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hich CEO or Company Most Represents Authentic Leadership and hy
As case studies have shown, authentic leadership is predicated on the ability to create, sustain and strengthen trust and commitment to shared objectives over time. The essential attributes and characteristics of effective authentic leaders can be found in their ability to lead, not necessarily just manage or direct activities. A truly authentic leader will have the ability to bridge cultural, psychological and physical distances (in the case of virtual teams) while still keeping his team entirely engaged and committed (Purvanova, Bono, 343). A transformational leader paradoxically can emerge out of the most challenging, difficult times a business faces, including the loss of a major leader. This is why Tim Cook is one of the most authentic, transformational leaders operating a business today. As CEO of Apple, he has had to quickly keep the company focused on its vision,…
Avolio, Bruce J., and William L. Gardner. "Authentic Leadership Development: Getting to the Root of Positive Forms of Leadership." Leadership Quarterly 16.3 (2005): 315-38.
Fitzgerald, Susan, and Nicola S. Schutte. "Increasing Transformational Leadership through Enhancing Self-Efficacy." The Journal of Management Development 29.5 (2010): 495-505.
Price, Terry L. "The Ethics of Authentic Transformational Leadership." Leadership Quarterly 14.1 (2003): 67-81.
Purvanova, Radostina K., and Joyce E. Bono. "Transformational Leadership in Context: Face-to-Face and Virtual Teams." Leadership Quarterly 20.3 (2009): 343.
Transformational Leadership in the Promotion of Ethical Climate and Practices
Some researchers have argued that transformational leadership is effective in promoting ethical climate and practices in order to influence individuals' ethical behaviors in workgroups. Ethical behavior is differentially defined from one culture to another and from one organization to another and it is this difference that the transformational leader is able to convey to the organizational employees through effective means and through doing rather than simply saying what is the ethical standards in any given situation. The objective of this work in writing is to examine the facts, to state either agreement or disagreement with this statement, and to justify the position of the writer of this work on this issue.
Defining Leadership Ethics
The work of McDougle (2003) states that ethics and leadership "have often been thoughts of as mutually-reinforcing concepts." (p.1) Leadership, according to McDougle, can be defined…
Armstrong, A. And Muenjohn, N. (2008) The Ethical Dimension in Transformational leadership. Journal of Business Systems, Government, and Ethics. Vol. 3 NOl. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.jbsge.vu.edu.au/issues/vol03no3/Ethical_Dimension.pdf
Bass, BM and Avolio (1997) Full Range Leadership Development: Manual for the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Palo Alto: Mind Garden, Inc.
Boehnke, K. et al. (2003) Transformational Leadership: An Examination of Cross-National Differences and Similarities. Leadership & Organization Development Journal Vol 24(1), pp.5-15.
Huse, TD (2003) Transformational Leadership in the Era of Change. School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas AY 02-03. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA416126
Consequently, better communications, continuous training became part and puzzle of doing business in a new way (Ashley, 1997).
In conclusion, leadership is not only important to companies that operate on a global scale but to domestic firms as well. It's clear that when a leader takes his or her rightful position as a leader change, performance and results manifest. Their values and beliefs become the guiding principles where ideas, imaginations and talents are shared by all. Such transformational leaders not only make their employees to follow them, but they help one another to grow, motivate raise the morale of achieving extraordinary outcomes with few resources.
Colonel Mark A. Homrig, (2001).Transformational Leadership. etrieved November 28, 2011 from http://leadership.au.af.mil/documents/homrig.htm
David M. Boje, (2000).Transformational Leadership. etrieved November 28, 2011 from http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/teaching/338/transformational_leadership.htm
Donald Douglas, (2009). How Alan Mulally is Saving Ford Motor Company. etrieved November 28, 2011 from http://americanpowerblog.blogspot.com/2009/05/how-alan-mulally-is-saving-ford-motor.html
eichlin Igor, (2004). Getting…
Colonel Mark A. Homrig, (2001).Transformational Leadership. Retrieved November 28, 2011 from http://leadership.au.af.mil/documents/homrig.htm
David M. Boje, (2000).Transformational Leadership. Retrieved November 28, 2011 from http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/teaching/338/transformational_leadership.htm
Donald Douglas, (2009). How Alan Mulally is Saving Ford Motor Company. Retrieved November 28, 2011 from http://americanpowerblog.blogspot.com/2009/05/how-alan-mulally-is-saving-ford-motor.html
Reichlin Igor, (2004). Getting the global view: Nestle, led by Peter Brabeck-Letmathe, climbs to the #1 spot in this year's Best Companies for Leaders. Retrieved November 28, 2011 from http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/workforce-management/236004-1.html
LEADESHIP HISTOY AND MODELS
A lot of research has gone into the subject of leadership skills as seen from a number of several different perspectives. As a matter of fact, from the early years of 1900 onwards, analyses on the types of leadership and their models have been going on, and initially the point of concentration was on the leader, and his followers. esearchers of the time, however, came to the conclusion that no single characteristic or trait could be taken as being fully explanatory of any particular leader's abilities and his capacity, and thereafter researchers began the process of analyzing and examining the situation and its influences on a leader and his abilities, and also made several attempts to try to distinguish effective from non-effective leaders. The purpose of such analyses was actually to determine which leadership behaviors were exactly exemplified by effective leaders, and which were…
Ackoff, Russell. L. "A Systemic View of Transformational Leadership" Retrieved From
Accessed 22 September, 2005
Bass, Bernard. M. (1993) "Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational
This view posits the use of power as the primary functioning aspect of leadership. This style of leadership involves aspects such as gaining trust, respect and confidence from employees and the setting of high standards of conduct, as well as motivating people to achieve their full potential.
In the transactional model the following aspects predominate in this leadership style.
Idealized Influence - Gaining trust, respect and confidence; setting high standards of conduct; a role model
Inspirational Motivation - Articulating the future desired state and a plan to achieve it; including 'vision'
Intellectual Stimulation - Questioning the status quo and continuously innovating, even at the peak of success
Individualized Consideration - Energizing people to develop and achieve their full potential and performance
(Parry, 1998, p. 82)
In the transformational model there is as greater emphasis on individuality and on the sharing of responsibilities; as well as on the important aspect of…
Alimo-Metcalfe B, Alban-Metcalfe R. ( 2000) Heaven can wait. Health Service Journal, 12.
Ascher, W., & Hirschfelder-Ascher, B. (2005). Revitalizing Political Psychology: The Legacy of Harold D. Lasswell. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bryman, A. (1992). Charisma and leadership in organizations. London: Sage.
Firth-Cozens J, and Mowbray D. (2001) Leadership and the quality of care. Retrieved from http://qhc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/10/suppl_2/ii3
LeAnn Nitz, RN
According to Strength Finder 2.0, my personal leadership strengths are the following: harmony, restorative, competition, focus, and woo. The strengths will be discussed in detail and the way they pertain specifically to my personality in different aspects of my life in reference to the strength finder literature. Three different articles were researched and discussed regarding transformational leadership and how it relates to the literature. A comparison was conducted on my own strengths involving transformational leadership. A description will be explained involving how my leadership style has/or may evolve as I further my education in this master's degree program.
My Personal Strengths
Harmony describes people who are team-minded; dislike conflict and work towards collaboration. These kind of individuals are friendly, peace loving, and, generally, popular and altruistic. I am well liked in the hospital that I work in, seeking to understand all and be friendly…
hey use a clear punishment and reward structure to get individuals to obey their instructions. Applying transactional leadership to Mr. Manager shows clear correlations. here are clearly defined punishments in relations to how professionals and para-professionals operate within this field. hose who do not follow protocol that results in the injury and accident of an MR/DD patient will be subject to termination, suspension, and other severe consequences. Mr. Manager does not take a proactive step in helping his staff realize their errors, and thus he relies on their knowledge of existing punishments as a deterrent and impetus for working harder. Mr. Manager however, fails as a complete transactional leader because he does not consistently remind his staff the clear structure in which they work. As a result, his employees are not fully aware of the severe consequences of their actions. When a transactional leader allocates work to a subordinate, they…
Transformational Leadership. Working papers of the transformational leadership focus group of the Kellogg Leadership Studies Project. (1997). College Park, MD: Academy of Leadership Press. Available online.
Yukl, Gary. (1998). Leadership in Organizations 4th Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Olson, L. (1992). Washington Agriculture and Forestry Education Foundation's impact on transformational and transactional leadership styles of participants, executive summary. Fargo, N.D.: North Dakota State University.
Transformational Leadership and Emotionally Intelligent Leader
Organizations are established with on-going concern to earn profits, generate economic activity and satisfy the needs of the people. Few people join hands to establish an organization and mange the resources which may belong to all of them and they pool them together to achieve their desired goals. The goals differ from organization to organization and it is also possible that the goals of an organization do not align with the goals of the individuals who form the organization. In order to resolve the conflict, the founding team members come to an agreement whereby they focus on organizational goals in a manner that support their personal goals as well.
The founding members need the services of many other stakeholders to run their organizational effectively. The most important stakeholders are the employees who are directly involved in the affairs of the organization and…
Schein, E.H. (2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Leadership Models in Modern Organizational Landscape
Leadership Models Available in the Modern Organizational Landscape
How cultural style dictates the perception of what is ethical in a leader's use of power, influence, and authority
There are clear variations between cultures, especially in terms of behavior, attitudes, and values of individuals. The divergence affects the leadership model adopted by various organizations. Many studies have also shown that different leader behaviors and activities are understood and interpreted in a different way based on their cultural environment. As such, they are caused by differences in the ideas of an ethical leader: some styles are preferred, and others recognized as less effective. These differences exist because the significance and importance given to the concept of leadership appears to differ across cultures. With globalization and the development of organizations across national boundaries, numerous opportunities and challenges are available for leadership. Varying cultural values and beliefs calls…
Jenkins, H., & Purushotma, R. (2009). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press.
Johansson, O., & Begley, P.T. (2013). The ethical dimensions of school leadership. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Kezar, A.J. (2011). Understanding and facilitating organizational change in the 21st century: Recent research and conceptualizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kouzes, J.M., & Posner, B.Z. (2012). The leadership challenge: How to make extraordinary things happen in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Transformational Leadership Analysis
Leadership and Change Management Research
Transformational Leadership Traits
Leadership and Change Management Research
The following analysis has been conducted with perspective of transformational leadership and change management in mind. Furthermore, benchmarks were gathered for the situation faced by Janet Angelo as the Executive Vice President of Marketing and Sales at Intersect Investment Services. Janet was originally selected for her expertise in executing a "Customer Intimacy" model at two other companies; most recently at a financial institution. Janet was able to improve customer loyalty and increase sales in all of the previous positions she held. Moving from a traditional customer service relationship to a more modern customer intimacy model often requires major organizational reorganization; however Janet had the opportunity to implement these changes over a three-year period. The position at Intersect has only allotted twelve months. This will require that Janet practice…
Bass, B. (1998). Transformational leadership: Industry, military, and educational impact. Mahwah: Erlbaum Publishers.
Davies, C. (2011, January 31). Apple too closed and Steve Jobs ego-led rants Netgear CEO. Retrieved from Slash: http://www.slashgear.com/apple-too-closed-and-steve-jobs-ego-led-rants-netgear-ceo-31129333/
Judge, J., & Bono, J. (2000). Five Factor Model of Personality and Transformational Leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 751-765.
Terry, M. (2011, April 7). Meg Whitman's Successful Leadership Style. Retrieved from Big Bang: http://thebigbangbloggers.blogspot.com/2011/04/meg-whitmans-successful-leadership.html
The success of the company also elies on the leadeship style within the company. This leadeship style is oiented towads developing self-managed teams. This is anothe stategy used by companies in ode to incease thei decentalization level. This helps them incease the flexibility of the company. Flexible companies ae moe successful because thei oganizational stuctue allows them to easie identify envionmental factos that ae likely to affect thei activity, and to counteact thei effects.
Anothe inteesting company is epesented by Fod moto company. The competitive envionment in the automotive industy has detemined the company's manages to develop innovative stategies that helped Fod ceate competitive advantage. The company's CEO is Alan Mulally, one of the most visionay leades in the wold. Fod had to deal with numeous poblems detemined by envionmental factos. But Mulally managed to develop stategies that made Fod one of the most attactive ca makes on…
references regarding clothes, and produce clothes based on these needs, in comparison with competitors that prefer to develop other trends.
Nestle is another successful company that had to deal with a competitive environment. The company's intention of addressing the international market was supported by the strategic thinking of its managers. Their strategy is based on transforming the company by strategic acquisitions in different countries.
The leadership style within companies is one of the most important factors that can influence their success. There are numerous types of leadership, each of them with advantages and disadvantages, but it is difficult to determine which one is the most efficient style. This can be determined by analyzing the situation of each company. This is because the different characteristics of companies require them to address different leadership styles.
It is important to take into consideration the situation of employees when determining which leadership style to address. This refers to their needs and motivational level. It is important that employees work with strong leaders that can improve their morale and that can increase their motivation. Such situations are best to be addressed by transformational leaders. Therefore, companies should increase their investments in developing a leadership style that can be used in their situation. This is intended to help them address numerous problems that can influence these companies.
Transformational Leadership esearch Themes
Finance transformation and challenges of transformational leaders to deliver more effective and efficient services based on leveraging new technologies and business models.
Theme 1: Technology
Theme 2: Practical Application
Theme 3: Challenges
Theme 4: Theory
Sabatier et al. (2012) used the drug industry to highlight some issues with transformational leadership and their resultant models as they are practically applied. The major theme of this article revolves around Theme 2 and Theme 3 as the article is premised on the idea that the logical approach to a successful business model is dependent upon integrating technology into its overall business strategy. The article addressed Theme 1 within the premises of the article. They wrote "in high technology fields, technological discontinuities are not enough to disrupt an industry's dominant logic. Identifying the factors that might trigger change in that logic can help companies develop strategies to enable them to…
Sabatier, V. Craig-Kennard, A. & Mangematin, V. (2012). When Technological Discontinuities and Disruptive Business Models Challenge Dominant Industry Logics: Insights from the Drugs Industry. Technological Forecasting & Social Change 79 (2012) 949 -- 962
Smith, W.K., Besharov, M.L., Wessels, A.K. & Chertok, M. (2012). A Paradoxical Leadership Model for Social Entrepreneurs: Challenges, Leadership Skills, and Pedagogical Tools for Managing Social and Commercial Demands. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2012, Vol. 11, No. 3, 463 -- 478
Weerakkody, V., Janssen, M. & . Dwivedi, Y.K. (2011). Transformational Change and Business Process-Reengineering (BPR): Lessons from the British and Dutch Public Sector. Government Information Quarterly 28 (2011) 320 -- 328
Transformational Leadership Profile - Oprah
Oprah was born in Kosciusko, Mississippi on January 29, 1954 (Academy of Achievement 2005). She was brought up by a grandmother in a farm where she learned to read aloud and recite at the age of 3. From 6 years old, she lived with her mother, Vernita Lee, in Milwaukee. She suffered abuse and molestation, ran away and was sent to a juvenile detention home at 13 where she was refused admission because all the beds were occupied. She was moved to her father's house in Nashville where she was subjected to strict discipline. Her father, Vernon, made his daughter observe a midnight curfew and read and write a book report each week. Oprah would later admit that, despite his strictness, he was for what was best in her life and would not accept anything less than what he believed was that best.
1. Academy of Achievement (2005). Biography: Oprah Winfrey. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/winObio-1
2. Cable News Network (2003). Oprah Winfrey. Time Warner Company. http://www.cnn.com/SPECIAL/2002/black.history/stories/O6.winfrey
3. Harpo Productions, Inc. (2005). About Oprah. http://www.oprah.com/index.jhtml
4. Phila.Gov. (2003). Oprah Winfrey, Philadelphia's 2003 Recipient of the Marian Anderson Award. http://www.phila.gov/marian/oprah.html
Leadership in Organizations
Transformational Leadership in the 21st Century
It is often said a manager is what one does, and a leader is who one is. Leadership theorists, experts and practitioners agree that leadership, especially the turbulent 21st century, is more driven by unanticipated change that strict, formal execution. Leaders who are effective today have the ability to keep their organizations agile, goal-focused and moving forward to attaining challenging objectives despite formidable obstacles and uncertainty.
Transformational leaders in the 21st century nurture and foster creativity and a high level of autonomy, mastery and purpose on the part of their teams (Cheung, Wong, 2011). The growing reliance on virtual teams and the need for creating and sustaining trust within them, transformational leaders are called upon to do more than just accomplish tasks, they are expected to lead entire teams beyond their current levels of performance to higher levels of achievement (Andressen,…
Andressen, P., Konradt, U., & Neck, C.P. (2012). The relation between self-leadership and transformational leadership: Competing models and the moderating role of virtuality. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 19(1), 68.
Cheok, S.L., & Eleanor R.E. OHiggins. (2012). Enhancing employee outcomes. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 33(2), 149-174.
Cho, J., Park, I., & Michel, J.W. (2011). How does leadership affect information systems success? The role of transformational leadership. Information & Management, 48(7), 270.
Millissa F.Y. Cheung, & Chi-Sum Wong. (2011). Transformational leadership, leader support, and employee creativity. Leadership & Organization
Transformational Leadership and how is it distinct from Transactional Leadership?
Transformational leadership is when executives go beyond managing the day-to-day operations of the organization. Instead, they are taking another approach. This involves: collaboration, motivation, team building, goal setting, enhancing performance and offering employees with personal / professional benefits. What makes it different from transactional leadership is; it requires more from managers. As executives are expected to work well with others and help them to feel like they are a part of the team. I agree with this theory, as it offers specific insights which are helping to understand the needs of different stakeholders. It is at this point, when these ideas can be used to make a positive contribution. (Quatro, 2005) (Northhouse, 2013) (Senge, 2006)
How do both Transformational Leadership and Transactional Leadership connect with Fiedler's claims regarding elationship vs. Task Motivated leadership, and with Blake and Mouton's Managerial/Leadership Grid…
Northouse, P.G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Quatro, S. (2005). Leadership: Succeeding in the Private, Public, and Not for Profit Sectors. Armonk, NY:
Senge, P.M. (2006). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York, NY:
Transformational Leadership Style type, ISTJ enhances or hinders leadership effectiveness while working as a team. An observer defines leadership as follows: "Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent." (Donald Clark, 1997)
Transformational leadership stems from George MacGregor Burns (1978) Model of Moral, Transaction & Transformational Leaders. According to Burns an amoral leader cannot be a true leader. In this way he creates dichotomy of morality in leaderships. While a moral leader is a real leader in Burns' eyes an amoral leader is one who exhibits naked power coercion like fascists and dictators and hence viable of becoming infamous. He goes further to classify a moral leader into Transactional and Transformational Leaderships.
Moral Transactional and Transformational leaderships only differ in their set of peculiar model values. While transactional leadership follows…
Bass, Bernard (1989). Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Theory and Research. New York: Free Press.
Donald Clark, 1997, Concepts of Leadership, http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcon.html
George MacGregor Burns (1978) Model of Moral, Transaction & Transformational Leaders.
Meg Whitman Leadership Style
Admirable leadership style is an essential requirement in individual holding influential managerial position within a company. It is the interaction process between the leader and the other employees, influencing them toward workplace objectives and accomplishment. Leadership is the ability to offer direction toward recommended future ambitions and tune the followers toward goal accomplishment. Leadership theories will be used to explain the effectiveness, performance, and style used by Meg Whitman, to attain the goals and objectives at HP.
There are different styles of leadership that work within companies. They include participative, supportive, directive, achievement-oriented, and transformational. There is a notion that people must be born with the necessary characteristics, to become an effective leader, but this is wrong. However, some of the leadership characteristics are difficult to improve or change if your character does not fit. This does not mean you can be an effective leader if…
Year of Publication
Bennis, W.G., & Gibson, R.
Philosophy of Nursing Leadership
hat are the best leadership theories when healthcare and nursing are involved? hat style of leadership is most effective in today's healthcare environment? This paper addresses those questions and provides the scholarly literature on the topics in question.
Leadership Theories -- Nurses in Primary Health Care
"Leadership is seen in terms of unifying people around values and then constructing the social world for others around those values and helping people to get through the change" (Taylor, 2009). Moreover, leadership is needed -- and the development of leadership skills is needed -- in order to provide a vision, to bring people together, to sort out important values, and to facilitate the right actions to provide care for patients (Taylor, 40). Leadership doesn't usually just suddenly arrive in a person, it must be learned. According to Stubbs and Forbes-Burford (2009), leadership requires "courage, resilience and commitment" (Taylor, 41).…
American Association of Nursing Assessment Coordination. (2014). Nursing Leadership
Management & Leadership Styles. Retrieved May 6, 2015, from http://www.aanac.org .
Cherry, K. (2010). What Is Transformational Leadership? About.com. Retrieved May
6, 2015, from http://psychology.about.com .
Two major categories of leadership theory are transformational leadership and transactional leadership. Both theories originated in the 1970s with the upsurge of popular psychosocial therapeutic approaches. Transformational leadership is based on the creation of high trust relationships that evoke intrinsic employee motivation and are characterized by meaningful extrinsic incentives for followers and leaders. Transformational leaders tend to exhibit charismatic personalities that inspire followers to work toward a mutually valued vision that has been communicated by the leaders to stakeholders. Because of the strength and solidity of the transformational relationship between leaders and followers, groups are apt to be guided by shared norms. The members of the group appreciate and follow rules and regulations that assume a flexible nature that optimizes the achievement of shared objectives and recognizes the disparate contributions of group members. One adjunct benefit of transformational leadership is the sense of belonging to a group with…
Buckingham, M. And Coffman, C. (1999). First, break all the rules: What the world's greatest managers do differently. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Leadership Central. Leadership Theories in Chronological Order. Retreived from http://www.leadership-central.com/leadership-theories.html#ixzz3XUOpg8OA
transformational leadership within the healthcare industry in the contemporary society. The article starts out by implying that changes in leadership are needed within the healthcare systems. The author puts out that in the corporate environment today healthcare systems lag behind the times as providers of a product to a consumer group that is very diverse hence high demands and pressure on the providers. Changes in the face of workplaces have required use of appropriate and effective strategies for communication. However it is has been noted that within the healthcare sector the implementation of new initiatives in nursing management has been slow. The key issue when it comes to changes in healthcare system is those who provide care directly to patients. Management of nursing is at the edge of change and is positioned in such a way that it will positively transform hospital environment through puling this dinosaur into the new…
Executive Report and Roundtable Presentation
Modassir, A., & Singh, T. (2008). Relationship of Emotional Intelligence with Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 3-21.
This study examines the relationship of emotional intelligence (EI) with transformational leadership (TL) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of the followers using a sample of 57 dyads of managers and their supervisors (i.e., 114 respondents) participated in this study (Modassir & Singh, 2008). Transformational leadership is one of the most popular leadership models in the literature and the authors are trying to further to develop this model by exploring correlations with EI and OCB. The authors further argue that the transformational leadership model is dependent factors that are closely related to the components that are commonly defined within this model and their similarity to those defined within emotional intelligence and the organizational citizenship model. That is, if a transformational leader has high…
Biro, M. (2013, December 15). Leadership Is About Emotion. Retrieved from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/meghanbiro/2013/12/15/leadership-is-about-emotion/#172f913c269d
Harms, P., & Crede, M. (2010). Emotional Intelligence and Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analysis. Leadership Institute Faculty Publications, 5-17.
Modassir, A., & Singh, T. (2008). Relationship of Emotional Intelligence with Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 3-21.
Ovans, A. (2015, April 28). How Emotional Intelligence Became a Key Leadership Skill. Retrieved from Harvard Business Review: https://hbr.org/2015/04/how-emotional-intelligence-became-a-key-leadership-skill
When Carlos Ghosn was appointed chief operating officer of Nissan in 1999 in an effort to turn the company’s fortunes around, he was face with several significant problems, including a weak distribution network, declining sales, inefficient production methods, inordinately high purchase costs and poor design decisions, all of which combined to create a complex situation that demanded complex solutions. To determine how Ghosn succeeded where his predecessors had failed, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning the successful turnaround at Nissan that was engineered by Ghosn followed by a summary of the research and important findings about the organizational behavior and leadership practices necessary to implement changes in the conclusion.
An overview of the case
Despite manufacturing well-performing vehicles, Nissan was faced with bankruptcy in 1999 following 8 successive years of declining sales and profits. This situation was the cumulative result of several suboptimal practices, including paying…
Gold, A. R. & Hirano, M. (2001, Winter). An outsider takes on Japan. The McKinsey Quarterly, 93.
Lalanne, B. (2003, Spring). Samurai man: EBF talks to Carlos Ghosn, Nissan President and CEO. European Business Forum, 13, 84-86.
Pesek, W. (2003, May). Will Ghosn leave Nissan with a local? Business Asia, 11(4), 4.
Spitzer, D. R. (2007). Transforming performance measurement: Rethinking the way we measure and drive organizational success. New York: AMACOM.
Wolfram, H. J. & Mohr,G. (2009, February). Transformational leadership, team goal Fulfillment, and follower work satisfaction: The moderating effects of deep-level similarity in leadership dyads. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(3), 260-266.
The case study on which this analysis will predominantly be founded is on the management of a teenage prison. Medway Secure Training Center (MSTC) was managed by G4S at the time of the expose of the mistreatment that the teenage offenders held therein. The undercover footage that was captured over a number of days within the center by an individual who posed as a trainee depicts gross cases of teenage physical and psychological torture as had never been seen before in the outside world. The video footage depicts the G4S staff charged with taking care of the teenage offenders mishandling the teenagers unnecessarily even with no or little provocation. The training session captured in the video clearly gives the guidelines on how the teenagers who might turn rogue should be retrained without use of excessive force. The training gives a detailed and professional way of handling the teenagers…
Astin A. & Astin H., (2001). Principles of Transformative Leadership. Retrieved September 30, 2017 from http://www.pmc.edu/Websites/pmc/Images/Principles%20of%20Transformative%20Leadership.pdf
Australian Institute of Business (2017). 6 Reasons Why Effective Communication Should Be a Focus in Your Business. Retrieved September 30, 2017 from http://www.aib.edu.au/blog/communication/6-reasons-effective-communication-focus-business/
Communicaid (2017). Regular Communication with Customers is Key to Success. Retrieved September 30, 2017 from https://www.communicaid.com/communication-skills/blog/communication-skills-2/regular-communication-with-customers-is-key-to-success/
Hammond R., (2017). Teenage Prison-Undercover Prison Documentary 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0HQuJpiUOGw
Transformational and charismatic leadership has increasingly been shown to be valuable for organisations, especially with respect to empowering employees. Generally, transformational and charismatic leaders inspire and motivate their followers to achieve their maximum potential. They work together with their followers to formulate and execute the organisation’s vision, strategy, goals, and objectives. Transformational and charismatic leaders achieve this by communicating effectively as well as eliciting positive emotions and citizenship behaviours in their followers.
Effective communication is a particularly important characteristic of transformational and charismatic leaders. As explained by Latham (2009), effective leaders inspire their followers by appealing to their emotions. They communicate in a way that captures the imagination of their followers and portrays a sense of altruism. Such communication is vital for energising followers towards the organisation’s goals and objectives. With effective communication, employees gain a clear understanding of the organisation’s vision as well as their role in…
Antonakis, J., Fenley, M., & Liechti, S. (2012, June). Learning charisma: transforming yourself into the person others want to follow. Harvard Business Review.
Bolino, M., & Turnley, W. (2003). Going the extra mile: cultivating and managing employee citizenship behaviour. Academy of Management Executive, 17(3), 60-71.
Conger, C. (1991). Inspiring others: the language of leadership. Academy of Management Executive, 5(1), 31-45.
Kotter, J. (2007, January). Leading change: why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review.
Latham, G. (2009). Making the science of management work for you. Boston: Davies Black.
Two Studies for the Selected Variable "Leadership"
Chukwaba (2015) studied the role of transformational leadership on job satisfaction on hotel employees. Transformational leadership and job satisfaction were calculated using means and standards deviations in SPSS version 22. Transformational leadership was treated as an independent variable, measured using Bass Avolio's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). The dependent variable was job satisfaction measured by a validated job-satisfaction scale. The variables have been assessed in this paper accurately since detailed statements have been given for the data's reliability and validity. The MLQ design has been chosen for only this purpose. The independent variable on the dependent one for a large sample, just as that of hotel employees, could be evaluated accurately.
Moreover, the descriptive analysis showed a clear relationship between the two variables of interest. The study's hypothesis was to observe the effect of transformation leadership on job satisfaction, which was evident in the…
Breed, M., Downing, C. & Ally, H. (2020). Factors influencing motivation of nurse leaders in a private hospital group in Gauteng, South Africa: A quantitative study. Curationis, 43(1), e1-e9. DOI: 10.4102/curationis.v43i1.2011
Cavilla, D. (2017). The effects of student reflection on academic performance and motivation. Sage Open, 7(3). https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244017733790
Chukwaba, K.U. (2015). A quantitative model studying the effects of transformational leadership on job satisfaction (Master\\'s dissertation). Walden University. https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2944&context=dissertations
Khan, R. & Bukhari, A. (2016). Effects of leadership style on healthcare organizational performance: A survey of selected tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, 5(3), 1-7. DOI: 10.4172/2162-6359.1000333
Pandey, R., Goel, S. & Koushal, V. (2018). Assessment of motivation levels and associated factors among the nursing staff of tertiary-level government hospitals. International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 2018, 1-12. DOI: 10.1002/hpm.2526
Tsaras, K., Papathanasiou, I.V., Vus, V., Panagiotopoulou, A., Katsou, M.A., Kelesi, M. & Fradelos, E.C. (2018). Predicting factors of depression and anxiety in mental health nurses: A quantitative cross-sectional study. Medical Archives (Sarajevo, Bosnia, and Herzegovina). 72(1), 62-67. DOI: 10.5455/medarh.2017.72.62-67
Wenglinsky, H. (2001). Teacher classroom practices and student performance: How schools can make a difference (Report No. RR-01-19). Educational Testing Service. https://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/RR-01-19-Wenglinsky.pdf
Zarate, R. (2012). The sounds of anxiety: A quantitative study of music therapy and anxiety (Master\\'s dissertation). Lesley University. https://digitalcommons.lesley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1060&context=expressive_dissertations
.....leadership outlines a number of different hypotheses regarding leadership style that have emerged over the years. At the intersection of traits and more progressive views of leadership style is the idea that emotional intelligence is a significant contributor to leadership success. Similarly, it has become leadership orthodoxy that transformational leaders are more successful than transactional ones. Given that transformational leadership requires the leader to inspire and motivate followers, and that a high degree of emotional intelligence would reasonably be thought to aid in this, the hypothesis can be formed that leaders with emotional intelligence are more likely to be transformational leaders, and more successful ones as well.
Several studies have explored the link between emotional intelligence and the transformational leadership style. Quader (2011) notes that emotional leadership can be subdivided into five different areas. Of these, three are more associated with transactional leadership: self-awareness, self-motivation and emotional mentoring). As such,…
Charisma relies on the 'magical gift' that followers perceive in the leader while the truly transformational leader inspires, encourages, motivates, counsels, and takes the entirety of the individual into consideration providing a chance for independence, creativity, and growth both in the personal and professional life of the follower.
arbuto, J.E. (1997). Taking the charisma out of transformational leadership [Electronic version]. Journal of Social ehavior & Personality, 12, 689-697.
ass, ernard M., (1997) "Does the Transactional-Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational and National oundaries?," American Psychologist, 1997/February/52/2, 133
oyett, Joseph H. (2006) Transformational Leadership: The Highly Effective Leader/Follower Relationship. The Science of Leadership. Online available at http://www.jboyett.com/files/2 -- transformati.pdf
urns, James MacGregor (1978) Leadership, New York: Harper & Row, 1978.
Charisma (nd) the Free Dictionary Online available at http://www.thefreedictionary.com/charisma
Dawdy, Gwynne N. (2003) Studying the Various Concepts Associated with Transformational Leadership. Peak Strategies 2003. Online available at http://peakstrategies.net/transformational%20leadership.pdf
Deluga, R.J. (1990).…
Barbuto, J.E. (1997). Taking the charisma out of transformational leadership [Electronic version]. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 12, 689-697.
Bass, Bernard M., (1997) "Does the Transactional-Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational and National Boundaries?," American Psychologist, 1997/February/52/2, 133
Boyett, Joseph H. (2006) Transformational Leadership: The Highly Effective Leader/Follower Relationship. The Science of Leadership. Online available at http://www.jboyett.com/files/2 -- transformati.pdf
Burns, James MacGregor (1978) Leadership, New York: Harper & Row, 1978.
Role of Leadership Styles in Organizational Innovation
Andre Alexandre, Jr.
Dr. Amy Burkman
Revised prospectus outline
The Role of Leadership Styles in Organizational Innovation and Success
The study will research the role of leadership styles in organizational innovation and success. A number of studies have shown that transformational leadership positively influences organizational innovation. However, there is a lack of studies examining the contextual conditions under which this effect occurs or enhance organizational success.
Purpose Statement / Problem Statement
The purpose of this study is to explore and provide a deeper understanding of the relationship between leadership styles and organizational innovation.
It is not known to what extent leadership styles impact innovation and enhances organizational success. Therefore, this study will investigate to provide a deeper understanding of the relationship between leadership styles and organizational innovation and success.
III. Literature Review
a) Theory: Transformational Leadership Theory. This study aims to investigate the…
Performance Effects of Transformational Leadership in Public Administration," Doina Popescu Ljungholm examines a number of components of job performance for those in public administrator positions that work with the government. The focus of the study examined in the article is on how individual perceptions help explain employee behavior, leadership within the context of democratic governance, public administrators within their context of democratic governance, and leadership policies in public sector settings (Ljungholm, 2014). The author's goal was to build upon prior research that suggested that there was a moral component to transformational leadership, the impact of that leadership on public service motivation, how leadership can promote the moral values that promote public service, and what relationship exists between leadership and team performance (Ljungholm, 2014).
Ljungholm examines the concept of mission valence. Mission valence is not directly impacted by transformational leadership, but refers to an employee's perceptions of how the company impacts…
Ljungholm, D.P. (2014). The performance effects of transformational leadership in public administration. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, 6(1), 110-115.
Implanting Total Quality Management in healthcare: The critical leadership traits" by Nwabueze (2011), TQM is an increasingly critical part of ensuring cost-effective management of healthcare in the modern economic environment. However, there are often substantial institutional and personal obstacles to realizing its benefits. "TQM leadership is therefore about presence, and a process carried out within an organizational role that assumes responsibility for the needs and rights of employees who choose to follow the leader in achieving results" (Nwabueze, 2011, p.331). In the article, leadership in general is conceptualized as motivating people to do what you want them to do of their own free will without constant supervision and coercion and TQM in particular is a values-based system (Nwabueze, 2011, p.332). The concept of zero defects and continuous improvement must be instilled within all employees on a consistent basis throughout the organization and this requires a transformation of past ways of…
Antonakis, J., Fenley, M. & Liecht, S. (2011). Can charisma be taught? Tests of two
Interventions. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10 (3) 374-396.
Baker, J. (2014). Leadership: A concise conceptual overview. Center for International Education
Faculty Publications, 18.
2 Brief History and Organization Background
2 Proctor & Gamble History
5 Situation Analysis
5 External Environment
5 Internal Sociotechnical Systems
6 Problem Diagnosis & Definition
7 Great Man Theory
7 Trait Theory
8 the Managerial Grid
8 theory X and Theory Y
9 Participative Leadership (Lewin's leadership styles)
9 Situational Leadership
9 Contingency Theory
10 Transactional Leadership
10 Transformational Leadership
10 Organizational Leadership Discussion
14 Practitioner Recommendations
15 Overall Research Approach
16 Site and Population Selection
24 Identifications and Evaluation of Alternative Interventions
25 Action Planning
26 Follow-up and Evaluation
28 ork Cited
An Analysis of Leadership Styles Utilized by Procter & Gamble and Colgate-Palmolive and their Role in Contributing to Effective Practices and Profitability
This research proposal will focus on two major competitors in the national and international market, Procter & Gamble and Colgate-Palmolive, and the types of leadership…
Ang, S. (2006). Personality Correlates of the Four-Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence. Group &Organization Management, 31(1), 100-123.
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. (1999). Two decades in research and development in transformational leadership.
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9-32.
IMPROVING PATIENT SAFETY ITH EVIDENCE-BASED RESEARCH
My workplace is currently experiencing the need for improvement is in the area of enforcing and communicating hospital policies/procedures regarding care of patients requiring special attention. This is illustrated by a recent incident of an elderly cancer patient admitted for unexplained dizziness but then falling and sustaining injuries when left unattended in the hospital. Fortunately, we have a nursing supervisor who is the epitome of a transformational nursing leader. She immediately commenced best practices, exhibited Gardner's leadership tasks and is transforming the unfortunate incident into a valuable learning opportunity.
The most pressing patient safety issues in work setting that need improvement
hile a number of areas would benefit from improvement, a recent incident leaps to mind and underscores the need for better communication and enforcement of hospital policies/procedures. An 87-year-old female diagnosed with Stage 4 colon cancer and admitted to the hospital…
Institute of Medicine. (2004). Executive Summary. In Institute of Medicine. Keeping patients safe: Transforming the work environment of nurses. Retrieved from www.nap.edu: http://www.nap.edu/read/10851/chapter/2
Institute of Medicine. (2004). Transformational leadership and evidence-based management. In Institute of Medicine. Keeping patients safe: Transforming the work environment of nurses. Retrieved from books.nap.edu: http://www.nap.edu/read/10851/chapter/6#109
Kotter, J. P. (2012). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.
QSEN Institute. (2014). Competencies in Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) . Retrieved from QSEN.org: http://qsen.org/competencies/pre-licensure-ksas%20./
video was the working poor and food insecurity and how this group is being excluded from access to the food they need to live healthy lives.
Explain which conceptual framework applies to the major issue you selected.
Food insecurity tends to exclude some demographic group from the same level that exists for other groups which can be conceptualized as existing along a continuum ranging from transitory insecurity to chronic food insecurity (Concepts of food security, 2016). This continuum is comprised of four main dimensions as follows: (a) physical availability of food; (b) economic and physical access to food; (c) food utilization; and (d) stability of these dimensions over time (Concepts of food security, 2016). Therefore, the issue of the working poor and food insecurity can be evaluated in terms of these four dimensions and how they operate to exclude the working poor from these four dimensions compared to mainstream society.…
Concepts of food security. (2016). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al936e/al936e00.pdf .
Gill, A. & Mathur, N. (2011, March). The effects of empowerment and transformational leadership on employee intentions to quit. International Journal of Management, 28(1), 217-220.
Patti, R. J. (Ed.). (2009). The handbook of human services management (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Salamon, L. M. (2015). The resilient sector revisited: The new challenge to nonprofit America (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press
Organizational ole as a Nurse Leader
A nurse leader is an individual engaged in direct patient care and who regularly enhances the care given to patients through influencing the treatment provision delivered by others. This implies that leadership is not merely a matter of skills but an attitude which informs behavior. This essay develops a detailed leader profile based on the transformational theory, as this is the most relevant theory for this leader. Moreover, the essay will analyze the leader's role and philosophy as a nurse administrator. The final section will present the role of nursing leadership.
Leader's Profile: Lee Moldowsky
Lee Moldowsky started off as a volunteer EMT in the early 70s since then nursing has struck interest. In 1983 he joined the army at age 25 and became a sergeant in charge of operating services. Moldowsky went to Farmingdale and also worked in a burn unit at Nassau…
Ledlow, G. R., & Coppola, M. N. (2011). Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications. Sudbury, Mass: Jones And Bartlett.
O'Brien, M. E. (2011). Servant Leadership in Nursing: Spirituality and Practice in Contemporary Health Care. Sudbury, Mass: Jones And Bartlett Publishers.
Transactional leaders use the extrinsic motivators, to get goals met within an organization, as stated by Suliman (2009). This type of leadership used internal reward or punishment mechanisms to get employees to follow their directive. Transactional leaders usually leave the current organizational structure and goals intact, since the characteristic of these leaders is not effective in situations that require change. Suliman, (2009) also argue that some leaders are very passive and only get involved if the necessary actions are contrary to the overall goal or achievement of the organization.
Visionary leaders are usually characterized as individuals who do not compromise their personal integrity for the overall goal of any organization or process. These leaders do not portray ordinary character traits, since they are usually concerned with direction or organizing action based on new possibilities or a progressive agenda as argued by McIntosh and Tolson (2009). These are usually interested…
Leadership Path Goal Theory
The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory
Path Goal Theory
Explain how the theory works and include an example
Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization
Are the followers receptive?
Would you recommend another strategy?
Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization
Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization
Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization
Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization
If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?
The leadership theories are different in their relevance and approach, however, the importance of effective leadership cannot be undermined in operations of a successful organization. The boy scouts and other military organizations also…
Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.
Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.
Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories. USA: Springer.
Defining an Ethical Leader
Jeffrey Immelt, General Electric
The nature of leadership is multifaceted and often requires the continual mastery of new skills, insights, intelligence and perspectives to stay effective over the long-term. Such is the nature of ethical leadership, which requires a steadfast focus on a core set of ethical principles and values that guide a leader's judgment, ensuring consistency over the long-term. These are also the fundamental aspects of any leader's long-term credibility as well, and their ability to transform their enterprises over the long-term as well (John, 2005). Ethical leaders often resonate with credibility and the willingness to also change quickly in response to the needs of their organizations, employees, stakeholders and customers.
The purpose of this analysis is to define what an ethical leader is, how managers can progress to being more ethical in their leadership style, and how Jeff Immelt, CEO of general Electric,…
Crainer, S. (2009). From Edison to Immelt: The GE Way. Business Strategy Review, 20(3), 18-22.
Gonzalez, T.F., & Guillen, M. (2002). Leadership ethical dimension: A requirement in TQM implementation. The TQM Magazine, 14(3), 150-164.
Heinze, E. (2010). The meta-ethics of law: Book one of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(1), 23-44.
Immelt, J. (2010). Renewing American Leadership. Vital Speeches of the Day, 76(2), 53.
Sixth, his service commitment is exceptional, as he has been known to work with many customers to solve problems and help them get to their goals as hospitals and healthcare providers. Seventh, he is exceptionally resourceful and willing to move beyond traditional boundaries to accomplish greater tasks than would have been possible otherwise. Eighth, his focus on rewards and recognition is well-known throughout the entire healthcare industry, as is focus on giving credit to employees who create exceptional insight into how best to solve complex problems facing the company. Ninth, his focus on personal mastery is also evident in how much he invests in personal training for his employees. Tenth, his focus on being organized around priorities is also seen in how he uses the Internet as a means to communicate what is most important to the company and why. These ten core competencies are what differentiate the best leaders…
Dixon, D.L., & Bilbrey, P.A. (2004). Developing leaders daily. Executive Excellence, 21(6), 18-18.
Fitzgerald, S., & Schutte, N.S. (2010). Increasing transformational leadership through enhancing self-efficacy. The Journal of Management Development, 29(5), 495-505.
The Health Research and Educational Trust (2007). Report of the National Steering Committee on Hospitals and the Public's Health. Retrieved August 24, 2012 from http://www.hret.org/about/resources/biennial07.pdf
Mindtools (n.d.) Leadership styles - Using the right one for your situation.
un Tzu informs that we cannot punish people until they feel loyalty to us: namely, until they consider themselves members of our group.
10. Keep them guessing
This quality may be pertinent only to leaders of a business / corporation. Her un Tzu advises keeping one's strategies and plans concealed from one's competitor so that one retains competitive advantage.
The Art of War, maintains un Tzu, is "a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected." (pt. 2)
The same goes for the Art of Leadership. It is also "a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected" and its qualities need to be known and inculcated in order to have maximum success in the field.
'Leader' as term may be inchoate, but as many entrepreneurs have…
Bateman, T.S., & Snell, S. (2009). Management: Leading and Collaborating in a Competitive World, Eighth Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Kotter JP. 1996. Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harv. Bus. School
Schein, E. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. CA: Jossey-Bass.
Sun Tzu, (2001). The Art of War Wylie, TX: Pickard & Son, Publishers.
Transformational Women's Leadership
The website for Changing Minds.org describes transformational leadership in the standard way, as charismatic leaders with vision and imagination who inspire followers to achieve radical change in an organization or society. Transformational leaders are passionate and exciting and they care about their followers. They make people believe that their ideals can be achieved through their own commitment, enthusiasm and drive. In the process, their followers are also transformed and empowered to do things that they would never have believed possible. This website also points out some of the dangers of transformational leadership in that when such leaders are wrong they can lead "the charge right over the cliff and into a bottomless chasm." They may also "wear out" their followers with constant demands for high energy and commitment, especially if those at the lower levels really do not desire change (Transformational Leadership 2002-11)
Legacee.com has a very…
Goodman, D., ed. (2003). Marie Antoinette: Writings on the Body of a Queen. Routledge.
Lever, E. (2000). The Last Queen of France. Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.
Plain, N. (2002). Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the French Revolution. Marshall Cavendish.
Price, M. (2004). The Road from Versailles: Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the Fall of the French Monarchy. NY: St. Martin's.
The authors also find that the firms where these antecedents are most present are those in which either leadership style is highly evident. Firms that lack either leadership style are the lowest performing with respect to quality management.
The ultimate objective of any leader is to improve the company's performance. The most basic measures of performance are profit, revenue, market share and other financial statement measures. Even if the leader excels at other elements, if they do not translate to the bottom line, then the leader is not meeting the needs of the shareholders. hittington et al. (2009) have found that organizational performance is most positively affected by transactional leadership, whereas transformational leadership as found to have no impact. By contrast, Spinelli (2006) found the opposite -- that transformational leadership was more effective at delivering performance outcomes. This again hints that the best leadership style is dependent on the situation.…
Burns, J. (1979) Leadership. Harper Books.
Pieterse, a., van Knippenberg, D., Schippers, M. & Stam, D. (2010). Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior: The moderating role of psychological empowerment. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Vol. 31 (4) 609-623.
Kezar, a. & Eckel, P. (2008). Advancing diversity agendas on campus: Examining transactional and transformational presidential leadership styles. International Journal of Leadership in Education. Vol. 11 (4) 379-405.
Zagorsek, H., Dimovski, V. & Skerlavaj, M. (2009). Transactional and transformational leadership impacts on organizational learning. Journal of East European Management Studies. Vol. 14 (2) 144-165.
Type a versus Type B Leadership
The ability to guide and direct a group, department or entire organization is predicated on being able to balance task and relationship orientation through transformational leadership. The most effective leaders balance short-term transactional strategies for getting immediate results with transformational leadership skills, intermediating between each using emotional intelligence (EI) to guide their decision making (Ivey, Kline, 2010). The foundational elements of transformational leadership include individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation (Ismail, Mohamed, Sulaiman, Mohamad, Yusuf, 2011) and idealized influence. Transformational leaders are able to use situational awareness and EI to selectively apply each of these approaches at the most opportune time to get the best results (Ivey, Kline, 2010). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how these techniques can be used for assessing scores from the Type A versus Type B tests taken. I received a score of 38 on Type…
Ismail, A., Mohamed, H.A., Sulaiman, A.Z., Mohamad, M.H., & Yusuf, M.H. (2011). An empirical study of the relationship between transformational leadership, empowerment and organizational commitment. Business and Economic Research Journal, 2(1), 89-108. Retrieved from ProQuest.
Ivey, G.W., & Kline, T.B. (2010). Transformational and active transactional leadership in the Canadian military. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(3), 246-262. Retrieved from ProQuest.
This theory also suits me well as I believe that the greater the effort and intensity, the higher the probabili8ty of attaining ones' objectives. There is also the element of continual learning, both at work and school to interpret and when applicable, use the lessons learned. Expectancy theory also is well-suited for accounting for environmental factors that can at times be uncontrollable yet capitalized on, leading to the attainment of objectives in the future. Finally, expectancy theory also concentrates on how the concepts of valence, or strength of a person's preference for a given outcome, when combined with instrumentality and expectancy, can accurately predict the attainment of objectives over time. The concept of linking effort and results is appealing.
6. What are the common characteristics of charismatic and transformational leadership? Compare Colin Powell and Osama bin Laden as charismatic or transformational leaders. Would your answer differ if you were sympathetic…
Leadership Choice: Designing Climates of Blame or esponsibility
In E. Grady Bogue's book The Leadership Choice: Designing Climates of Blame or esponsibility, the author addresses the impact that self-knowledge can have on a person's life and career. In other words, the way a person acts in his or her personal life is often directly related to the way a person acts in his or her professional life. The morals, opinions, and beliefs held by a person are not generally confined to one area of that individual's life. They are spread across all of the areas of life and designed to be used by that person in many different ways. When a leader has opinions and beliefs, those are generally included in that leader's personal and professional lives, and it may be very difficult to keep them separate. Most people would likely question why anyone would want or need to keep…
Antonakis, J., Cianciolo, A.T., & Sternberg, R.J. (2004). The nature of leadership. New York: Sage Publications, Inc.
Bogue, E.G. (2010). The leadership choice: Designing climates of blame or responsibility. New York: WestBow Press.
Frey, M., Kern, R., Snow, J., & Curlette, W. (2009). Lifestyle and transformational leadership style. Journal of Individual Psychology, 65(3), 212-240.
Leadership is a process that helps in directing and mobilizing people. It has for the past 100 years been a subject of many studies. These studies have come up with theories of the nature and exercise of leadership. Some of these theories include trait theories of leadership, theories of emergent leadership, leadership style theories, psychodynamic theories, and the path goal theories among others. The second section of this paper focuses on evaluation of behavior of selected leaders. Leaders of different organizations exhibit specific behaviors that are in line with models and theories of leadership. Their behaviors can guide the behavior of individual followers, groups, or even teams. The analysis section touches on how leaders perceive their roles and what makes them develop as leaders. The summary wraps up all that the paper is about and what I have learnt.
Management and leadership are interchangeably used in our everyday…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-429.
Bass, B. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Application. New York: Free Press.
Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1997). Leaders: Strategies for Taking Change 2nd Edition. New York:
Collins Business Essentials.
I have grown fond of Mr. Joe Scott because of his ability to inspire his followers to do more than they would have expected to do. He has the capability of engaging his staff's commitment in a context of shared values and vision. He is capable of aligning the interests of the organization and its members. Those who have worked closely with him attest to his ability to inspire and motivate those who are working directly under him. He is capable is inspiring change because he's idealized influence, individual consideration, intellectual stimulation, and inspiration. He can maximize mutual interest and restrain in the process of exercising his power. His leadership style broadens and elevates the interest of the follower (Mind Tools, 2013). This ends up generating awareness and motivation towards the purpose and mission of the organization. His leadership traits bring the group purpose above individual needs for the…
Mind Tools (2013). Leadership Styles: Choosing the Right Style for the Situation. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm
Murray, A. (2013). Leadership Styles. http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/how-to-develop-a-leadership-style/
Since trust is an important factor in the change process, special steps must be taken to build trust in the virtual environment. These include building a team with strong but complementary abilities and high integrity and immediately orienting the team towards the end objective in a non-competitive manner (Greenberg, et al., 2007).
There is also a higher risk for breakdown in a virtual team. Therefore, in organizing such a team I would place strong emphasis on building trust as quickly as possible among the team members. This includes instilling a common vision and establishing strong communication links between the group members almost immediately, as issues can emerge more quickly in a virtual setting than in a non-virtual one (Ibid).
Bell, B. & Kozlowski, S. (2002). A typology of virtual teams. Group & Organization Management. Vol. 27 (1) 14-49.
Bergiel, B., Bergiel, E. & Balsmeier, P. (2008). Nature of…
Bell, B. & Kozlowski, S. (2002). A typology of virtual teams. Group & Organization Management. Vol. 27 (1) 14-49.
Bergiel, B., Bergiel, E. & Balsmeier, P. (2008). Nature of virtual teams: A summary of their advantages and disadvantages. Management Research News. Vol. 31 (2) 99-110.
Bommer, W. (1996). Transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership as determinants of employee satisfaction, commitment, trust, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Management. Retrieved April 9, 2010 from
Leaders that are experienced in a certain type of situations can manage them faster and more efficiently.
Such experienced leaders have the advantage of having experienced similar situations before. Therefore, this means that these leaders know what the phases of the situation are and what outcomes they should expect to take place. In other words, they are aware of the actions and decisions they must make in order to efficiently manage the situation in case.
For example, in the case of a police station with an experienced leader, the teams are confronting with a situation where several burglars tried to steal the money from a corner shop. The salesperson managed to press the alarm button and several police cars arrived at the location of the scene. The burglars are armed and are threatening the salesperson and other clients of the store that have been taken hostages inside the location.
1. Transactional Leadership (2010). Retrieved October 4, 2010 from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transactional_leadership.htm .
Leadership Strategy from the Top Down: Lessons from the Boardroom in Small and Medium Enterprises
Leadership and management theories and strategies have proliferated at a rapid rate in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, as organizations have grown larger and more complex and have faced pressures of a much faster pace of business. The demands made on leaders of business organizations and the need for strong leadership in navigating the ever-more changeable waters of modern business have grown along with businesses themselves, in both the degree to which leadership can affect operations and overall success as well as in the number of tasks and knowledge areas that leaders are supposed to be able to handle. Much of the diversification and increased scrutiny of leadership theories, processes, and practices can be attributed to the increased importance and complexity of leadership positions.
In something of an irony, however, the many different…
Demmer, W., Vickery, S., & Calantone, R. (2011). Engendering resilience in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): a case study of Demmer Corporation. International Journal of Production Research 49(18): 5395-413.
Gong, Y., Huang, J. & Farh, J. (2009). Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity. Academy of Management Journal 52(4): 765-78.
Kotter, J. & Schlesinger, L. (2008). Choosing strategies for change. Harvard Business Review.
Kunze, F., Boehm, S. & Bruch, H. (2011). Age diversity, age discrimination climate and performance consequences -- a cross organizational stud. Journal of Organizational Behavior 32(2): 264-90.
Dangers linger in any relationship where one party holds power and the other party gives it. Any student of leadership, must recognize that tripwire, and assiduously avoid it through correctly recognizing the dangers that abuse of power can bring.
Bass, B., Atwater, L., & Avolio, B. (2008). The Transformational and Transactional Leadership of Men and omen. Applied Psychology, 5-34.
Beverly Alimo-MetcalfAlban-Metcalfe, J., Bradley, M., Mariathasan, J., & Samele, C. (2008). The impact of engaging leadership on performance, attitudes to work and well-being at work: A longitudinal study. Journal of Health Organisation and Management, 586-598.
Beyer, J. (1999). Taming and promoting charisma to change organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 307-330.
Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (1991). Reframing Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Pedler, M., Burgoyne, J., & Boydell, T. (1944). A Manager's Guide To Self-Development 4th ed. London: McGraw-Hill.
Ulrich, D., Zenger, J., Smallwood, N., & . (1953; CR 1999). Results-Based…
Bass, B., Atwater, L., & Avolio, B. (2008). The Transformational and Transactional Leadership of Men and Women. Applied Psychology, 5-34.
Beverly Alimo-MetcalfAlban-Metcalfe, J., Bradley, M., Mariathasan, J., & Samele, C. (2008). The impact of engaging leadership on performance, attitudes to work and well-being at work: A longitudinal study. Journal of Health Organisation and Management, 586-598.
Beyer, J. (1999). Taming and promoting charisma to change organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 307-330.
Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (1991). Reframing Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Leadership is the ability of influencing individuals or groups for attainment of particular goals. It is the ability of managing interpersonal behaviour by motivating others. There are a number of approaches to leadership, but these can broadly be categorized as Behaviouristic theory, Traits theory, Charismatic theories of leadership and transformational leadership. For the purpose of this assignment, we have chosen transformational leadership approach.
The process of transforming and changing individuals is termed as transformational leadership. In simple terms, transformational leadership can be defined as the ability to make people improve, change and led. Transformational leadership involves assessment of subordinates' needs, motives and giving them due value. Thus, it can be said that a leader having characteristics of transformational leader has the ability to increase the performance of company by giving due value to the employees/subordinates. (Hesselbein and Cohen 1999)
Transformational leadership has four factors which are commonly named…
Hesselbein, Frances, and Paul M. Cohen. (1999). Leader to Leader. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Northouse, Peter G. (2001). Leadership Theory and Practice, second edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Frequent virtual meetings at the onset of the change team would be required to create a sense of teamwork and also to clarify roles. The virtual team can take full advantage of technologies that enable collaboration. By keeping in mind the core vision and its underlying values, a virtual change team can be every bit as effective as a live one.
Hay, I. (n.d.). Transformational leadership. etrieved online: http://www.leadingtoday.org/weleadinlearning/transformationalleadership.htm
Lim, J.Y. (n.d.). Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness in Sport Organizations. etrieved online: http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/transformational-leadership-organizational-culture-and-organizational-effectiveness-sport-or
Yukl, G.A. (2002). Leading change in organizations. etrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:3HhW9jlhnmMJ:www.hss.doe.gov/deprep/archive/oversight/OrgCultureList/YuklOnCulture.pdf+yukl+functional+change&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShM_w6gqSrEzWZ-uUX-v-AkxkiiFJutzoFrD6O2zj5Hu1zrCbgTzEL33_cpW5nN-aMhYqy_2HLWsdJVQq5fbn9wNqxrJTZlpnMXKi283D4M4IGnfc1QgUBErPwk7Khr-5zne&sig=AHIEtb3ujTiWDQkDjiKKZZD-jvFmpeTyw
Yukl, G.A. (2008). The importance of flexible leadership. etrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:0ZB72AcLc6kJ:www.kaplandevries.com/images/uploads/Importance_of_FL_SIOP08Yukl.pdf+multiple-linkage+model:+yulk&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiDSwYcHX-gcBwH_QGKITxVgh5HmHfX5IYnSzMaPH0DDnOa5andwhqokJYcLSMmJ1-IUf0ZB9VPF0ib9x-tJseuG8kScir9-yK0zgNN073O-nAtAGysTtLJGXIQ6ua_aOYoBD&sig=AHIEtbQbvVU6LmhLhTJcWpWDpnUytxw1Q
Yukl, G.A. (2010). Leadership in Organizations. Prentice-Hall.
Hay, I. (n.d.). Transformational leadership. Retrieved online: http://www.leadingtoday.org/weleadinlearning/transformationalleadership.htm
Lim, J.Y. (n.d.). Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness in Sport Organizations. Retrieved online: http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/transformational-leadership-organizational-culture-and-organizational-effectiveness-sport-or
Yukl, G.A. (2002). Leading change in organizations. Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:3HhW9jlhnmMJ:www.hss.doe.gov/deprep/archive/oversight/OrgCultureList/YuklOnCulture.pdf+yukl+functional+change&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShM_w6gqSrEzWZ-uUX-v-AkxkiiFJutzoFrD6O2zRj5Hu1zrCbgTzEL33_cpW5nN-aMhYqy_2HLWsdJVQq5fbn9wNRqxrJTZlpnMXKi283D4M4IGnfc1QgUBErPwk7KRhr-5zne&sig=AHIEtbR3ujTiWDQkDjiKKZZD-jvFmpeTyw
Yukl, G.A. (2008). The importance of flexible leadership. Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:0ZB72AcLc6kJ:www.kaplandevries.com/images/uploads/Importance_of_FL_SIOP08Yukl.pdf+multiple-linkage+model:+yulk&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiDSwYcHX-gcBwH_QGKITxVgh5HmHfX5IYnSzMaRPH0DDnOa5andwhqokJYcLSRMmJ1-IUf0ZB9VPF0ib9x-tJseuG8kScir9-yK0zgNN073O-nAtAGysTtLJGXIQ6ua_aOYoBD&sig=AHIEtbQbvVU6LmhLhTJRcWpWDpnUytxw1Q
According to the Ohio State University (2004), both could be equally appropriate in terms of overall company outcomes, as they are very similar in terms of valuing and inspiring follower excellence.
When considering the motivation towards leadership for each type of leader, the contrast is sharper. The servant leader, for example, leads from a motivations basis of egalitarianism. The leader's fundamental belief is that he or she is no better than followers. The company's collective goals are then reached by means of an egalitarian team effort, where both leader and followers learn from the experience. Servant leaders are therefore much more focused upon the non-traditional form of leadership, which exists in beign servants themselves (Patterson, edmer and Stone, 2003, p. 6). Followers are provided with a large amount of freedom to exercise the abilities they can bring to the promotion of the business goals. This means that a very high…
Bugenhage, M.J. (2006, Dec). Antecedents of Transactional Transformational, and Servant Leadership: A constructive-Development Theory Approach. University of Nebraska. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=aglecdiss
Changing Minds (2011). Bass' Transformational Leadership Theory. Retrieved from: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/bass_transformational.htm
The Ohio State University. (2004, Dec. 22). Transformational and Servant Leadership: Content and Contextual Comparisons. Leadership Center. Retrieved from: http://leadershipcenter.osu.edu/library/publications/leadership-discoveries/2004/december-2004-transformational-and-servant-leadership-content-and-contextual-comparisons
Patterson, K., Redmer, T.A.O., and Stone, a.G. (2003, Oct.) Transformational Leaders to Servant Leaders vs. Level 4 Leaders to Level 5 Leaders -- the Move from Good to Great. Regent University. Retrieved from: http://www.cbfa.org/Patterson.pdf
Leadership Analysis of OSIM
High growth technology companies are fertile organizations for the conflicts of leadership styles. The incessant need for accelerating new product development and staying in step with customer needs on the one hand and the pressure to reduce costs often lead high tech firms to adopt transactional leadership mindsets (Eppard, 2004). This gets amplified in Asian cultures where time is a very limited resource and large-scale organizations including OSIM International have a myriad of conflicting priorities (Beugr, Acar, Braun, 2006). Defining a management style that is agile enough to respond to these many challenges while at the same time concentrating on attaining cost targets is essential for survival in highly competitive industries (Pieterse, van Knippenberg, Schippers, Stam, 2010). on Sim, CEO of OSIM, must balance these many requirements while engraining a high level of accountability and ownership throughout the global operations of OSIM International. Balancing transactional and…
Beugr, C.D., Acar, W., & Braun, W. (2006). Transformational leadership in organizations: An environment-induced model.International Journal of Manpower, 27(1), 52-62.
Deluga, R.J. (1988). Relationship of transformational and transactional leadership with employee influencing strategies.Group & Organization Studies, 13(4), 456.
Eppard, R.G. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership styles as they predict constructive culture and defensive culture. (Order No. 3144365, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 129-129.
Guay, R.P. (2013). The relationship between leader fit and transformational leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology,28(1), 55-73.
By the same token, by not having any specific policy implications, servant leadership theory does not expressly reject the transformational, situational or results-focused ideas of leadership. It is merely an adjunct to these theories, and is mostly useful for deciding on whether or not somebody should become a leader in the first place.
Situational Leadership and Results-Focused Leadership
These two leadership theories are opposed to one another, but they share the same philosophical underpinnings. The underlying theory of each of these leadership styles is that the leadership style is flexible, and the best leaders have the ability to utilize different styles and techniques depending on the needs of the day. here the two differ is in the understanding of the most important determinant of leadership style. Situational leadership theory argues that leaders need to adapt to the different circumstances, changing their style to suit the challenges with which they are…
The transformational leader- N.M. Tichy and M.A. Devanna ( 1990)
Servant Leadership- Robert Greenleaf
Leadership in organization - G. Yuki (2006)
The transformation was so effective in the company that it eventually changed an entire industry as well (Lawless, 1998).
Another aspect of leadership lessons learned from Her Keller include his tolerance for individuality and non-conformity on the part of his employees, and how the culture of the company became known as a haven for those who wanted to work hard yet also have fun (Lubans, 2009). Not every leader can accomplish this unique feat of creating a culture tolerant and even promoting non-conformity over time, let alone become its main evangelist for this approach. Yet Mr. Kelleher realized that if management and the employees were going to trust one another, there would need to be an unpretentious, open culture that had a tolerance for failure and nonconformity (Lindebaum, Cartwright, 2010). Getting back to the point made earlier, a mindset that sees failure as feedback, not a dead-end, is critical for…
Bennis, W. (2009). Crises Reveal the Quality of Leadership. Leader to Leader, 2009(54), 27.
Why Herb Kelleher Gets So Much Respect from Labor. (1984, September). Business Week: Industrial/Technology,(2861), 112.
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Most conclusions on this approach were vague or indecisive in terms of social, psychological or mental significance (ice, 1978, 1981; Graen et al., 1972; Ashour, 1973).
Furthermore, over the years, many scholars have come to the realization that leadership is situational and hence there are many realistic settings like the environment, the employees, the resources, etc. that determine the characteristics needed in a leader as well as his/her business approach (Hershey and Blanchard, 1977, 1984). This is why it is important to first understand the different types of scenarios that a leader can face and then use those scenarios as the foundation on which most leadership techniques and approaches are built. This idea of leadership being situational is very helpful in outlining the methods through which leadership can be developed and has taken up a good part of the last three-decade of research (Mckenna, Boyd and Yost, 2007).
Adler, a. (1946). Understanding human nature. New York: Permabooks.
Ashour, a.S. (1973). The Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: An Evaluation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 9: 335-76.
Bandura, a. (1997). Self-efficacy. The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman. (Bass, B.M. 1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bennis, W., and B. Nanus. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
There are several candidates for taking charge of Gene One during its initial public offering and for some time following, at least until the company has stabilized in its new position, if not for longer. There are of course positive aspects and drawbacks to each of the potential company leaders, but any negative aspects of one individual's leadership can be mitigated by a more temperate and even handed leadership structure, yet one that still allows for efficient and decisive decisions to be made and carried out.
Studies have shown that leadership is often more even-handed when measured in terms of influence rather than in terms of procedural behavior, and this knowledge will be directly and explicitly applied to the Gene One leadership structure in the situation at hand (Hysom & Johnson 2006). Michelle Houghton and John Kirby will be the primary decision makers for the company; Houghton's commitment to the…
Hinduan, Z.; Wilson-Evered, E.; Moss, S. & Scannell, E. (2009). "Leadership, work outcomes and openness to change following an Indonesian bank merger." Asia-Pacific journal of human resources 47(1), pp. 59-78.
Hysom, S. & Johnson, (2006). "Leadership Structures in Same-Sex Task Groups." Sociological Perspectives 49(3), pp. 391-410.
Massod, S.; Dani, S.; Burns, N. & Backhouse, C. (2006). "Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture: The Situational Strength Perspective." Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers; Part B; Journal of Engineering Manufacture 220(6), pp. 941-9.
Leadership for Organizations
The success of organizations and individuals' careers are influenced by the role of leaders. Nowadays firms seek leadership skills in individuals for all sorts of careers while recruiting. Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) believe that it has become critically important to nurture leadership approach at all levels of the organization (Lussier, Achua, 2009, p. 4).
The topic of leadership has been gaining tremendous attention of academic world and media (ass, Riggio, 2006, p. 17). Many experts have written about leadership and the challenges related to it as the subject is highly valued and at the same time a complex phenomenon (Northouse, 2009, p. 1).
In today's world individuals need to develop skills and capabilities required in professional world through personal development. They need to assess their strengths, weaknesses, leadership competencies and goals in order to achieve leadership capabilities (Rothstein 2010).
Leaders need to possess a wide range…
Adams, J.D. (Ed.). (1986). Transforming leadership: From vision to results. Alexandria, VA: Miles River Press.
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Armstrong, S., & Armstrong, S. (1996). The conductor as transformational leader. Music Educators Journal, 82(May), 22-25.
Transformational leaders have the innate ability to motivate their team members by the vision of what they are trying to accomplish together (Hur, van den Berg, Wilderom, 591). Leaders at this level also show through personal effort why sacrificing for a goal is worth it (Pryor, Oyler, Humphreys, Toombs, 18). Contrasting my own leadership style, I have learned that being able to provide subordinates with an opportunity to take on a task their own way, master it, and find purpose in it is a major step in the right direction. The concepts of autonomy, mastery and purpose as the core of motivation is what I am working to achieve today as a leader. I am also on the journey to being a better leader on this dimension as well, working to show that sacrificing for a long-term goal is worth it.
Leadership is a skill set that must be…
Joaquin Camps, and Hannia Rodriguez. "Transformational leadership, learning, and employability. " Personnel Review 40.4 (2011): 423.
Hur, Y., P. van den Berg, and C. Wilderom. "Transformational leadership as a mediator between emotional intelligence and team outcomes. " Leadership Quarterly 22.4 (2011): 591.
Pryor, M., J. Oyler, J. Humphreys, and L. Toombs. "The people cried - a case of compassionate, transformational leadership. " Journal of Business Cases and Applications 4.(2011): 1-20.
Smith, M.. "Are you a transformational leader? " Nursing Management 42.9 (2011): 44.