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Transactional Leadership and Transformational Leadership
Transactional leadership style is a leadership style that uses group performance, organization, and supervision to get results. It is also called managerial leadership. This leadership style is focused on getting specific tasks done and the leader may use punishments and rewards as motivational tools. A good structure is highly valued in such a scenario as is highly apparent in situations such as the military and big companies where the leadership style is widely used (Cherry, 2018).
Transactional leadership is not an optimal leadership style where innovation and creativity are highly required. Nonetheless, in environments where the completion of tasks requires specific linear processes, a transactional leader is likely to excel. The leadership style is therefore very useful for large big organizations with well-defined processes. The military, policing, and sports franchises also have leaders with transactional leadership qualities (Cherry, 2018).
A great example of a transactional…
" Additionally, this style of leadership in the organization makes it impossible for employees to take actions to improve job satisfaction. (Wanjiru, 2009, paraphrased)
Furthermore, transactional leadership '...has been ineffective in providing skilled employees to their organization. This style of leadership is least interested in changing the work environment. Experts do not recommend this approach. Transactional leadership focuses more on management of punishments and rewards.
IV. Examples of Work Environment in Which Transactional Leadership Style is Effective
The work of Paul Gerhardt (2004) entitled: "Transformational and Transactional Leadership in Retail: Customer Service, Training and Evaluation" states that the transactional leader operates "...within existing systems, they believe in delivering penalties for noncompliance of requests. Another example of transactional leadership may be an elected official who promises to make a requested change or changes to certain policies if elected. Transactions are clearly being made as aspects of leadership styles." (Gerhardt, 2004)
Allen David (nd) Comparison of Leadership styles of United States and Japan. Broadway Business. 22 July 2009. Online available at: http://ivythesis.typepad.com/term_paper_topics/2009/07/comparison-of-leadership-styles-of-united-states-and-japan-6.html
Gerhardt, Paul (2009) Transformational and Transactional Leadership in Retail: Customer Service, Training and Evaluation. July 2004. Online available at: http://www.paulgerhardt.com/homework/TranformationalTransactonalLeadershipInRetail.pdf
Lussier, Robert N. And Achua, Christopher F. (2009) Leadership: Theory, Application & Skill Development. Cengage Learning 2009.
Thomas, Greg (2003) What is 'Transactional Leadership'? Leadership Tip of the Month. January 2003. weLEAD, Inc. Online available at: http://www.leadingtoday.org/Onmag/jan03/transaction12003.html
Firstly, in Piagetian manner, the subject is confronted with a moral dilemma, that is, a short story in which two or more moral principles oppose each other. He or she is asked to make a choice. Secondly, the interviewer uses intensive probing, that is, why-questions, and questions which stimulate the respondent to consider varying situational contexts. Thirdly, stage scoring of interview is based on well conceived and meaningful measurement units.Through the confrontation with moral dilemmas, the subject is stimulated to consider moral norms rather than merely technical knowledge of solving a problem (most people suggest a technical solution first, which seems an appropriate strategy in most every-day decision making).(Kolhberg)
There are six levels of leaders, according to the combined works of Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohberg, and obert Kegan. esearch shows the majority of leaders are level four leaders or level five leaders. Level four leader 'Achiever' is categorized as…
Cherry, Kendra.(2012)About.com guide. Kohlbergs Therory of Moral
Development.Retrieved from website:
Leaders Can Effectively Manage Change in an Organization
It has often been said that a manager is what one does and a leader is who one is. The differences between management and leadership transcend difference sin perception of how an organization and emanate from how a management professional chooses to gain support and cooperation in the attainment of objectives. Managers often are given the task of maintaining the status quo and minimizing variation in performance over time. Leaders are by definition the visionaries of an organization that set a compelling long-term goal or objective and then orchestrate an enterprise to their achievement. Implicit in this definition of a leader is also the ability to discern strategies issues, opportunities and risks, and also clearly communicate an organizations' strategy to the departmental or work unit level. Most of all, a leader can infuse any organization with a strong sense of purpose, energy…
Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.
Bromley, Howard R, M.D., M.B.A. & Kirschner-Bromley, V. 2007, "Are You a Transformational Leader?," Physician Executive, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 54-7.
Burke, C.S., Sims, D.E., Lazzara, E.H. & Salas, E. 2007, "Trust in leadership: A multi-level review and integration," Leadership Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 606.
Butler, C.J. 2005, The relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership behavior in construction industry leaders, University of Colorado at Boulder.
alt Disney including: a history leader- page applying leadership traits-: inspiration, goal setting, praise recognition, training/coaching, problem solving, planning,
alt Disney: Leadership style
alt Disney was a creative man who built an empire around his vision. Love or hate his product, he created a distinct, family-focused 'Disney style' of entertainment. Before alt Disney, cartoons were regarded as largely derivative forms of entertainment, as a warm-up to the feature film. Disney placed cartoons front and center of the American entertainment experience during a time when movies were one of the central ways in which Americans came together to enjoy a commonly-enjoyed fantasy. He later parlayed this success into television, and even into theme parks which brought the cartoon experience to life. Disney was able to create his cutting-edge vision through near obsessive control of his product and tunnel-vision focus upon his goals. He was a transformative leader, inspiring his subordinates with…
Cherry, Kendra. "Transactional leadership." About.com. 2012. [30 Nov 2012]
Krasniewicz, Louise. Walt Disney: A Biography. Greenwood, 2010
Straker, David. "Transformational leadership." Changing Minds. 2012.
CEO as Leader of Ford Motor Company
The leadership of any large, diverse multinational corporation needs to concentrate on a unifying vision coupled with transformational leadership skills to keep the company moving forward over the long-term (Wang, Oh, Courtright, Colbert, 2011). At the Ford Motor Company, the challenge is to not only manage these core aspects of effective leadership, the CEO must also initiate and continually improve innovation over time as the auto industry is going through significant transformation (Luca, McNamara, 2010). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how effective leaders are in the auto industry in synchronizing these many tasks, in conjunction with serving as a catalyst of effective innovation and transformational growth over time.
Analysis of the CEO ole at Ford
Alan Mulally is currently CEO of Ford Motor Company, and his background is heavily based on aerospace, defense and commercial airline industries. In these industries,…
M. Birasnav, S. Rangnekar, & A. Dalpati. (2011). Transformational leadership and human capital benefits: the role of knowledge management. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(2), 106-126
Blair, Gerard M. (1993). Becoming a great manager. Management Development Review, 6(4), 3.
Ann Gilley, Pamela Dixon, Jerry W. Gilley. (2008). Characteristics of leadership effectiveness: Implementing change and driving innovation in organizations. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 19(2), 153.
House, R.J., & Shamir, B. (1993). Toward the Integration of Transformational, Charismatic, and Visionary Theories. In M.M. Chemers and R. Ayman (Eds.), Leadership Theory and Research: Perspectives and Directions, p. 81 -- 107. San Diego: Academic Press.
Transformational and Transactional Leadership
The global market place that is today's business environment is highly competitive, and organizational survival is increasingly perceived as being dependent upon the efficiency and effectiveness of its leadership. Changes such as the online markets and workforce, alteration of ethical and legal issues, demographic and social trends (global 'graying' of the populace), technological advances and increased globalization mean that leaders of businesses must re-evaluate and alter their styles as necessary to bring about and maintain success. Competitive advantage is the predominant goal of most business strategies - how to sustain it once achieved, and how to achieve it in the first place. Thus, understanding the effect(s) of leadership, its role in an organization, and how leadership style impacts an organization is fundamentally important. As stated by Ekuma (2014) the manner in which a company is directed affects its internal and external ethics as well as the…
Braun, S., Peus, C., Weisweiler, S., & Frey, D. (2013). Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and team performance: A multilevel mediation model of trust. The Leadership Quarterly, 270-283.
Derr, C. (2012). Ethics & Leadership. Journal of Leadership, 9(6).
Du, S., Swaen, V., Lindgreen, A., & Sen, S. (2013). The Roles of Leadership Styles in Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 155-169.
Ekuma, K. (2014). Transformational Leadership: Implications for Organizational Competitive Advantage. Macrothink Institute, 4(1), 276-281.
Transformational Women's Leadership
The website for Changing Minds.org describes transformational leadership in the standard way, as charismatic leaders with vision and imagination who inspire followers to achieve radical change in an organization or society. Transformational leaders are passionate and exciting and they care about their followers. They make people believe that their ideals can be achieved through their own commitment, enthusiasm and drive. In the process, their followers are also transformed and empowered to do things that they would never have believed possible. This website also points out some of the dangers of transformational leadership in that when such leaders are wrong they can lead "the charge right over the cliff and into a bottomless chasm." They may also "wear out" their followers with constant demands for high energy and commitment, especially if those at the lower levels really do not desire change (Transformational Leadership 2002-11)
Legacee.com has a very…
Goodman, D., ed. (2003). Marie Antoinette: Writings on the Body of a Queen. Routledge.
Lever, E. (2000). The Last Queen of France. Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.
Plain, N. (2002). Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the French Revolution. Marshall Cavendish.
Price, M. (2004). The Road from Versailles: Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the Fall of the French Monarchy. NY: St. Martin's.
leader admire. Your selected leader a real-Life individual a fictional character television,
The style of leadership that best describes me is known as the dominance style. I focus really intently on goals that I seek to accomplish, and I largely work at them until they are accomplished in as little time as possible. As such, I actually prefer to be the one who is in charge of making decisions and actuating others to accomplish objectives. Once I have an objective, my principle concern is the proverbial bottom-line or achieving that objective with efficiency. I have realized that power is one of the ways in which dominance leaders are able to assert themselves over others to help fulfill the needs of an organization.
Much of my style of leadership involves the assertion of such power over subordinates to get them to best perform tasks that can help me and overarching organizations…
Antoine, P. (no date). Fielder's contingency theory of leadership. www.stfrancis.edu. Retrieved from http://www.stfrancis.edu/content/ba/ghkickul/stuwebs/btopics/works/fied.htm
Ivey, G.W., & Kline, T.B. (2010). "Transformational and active transactional leadership in the Canadian military." Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 31 (3): 246-262. Retrieved from ProQuest.
Northouse, P. (2010). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
leader I am selecting is Howard Schultz from Starbucks. Schultz founded the company based on his vision based on the coffeeshops of Europe, which filled a social function as well as serving coffee. He sought to design a shop for Americans that would serve the same dual function. His original name was Il Giornale, but when he had the opportunity to buy Starbucks from its original owners, he did that and merged the two operations.
Schultz graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Communication from Northern Michigan University, and indeed Communication has long been one of his strengths. Schultz has consistently been able to communicate his vision of the company to all employees, not just his senior management team. This vision is his strength, and that can be seen in a couple of ways at Starbucks. The first is that the company has a consistent look and feel to its…
2011 Starbucks Annual Report. Retrieved June 19, 2012 from http://investor.starbucks.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=99518&p=irol-reportsannual
Business Week. (2012). Executive profile: Howard Schultz. Business Week. Retrieved June 19, 2012 from http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/people/person.asp?personId=194300&ticker=SBUX:U.S .
Meyers, W. (2005). Conscience in a cup of coffee. U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved June 19, 2012 from http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/051031/31schultz.htm
leader succeed. Explain type leadership characters interviewing a candidate a CEO position.
Characteristics of Leaders
There are several characteristics that successful leaders are considered to have. Most theories on leadership state that such traits refer to integrity, self-esteem, confidence, empathy, organizational skills, good judgment, initiative, courage, endurance, they are proactive, they have visionary skills, communication skills, and others. There are numerous combinations of skills that characterize the great leaders of the world.
However, there are individuals that posses such skills, but that do not become leaders. Certain theories consider that leadership is an innate skill that cannot be developed. In the case of individuals that have such skills but do not become leaders, this situation can be attributed to the fact that they lack the desire to lead. They are not interested in becoming an example for others, or in managing groups or teams.
Other leadership traits are represented by…
1. Brooks, C. (2012). What Are the Characteristics of a Leader? Business News. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/2727-leadership-styles-skills.html .
2. Murray, A. (2012). Leadership Styles. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/how-to-develop-a-leadership-style/ .
Discuss Leader eward and Leader Punishing Behavior
One of the most fundamental roles of managers (leaders) is increasing the productivity of their employees. In so doing, leaders exhibit two forms of behaviors; transformational and transactional behaviors. Transformational behaviors put emphasis on the development of subordinates' abilities, the enhancement of good social relations, and the alignment of employees' personal goals with the organization's vision. Transactional behaviors, on the other hand, are more of an exchange mechanism. The supervisor, in this case, administers punishments and rewards to his or her employees in exchange for their productivity and effort (Organ, Podsakoff, & Mackenzie, 2006). Leader reward and leader punishment behaviors, which form the subject matter of this text, constitute the forms of transactional leadership behaviors.
There are two types of punishment and reward behaviors; contingent, and non-contingent behaviors. This gives rise to the four types of transactional behaviors; "contingent reward/punishment and…
McCall, M.W. & Mobley, W. (Eds.). (2001). Advances in Global Leadership. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.
Nelson, D.A. & Quick, J.C. (2007). Understanding Organizational Behavior (3rd ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning EMEA.
Organ, D.W., Podsakoff, P.M., & MacKenzie, S.B. (2006). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature, Antecedents and Consequences. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
Compare and contrast the trait and behavioral approach to leadership, discuss which approach is more effective and explain your reasoning. Lastly, identify and describe a leader who uses the approach you chose as more effective and evaluate why he/she is an effective leader
The trait approach to leadership encompasses the conception that there are particular virtues a leader must have. This leadership theory accentuates that there is a particular set of basic personality indicators that set leaders apart from followers. On the other hand, the behavioral approach to leadership takes into account a set of actions that any leader ought to undertake in relation to an organizational circumstance. In comparing these two leadership approaches, the fundamental similarity is that both approaches lay emphasis that there are distinguishable actions that any leader ought to be capable to undertake in any given circumstance. Behaviorism is similar to the trait approach…
Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational dynamics, 18(3), 19-31.
Johnson, W. (2016). Describe the Major Similarities & Differences Between the Trait & Behavior Leadership Theories. Chron. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/describe-major-similarities-differences-between-trait-behavior-leadership-theories-36413.html
Kelchner, L. (2017). The Importance of Ethics in Organizations. Chron. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-ethics-organizations-20925.html
Muray, A. (2016). What is the Difference Between Management and Leadership? The Wall Street Journal.
.....leader is someone that has confidence, enthusiasm, and vision. Many leaders exist in the world. However, most leaders can only lead well at home. Global leaders transcend cultural diversity and differences and provide effective leadership behaviors within any context. This is because they are aware of the key differences cultures have and can group them in such a way that allows for easier understanding and successful strategy implementation. Because cultural style can dictate the ethical perception of a leader in terms of authority, power, and influence, this paper will focus on diversity and ethical decision-making and its influences on leadership models. Additionally, the paper will explore certain commonly accepted leadership traits and how servant leadership may be used as an effective tool for influencing organizational culture.
Followers see an inspirational leader as more beneficial than a transactional leader across any cultural setting. However certain behaviors leaders may perform within one…
Leadership Qualifications in the orkplace
Proposed Leadership Model
For eras there have been people and leaders have discussed what the qualifications that make a great leader are. Leadership travels all the way back to the period of the ancient Greeks. In the 1500's, there was an Italian statesman named Niccolo Machiavelli, who wrote The Prince, and in this book he talked about the different methods for leaders to use in obtaining power (Leadership 2003). This all led to the current events dating to the early 1900's and what has been used and developed in today's society. There are a lot of theories of what a leader in the workplace should have and the idea that leaders during history have been people who were seen or looked up to as leaders and deeply appreciated. As people say "There are those that lead and those that follow." An individual with…
Akinboye, J., 2005. Executive behaviour battery. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers.
Borman, W., 2004. The concept of organizational citizenship. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(6), p. 238 -- 241.
Cameron, J.D.E.K.R. & R.R., 2001. Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic: Reconsidered once again.. Review of Educational Research, pp. 30-54.
Charlton, G., 2000. Human Habits of Highly Effective Organisations.. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
Servant-Leadership is the model that most closely resonates with me, though I think the title a bit pretentious, even though I cannot think of a better one. According to Spears (2004), it comprises much of the attributes of Burns' (1978) transformational leadership, but it does not really require a charismatic leader, only a sincere one who follows up. I like that very much.
However this is a long list of key traits that Spears identifies as central to Greenleaf's Servant-Leadership (What is servant leadership? ) concept.
Commitment to the growth of people
While I do not have any problem with any of these attributes in a leader, I fear that I lack some in the healing category and I do not always have enough foresight, which is what I look for in my team. However, the idea that we are…
Burns, J.M., Leadership, Harper & Row, New York, 1978
Graen, G.B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development
of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multilevel multi-domain approach. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 219-247.
Nahavandi A., The Art and Science of Leadership, Prentice Hall International, London, 1997, p.89, p 190
Management & Leadership in Health Care
Characteristics Which Distinguish "Leadership" From "Management
The main difference that exists between leaders and managers is that leaders have individuals who follow them, whereas managers have individuals who work for them. Getting individuals to understand and believe in your ideas in addition to working with you in order to achieve your goals is leadership, while managing is more of heading and ensuring daily activities run as usual (go2 Tourism H Society, 2015).
Management and leadership are both vital for good health care delivery services. While the two are alike in some aspects, they incorporate different behaviors, skills and outlook. Good managers should do their best to be better leaders, and good leaders require management techniques to be efficient. So as to realize a vision, leaders will have a vision of what is attainable and then communicate it with others and develop strategies to achieve…
Al-Sawai, A. (2013). Leadership of Healthcare Professionals: Where Do We Stand? Oman Med J., 285-287.
Burke, R., & Barron, S. (2014). Project Management Leadership: Building Creative Teams. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
Buttell, P., Hendler, R., & Daley, J. (2008). Quality in Healthcare: Concepts and Practice. In K. H. Cohn, & D. E. Hough, The Business of Healthcare (pp. 61-91). Westport, Conn: Praeger.
Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). National Strategy for Quality Improvement in Health Care. Department of Health and Human Services.
The selection of a leader is crucial for a team to attain its objectives.
A second best practice is using conflict to drive a team forward rather than let it become an inhibitor to overall progress. As the book, course materials and readings illustrate, conflict can be highly effective in propelling a team to attaining its goals, providing it is used positively and for validating the team's common direction. The natural tendency of teams is to want to agree and create a harmonious working relationship. This can be incredibly ineffective as it often leads to GroupThink and a tendency to concentrate only on making sure everyone is in agreement with each other. Instead conflict needs to be tolerated and even promoted to make sure a team stays cognizant of the real trade-offs they need to make; not just making decisions to please each other and gain consensus. Conflict is very…
Leadership Path Goal Theory
The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory
Path Goal Theory
Explain how the theory works and include an example
Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization
Are the followers receptive?
Would you recommend another strategy?
Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization
Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization
Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization
Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization
If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?
The leadership theories are different in their relevance and approach, however, the importance of effective leadership cannot be undermined in operations of a successful organization. The boy scouts and other military organizations also…
Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.
Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.
Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories. USA: Springer.
56th President of the United States which has represents an unprecedented race in the American Democratic Party between Senators Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton. he relationship of Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton's leadership styles from the perspective of four distinct variables: gender, culture, trust and likelihood of voting. he author believes that the perception of fairness is the single most essential leadership trait which leaders should acquire in order to garner trust and commitment among voters. Consequently, the author also believes that this also applies to leadership in the business world.
he article conducts a literature review that focuses on different aspects of leadership. here is some controversy in the study of leadership as the author alludes to. here are several research studies that show that there is empirical evidence to suggest that leaders play a critical part in an organization working toward organizational goals. However, some of works have…
The article continues to illustrate various components of leadership and how they are presented in the literature with Obama's and Clinton's leadership styles and campaign messages as the focal point. For example, the article mentions that Barack Obama's winning Democratic Party Nominee Elections campaign, his change message in particular, was far superior in 2008 from an ethical standpoint. This seems to be a fairly loaded assumption that is difficult to test empirically.
He contrasts Clinton's campaign as a more top down approach based on her political life that allowed her to mingle constantly with the political elite. By contrast, Obama's career formed from a more bottom up approach in he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. It is noted that transformational leadership can be facilitated by the level of trust in the leader. Therefore, based on these criteria, it is assumed that Obama's level of trust based on his bottom up career development would be higher and more legitimate among the populace. Although this seems like a reasonable statement, it is still highly speculative without any empirical analysis being conducted on the two candidates.
The actual experiment works to test some of the hypotheses that were generated in the literature review. The independent and dependent variables were measured with a survey that used the Likert Scale to measure responses. The study concludes that the leadership styles of Obama and Clinton are striking different. Barack Obama was perceived as a transformational leader while Clinton was perceived more as a transactional leader. Although I intuitively agree with the study's findings, the evidence that is presented is subject to some skepticism. There are a plethora of limitations that the study had to overcome to be able to test the hypothesis. One obvious one was the sample size. Another limitation that the author alludes to is the cultural variables of the sample which oversimplifies culture into either East or West categories as opposed to more specific geographies. Although I found the article interesting, I'm not sure that it adds significant value to the study of leadership.
Improving Customer Service on a Medical Surgical Nursing Unit
Quality Improvment Project-Customer service on the nursing unit
The hospital medical-surgical nursing unit is usually referred to as the "catch-all" department for different types of patients. This is because it includes renal patients, cancer patients, cardiac and surgical patient. It also includes other patients who do not particularly fall into any of these specialized units. The medical-surgical nursing unit is a conglomeration of all kinds of adults with all sorts of health problems and thus the nurses in this unit need to be dynamic, quick to respond and are almost on their toes at all times. Patients in the medical-surgical nursing unit are likely to develop changes in their condition quite rapidly and therefore they become more unstable even though they may have been admitted in a stable condition. This is because most patients in the medical-surgical nursing unit have unpredictable…
Amba-Rao, S.C. (1994). Human Resource Management Practices in India: An Exploratory Study. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 30(2), 190-202.
Dirks, K.T., & Ferrin, D.L. (2002). Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 611-628.
Glickman, S.W., Baggett, K.A., Krubert, C.G., Peterson, E.D., & Schulman, K.A. (2007). Promoting quality: the health-care organization from a management perspective. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 19(6), 341-348. doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzm047
Judge, T.A., & Piccolo, R.F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1), 755-768.
leadership style is one of the most important factors that determine cross functional teams' success. Research and practice in the field have revealed several types of leadership theories, such as trait, behavioral, situational contingency, participative, transactional, and transformational theories. Each of these leadership theories introduces several types of leadership styles, amongst which the most frequently met in private and public organizations are autocratic or authoritative leadership, democratic or participative styles, transformational leadership, and others (Ricketts, 20). It is difficult to determine which of these leadership styles is the most efficient, as the need for a certain style depends on each situation. The table below compares and contrasts three key variables found in these theories.
Table . Leadership Theories Analysis
Key variable / theory
Situational contingency theories
Characteristics of leader
Cognitive abilities, social intelligence
Informing, clarifying, monitoring
. Derue, S.et al. (2011). Trait and Behavioral Leadership Theories. Personnel Psychology. Retrieved January 19, 2014 from http://php.scripts.psu.edu/faculty/s/e/seh25/DeRueNahrgangWellmanHumphrey2011.pdf .
12. Seyranian, V. (2009). Contingency Theories of Leadership. Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. Retrieved January 19, 2014 from http://www.sagepub.com/northouse6e/study/materials/reference/reference6.1.pdf .
The prescriptions include wisdom, honesty, and courage, as well as human dignity, integrity, respect, health, and independence.
Part 3: Formulate possible evidence-based practices and an action plan that could work towards achieving improvement outcomes.
Provide insight into the diagnostic processes (e.g., root cause analysis) used to determine the primary causes of the problem. Consider both qualitative (cause-effect diagram, barrier analysis), and quantitative (theory testing or drill down analysis) methods.
Analyze the cost-effectiveness of your initiative and how your initiative mitigates risk and improves health care outcomes.
Countless interventions have been used for fall prevention amongst the elderly population. These include risk-assessment and management programs, I.e. Designed to screen those who are most at risk and to design interventions that will reduce their risk of falling; exercise programs slanted dot enhancing flexibility, endurance, and strength; education programs (including one-to -one counseling on methods to prevent falls); environmental modification in homes or…
ANA Nursing-Sensitive Indicators. http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/PatientSafetyQuality/Research-Measurement/the-National-Database/Nursing-Sensitive-Indicators_1
Butts, JB Ethics in professional Nursing Practice
Broe, K et al. (2007) a Higher Dose of Vitamin D Reduces the Risk of Falls in Nursing
Leadership is a process that helps in directing and mobilizing people. It has for the past 100 years been a subject of many studies. These studies have come up with theories of the nature and exercise of leadership. Some of these theories include trait theories of leadership, theories of emergent leadership, leadership style theories, psychodynamic theories, and the path goal theories among others. The second section of this paper focuses on evaluation of behavior of selected leaders. Leaders of different organizations exhibit specific behaviors that are in line with models and theories of leadership. Their behaviors can guide the behavior of individual followers, groups, or even teams. The analysis section touches on how leaders perceive their roles and what makes them develop as leaders. The summary wraps up all that the paper is about and what I have learnt.
Management and leadership are interchangeably used in our everyday…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-429.
Bass, B. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Application. New York: Free Press.
Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1997). Leaders: Strategies for Taking Change 2nd Edition. New York:
Collins Business Essentials.
The authors also find that the firms where these antecedents are most present are those in which either leadership style is highly evident. Firms that lack either leadership style are the lowest performing with respect to quality management.
The ultimate objective of any leader is to improve the company's performance. The most basic measures of performance are profit, revenue, market share and other financial statement measures. Even if the leader excels at other elements, if they do not translate to the bottom line, then the leader is not meeting the needs of the shareholders. hittington et al. (2009) have found that organizational performance is most positively affected by transactional leadership, whereas transformational leadership as found to have no impact. By contrast, Spinelli (2006) found the opposite -- that transformational leadership was more effective at delivering performance outcomes. This again hints that the best leadership style is dependent on the situation.…
Burns, J. (1979) Leadership. Harper Books.
Pieterse, a., van Knippenberg, D., Schippers, M. & Stam, D. (2010). Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior: The moderating role of psychological empowerment. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Vol. 31 (4) 609-623.
Kezar, a. & Eckel, P. (2008). Advancing diversity agendas on campus: Examining transactional and transformational presidential leadership styles. International Journal of Leadership in Education. Vol. 11 (4) 379-405.
Zagorsek, H., Dimovski, V. & Skerlavaj, M. (2009). Transactional and transformational leadership impacts on organizational learning. Journal of East European Management Studies. Vol. 14 (2) 144-165.
Leadership Analysis of OSIM
High growth technology companies are fertile organizations for the conflicts of leadership styles. The incessant need for accelerating new product development and staying in step with customer needs on the one hand and the pressure to reduce costs often lead high tech firms to adopt transactional leadership mindsets (Eppard, 2004). This gets amplified in Asian cultures where time is a very limited resource and large-scale organizations including OSIM International have a myriad of conflicting priorities (Beugr, Acar, Braun, 2006). Defining a management style that is agile enough to respond to these many challenges while at the same time concentrating on attaining cost targets is essential for survival in highly competitive industries (Pieterse, van Knippenberg, Schippers, Stam, 2010). on Sim, CEO of OSIM, must balance these many requirements while engraining a high level of accountability and ownership throughout the global operations of OSIM International. Balancing transactional and…
Beugr, C.D., Acar, W., & Braun, W. (2006). Transformational leadership in organizations: An environment-induced model.International Journal of Manpower, 27(1), 52-62.
Deluga, R.J. (1988). Relationship of transformational and transactional leadership with employee influencing strategies.Group & Organization Studies, 13(4), 456.
Eppard, R.G. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership styles as they predict constructive culture and defensive culture. (Order No. 3144365, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 129-129.
Guay, R.P. (2013). The relationship between leader fit and transformational leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology,28(1), 55-73.
The administrative support staff who is dealing with frustrated doctors who cannot adjust to the new computer tablets they are using as an alternative to paper files may require a transactional leader who can provide the organizational support needed to move through an uncomfortable transition. A single leader cannot always be everything to everyone. By learning one's leadership strengths and weaknesses and understanding the leadership skills needed to achieve the organizational objectives, the leader can begin to develop and foster his or her leadership team with people who offer complimentary skills and leadership styles.
Avolio, B.J. & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald Group Publishing.
Business leadership: A Jossey-Bass reader. (2003). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Clawson, J.G. (2009). Level three leadership: Getting below the surface. (4th ed.). Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dulewicz, C., Young, M., & Dulewicz, V. (2005, Spring).…
Avolio, B.J. & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald Group Publishing.
Business leadership: A Jossey-Bass reader. (2003). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Clawson, J.G. (2009). Level three leadership: Getting below the surface. (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dulewicz, C., Young, M., & Dulewicz, V. (2005, Spring). The relevance of emotional intelligence for leadership performance. Journal of General Management, 30(3), 71-86. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Furthermore, there are a number of similarities and overlaps between such leadership theories that do not prevent their being characterized as transformational in nature. For example, "Most leaders behave in both transactional and transformational ways in different intensities and amounts; this is not an entirely either-or differentiation" (Miner, 2002 p. 743).
One of the more interesting issues to emerge from the research is the need for transformational leaders to teach what they know to others. Certainly, it would be reasonable to assume that most leaders got where they are by virtue of some innate skill or ability within an organization, and while it would likely be easier - and faster -- for them to simply do some things themselves, teaching others how to become effective leaders in their own right is a fundamental responsibility and effective leaders and serves to differentiate a truly transformational leader from others leadership styles: "True…
Apple. (2007). Yahoo! Business. [Online]. Available: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=AAPL
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (2002). Developing potential across a full range of leadership: Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Transformational leadership: Industrial, military, and educational impact. (1998). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Human esource Management
Leadership styles vary between different leaders, based on their values, attitudes and approaches towards tasks and employees. The case provided with Executive A, and Leaders B. And C. demonstrate the different styles of leadership which may be adopted by those in charge of an organization. The paper will start by looking at the style of each leader, examining the evidence in the case provided that indicates the chosen style. After the assessment of styles, the potential impact of Leader A or B. taking over from Executive A will be discussed.
The three styles of leadership that are present in the case study are Level 5, transactional and transformational leadership styles. Executive A this is a level 5 leader, leader B. has a transactional style, and leader C. has a transformational style. The identification of leadership style is achieved by examining the attitudes and behaviors of…
Collins, J, (2001, Jan), Level 5 Leadership, The Triumph of Humility and Fierce Resolve, Harvard Business Review, retrieved 24th January 2013 from http://www.tree4health.org/distancelearning/sites/www.tree4health.org.distancelearning/files/readings/Collins.%20Five%20Leadership%20Levels.pdf
Mathis, Robert L; Jackson, John H, (2010), Human Resource Management, South-Western Cengage Learning
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
The most successful training programs are concentrating on the cognitive side of emotions, specifically evaluating how leaders can provide individualized attention and support to help subordinates prioritize tasks, focus their efforts, organize their time and resources and attain a higher level of performance. The transition of managers into leaders is also determined by the level of trust the latter is able to create and sustain through greater authenticity and genuineness of interaction with subordinates. No longer directing activities in the short-term, a leader with a sufficiently high level of EI interprets acts on and promotes the vision the organization is attempting to accomplish by taking a much focused path to their fulfillment. This can only happen when a leader has a strong focus on the needs of the team while also underscoring the urgency to focus on and achieve goals. Transactionally-oriented leaders struggle with this trade-off of task orientation to…
Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-Range Leadership Theory: The Way Forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Introduction to, and Overview of, Transformational and Charismatic Leadership. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. xvii -- xxiii. Boston: JAI Press.
Bar-on, R. (1997). The Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EQ-I): Technical manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.
By the same token, by not having any specific policy implications, servant leadership theory does not expressly reject the transformational, situational or results-focused ideas of leadership. It is merely an adjunct to these theories, and is mostly useful for deciding on whether or not somebody should become a leader in the first place.
Situational Leadership and Results-Focused Leadership
These two leadership theories are opposed to one another, but they share the same philosophical underpinnings. The underlying theory of each of these leadership styles is that the leadership style is flexible, and the best leaders have the ability to utilize different styles and techniques depending on the needs of the day. here the two differ is in the understanding of the most important determinant of leadership style. Situational leadership theory argues that leaders need to adapt to the different circumstances, changing their style to suit the challenges with which they are…
The transformational leader- N.M. Tichy and M.A. Devanna ( 1990)
Servant Leadership- Robert Greenleaf
Leadership in organization - G. Yuki (2006)
Leadership Self-Assessment Analysis
In the wake of the corporal scandals of Enron and the Arthur Anderson Company, there have been increased calls for strong ethical leadership. Leadership had always been regarded as a key factor in ensuring the effectiveness of any organization. However, new models are also being developed to challenge the limitations of the prevailing classical theories of leadership.
This paper argues for a tempered approach, one that combines effective leadership with good management. Both factors are important, since over-managed and under-led organizations tend to lose sight of their goals. By the same token, while charismatic leaders can lead their organizations to high levels of success, the lack of management skills means that such victories do not last in the long run.
The growing awareness of corporate and white-collar crime has likewise presented new challenges to the classical leadership model. Organization leaders should now be wary of lawsuits the…
Bolman, Lee G. And Deal, Terrence E. 1997. Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2nd ed.
Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.
In contrast, a "selling and coaching" (S2) approach is demanded when the leader knows the follower may be uncertain about how to perform the task, but the subordinate has a high level of commitment, as in the case of an intern or a new hire. S2 is a motivational or mentoring approach. The employee craves direction, but will be motivated more by personality and praise than 'carrots and sticks' versus the S1 situation (Straker 2004).
A "participating/supporting" leadership situation (S3) is when the leader knows that the employees can complete the task but the manager wants more of an emotional investment or a higher level of excellence. An example of this approach might be a manager of a fast food establishment with a teenage, low-skilled workforce. The employees can do the job, but needs more motivation to perform at a high level rather than task-specific direction. Finally, an (S4) situation…
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald.
DISC. (2010). Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://www.discprofile.com/
Homrig, Mark a. (2001, December 21).Transformational leadership. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://leadership.au.af.mil/documents/homrig.htm
Straker, David. (2004). Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory. Changing Minds. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/situational_leadership_hersey_blanchard.htm
I see that in my own leadership style I am oriented towards a transactional style, but that in order to improve my leadership I need to weave the daily leadership actions together better with an eye to creating long-term organizational excellence. I feel that I have developed strong communications skills and healthy leadership traits in terms of being rational but also being able to deal with the emotional elements of the job. I perhaps struggle a little at listening, but I also can be short-sighted with my decision-making, such that months or years later I find my decisions have set an undesirable tone that must be corrected. These are the most significant deficiencies between the leader I am and the leader I wish to become.
Long-term strategy can also be considered somewhat of a weakness. There is certainly a gap between the specificity of long-term strategies that the organization has…
Schermerhorn, John. (2001). Situational Leadership: Conversations with Paul Hersey. Ohio University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.situational.com/PdfViewer.aspx?pdfPath=~/Pdf/Conversations_With_Paul_Hersey.pdf
Fielder, Fred. (1964). A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness. Academic Press, Burlington, MA.
Vroom, VH & Yetton, PW. (1973). Leadership and Decision-Making. Yale University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.lederne.dk/NR/rdonlyres/E8715858-DCEE-4355-88BB-B3E82FE7DA9B/0/18VictorVroom2.pdf
Enos, Darryl D. (2007). Performance Improvement. CRC Press, p. 153
A comparison of Law Enforcement with Other Professions
Who first comes to mind when you think of a 'Leader'? Is it Alexander the Great? Napoleon? Winston Churchill? Gandhi? Leadership is an interesting phenomenon to consider, from the perspective of civilization, of nations, of political change, and of history. What makes one person a leader while another tries and fails? What is a good leader and how is that different from a 'great' leader? The definition of leadership also varies with the context and with the individual who is defining leadership. The nature of leaders has changed as civilization has evolved, and the leaders we as a society need today may be different from those of a century ago. A national leader is distinct from a local leader, a oy Scout leader, or a team leader in a sport.
Thus, definitions of leadership vary with the situation. However, they include…
Avery, G.C. (2004) Understanding Leadership: Paradigms and Cases. London: Sage
Avolio, B.J. (1999) Full Leadership Development: Building the Vital Forces in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bittner, Egon (1970). The functions of the police in modern society: a review of background factors, current practices, and possible role models. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Health, Center for Studies of Crime and Delinquency.
Boedker, C., Vidgen, R., Meagher, K., Cogin, J., Mouritsen, J. And Runnalls, M. (2011). Leadership, culture and management practices of high performing workplaces in Australia: The High Performing Workplaces Index. Society for Knowledge Economics: Sydney.
Create a hybrid theory/philosophy which combines the common elements found in the thinking of Case, Kouzes, and Drucker. In your philosophy, be sure to include the new definition of entrepreneurial leadership presented in Understanding Entrepreneurial Leadership in today's Dynamic Markets.
The new definition of entrepreneurial leadership as defined by the article Understanding entrepreneurial leadership in today's dynamic markets is a leader who is enterprising, transformational and who "operates in a dynamic market that offers lucrative opportunities" (Tarabishy, Fernald Jr., Solomon, p. 5). These words are rather ludicrous on their face, due to the fact that this is not a new definition whatsoever; it is a definition that has been around for decades, if not centuries. Therefore to base a 'new theory' on such an old theory makes no sense at all. Instead, the author will focus on using the words of Case, Drucker and Kouzas as a foundation for…
Drucker, P.F. (1983) Concept of the Corporation, 1983 edition, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers
Fu, P.P.; Tsui, A.S.; Liu, J.; Li, L.; (2010) Pursuit of whose happiness? Executive leaders' transformational behaviors and personal values, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 55, Issue 2, pp. 222 -- 254
George, B.; Sims, P.; McLean, A.N.; Mayer, D.; (2007) Discovering your authentic leadership, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 85, issue 2, pp. 129-138
Kouzes, J. & Posner, B.; (2007) The Leadership Challenge (4th ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers
The author of this report is asked to answer to a number of questions relating to leadership. First is a compare and contrast of Fiedler's Model of Leadership followed by a description of the Cognitive esource Theory. Next, it is asked whether high experience or high intelligence is a better trait to have in a high-stress situation. Lastly, the author is to give examples of transactional leadership, transformation leadership and visionary leadership in a police setting.
Fiedler's Model of Leadership & Cognitive esource Theory
Fiedler said that a "pretzel-shaped" theory is needed to describe and quantify the characteristics of a "pretzel-shaped" world. He said the three main factors in play were leader/member relations, task structure and position power. However, he emphasized that leader/member relations took on twice the importance of the other two dimensions because the impact of management (or mismanagement) of this dimension was much more profound (Salisbury,…
Biography. (2013, August 12). Steve Jobs Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story
Biography.com. Famous Biographies & TV Shows - Biography.com. Retrieved August 12, 2013, from http://www.biography.com/people/steve-jobs-9354805
CSS. (2013, August 11). Cognitive Resource Theory. CSS.edu. Retrieved August 11, 2013, from faculty.css.edu/dswenson/web/LEAD/cogresourcetheory.html
Salisbury. (2013, August 11). Fiedler's Theory. Salisbury University. Retrieved August
Leadership Choice: Designing Climates of Blame or esponsibility
In E. Grady Bogue's book The Leadership Choice: Designing Climates of Blame or esponsibility, the author addresses the impact that self-knowledge can have on a person's life and career. In other words, the way a person acts in his or her personal life is often directly related to the way a person acts in his or her professional life. The morals, opinions, and beliefs held by a person are not generally confined to one area of that individual's life. They are spread across all of the areas of life and designed to be used by that person in many different ways. When a leader has opinions and beliefs, those are generally included in that leader's personal and professional lives, and it may be very difficult to keep them separate. Most people would likely question why anyone would want or need to keep…
Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A.T., & Sternberg, R.J. (2004). The nature of leadership. New York: Sage Publications, Inc.
Bogue, E.G. (2010). The leadership choice: Designing climates of blame or responsibility. New York: WestBow Press.
Frey, M., Kern, R., Snow, J., & Curlette, W. (2009). Lifestyle and transformational leadership style. Journal of Individual Psychology, 65(3), 212-240.
21st Century Leadership
What does leadership mean today? The 21st Century environment presents totally different challenges and needs from the previous centuries with regards to leadership. Studies have shown that emotional and social intelligence are two big areas that pertain to 21st century leadership, as they relate to how well leaders can effectively establish positive relationships with followers (Boyatzis, 2008; Den, Deanne, Belschak, 2012; Higgs, 2013; Schyns, Schilling, 2013). There are, nonetheless, many styles and theories of leadership that are discussed by both professionals and researchers today. These styles and theories range from servant leadership to authoritarian leadership. Yet as Higgs (2013) shows, in the 21st century, a "sense making" paradigm is needed in order for an appropriate model of leadership to be implemented that "is relevant to the context of complexity and change facing organizations in the early twenty-first century" (p.273). This sense making paradigm is actually a throw-back…
globalization that diversified cultures and backgrounds have converged and are working together in collaboration. Considering the scenario of today's world, the rapidly changing demographics have played a critical role in the emergence of new styles of leadership. The definition of competitiveness and the qualities associated with a leader have also changed in the current times. And among all the qualities the two most prominent qualities that every leader must possess is related to the consideration of equity of gender, and equity of diversified cultures.
Different cultures suggest different roles for males and females based on their unique value system. The mindsets, couture, and eating habits of almost all the cultures are traditionally unique. Countries belonging to a particular geographical area behave in a certain way, so do the organizations and leaders belonging to those areas. Their attitude and approach is derived from their cultural values. Some countries have common cultures…
Fiedler, F. (1972). Predicting the effects of leadership training and experience from the contingency model., Journal of Applied Psychology, retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/56/2/114/
Fiedler, F. (1972). The effects of leadership training and experience: A contingency model interpretation, Administrative Science Quarterly, retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2393826
Fiedler, F. (2005). CONTINGENCY THEORY OF LEADERSHIP, Essential theories of motivation and leadership, retrieved April 25, 2011 from http://books.google.com.pk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=8yo2Fp6UAEMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA232&dq=fiedler%27s+leadership&ots=2YX-FkEKy0&sig=WEtmbDIw5HZywNFFIi5Z1zYYkTw
Harris, P. & Moran, R. (1996). Managing cultural differences, retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.angelfire.com/nj4/ambass148/Harris_ch7.doc
Describe Branson's leadership style in terms of the leadership models addressed in Chapters 10 and 11 and evaluate the likely effectiveness of that style in the U.S. today.
Sir Branson's leadership style is the combination of authentic and transformational. He believes in hiring staff that have the skills to perform effectively. he authentic leadership style leads the way to his skill to work with the understanding that people make mistakes and they can be corrected while the work continues. As a transformational leader he demonstrates the capability needed to foresee company development, inspire and empower staff. With these attributes it requires him to have balance as a leader in the day-to-day working environment while creating a productive work environment and focusing on company goals.
According to Chapter 1, "Leadership is the process of developing ideas and a vision, living by values that support those ideas and that vision, influencing…
This leader is known as a risk taker and someone who is always looking for new projects as attempts to elevate his business to new levels. With the input and help of a strong management staff, Virgin Group is comprised of retail, air travel, financial, music, books and telecommunications. Branson is at the helm of a multi-million dollar global business, so his leadership style has proven to be quite successful with his decision-making and people skills.
He developed his entrepreneur ability at an early age. As a person who by society's standards was not successful academically and suffered with dyslexia, he never let others define him. Instead what some saw as a weakness it was used to his advantage, while pursuing his dream of being a top business leader. Overall, his inexperience and personal treatment from others helped with creating a strong commitment to treating people with respect. "Virgin Group is an organization driven on casualness and data, one that is bottom heavy rather than one that is made difficult by upper-level management. (Richard Branson/Herb Kelleher-Leader Extraordinaire, 2012, Pg. 1).
For a number of years Branson has been leading global teams by recognizing how valuable staff is to the success of a business. The additional skill needed is to be aware of the societal and organizational culture and global laws that affect business. In Chapter 11, "Societal culture is shared motives, values, beliefs, identities, and interpretations or meanings of significant events that result from common experiences of member of collectives and are transmitted across generations (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2011,
What are the essential details of the event, and what do you see as the causes of the crisis and/or negative impact to society?
The scandal chosen is the Volkswagen emission scandal. The essential details of the scandal encompass the fact that Volkswagen ultimately admitted that roughly 11 million of its manufactured vehicles were fitted out with software that was employed to falsify emission tests. Specifically, the fitted out software detected when the car was being tested and then activated apparatus that decreased emissions. Another essential detail of the scandal is that during the course of regular driving, the software somewhat muted the device, which in sequence brought about an increase in emissions that were exceptionally past the legal confines. This was, it would seem, with the key purpose of attaining fuel savings or to supplement the rotating force and acceleration of the car (Gates et al., 2017).…
Open communications and unambiguous formulations are two more features.
A competitive managerial style forces employees to compete against each other as well as against the manager. The main benefit of this approach is that of increasing constructive conflict, but it also increases tensions in the work place. The collaborative and sharing managerial styles stimulate communication and collaboration, creating a more relaxed and pleasant working atmosphere. Finally, an accommodative managerial style is similar to the human resource management strategies implemented in the immediate aftermath of a new employee being hired. It as such revolves around strategies that integrate the employees in a unified organizational culture and structure which functions based on the same values and principles and which works towards the same goals. Implemented on the long-term, this managerial approach stands increased chances of reducing operational efficiency and as such organizational profitability.
It is often argued that a good…
Furthermore, the supervisor must have a keen understanding of the laws and guidelines of the institution so that he can help in interpreting them to the staff. During the interview, there were times when directions were asked of the manager from the employees on how to go about tackling a problem. Sometimes the problems were so technical requiring the quoting of laws. I realized that this is a vital part of the managerial skill that has to be cultivated in order to make an effective manager. Also as the manager was doing his rounds, I realized that many people were asking him to solve their problems, be it social or technical, therefore, a leader should be have the ability of solving problems in a logical and reasoned manner and also be able to motivate people towards the efficient completion of tasks.
Learning about human resource is vital to understand about…
Veo, P. (2010). Concept mapping for applying theory to nursing practice. Journal for Nurses in Staff Development, 26(1), 17-22.
Kingma, M. (2006). Nurses on the move: global health care Migration and the economy. Nursing Leadership, 19(2), 92-94.
Morgan, J.C., & Lynn, M.R. (2009). Satisfaction in nursing in the context of shortage. Journal of nursing management, 17(3), 401-410.
Redman, R.W., & Potempa, K.M. (2009). Nursing education in human resources in: A worldwide crisis. Collegian: Nursing Journal of the Royal College of Australia, 16(1), 19-23.
Leadership, Business and Rhetoric
Leadership, Business, and Rhetoric
To what extent do different situations merit different types of leaders? Different situations definitely require different types of leaders. When it comes to a team environment, transformational leaders who work with others instead of giving orders are the best choice. Some environments, such as the military, do not lend themselves to that type of leadership, though. These environments require a transactional leader who is clearly in charge and has no problem giving orders to others. There are generally severe penalties for not carrying out these orders, and there is little, if any, teamwork between the leader and the followers. One style of leadership will not be effective in all situations, nor should it be used in all situations.
Can we identify a set of personality traits common to all successful leaders? The most successful leaders are natural leaders. That means they do…
Shortell & Kalunzy, Work Team Dynamics
If one wants to limit the abuse of power in healthcare organizations, there are several ways to do that. The first one involves who is hired to do the work, because some people are more prone to being power-hungry than others. When a person driven by power is hired to be in charge of others, it is quite clear that person may not be kept in check so easily. Instead of hiring a transactional leader who is focused on giving orders, it would be better to hire a transformational leader who would work with those over who he or she has control and power. Working together as a team and being a good leader is very important for anyone who wants to succeed in healthcare management, and it can also more easily limit the abuse of power that all too many people are focused…
1.3. Summary of argument, Hypothesis
The role of leadership styles and their applicability to the success or failure of mergers, acquisitions and alliances is the focus of this research. Any leadership study, to be relevant, must also focus on the needs of those served by the organizations studies. That is why in the proposed Change Management Equilibrium Model have customer-driven processes at their center or core. The focus of the research to either validate or refute the model is based on consistency and collaboration as two factors that also serve to create greater levels of integration between the two or more healthcare providers merging or changing their organizational structures to better serve the market. This market orientation is what many public-ally-owned and operated healthcare providers struggle with, as often the source of funding becomes their "customer" or whom they serve (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). Studies by AM esearch for example show…
Abbott, R., Ploubidis, G., Huppert, F., Kuh, D., & Croudace, T.. (2010). An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample. Social Indicators Research, 97(3), 357-373.
Faten Fahad Al-Mailam. (2004). Transactional vs. Transformational Style of Leadership-Employee Perception of Leadership Efficacy in Public and Private Hospitals in Kuwait. Quality Management in Health Care, 13(4), 278-284.
Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Introduction to, and overview of, transformational and charismatic leadership. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. xvii -- xxiii. Boston: JAI Press.
When the perceived role and the expected role are incongruent, conflict can occur both between the leader and his followers, and within himself. This can result in a slowdown in production, a lowering of morale and resistance to changes that the leader may be trying to implement (obbins & Judge, 2007).
According to Shafritz & Ott (2005) an organization is essentially a tool that people use to coordinate their actions as a means of achieving their goals. Often, the attainment of these goals requires some form of negotiation. Negotiating conflict is the area of leadership communication that can be the most problematic because if matters are not handled correctly, the conflicts can escalate until they are no longer under control. Leaders who are not attentive to their employees' needs and desires are not very likely to have a happy and productive workforce (Shafritz & Ott, 2005). Thus communication is ultimately…
Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectation. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B.M., and Avolio, B.J. (1994). Shatter the glass ceiling: Women may make better managers. Human Resource Management, 33, 549-560.
Billsberry, J., (2009). Discovering leadership, Basingstoke, Palgrave OU Press.
Bisel, R.S., Ford, D.J., & Keyton, J. (2007). Unobtrusive control in a leadership organization: Integrating control and resistance. Western Journal of Communication, 71, 136 -- 158.
ver the past decade, 'culture' has become a common term used when thinking about and describing an organization's internal world, a way of differentiating one organization's personality from another. In fact, many researchers contend that an organization's culture socializes people (Stein, 1985) and that leadership styles are an integral part of the culture of an organization. A culture-specific perspective reflects the view that the occurrence and the effectiveness of certain leadership behaviors (as well as constructs) is likely to be unique to a given culture.
In contrast, leaders in the culture-universal position contend that certain leadership constructs are comparable across cultures and that many universal leadership behaviors do exist. nly recently, based on the review by Bass (House, 1998), has the leadership research community begun to realize that universal and culture-specific leadership behaviors and constructs are not mutually exclusive categories, but can rather coexist in a single culture at the…
On the other hand, transactional leaders work with the existing rules, norms and procedures of the organization's culture, and reward followers for positive work, and also work to maintain the existing culture (Bass, 1985). The transactional leaders base their decision-making and actions on existing norms, values, and procedures (Bass, 1985). Transactional leaders, on the other hand, can deter organizational success and leadership effectiveness (Bass, 1985).
Leadership style has received a great deal of attention from human resource development researchers (HRD) in the past years (Woodwall, 2000). Some studies will be focused on building a HRD knowledge base in countries where this is low or inexistent (Kuchinke, 1999), whereas others try to identify the compatibility between different leadership styles and the national cultural characteristics. Ardichvili and Kuchinke (2002) used Hofstede's cultural dimensions and the extensive theory developed by Bass and Avolio to determine the leadership styles that are more likely to be correlated to different cultural characteristics in former USSR countries, Germany and the United States.
The results suggested that leadership development based on national dimensions as described by Hofstede should be considered with caution because countries with similar cultural features and geographical proximity may display different leadership styles. Further
Meg Whitman and Managerial Style
Meg Whitman is the head of one of the most successful companies of the Internet era, the online auction site eBay. Her success with the company reflects both the basic ingenious structure of eBay itself as well as her own abilities as a leader. This paper examines two specific qualities of Whitman's leadership qualities, her transformative and transactional styles of leadership.
A basic definition of these two types of leadership is in order first. Transactional leadership is based on the principle that business leadership should use the fact that people follow their own self-interest, demonstrating that an employee's self-interest can parallel the interests of the business. (In other words, the transactional leader helps employees to see their working hard - and increasing the company's profits - as being a win-win situation for both employees and employers.
Transactional behavior focuses on the accomplishment of tasks and…
perfect position for me based on my leadership style. Given that I rated high in both people and task oriented leadership styles, this paper will discuss positions that are compatible with these characteristics. I will also discuss my strengths and weaknesses and how they affect my ability to be effective in my ideal position. This paper will also compare and contrast leadership styles, as well as discuss my personal leadership style.
I have a democratic leadership style and I scored 9 on the people orientation assessment. I also scored 11 on task orientation assessment. Suitable positions for me might be working in a creative group, such as advertising or design, or in the consulting field. Also working in a service industry or in the field of education would be possible positions that are suited to my abilities and talents.
My Strengths and eaknesses
My strengths are that I…
Bass, B.M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamic, Winter, pp. 19-31. Retrieved September 21, from ftp://papers.econ.mpg.de/IMPRS/SumSchool2009/priv/Giessner/3%20charisma/Bass.pdf
Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) Research Program. (1999). Culture specific and cross-culturally generalizable implicit leadership theories: Are attributes of charismatic/transformational leadership universally endorsed? Leadership Quarterly, 10 (2), 219-256. Retrieved September 21, from http://www.evidence-based-entrepreneurship.com/content/publications/048.pdf
Piccolo, R.F. & Colquitt, J.A. (2006). Transformational leadership and job behaviors: the mediating role of core job characteristics. Academy of Management Journal, 49(2) 327-340. Retrieved September 21, from http://www.profjayrfigueiredo.com.br/LID_AC_06.pdf
Riaz, A. & Haider, M.H. (2010). Role of transformational and transactional leadership on job satisfaction and career satisfaction. Business and Economic Horizons, 1(1) 29-38. Retrieved September 21, from http://academicpublishingplatforms.com/downloads/pdfs/beh/volume1/201103201428_05_V1_PAKISTAN_BEH_Adnan_Riaz_d.pdf
Leadership and Change Management
Consider a change that has been recently introduced in your organization. Using relevant change and leadership theories, critically analyze the benefits and problems that introduction of this change has brought. TO WHAT EXTENT HAS LEADERSHIP CONTRIUTED TO THE RESULTS OF THIS PROCESS?
RasgGas is a joint venture gas company between Qatar Petroleum, the State of Qatar's national oil and gas company (majority stakeholder), and ExxonMobil, an American Integrated Oil and Gas company. The company is about fifteen years old and has been involved in all aspect of exploration, development, production, liquefaction and marketing of gas from the North Field. RasGas is a major contributor to the State of Qatar's worldwide leadership in the production and marketing of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) export. The company has utilized technologies to drill high capacity gas well and build the largest and most efficient liquefaction trains in the world. These…
Brisson-Banks, C.V. 2010. "Managing Change and Transitions: A Comparison of Different Models and the Commonalities." Library Management, Vol. 31, No. 4/5, pp.241-52.
Brown, A.D. 1994. "Implementing MRPII: Leadership Rites and Cognitive Change." Logistics Informational Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 6-11.
Drew, S. And C. Coulson-Thomas 1996. "Transformation through Teamwork: The Path to the New Organization?" Managerial Decision, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 7-17.
Eisenbach, R. et al. 1999. "Transformational Leadership in the Context of Organizational Change." Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 80-88.
, 2010). The model includes several mediator (e.g., knowledge exchange) and moderator variables (e.g., self-leadership competencies of actors) that explain why and when this approach is effective and looks at leadership in more of a comprehensive way than focusing on one individual. Such perspectives have suggested that when employees become involved in the decision making processes then this can strengthen leadership.
Transactional leadership is the leadership model that represents what most people view as the concept of management. Transactional leadership is defined by an exchange relationship between the managers and the employees that are all motivated by their own self-interests and meeting the expectations that are associated with their job description. Transactional leadership consists of monitoring, controlling, and motivating employees through economic incentives and other types of exchange incentives (Bass, 1985). Most of the motivation in this model stems from financial exchanges such as by either salaries, performance…
Alipour, F., K., I., & Karimi, R. (2011). Knowledge Creation and Transfer: Role of Learning Organization. International Journal of Business Administration, 2(3), 61-67.
Antonacopolou, E. (2001). The Paradoxical Nature of the Relationship Bewteen Training and Learning. Journal of Management Studies, 38(3), 327-350.
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. (1998). Transformational leadership: Industry, military, and educational impact. Mahwah: Erlbaum.
At the core of leadership is the interaction between the leader and the follower. Much of leadership theory can be understood in terms of how leaders and followers interact and what the underlying assumptions are with respect to the roles and nature of leadership. Because of the many different types of leaders, and successful examples thereof, leadership scholarship has developed multiple branches that seek to explain leadership, but no one branch has yet proved definitive. Instead of understanding leadership through a single paradigm, and it better to understand it in terms of multiple paradigms, and different leadership theories can be applied to the same situation, and any given leader might apply multiple leadership styles at the same time.
Part of the appeal of leadership scholarship is that it encompasses so many unique academic disciplines. Leadership scholarship began life as in business schools but has been studied in the psychological…
Avolio, B., Walumbwa, F. & Weber, T. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology. Vol. 60 (2009) 421-449.
Boyatzis, R., Smith, M., & Blaize, N. (2006). Developing sustainable leaders through coaching and compassion. Academy of Management Learning & Education. Vol. 5 (1) 8-24.
Falk, S. & Rogers, S. (2011). Junior military officer retention: Challenges & opportunities. Harvard University. In possession of the author.
Kocolowski, M. (2010). Shared leadership: Is it time for a change? Emerging Leadership Journeys. Vol. 3 (1) 22-32.
Ethical Training -- Successes and Failures
Ethical Training: Successes and Failures
Ethics are often thought of as black and white, but that is really not the case. There are many shades of grey, and what is ethical in some instances may not be ethical in others. Additionally, there are concerns when it comes to what one person thinks is ethical vs. what another would find ethical. That is often why there are so many discrepancies and issues to consider when one talks about ethics. It is not just a simple issue where a person can say that something is always ethical or not ethical. Instead, the situation must be considered, as well as the people and the circumstances surrounding everything. In many cases, the issue comes down to ethical training, which does not always work out well. The plan is to train people to act ethically, but training someone to…
Becker, L.C. & Becker, C.B. (2002). Encyclopedia of Ethics (2nd ed.). NY: Routledge.
Singer, P. (2000). Writings on an ethical life. London: Harper Collins Publishers.
.....leadership outlines a number of different hypotheses regarding leadership style that have emerged over the years. At the intersection of traits and more progressive views of leadership style is the idea that emotional intelligence is a significant contributor to leadership success. Similarly, it has become leadership orthodoxy that transformational leaders are more successful than transactional ones. Given that transformational leadership requires the leader to inspire and motivate followers, and that a high degree of emotional intelligence would reasonably be thought to aid in this, the hypothesis can be formed that leaders with emotional intelligence are more likely to be transformational leaders, and more successful ones as well.
Several studies have explored the link between emotional intelligence and the transformational leadership style. Quader (2011) notes that emotional leadership can be subdivided into five different areas. Of these, three are more associated with transactional leadership: self-awareness, self-motivation and emotional mentoring). As such,…
Trust is maintained when a facilitative leader can manage each of the seven areas of the facilitative leadership model effectively, with a balanced approach to each. As many leaders who have transformational skill sets excel in the areas of sharing a compelling vision, seeking to maximize involvement and coaching to performance, there is also the need for designing pathways to action based on input from all subordinates in an organization in addition to facilitating agreement. In a community of groups, a manager must also concentrate on consistency across the seven areas of the facilitative model. The apparent incongruity of one group to another in a community needs to be minimized with involvement, and facilitated agreement strategies that force leaders to have a completely different mindset relative to decision-making. The initial momentum of a project based on sharing an inspiring vision needs to be balanced with an equally strong focus on…
Amy H. Amy. (2008). Leaders as facilitators of individual and organizational learning. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29(3), 212-234.
Amy, Amy Hawkins (2005). Leaders as facilitators of organizational learning. Ph.D. dissertation, Regent University, United States -- Virginia.
Jan Barnsley, Louise Lemieux-Charles, & Martha M. McKinney. (1998). Integrating learning into integrated delivery systems. Health Care Management Review, 23(1), 18-28.
Ingrid Bens. (2007, July). The ten essential processes of facilitative leaders. Global Business and Organizational Excellence, 26(5), 38.
Organizational Diagnosis and ecommendations
Imagine studying an organization in more depth in order to determine what needs changed. This is not an easy task because it could take days or months to achieve success. Businesses also have to stay up with current technology, and this means staying present with various leadership theories in order to make the business better. Systems thinking is used as a means in which to fully understand what needs monitored. Through using transactional leadership theory, one is able to grasp what one can do as a means of making recommendation for improvement.
One needs to perform a preliminary review to ensure that he or she obtains information related to organizational leadership, culture, effectiveness and productivity. "Synergy Technical Solutions Corp. (Syntechs) is a leading national technical service solutions provider with over 1,500 highly skilled professionals" (Syntechs, 2011). Many of these individuals work on "desktop and notebook computers…
Aronson, D. (2011). Targetted innovation: Using systems thinking to increase the benefits of innovation efforts. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from Thinking: http://www.thinking.net/Systems_Thinking/st_innovation_990401.pdf.
Changing-Minds. (2011). Transactional leadership. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from Changing-Minds: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transactional_leadership.htm .
Management Study Guide. (2011). Transactional leadership. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from Management Study Guide: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/transactional-leadership.htm .
Mattke, J. (2011, May 20). Syntechs Employee. (E. Mattke, Interviewer)