leadership is possible and logical today because so much of our time is invested in change, whether it is technological in nature (Couillard & Lapierre, 2003) or strategically based.
Complicating matters are modern notions of "transactional leadership" which suggest leaders, especially those working in an organizational context, must work to motivate people using an exact system. This system would reward and punish those who accomplished or failed to accomplish their goals (Gerzon, 2003). This seems illogical however, if one considers how far leadership has come…
Barker, R.A. (2001) the nature of leadership. Human Relations, 54(4): 469-93.
Barnett, T. & Shubert, E. (2002) Perceptions of the Ethical Work Climate and Covenantal
Relationships. Journal of Business Ethics, 36(1): 280-90.
Bennett, N., Wise, C., Woods, P., & Harvey, J. (2003) Distributed Leadership.
Theory vs. Practice
When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within…
They are not forced to only do what others in the company want.
That is a big problem with followers, as well - they feel as though they cannot do anything on their own and/or that their interests are not valuable to the company. Some of these people have great ideas, but if no one listens to them it becomes very hard for them to keep their interest in working for the company or organization. When they see that their voices matter, they remain interested in what is taking place. If the leader they report to makes them feel welcome and appreciates their ideas, there is a growth period that can take place. It can be much more valuable than just having a leader who orders followers around. The leader and the followers, says ennis (2003) should be a true team.
Things that get done in a company should be…
Bennis, W. (2003). On Becoming a Leader. Massachusetts: Perseus Publishing.
Gardner, J.W. (1990). On Leadership. New York: Free Press.
Shaping of Virtues in a Child
There have been many debates on the behavioral patterns of children and how they will grow up. Indeed, some scholars like Aristotle have indicated that virtues are innate and each child is born with his own set of virtues. The question that hence lingers in many minds is then how should one bring up a child if these virtues are innate?
The answer to this challenge is not a straight jacket answer that fits all but in this paper there will be attempt to try and explain how both nature and nurture marries to develop the real, not ideal, person that lives in the contemporary society. Many arguments abound on whether behavior is developed by nurture or endowed by nature, and the long running debate has come to a conclusion that behavior is shaped by both and these two play crucial roles in the…
Joseph, J. (2001). Is crime in the genes? A critical review of twin and adoption studies of criminality and antisocial behavior. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 22, 179-218. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/jones.html
Strategic Policy Brief, (2009). Theories of the Causes of Crime. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://www.justice.govt.nz/justice-sector/drivers-of-crime/publications-and-background-information/documents/spb-theories-on-the-causes-of-crime
Psychosocial Development Theory
In the history of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was the first to delve into the unknown recesses of the human mind to identify reasons for neuroses. As such, he identified infantile sexuality to lie at the heart of most problems in the relationship with the self and others and used the three-dimensional model of the id, the ego, and superego to describe the various ways in which these neuroses manifested themselves. Today, many theorists use Freud's theories to build their own derivative theories. Even though many today reject some or most of the early philosopher's ideas, it is thanks to him that these theories have a reason for existence in themselves. Today, the theory known as psychosocial development bases many of its concepts on the early ideas conceptualized by Freud. As such, theorists like Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney have developed their own concepts of what…
Adler Graduate School. (2014). Alfred Adler: Theory and Application. Retrieved from: http://www.alfredadler.edu/about/theory
Beyers, W. And Seiffge-Krenke, I. (2010). Does Identity Precede Intimacy? Testing Erikson's Theory on Romantic Development in Emerging Adults of the 21st Century. Journal of Adolescent Research. 20(10). Retrieved from: https://biblio.ugent.be/input/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=941691&fileOId=967467
Davis, D. And Clifton, A. (n.d.) Psychosocial Theory: Erikson. Retrieved from: http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
Goodman, S.H., Connell, A.M., and Hall, C.M. (2011). Maternal Depression and Child Psychopathology: A Meta-Analytic Review. Clinical Child Family Psychological Review. 14. Retrieved from: http://psych.colorado.edu/~willcutt/pdfs/Goodman_2011.pdf
Leadership Applications and Theories
Tim has been described by both his boss and friends as charismatic. It is clear why this is so. In addition to constantly inspiring his staff (something he believes is critical in the acquisition of a competitive edge), Tim also continually motivates his team.
How effective do you think Tim's posts are in terms of expressing his charisma?
In the words of Williams (2011, p. 423), "charismatic leaders have strong, confident, dynamic personalities that attract followers and enable the leaders to create strong bonds with their followers." Essentially, charismatic leaders should be able to broadcast their 'charm' so that they can inspire others to action. Indeed, it is through their infectious charm (and not the formal positions they occupy) that leaders of this nature inspire followers. Tim's posts are highly inspirational and on this front, he succeeds in communicating with his team on a rather deep,…
Lussier, R. & Achua, C. (2012). Leadership: Theory, Application, and Skill Development (5th). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Williams, C. (2011). Effective Management (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Failure to Lead
Leaders who lead with ambition but fail by making a faulty choice are often the more condemned leaders but there is another group that is even less competent or at least unlucky, that being leaders who react tepidly or refuse to make a firm choice or take blame for the same. Such leaders are too tentative and are not assertive enough and this lead to a leader not being taken seriously as an executive or even a figurehead because there is cogent and strong voice dictating what is to be done and why. It is clear that trying one's best as a lead and with fervor will always stand as a better way to try and fail than to not make a decision and/or not make it quickly enough thus almost certainly leading to failure or less success.
The traits of good leaders are tossed around…
Better leadership is crucial to Detroit's future. (2013). Crain's Detroit Business, 29(28).
Fibuch, E.E. (2011). Failure of Senior Leadership -- Is This a Problem in Your Hospital?.
Physician Executive, 37(2), 46-50.
When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within the so-called ivory…
Psychological test or assessment method. "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III
Brief Description of the Test
The recent release of one of the youngest convicted child murders in our nation's history, Lionel Tate, now an adult, into the general population, has highlighted the difficulty of determining if a former prisoner should be eligible for parole. Psychologists have attempted to answer this difficult and subjective question by designing the objectively-assessed test known as "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III" exam. (Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc., 1997) This test was originally designed in 1987 exclusively for adult prisoners eligible for probation to determine the risk of paroling them and assessing their risk to society and has since been updated, in 1997, to include inventories for truthfulness. (Spies, 2003)
The SAQ is 165-item questionnaire. It can be administered either in a paper and pencil format or on a computer.…
American Educational Research Association. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
SAQ -- The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III (1997). Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc.
Spies, Robert. (2003). [Review of the SAQ -- Adult Probation [Substance Abuse Questionnaire].]. Buros Institute of Mental Measurements. http://www.unl.edu/buros/reviewsample.html .
Toneatto, T. (1995). [Review of the SAQ -- Adult Probation [Substance Abuse Questionnaire].] In J.C. Conoley & J.C. Impara (Eds.). The twelfth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 889-891). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Crime is a normative aspect of any social construct. That however does not in any way imply that a criminal is a set of or his psychological and biological endowments, if that may be called so. These are actually two very different queries on altogether different premises. The differentiation is better captured when sociological pursuits (fraud, slander, calumny, insults, etc.) are ingrained into the discussion about criminality. It also discount the fact that criminality should be looked down upon, though crimes are an accepted social construct. In ways similar to an individual avoiding pain, so does the society abhor crime. As an extension, similarly as pain cannot be wished away and does form a feature of life, so does criminality about a social structure. That is however not at all to defend crime. Such a posit would be against the moral obligations that has tangible outcomes and become…
Emile Durkheim, (2008). The normal and the pathological, Oxford University Press.
Theory on Juvenile Delinquency
Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offending in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social cronies. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Hence, lack of self-restraint and the resultant deviant behavior result from…
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory.
Burfeind, J. W., & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demuth, Stephen and Susan L. Brown. 2004. "Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.
Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
Watson Human Care Theory
The Significance of Watson Human Care Theory in handling dying patients
It is imperative to integrate a psychosocial treatment strategy in handling dying patients. This is based on the knowledge that dying patients could have lost hope leading to depreciation of an illness. In any case, most of the acute illnesses could have been contained at the primary stage of development. Healing or ailing is primarily managed by the mind and not the techniques applied in the medical arena. This study is critical in proving the essentiality Jean Watson's theory of human caring. I will heavily relate to the study to respond to necessities of a dying patient. In particular, the discussion will analyze how the theory is significant in exploring the comfort levels required in the general treating and healing process.
I replicate my approach from an article I adopted from the Danish…
Brunjes, C. (2012). Using the Power of Hope to Cope with Dying: The Four Stages of Hope (Google eBook). New York: Linden Publishing
Byrne, A., & Byrne, D. (1992). Psychology for Nurses: Theory and Practice. New York:
Chesnay, M., & Anderson, B. (2008). Caring for the Vulnerable: Perspectives in Nursing
The three basic ethical theories share a number of similarities, because they each attempt to describe and explicate the ethical decisions made by humans as well as the logic (or illogic) that is used to inform any particular behavior. Utilitarianism offers what is perhaps the most sound ethical theory due to the way it chooses for itself the goal of its efforts, but it is hampered by disagreement regarding the precise execution of the theory. A deontological theory of ethics may be useful for formulating general rules regarding proper behavior, and as such is popular is the workplace, but these rules are not universally applicable and in some cases can actually lead to unethical behavior if followed without fail. Finally, while virtues-based ethics purports to offer individuals instruction for the cultivation of ideal behavioral traits, by definition it cannot offer a universal ethical norm, as it is based…
Begley, A.M. (2005). Practising virtue: A challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content. Nursing Ethics, 12(6), 622-37.
Broad, C. (1930). Five types of ethical theory. New York: Routledge.
Darwall (Ed.). (2003). Virtue ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
DeConinck, J.B., & Lewis, W.F. (1997). The influence of deontological and teleological considerations and ethical climate on sales managers intentions to reward or punish sales force behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(5), 497-506.
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…
Diem-Wille, G. (2011). The Early Years of Life: Psychoanalytical Development Theory According to Freud, Klein and Bion. London: Karnac.
Gurman, A.S., & Messer, S.B. (2003).Essential Psychotherapies: Theory and Practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Kasschau, R.A. (1985). Psychology: Exploring Behavior. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Print.
Kitano, M.K., & LeVine, E.S. (1987). Existential theory: Guidelines for practice in child therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 24(3), 404-413. doi:10.1037/h0085732
Despite the fact that codes of conduct and belief systems permeate everyone's life on an everyday basis, developing a universally acceptable concept of ethics or moral philosophy remains a seemingly impossible task that has plagued philosophers and the world's great thinkers since the beginning of time. Over time a great number of different philosophical theories have arise. Each one has its strengths and weaknesses and each has enjoyed its own period of popularity but, strangely, due to the fact that some of the world's greatest minds have spent their lives formulating other theories, the theory that seemingly has the greatest degree of validity is one of that has enjoyed the longest history: virtue ethics.
Virtue ethics were developed as a theory by the ancient Greek philosophers. Aristotle and Plato in developing their views toward ethics placed little importance on the rules that people should obey or follow and,…
The theory describes stages as patterns of behavior which are typical for a certain development period and it leads to a different pattern that is more advanced and more unusual Olson & Byron, 1942()
The organismic meta-theory is represented by Erikson's theory of personality which illustrates an important feature of the development in an organismic viewpoint. At each stage of development, there is the resolution of a particular crisis which is a turning point and which serves as a healthy balance between the opposing traits of the particular stage of development. The resolution of this crisis leads to the development of a virtue which is a good thing. If the crisis goes unresolved, the person struggles with the crisis and this impedes the healthy development of the individual Hoogendyk & ichardson, 1980()
The organismic view is associated with the structural or qualitative changes. It states that a person is different…
Courtright, J.A., Fairhurst, G.T., & Rogers, L.E. (1989). Interaction Patterns in Organic and Mechanistic Systems. The Academy of Management Journal, 32(4), 773-802.
Engel, M. (2004). What's Wrong with Contextualism, and a Noncontextualist Resolution of the Skeptical Paradox. Erkenntnis (1975-), 61(2/3), 203-231.
Glennan, S. (2002). Rethinking Mechanistic Explanation. Philosophy of Science, 69(S3), S342-S353.
Halliday, D. (2007). Contextualism, Comparatives and Gradability. Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition, 132(2), 381-393.
Etiology of Theories on Addiction
There are different sorts of addictions and substance abuse methods that plague the world today. However, in order to cure an addiction, one needs to go down to its root cause, and eliminate it, after which the damages caused can be mitigated and prevented. There are several theories and approaches to tackle an addiction problem. Most trained professionals use these theories in their treatment plan to get a better understanding of when and how the addiction came into being. After which, along with therapy, counseling and medication, the road to recovery can begin.
Medical etiology is the study of causes of an illness or any psychological condition. When a diseases is uncovered which the doctors are unable to explain and understand, an etiologist is responsible for determining the reason for its origin and being (Alcoholism, 2005). In this manner, the etiologist and the doctors are…
Alcoholism, N.I. (2005). Module 2: Etiology and Natural History of Alcoholism. National Institute of on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
O' Farrell, T., & Fals-Stewart, W. (1999). Treatment models and methods: Family models. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sheehan, T., & Owen, P. (1999). Addictions: A comprehensive guidebook. New York: Oxford University Press.
influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.
The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas
There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…
American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/histcomp/index-merton.html
Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.
Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications
Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk
Definition of isk
The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.
This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…
Aristotle .1998. Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. In Ackrill J. et al. eds. Oxford World' s
Classics. York: Oxford, pp. 229-301.
Beck, U. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.
Boholm, A. 1996. Risk perception and social anthropology: Critique of cultural Theory. Ethnos 61, pp. 64-84.
hree developmental theories that provide interesting research for those seeking knowledge concerning this particular field of study include the theory of nature vs. nurture, continuous vs. discontinuous development and critical and sensitive periods of development during those periods in life when either critical or sensitive development is taking place. Comparing and contrasting these three developmental theories should lead the researcher to a better understanding of not only the three theories, but a more complete and comprehensive understanding of the field as well.
For instance, a recent study determined that "genetic and environmental factors provides a potential explanation of the individual differences in responses to environmental influences" (Wermter, Laucht, Schimmelmann, Banaschweski, Sonuga-Barke, Rietschel, Becker, 2010, p. 200). Additionally, the study determined that children exposed to an environment stressor known to increase risk for a certain psychiatric disorder (e.g. high family adversity) are at a higher risk for that disorder…
This is another study that provides data on both spectrums and seems to come to no strong resolution regarding whether the critical or sensitive theory is more viable than the other.
Wermter, A.K.; Laucht, M.; Schimmelmann, B.G.; Banaschweski, T.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Rietschel, M.; Becker, K.; (2010) From nature vs. nurture, via nature and nurture, to gene x environment interaction in mental disorders, European Child and Adolescent Pscyhiatry, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 199-210
This article assists the researcher in understanding that the field is moving beyond the theory of nature vs. nurture and that it is growing into a field that understands that it just might be nature in conjunction with nurture that can be the most positive, or negative (as the case may be) of influences.
The Critique of Pure eason proposed and researched, highlighting expertise of how the mind's synthetic framework makes up the world. As a review of taste, such a technique does not try to separate some home that is distinct to beautiful items, however rather intends at exposing how the mind discovers specific items beautiful. Kant thinks that this is possible since the intellect that is associated with common spatiotemporal experience, so it is just fitting to look initially at the nature of these professors prior to continuing to how they associate with aesthetic judgments. An additional reason to continue in this way is that the Critique of the Power of Judgment is scant when it concerns explicating the complimentary play of the creativity and understanding Kant anticipates that his readers have actually accumulated this from the first Critique.
In the Critique of Pure eason we see that in determinative judgments the…
Aristotle (1980). Metaphysics, the Loeb Classical Library (trans. H. Tredennick). Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1 933 / 1980 . 1029a20ff.
Crawford, D.W. (1974). Kant's Aesthetic Theory (London: The University of Wiscon-sin Press).
De Blaas, Eugene, God's Creatures, oil on canvas, 1877, private collection
Kant, I. (2000a). Critique of the Power of Judgment, trans. Paul Guyer and Eric Matthews, ed. Paul Guyer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Theories of Personality
This paper analyses the process of personality development in detail. It discusses how various genetic, environmental, cognitive, unconscious and socioculture factors affect the process of personality development in different individuals.
Theory of Personality
Personality can be defined as the sum total of all the characteristics that make an individual unique and different from other individuals. In order to analyze one's personality you do not necessarily need a psychologist to speculate and observe it. In our day-to-day dealings we refer to a large number of personality traits that various individuals possess. Different authors and playwrights usually use key figures and role models in their novels and plays to attract people. The word 'personality' is frequently used in day-to-day conversations nowadays. All of us develop our own theories of personality, each and every time we answer the question ' how is he or she like?'. There are five…
Houston, D. Islamic Azad University, (2005). Personality. Retrieved from Islamic Azad University website: http://dralizadeh.iauq.ac.ir/imagesMasterPage/Files/dralizadeh/file/chapter14.pdf
Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L., & Jokela, M. (2010). Nature and nurture in personality. The Journal Of Lifelong Learning In Psychiatry, 8(2), 180-184. Retrieved from http://psychiatryonline.org/data/Journals/FOCUS/1842/foc00210000180.pdf
Pearson Education, (2002). Personality theories. Retrieved from Pearson Education website: http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1530/1567154/278-316_CH08_61939.pdf
Personality: social learning, humanistic, and socio-cultural perspectives. (2010). Unpublished manuscript, Psychology, Weber State University, Retrieved from http://faculty.weber.edu/eamsel/Classes/Introduction 1010/Lectures/8. Personality/Lectures/Lecture 26-27 Personality - Social Learning others.pdf
There's an understood supposition of opposing causal agency at work. No matter what pressures and factors came to bear, the addict could have done something else, but simply decided not to (Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction, 2010).
A more behavioral approach to understanding addiction is the social learning model, which suggests that people learn how to behave by watching others in their environment and by duplicating actions that create affirmative consequences. One learns to take drugs or alcohol through ones connections with family, friends, or even popular media. And through personal experimentation with drugs or alcohol, one learns that they like the way drugs make them feel. Whether it is the elation of a high, the augmented confidence they feel while intoxicated, or a reduced sense of social nervousness, intoxication can be a positively reinforcing state of being.
As one discovers how much they like…
Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction. (2010). Retreived from http://www.addictioninfo.org/articles/4173/1/Choice-and-Free-Will-Beyond-the-Disease -
Drug Addiction. (2006). Retreived from http://www.flyfishingdevon.co.uk/salmon/year3/psy337DrugAddiction/theorydrugaddiction.htm
Drug and Alcohol Information - Disease Model of Addiction-. (2011). Retreived from http://www.egetgoing.com/drug_addiction/addiction_disease_model.asp
In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.
According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…
Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract
Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf
Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf
Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
Life-span developmental theory offers a guideline for understanding human aging. Primarily, the theory provides explains the regular changes occurring to an individual to death. Theories of the aging process act as frameworks for aligning research findings and observations to deduce significant conclusions. The information is essential because it enhances sequencing in the lifespan hence providing chronological priority to earlier moments and events in an individual's life. Besides, life span theory can be identified as a synchronized integration of different age-based developmental specializations. Evidently, most people hold a perception of being actively engaged in shaping their future. They follow developmental stages that are intelligible in exploring and pursuing long-term goals. I have realized that the lifespan development theory is essential in my realization of timely goals in life as a social worker. In this study, I have elucidated the motivational theory of lifespan development and illustrated how I will incorporate it…
Over the years, there have been discussions surrounding the issue of intelligence and how it can be measured as well as what parameters determined who is more intelligent than the other. Controversy has surrounded the definition and measurement of intelligence and many scholars have opined that the controversy is mainly based on the fact that historically intelligence has been defined on the grounds of how much one knows rather than how well one processes (Fagan J.F., 2000:Pp1). IQ has been defined in perspective of how much an individual knows in relation to the age mates. This has been faulted several times and hence this paper will highlight some of the theories that have been historically used to define intelligence, the biases in the testing of intelligence and the controversies that have surrounded the entire aspect of intelligence.
On of the major theorists in intelligence is Galton, indeed, he is…
Golstein H., (2012). Francis Galton, measurement, psychometrics and social progress. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.bristol.ac.uk/cmm/team/hg/full-publications/2012/Galton.pdf
Fagan J.F., (2000). A Theory of Intelligence as Processing: Implication for Society. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~rakison/fagan.pdf
Kane H. & Brand C., (2003). The Importance of Spearman's g as a Psychometric, Social, and Educational Construct. The Occidental Quarterly. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from https://www.toqonline.com/archives/v3n1/TOQv3n1Kane-Brand.pdf
McGraw Kevin, (2009). Evolution of CHC Theory of Intelligence and Assessment. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.ibapnet.org.br/congresso2009/material/chctimeline2.pdf
Dispositional theories are some of the earliest, most traditional theories formed to explain personality and interpersonal relationships. Personality, according to these theories, is comprised of temperaments or particular dispositions.
First proposed by Hippocrate, in the form of his Humoral theory, Hippocrate's theory proposes that the body consists of four basis humors, otherwise called, fluids that drive the human personality (and, in turn, interpersonal connections). Proportion of these fluids determines the strength or intensity of the particular disposition within that individual. The four dispositions are: blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile.
Blood resembles sanguine. Excess of blood in the person causes him or her to be sanguine, to be optimistic and hopeful. Phlegm denotes a phlegmatic, i.e., calm personality. Black bile prompts a melancholic, namely depressed personality, whilst yellow bile results in a choleric, or irritable aggressive individual and consequently, in conflictual interpersonal demeanor.
Modern dispositional theories articulate relationship of…
Eastman, R. (n.d.) The Dispositional Strategy. Stephen Austin State University.
Major Themes & Underlying Assumptions of the Dispositional Approach to Personality http://www.wilderdom.com/personality/L6-0MajorThemesUnderlyingAssumptionsDispositionalPersonality.html
Sandberg, D. Dispositional Approach: Assessment, Personality Change, & Research. California State University - Hayward.
Criminal Justice Theory and the Los Angeles County Probation Department
Criminal and antisocial behaviors have been studied in the field of criminology for many years. Criminologists are very interested to learn what types of things cause specific criminal and antisocial behaviors. hile criminal behavior and antisocial behavior are not always related, they often have close ties. Criminologists and other researchers are looking to find commonalities between certain genetic makeups and deviant behavior. They believe that many people are genetically predisposed to be violent, and if these people can be located they can be treated.
That does not mean that criminologists are in favor of testing everyone's genetic makeup on the planet to see if any of them show violent tendencies. hat they are interested in doing, however, is studying criminals who already have a history of violent and deviant behavior to see what other traits they have, and what their…
Anderson, R.H. (2000, January 13). Unit 5: deviance, conformity and social control. University of Colorado at Denver. Retrieved September 2, 2005, from http://psychology. about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fthunder1.cudenver.edu%2F%2Fsociology%2Fintrosoc%2Ftopics%2FUnitNotes%2Fweek05.html
Brand, C. Cycad Web Works. (2003, February). Can crime be traced to such often-mooted personality features as extraversion and lack-of-conscientiousness? Are genetic factors involved-in whatever interaction with the environment? And can any therapeutic or preventive steps by recommended? Retrieved August 29, 2005, from http://www.cycad.com/cgi-bin/Brand/quotes/q16.html
Brunet, J.R. (2002, November 15). Discouragement of Crime Through Civil Remedies: An Application of a Reformulated Routine Activities Theory. In Western Criminology Review 4 (1) Retrieved September 5, 2005, from http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v4n1/brunet. html
Casey, D. Human Genome Project. (1997, June). Introduction. Retrieved September 1, 2005, from http://www.ornl.gov/TechResources/Human_Genome/publicat / primer/prim1.html
Leadership Path Goal Theory
The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory
Path Goal Theory
Explain how the theory works and include an example
Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization
Are the followers receptive?
Would you recommend another strategy?
Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization
Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization
Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization
Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization
If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?
The leadership theories are different in their relevance and approach, however, the importance of effective leadership cannot be undermined in operations of a successful organization. The boy scouts and other military organizations also…
Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.
Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.
Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories. USA: Springer.
Trait and Factor Theories:
Personality trait and factor theories have been developed as a means of identifying common elements within the personality of different people, indeed the entire populace. Within any given group of people there are common threads of experiences, similar nurturing, and even shared genetic, yet the personality of each member is a unique construction individual elements which work together. Among those who have produced work in this area are aymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck. Each used scientific factor analysis to identify common traits or permanent dispositions of people. Cattell has identified a large number of personality traits, whereas Eysenck's research extracted only three general factors.(mcgraw-hill.com, online) Like Freud who identifies the id, ego and superego as the measurements of the personal mind, will and emotion, the categories identified by these researchers give men the ability to understand the unique functions of the person, emotions and desires.…
Theories of personality, dispositional theories. (2002) McGraw Hill higher education. Accessed 23 Nov 2003. Web Site: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072316799/student_view0/part4/chapter13/chapter_outline.html
Ver Wys. C.
2001) Department of Cognitive Science Renesslear Polytechnic Institute. Accessed 23 Nov 2003. Web Site: http://www.rpi.edu/~verwyc/bandura.htm .
Boeree, G. (1998) Albert Bandura: Personality Theories. Accessed 23 Nov 2003. Web site: http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html .
Gushue, Clarke, Pantzer, et al., (2006) examine the application of social cognitive theories to career counseling, reporting that self-efficacy is a pertinent issue in this process. In particular, these authors report that:
Career decision making self-efficacy refers to the degree to which individuals feel confident in their ability to successfully engage in tasks associated with making a career choice and with commitment to a career. It has also been observed that career-related self-efficacy in general may prove to be an important element in formulating a model of career development...(p. 308).
Gushue and coworkers go on to argue that when career self-efficacy is high, individuals are more assertive in the career counseling process. Thus, by developing career self-efficacy, career counselors can effectively improve interactions with clients and facilitate a greater understanding of client needs with respect to career decision making.
Applying this to the larger context of social learning theory, it…
Arbona, C. (2000). Practice and research in career counseling and development -- "1999. Career Development Quarterly, 49(2), 98-134.
Flores, L.Y., Scott, a.B., Wang, Y.W., et al., (2003). Annual review: Practice and research in career counseling and development -- "2002. Career Development Quarterly, 52, 98-131.
Germeijs, V., Verschueren, K., Soenens, B. (2006). Indecisiveness and high school students' career decision making process: Longitudinal associations and the mediational role of anxiety. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(4), 397-410.
Giannantonio, G.M., & Hurley-Hanson, a.E. (2006). Applying image norms across Super's career development stages. Career Development Quarterly, 54(4), 318-330.
Darwin's Theory Of Evolution
The construct of irreducible complexity is a pivotal aspect of genetic theory and of Darwinian theory. Irreducible complexity is a nexus of the older science of biology from which Darwin built his theory and modern genetic engineering. Darwin's words for irreducible complexity, most commonly associated with his argument about the construction of the eye, were "Organs of extreme perfection and complication," and Darwin further explicates,
"Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed…
Abalaka, M.E. & Abbey, F.K. (2011). Charles Darwin theory of evolution and modern genetic engineering. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion, 1(7):174-177. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://innovativejournal.in/index.php/jpro/article/viewFile/685/592
Bergman, G. Pangenesis as a source of new genetic information. The history of a now disproven theory. Rivista di Biologia, 99(3): 425-43. 2006, September-December. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17299698
Darwin, Charles. "Difficulties on theory." Chapter 6. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1st edition). 1859. Retrieved from http://friendsofdarwin.com/docs/origin-1/chapter-06/
Liu, Y. Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics? Rivista di Biologia, 98(2); 305-322. 2005. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16180199
Personal interviews -- especially what the respondent actually says in them -- can be extremely useful to humanist practitioners. They also share a reliance on objective tests -- where the respondent attempts, in a guided way, to assess their own behavior and/or personality, with the two remaining branches of personality assessment.
Trait-based and social-learning psychology have vastly different approaches to assessing personality, but there are also some commonalities insofar as how they assess personality. Trait-based theorists believe that people exhibit specific behavioral traits, and that these can be analyzed to determine personality. Tests like the Big Five indicator are trait-based assessors. Social-learning theorists, on the other hand, believe that certain cognitive patterns are set early on, and that behavior (and personality) is determined by these unique cognitive processes working with the sum experience as well as the current environment and interactions. For this reason, social-learning theorists do not see behavior…
Patne taits influence the pocess of maintaining Romantic Relationships
Choosing and etaining a omantic patne is a challenging task that most people encounte in thei lives. The desie to undestand and accept othes' tait in the context of enduing elationship is a topic mioed in the gowing body of psychology. When people ae seeking omantic elationships, they desie a wide ange of taits, some obsevable, othes difficult to discen. It is challenging to choose a patne by meely obseving his/he physical taits without leaning the inne being of the peson. Theefoe, when making decisions on the ight patnes, thee ae numeous factos to conside. Some people will conside how othe people assess thei patne, while othes will evaluate the peson based on othe aspects fa fom physical and emotional factos. To avoid making incompatible choices, this pape povides a self-help guide which gives the five best tips fo choosing and…
references affect the process of initiating and maintaining romantic relationships?
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 1012-1032.
Figueredo, A.J., Sefcek, J.A., & Jones, D.N. (2006).The ideal romantic partner personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 41,431 -- 441
Sharma, N. (n.d). How To Choose Your Life Partner. Retrieved from: http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/how-to-choose-your-life-partner-5569.html
Tran, S., Simpson, J.A., and Fletcher, G.J.O. (2008). The role of ideal standards in relationship initiation processes. In S. Sprecher, A. Wenzel, & J. Harvey (Eds.), Handbook of relationship initiation (pp. 487-498). New York: Psychology Press.
New Theory -- the Black Queen Hypothesis
In modern science, evolution is one of the basic templates to help understand the biology and ecology of an organism. The theory was put forth in the late 19th century by Charles Darwin and others. It describes the change in inherited traits of a population through a process called natural selection. This process allows only the strongest, most robust and useful traits to perpetuate because they are the most adapted to the organism's environment. Evolution, then, is the product of two opposing forces: variation in traits and mutation. Thus, most of evolutionary theory surrounds the notion that living organisms evolve by adding genes (adaptations to the environment) rather than discarding them (Futuyma, 2005).
Evolution was a dramatic, and controversial, theory. It convinces most of the scientific community that the world was continually evolving, not static, and most certainly not just a few thousand…
Radical New Theory of Evolution; Could Turn Current Thinking on Its Head. (April 4, 2012).
The Daily Galaxy. Retrieved from: http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2012/04 / radical-new-theory-could-turn-evolutionary-theory-on-its-head.html
Dennett, D. (2005). Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and Me. New York: Touchstone Press.
Futuyma, D. (2005). Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinnaure Associates.
Alcoholism and Upbringing
James' father is responsible for James' involvement in crime and burglary. Origin of the problem. Alcoholic parents are the reason for the moral decay of juveniles
Another reason for James' feelings of inadequacy
Effect of alcoholism in the upbringing of a child
The effect of taking James out of his mother's home as a juvenile
An examination of James' denial of his responsibility over his problem
Personality and sociological theory
An explanation of James' behaviors, and his father using the two frameworks
Thorburn (2005) suggests that a misapprehension that numerous alcoholics seem to have is that their behavior does not affect other people. They deny ever hurting other people but themselves. A great deal of research and huge anecdotal proof suggest otherwise. The behavior of alcoholics can affect those around them, including family members, friends, coworkers and employers. Children…
Plant, M.A., Peck, D.F., Samuel, E., & Stuart, R. (2000). Alcohol, drugs, and school-leavers.
London: Tavistock Publications.
Thorburn, D. (2005). Alcoholism myths and realities: Removing the stigma of society's most destructive disease. Northridge, Calif: Galt Pub.
Floyd, M.R., & Seale, J.P. (2002). Substance abuse: A patient-centered approach. Abingdon,
PERSONALITY VS SITUATION
Personality refers to the unique set of relatively constant behaviors and mental processes in a person and his or her interactions with the environment (Kevin 2011). It is generally accepted that personality is influenced by genetics in the form of dispositions or temperament at 40-60% and by the environment. The tasks of the psychologist are to characterize and describe personality traits, investigate the relationship between these traits and behavior, and understand and predict behavior from these traits. The approaches to the study of personality are descriptive; biological or genetic; learning; psychodynamic; and humanistic, existential or phenomenological (Kevin).
Existentialism vs. Humanism
Existentialism is difficult to define as those who conceived it denied they started it or it even started (Corbett, 1985). It can be vaguely described as a spirit or atmosphere of one's response to human existence. Among its precursors were Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche.…
AllPsych (2002). Personality synopsis. Chapter X Humanist Theory. Heffner Media
Group, Inc. Retrieved on May 31, 2011 from http://allpsyc.com/personalitysynopsis/humanistic.html
Boeree, C.G. (2006). Abraham Maslow. Personality Theories. Retrieved on May 31,
2001 from http://webspac.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html