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They are also learning new ideologies that transform their perspectives and broaden their viewpoints to gain a greater sense of understanding and awareness of the values of their jobs and how they subsequently change them as people -- which is the very essence of transformative learning.
The proclivity for those who are in increasingly higher levels of education, particularly those in graduate school as opposed to undergraduate school to demonstrate more of the effects of transformative learning than their counterparts in lower levels of education is evinced within "Development of a Questionnaire to Measure the Level of eflective Thinking," which was composed by David Kember et al. This study is of particular interest to the literature review conducted within this paper because it was qualitative and, as such, yielded little room for ambiguities. The authors used many of the theories propagated by Mezirow regarding transformational learning to devise a questionnaire…
Cooper, S. (no date). "Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology." Lifecircles-inc.com. Retrieved from http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/humanist/mezirow.html
Cheney, R.S. (2010). "Empirical measurement of perspective transformation." Michigan State University. Retrieved from https://www.msu.edu/~mwr2p/Cheney-MR2P-2010.pdf
Clark, M.C. (1993). "Transformational learning." New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education. 57: 47-56.
Cragg, C.E., Plotnikoff, R.C., Hugo, K., Casey, a. (2001). "Perspective Transformation in RN-to-BSN Distance Education." Journal of Nursing Education. 40 (7): 317-322.
Accordingly, the approach taken to academics will center on the refinement of more generally applicable skill sets such as interpersonal communication, team orientation and learning through practical usage of emergent skills. Accordingly, Moore points to instances of interdisciplinary learning as the manifestation of this set of values which is increasingly seen as essential to yielding the best results from one's higher education. Accordingly, Moore indicates that "new models of interdisciplinary education promote student teamwork in a shift toward transformative, experiential, and collaborative learning." (p. 77)
The text goes on to note that in spite of the rising scholarly consensus on the value of such approaches, they contrast from actually practices across the general higher education spectrum. Here, there is instead a tendency toward retrenchment in traditional modes of instruction, pedagogy and evaluation. This suggests that the absence of transformational strategies in many higher education contexts is not as a consequence…
Glisczinksi, D.J. (2007). Transformative Higher Education: A Meaningful Degree of Understanding. Journal of Transformative Education, 5(4), 317-328.
Moore, J. (2005). Is Higher Education Ready for Transformative Learning? Journal of Transformative Education, 3(1), 76-91.
Transformative Learning in Adults
Adult learners desire more than just knowledge and resist academic teachings strategies such as notes memorization and examinations. They desire something more than just what is offered in the classrooms- the learning goes beyond content knowledge acquisition, or learning equations, learning historical facts and data. It is a desirable process for adults to learn to think for themselves, through true emancipation from sometimes mindless or unquestioning acceptance of what we have come to know through our life experience, especially those things that our culture, religions, and personalities may predispose us towards, without our active engagement and questioning of how we know what we know.
In this paper therefore we are going to review articles relating to transformative learning in adults so that we can have a grasp of the issue. Transformative learning is the kind of learning we do as we make meaning of our lives.…
Cortazzi M, & Jin L, Wall D, Cavendish S. (2001), Sharing Learning through Narrative Communication, Department o Education, Brunel University, Midlesex,
Hill, L. (2001) New directions for Adult & Continuing Education: Complete List of issues, UK, Jossey-Bass
Mezirow J (1991) Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning (Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education)
Mezirow J. (2006) Understanding and Promoting Transformative Learning: A Guide for Educators of Adults; UK, Jossey-Bass
He attempts to show that this concept has emerged and is slowly developing in adult education to an extent that it has attracted both researchers and practitioners in the field. Actually, the author's main goal is to provide better understanding of the complexity of transformative learning through summarizing its main theoretical views in the field of adult learning.
Generally, there are several adult learning theories that basically provide insights and framework for understanding the difference in learning between adults and younger learners (Trotter, 2006). Some of these theories include Functional Theory, Age and Stage Theory, and Cognitive Development Theory. An examination of Dirkx's article on transformative learning in the field of adult education shows that it's based on the functional theory of adult learning. Functional theory views the experience of the adult learner as critical since if education was life, life could also be considered as education. As a result,…
Dirkx, J.M. (1998). Transformative Learning Theory in the Practice of Adult Education: An
Overview. PAACE Journal of Lifelong Learning, 7, 1-14. Retrieved from http://www.iup.edu/assets/0/347/349/4951/4977/10251/AF0EAB12-C2CE-4D2C-B1A0-59B795415437.pdf
Trotter, Y.D. (2006). Adult Learning Theories: Impacting Professional Development Programs.
Retrieved July 21, 2012, from http://wed.siu.edu/faculty/CSims/586/Adult%20Learning%20Theories%20Impacting%20Professional%20Development%20Programs%20article.pdf
learning can be categorized into three distinct groups: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Behaviorism refers to the student's interaction with the environment and focuses on the external aspects of learning and on that which encourages learning such as positive reinforcement on the one hand and punishment on the toehr. Cogntivism, on the other hand, focuses on attitudes, motivation, and ideas and refers to the brain's interaction with the academic environment and with subject taught. Finally, constructivism represents and describes the situation where the learner actively builds new ideas or constructs learning situations.
Other approaches include humanism (where the focus is placed on respecting and motivating the individual student as encouragement to learning) and social / situational (namely those situational / social constructs interact in shaping a student's motivation and classroom attitude.
Behaviorism believes that external actions and manner dominate if not replace cognition. adical behaviorists believe that mind / cognition…
Brown, B. & Ryoo, K (2008). Teaching Science as a Language: A "Content-First" Approach to Science Teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 45 (5): 529 -- 553.
Charles, C. (2005). Building classroom discipline. USA: Pearson Pub.
Baron, R.A., Byrne, D., & Branscombe, N.R. (2006). Social Psychology (11th Ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.
Benson, N.C. (1998). Introducing Psychology. U.K: Totem Books.
They also focus more on institutional support, like the need for appropriate funding for such educational programs, rather than psychological issues attacked to assimilation. Changing demographics in recent years in Canada have forced adult education programs to meet the challenge of doing more with fewer resources, as they fight, for more funding for programs designed to orient immigrants in the language and culture of the area. "As new citizens to Canada, they need educational programs to help them navigate the complex paths that citizenship entails and to upgrade their language, knowledge and skills to fully participate in Canadian society."
Unlike Ferrigno's article on education that accepts community criticism and a critique of society as a whole, Guo and Sork's see "adult education as an agency of social progress" in moving students forward into better economic opportunities. Adult education is "an important forum for building inclusive citizenship" more so than changing…
The Four Stages of Transformational Change
The four stages of transformational change are (1) identifying issues with current situations or processes; (2) learning new frames of reference for those situations or processes; (3) changing specific points-of-view; and (4) transforming habits of mind and practice. More particularly, those four stages consist of seven phases: (1) experiencing a specific problem or dilemma; (2) self-examination; (3) critical analysis of fundamental assumptions; (4) appreciating what others have encountered in similar situations; (5) considering all possible options; (6) devising a specific plan of action for change; and (7) reintegration. In principle, that means that in the first stage, the individual determines that some form of change is necessary. In the second stage, the individual performs assessments and consider new approaches. In the third stage, the individual begins to implement specific changes. In the fourth stage, the individual adopts the new perspectives as a…
Learning in Organizations
This assignment is a review journal for the book 'Continuous Learning in Organizations: Individual, Group, and Organizational Perspectives', by Sessa & London (2006).
Preface & Preliminary Material
I like to read the introductory material for books before diving in. It gives one a hint of the author's personal thinking, motivations, and other insights. In this preface the authors explain how the book was put together, with the input from individuals as well as corporate involvement, including 'focus' or discussion groups addressing the topic of 'Continuous Learning: what does it mean?'.
I found this statement about the rapidity of ongoing change to be thought-provoking: 'These changes raise the potential of rewards for those with insight' (Sessa & London, 2006: ix). The authors define learning for each of the three categories (individual, group, and organization), and talk about its importance. They also state that their purpose is…
Sessa, V.I. & London, M. (2006). Continuous Learning in Organizations: Individual, Group, and Organizational Perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN: 0-8058-5018-X.
The study showed that most students didn't consider e-learning as a benefit on campus; males who had previous experience with computers and students with positive attitudes about new technology were less positive to e-learning on campus that other students, overall.
3. Locate a mixed methods study that uses a theoretical lens, such as a feminist, ethical/racial, or class perspective. Identify specifically how the lens shapes the steps taken in the research process.
Fullerton's (2010) study looks at transformative learning, noting that the task that male and female students face in learning is to reframe and understand -- in a different way -- the world that they once knew. It is the transformation of meaning. Fullerton (2010) suggests that in order to be transformed via learning, the education needs to expose students to different and many opportunities for intentional learning through a formal academic curriculum, student life, and community based and…
Crewsell, J.W. (2008). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches; 3rd edition. Sage Publications, Inc.
Ehlers, U.D. (2004). Quality in e-learning from a learner's perspective. Eden Research Workshop. Retrieved on September 13, 2010, from the Website:
Fullerton, J.R. (2010). Transformative learning in college students: a mixed methods study. Digital commons. University of Nebraska -- Lincoln. Retrieved on September 14, 2010, from the Website: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cehsdiss/65
Learning is the acquisition of new knowledge or skills. Because learning changes the way we think and act, the concept is powerful and transformative. Learning changes our worldviews, and expands our perspectives. With learning, we cultivate new insights, fermenting what we acquire as pure fact into what can be better referred to as knowledge or even wisdom. Then we can apply that knowledge to our own lives, and also help others. Online learning is simply a new method of learning and is not qualitatively different from other methods of learning. The benefits of online learning include empowering the learner to take charge of his or her own pace of development.
The fundamental benefit associated with online learning is convenience. Students can learn whenever and wherever they please, so long as they participate and turn in their assignments in a timely fashion. Online learning allows us the same degree of social…
Transformative mediation seeks to empower parties during a dispute, rather than narrowly focusing only on the issues at stake. Empowering the parties enables each stakeholder to develop the means by which to seek solutions, change, and resolve the issues independently (Burgess, 1997). The benefit of transformative mediation is to change the nature of the discourse, to encourage empathy, understanding, and mutual respect. Because primary stakeholders reach the solution independently and with mutual respect, they are also more likely to perceive the results as being valid. Other core benefits to using transformative mediation include the willingness to patiently reach win-win conclusions rather than resort to unsatisfying compromises that leave resentment, misunderstanding, and other lingering issues.
Naturally, the limitations of transformative mediation is that it has a long-range focus, requires a lot of time and willingness on the part of both parties to cultivate the emotional or psychological mindset for transformation. Transformative…
Graduate Certificate Nursing Education
Learning of Anorexia Nervosa & Handling Its Patients
Final Learning Report
DESCRIPTIN F BJECTIVES & THEIR STATUS
Drafting a learning contract and adhering to it along with constant support from my supervisor, was an effective activity which constituted of four weeks. every objective had a milestone plan and necessary measures which were required to be taken for achieving them. Self-expectation after reaching these goals was also documented in order to have a clear picture of my proficiency level in the developing knowledge of Anorexia Nervosa after this activity. The primary objective was to have clear understanding of Anorexia Nervosa, its causes, symptoms and possible treatments. Furthermore, second main objective was to deal with patients having this disorder and their families. These two major goals encompassed the rest. Through reading of the concerned topic were performed and were brought into practical application. Furthermore, efforts were made to…
Owen, T. (2002). Self-Directed Learning in Adulthood: A Literature Review.
William, J. (2009), Anorexia Nervosa: Self Sabotage in Adolescence
Final Report-Anorexia Nervosa Page 4
For countries such as the U.S. And France, these needs can be reasonably expected to relate to the respective national cultures involved. For instance, in their book, Education in France, Corbett and Moon (1996) report, "An education system needs to justify itself constantly by reference to the values which underpin a nation's culture. In a democracy it is expected to transmit a range of intellectual, aesthetic and moral values which permeate the curriculum and approaches to teaching and learning" (p. 323).
Just as the United States has been confronted with a number of challenges in recent decades in identifying the best approach to providing educational services for an increasingly multicultural society, France has experienced its fair share of obstacles in this regard as well. According to Corbett and Moon, "In societies forced to come to terms with change, values are always challenged. French society, like others, had to adapt to…
Atkinson, R.D. (2006, May-June). Building a more-humane economy. The Futurist, 40(3), 44.
Blanchard, E. & Frasson, C. (2005). Making intelligent tutoring systems culturally aware: The use of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Montreal, Quebec Canada: Computer Science Department, HERON Laboratory.
Bryant, S.M., Kahle, J.B. & Schafer, B.A. (2005). Distance education: A review of the contemporary literature. Issues in Accounting Education, 20(3), 255.
Calder, J. (1993). Disaffection and diversity: Overcoming barriers for adult learners. London: Falmer Press.
With proper instructional techniques, the effects of online education could potentially be altered significantly in a positive direction. This research will attempt to determine the specific obstacles that still exist to online education and the current best practices for overcoming these obstacles, as demonstrated by a variety of independent and original research studies conducted on the topic.
Many studies have pointed out that inadequately equipped e-learning systems can result in 'frustration, confusion, and reduced learner interest' (Zhang et al. 2004). An example of this is the fact that many e-learning course offer only text-based learning materials, which could lead to a student's boredom and disengagement in students, preventing them from gaining a good understanding of a topic (2004). However, multimedia technology is becoming more and more advanced and now e-learning systems are able to incorporate materials in different media such as text, image, sound, and video (2004), all sources of…
He has also had to grapple with a dangerous world, including escalating tensions in the Middle East. These challenges have forced him to deviate from the inspiring, common touch of the rhetoric of the campaign.
However, some of the perceived shift in tone in Obama's leadership seems less due to circumstances and more due to greater knowledge of his character, such as his more aloof and cerebral side that his advisors tried to hide during the campaign. These qualities have made it difficult for him to communicate the full benefits America has accrued from his leadership, and allowed some of his political adversaries to position him as elitist, despite his relatively modest upbringing. But although he may not always be as charismatic as a reasoned and cautious leader, he is always transformational in his aspirations -- otherwise he would never have undertaken the risks of reforming healthcare at all. There…
Dowlin, Joan E. (2011). President Obama's calm assertiveness. The Huffington Post.
Retrieved June 27, 2011 at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/joan-e-dowlin/president-obamas-leadersh_1_b_836228.html
Hamburger, Tom & Matea Gold. (2011, June 25) Election 2012: Obama campaign courts wealthy donors. The L.A. Times. Retrieved June 27, 2011 at http://articles.latimes.com/2011/jun/25/nation/la-na-0625-obama-donors-20110625
McManus, Doyle. (2009, February 15). For Obama, governing isn't campaigning.
While both gender and race are positionalities that are difficult to hide (not that one should need or want to, anyway), sexual orientation is not necessarily something that is known about a person, and its affects on the learning process can be very different. The very fact that sexual orientation can be hidden can create a situation where the learner closes off, hiding not only their sexuality but demurring away from other opportunities of expression and engagement as well. Conversely, if an individual with an alternative sexuality was open about this fact, it could very well cause discomfort in other adult learners who have a marked generational bias against many alternative sexualities and lifestyles (Cain). Both situations could provide useful grounds for personal growth in self-acceptance and self-security, for the learner of a minority sexual orientation and for the other learners in the class, respectively (Cain).
Situated Cognition v. Experiential…
Cain, M. "Theorizing the effects of class, gender, and race on adult learning in nonformal and informal settings."
Cranton, P. (2002). "Teaching for transformation." New directions for adult and continuing education 93, pp. 63-71.
Hansman, C. (2001). "Context-based adult learning." New directions for adult and continuing education 89, pp. 63-71.
Isopahkala-Bouret, U. 92008). "Transformative learning in managerial role transitions." Studies in continuing education 30(1), pp. 69-84.
Any type of assessment, whether it is personality-based, or a standardized assessment of ability, should be used to inform and guide learning, rather than to limit students. Adult students may have more formed personality traits and a greater wealth of life experiences, but they are still capable of change and growth like younger students.
Furthermore, adults are often more willing partners in the learning process and better-equipped to engage in self-directed learning to realize a goal. Educators themselves are on a learning journey and "if educators see self-directed learning as the goal of their work with learners but not themselves, there is a discrepancy in their perspective."
Cranton offers practical suggestions to the educator so he or she can become a transformative teacher, as well as engage in transformative education of the self. Keeping a journal, writing down one's philosophy of practice, contrasting one's philosophy with other educators, and viewing…
Cranton, Patricia. Professional development as transformative learning. Jossey Bass, 1996.
Patricia Cranton, Professional development as transformative learning (Jossey Bass, 1996), pp. 3-4.
Cranton, p. 123.
Cranton, p. 121.
There are many aspects to the nursing profession, but before a person becomes a nurse he or she has to focus on the clinical education it takes to become one. In other words, one cannot just study from books and pass tests to graduate to working with patients. He or she has to be able to demonstrate through clinical evaluation methods that he or she is capable of doing what is necessary to handle patients properly. Addressed here will be reasons behind the methods used. The humanistic and transformative learning theories will be discussed. Then the paper will move into the specific methods used for clinical evaluation, what those methods are, and why they are important. Overall, it is highly significant to have different kinds of methods, because everyone learns a little differently. When evaluations measure the same kinds of skills in different ways, they are more likely…
Bendeck S.S. ed. (2013). Psychology and the perennial philosophy: Studies in comparative peligion. Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom.
Billings & Halstead (2012). Teaching in nursing. A guide for faculty. (4th ed) NY: Saunders.
Cranton, P. (2006) Understanding and promoting transformative learning: A guide for educators of adults (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
D'Antonio, P. (2010). American nursing: A history of knowledge, authority, and the meaning of work. NY: John Hopkins University Press.
National Association of Student Personnel Administrators and the American College Personnel Association reports that in terms of today's school curriculum "knowledge is no longer a scarce or stable commodity. Especially in science, engineering, and technical fields, knowledge is changing so rapidly that the specific information may become obsolete before a student graduates and has the opportunity to apply it." (2004) There are more in the way of those providing knowledge as well as the many educational offerings for all ages of learning, and is reported to have "diversified the structures, purposes, and outcomes of education." (National Association of Student Personnel Administrators and the American College Personnel Association, 2004) Not only is knowledge plentiful it is simultaneously inexpensive due to the Internet and has "created a broad space for competitive claims about the legitimacy and veracity of information." (National Association of Student Personnel Administrators and the American College Personnel Association, 2004)…
Ganzel, Bill (2007) Education in Rural America. Wessel's Living History Farm. Retrieved from: http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe50s/life_12.html
Hancock, L. (2011, September 9). Why Are Finland's Schools Successful. Retrieved from Smithsonian: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/Why-Are-Finlands-Schools-Successful.html?c=y&page=2
Learning Reconsidered: A Campus-Wide Focus on the Student Experience (2004) The National Association of Student Personnel Administrators and The American College Personnel Association. Jan. 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.myacpa.org/pub/documents/learningreconsidered.pdf
Mourshed, M. And Chijioke, C., and Barber, M. (2010) How the World's Most Improved School Systems Keep Getting Better. Education. Nov. 2010. McKinsey & Company. Retrieved from: http://mckinseyonsociety.com/downloads/reports/Education/How-the-Worlds-Most-Improved-School-Systems-Keep-Getting-Better_Download-version_Final.pdf
The works of Borko and Putnam (1998) expressed the contemporary perspectives to the concept of contextual learning. Situated recognition (uses both social and physical contexts),social cognition (uses an individual's construction of a given knowledge) as well as distributed cognition which employs or relates to both the social and situated nature of cognition (Clifford and Wilson,2000). While employing this ideas, I emphasize on problem solving, recognition of the fact that teaching as well as learning must occur within multiple contexts, assist my students in the process of learning, anchor my lesson and teachings on various diverse real life context of my students, encourage my students to learn from one another while also employing an authentic assessment technique.
Audience Analysis and Considerations
The audience basically comprises of adult learners who are either interested in advancing their careers or leaning of better ways of running their own firms. Their learning style is based…
ATHERTON JS (2002) Learning and Teaching: Learning from experience [Online]: UK: Available: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/experience.htm
Borko, H., and Putnam, R.T. "The Role of Context in Teacher Learning and Teacher Education." In Contextual Teaching and Learning: Preparing Teachers to Enhance Student Success in and Beyond School. Information Series No. 376. Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, Center on Education for Training and Employment, College of Education, The Ohio State University, and Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education, American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 1998. (ED 429-263)
Brown, B.L. Applying Constructivism in Vocational and Career Education. Information Series No. 378. Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, on Education and Training for Employment, College of Education, The Ohio State University, 1998. (ED 428-298) http://cete.org / acve/majorpubs.asp
Clifford, M., and Wilson, M. "Contextual Teaching, Professional Learning, and Student Experiences: Lessons Learned from Implementation." Educational Brief no. 2. Madison: Center on Education and Work, University of Wisconsin-Madison, December 2000.
Knowles stated "The richest resources for learning reside in the adult learners themselves" (p. 66). n instructional strategy like gaming may help to facilitate tapping into the adult learner's experience. Through collaboration during the play of a game, learners may discuss prior experiences to aid in discovery of the correct answer. Gaming activities also permit peer feedback to be given to students based on their previous experiences. The millennial student desires immediate feedback and integrates their experiences into their learning (Tapscott, 1998). gain, through group discussion and collaboration, learners share previous experiences with others to confirm or not the correct answer.
By not tapping into the experience of adult learners, negative effects may result (Knowles, 2005). The adult learner identifies their experiences as who they are. In other words, their experiences help to define them as a person. dult learners, who perceive their experiences as being ignored or devalued, perceive…
A somewhat controversial and negative environmental outcome identified from the review of literature was the competitive component to gaming. In an evaluation conducted by Gruendling et al.(1991), some learners (5%) felt threatened by competitive nature of gaming (N = 40) and stated that gaming can cause unnecessary anxiety and stress. Bloom and Trice (1994) stated that too much competition can take the fun out of the process of learning for some and perhaps discourage student participation.
Psychosocial outcomes were also identified from the review of literature. Gaming was found to have encouraged and enhanced active participation and communication-social interactions, improve peer relationships, promote teamwork and collaboration, as well as decrease participants fear, tension, stress, and feelings of intimidation (Ballantine, 2003; Bays & Hermann, 1997; Berbiglia et al., 1997; Bloom & Trice, 1994; Cowen & Tesh, 2002; Dols, 1988; Fetro & Hey, 2000; Gifford, 2001;
People need look no further than their own homes to see the interdependence of world trade; no further than their neighborhoods to see the results of international migration and multiculturalism; no further than the news to see the causes and effects of global economics, ecology and ethnic conflicts. "While domestic debate continues over the nature of these connections, few can doubt their existence. As these connections increase, educators, utilizing a global model, can provide a context that allows students to analyze and understand the impact of world events" (Baker, 1999).
Multiculturalism and globalism are obviously not unique to the United States. The majority of Western societies are racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. Ethnic revival movements have come up in a lot of countries including quite a few Western European nations (Banks & Lynch, 1986). This type of revival movement occurs when an ethnic group organizes efforts to attain equality inside…
Baker, F.J. (1999). Multicultural vs. global education: Why not two sides of the same coin? Retrieved from http://www.csupomona.edu/~jis/1999/baker.pdf
Cooper, G. (1995). Freire and theology. Studies in the Education of Adults, 27(1), 66.
Global education. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.glob-edu.net/en/global-education/
Global education guidelines. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/ge/GE-Guidelines/GEguidelines-web.pdf
student motivation in the learning environment and what motivates students to study. The evaluation begins with a theoretical background on the issue of student motivation based on existing literature and studies on the issue. This is followed by a literature review of 10 studies that have been carried out on the student motivation in various classroom settings and learning environments. Through this review the author has identified various factors that motivate students to study including creation of a supportive learning environment, use of suitable teaching practices, and use of multi-level strategies. The article also includes a discussion regarding the significance of student motivation in the learning process.
One of the most important goals of an educational environment is to motivate students toward environmentally friendly behavior change. The need for student motivation in the high school setting is attributed to the fact that motivation creates positive experience, which helps in improving…
Daniels, E. (2011, November). Creating Motivating Learning Environments: Teachers Matter.
Middle School Journal, 32-37.
Darner, R. (2012, August). An Empirical Test of Self-determination Theory As A Guide to Fostering Environmental Motivation. Environmental Education Research 18(4), 463-472.
Hardre, P.L. (2012). Standing in the Gap: Research that Informs Strategies for Motivating and Retaining Rural High School Students. Rural Educator, 12-18.
Not only is a challenge present for Muslim teachers in attempting to standardize this curriculum but as well "this is compounded by the fact that curriculum materials related to teaching about Islam produced overseas - even for Arabic language studies - are viewed as irrelevant or unsuited to young students' lives and culture in the U.S. And Europe." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004)
Guidelines have been provided in recent years concerning teaching religion in public schools in the U.S. And it is stated by Douglass and Shaikh that "general adherence to the guidelines and their implementation in textbook development has done more than anything else to improve the accuracy of textbook depictions of the basic beliefs and practices, origin stories and subsequent cultural and institutional history of various religions." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004) Stated as primary among the changes is "the consistent use of attributive phrases, combined with greater factual accuracy."…
Akhir, Jamadil (2008) Islamic education after independence and the impact of National Educational Policy. Social Issues. Online available at http://www.hijrahmedia.com/proto/iidl2/artikel/edu4.php
Coulson, Andrew (2004) Education and Indoctrination in the Muslim World - Is There a Problem? What Can We Do about it? Policy Analysis 11 Mar 2004. No. 511.
Delic, Zijad)(2001) Hermeneutics of Islamic Education and the Construction of New Muslim Cultures in the West: Faithful by t Reformed. University of Oregon (2006)
Douglass, Susan L. And Shaikh, Munir a. (2004) Defining Islamic Education: Differentiation and Applications. Current Issues in Comparative Education Vol. 7(1) Teachers College, Columbia University.
It is difficult to learn how to motivate individuals to adapt to new methods and break old habits; individuals may resist change, but a good leader can inspire them to do it and teach them how (CLA, p.1).
Transformative learning involves a change of consciousness about one's self and how one's relationships affect the world through one's workings in one's own fields of influence. I belong to many collective dimensions, such as my economic class, my race and my gender. My thinking about myself and how I will change myself in order to affect my students demands that I feel positive about myself and my efforts. I do believe that what I plan to do will have a positive effect on many others in the future (Goodman, p. 1).
CLA. (2005). hat is adaptive leadership? Cambridge Leadership Associates. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Retrieved January 21, 2008 at http://www.cambridge-leadership.com/adaptive/index.php4.
CLA. (2005). What is adaptive leadership? Cambridge Leadership Associates. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Retrieved January 21, 2008 at http://www.cambridge-leadership.com/adaptive/index.php4 .
Goodman, Anne. (2006). The TLC approach to transformative learning: grounded hope. Transformative Learning Centre. University of Toronto, Canada. Retrieved January 21, 2008 at http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/tlcentre/about.html .
Paul, Richard. (2006). Critical Thinking: learn the tools the best thinkers use. New York: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…
Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf
ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm
Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Change Management Plan
The role of change
"Change is so pervasive in our lives that it almost defeats description and analysis" -- (Mortensen, 2008)
Change at any level, individual or collective (communal/familial, societal, or organizational), is a complex and challenging process that requires time, energy, commitment, and often some level of distinct intention and sacrifice, on both the front and back ends of the process. Change describes both the action(s) and the result(s) of any type of alteration, modification, transformation, or exchange of one behavior/idea for another from smaller-scale individual changes to large-scale organizational (or social systems) changes.
At any level, the process of change needs to be managed to some degree. Generally, individuals can manage their own processes of change and in many individual cases, change may happen more spontaneously. Change that occurs in systems, like organizational change, requires a more strategic (or structured) approach…
Mortensen, Chris, 2008, Change, In Zalta, Edward (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy found at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/change/ >.
Stace, D & Dunphy, D 1994, Beyond the Boundaries, Leading and Re-Creating the Successful Enterprise, McGraw-Hill, Roseville, NSW.
There are two aspects to the answer. In the first instance, as Mezirow states, the individual is connected in the context of transformational learning and education to the larger society. There are many examples of this connection, such as social norms and ideals that affect the issue of individual transformation. As referred to above, learning takes place in a social environment, which implies an intimate link between the individual and society.
However, at the same time it can be argued that individual transformation is personal in nature and has little in essence to do with transformation in the larger society. This refers to the psychological process of internal cognizance and awareness within the individual. As Mezirow states of personal transformation, "...personalized transformation does not guarantee social action." (Mezirow, 1994) This in essence exemplifies the difference between individual and social transformation.
In this light, Spenser also distinguishes between critical theory and…
References from readings
Mezirow. (1994) Understanding Transformation Theory.
Adult Education Quarterly. 44(4).
Perceptions of Self-Efficacy Among Counseling Students
Today, increasing numbers of college students are enrolled in online courses that either supplement or entirely replace traditional land-based counseling graduate degree programs (Smith, Mcaullife & ippard, 2014). These trends may have an effect on the respective levels of self-efficacy that counseling students develop as a result of their online or land-based coursework. To help determine the extent of these differences, if they exist, this paper was guided by the following research question: "What are the differences in perceptions of self-efficacy among counseling students in online and land-based counseling graduate degree programs?" In order to develop a timely and informed answer to this research question, a definition of self-efficacy is followed by a proposed 10-item survey that measures the respective levels of self-efficacy of online and land-based counseling students. A listing of the 10 survey items is followed by supporting rationale for their inclusion…
De Vaus, D. (1996). Surveys in social research. London: UCL Press.
Lane, J & Lane, A. (2009, January 1). Selfs-efficacy and academic performance. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 29(7), 687-690.
Smith, J. E. & Mcaullife, G. (2014, December). Counseling students' transformative learning through a study abroad curriculum. Counselor Education and Supervision, 53(4), 306-310.
Sheperis, C. J., Young, J. S., & Daniels, M. H. (2017). Counseling research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods (2nd ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Learning Objectives for Adult Education
Managing and Exploiting the Impact of Classroom Diversity in Adult Arts Education
As the American population becomes increasingly diverse, so goes classroom diversity (Cooper, 2012). By the end of the current decade, a White majority will no longer exist among the 18 and under age group. This rapid progression towards a plurality has already impacted primary schools, but the trend toward increasing diversity is beginning to affect adult education classrooms as well. If educators simply ignore this trend, not only will the academic success of students be harmed, but also the professional skills of educators. The solution, according to Brookfield (1995), is not the adoption of an innocent or naive attitude towards the diverse needs and abilities of racially and ethnically diverse students, but to engage in a process of critical self-reflection. Such a process would help educators uncover their own hidden motives and intentions,…
Berry, J.W. (1971). Ecological and cultural factors in spatial perceptual development. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 3(4), 324-36.
Brookfield, S.D. (1995). Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Brookfield, S.D. (2012). Teaching for critical thinking: Tools and techniques for helping students question their assumptions (1st ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Brookfield, S.D. (2013). Powerful techniques for teaching adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishing.
"Oh, brave new world indeed," she concludes (11).
Improving Online Education Programs
The growth of "distance education" offerings, also called online education, has been dramatic over the past few years. "Online education has experienced tremendous growth" as colleges and universities -- and private companies that offer training services -- convert "face-to-face classes to online courses" (Revere, et al., 2011, p. 114). riting in the Quarterly Review of Distance Education, the authors review the advantages of learning online, especially for adults and for students employed full time that cannot attend classes. Also, the authors note that online courses can be boring and even tedious when existing eb-based technologies are not put to use (Revere, 117).
"Because communication within online text-based systems does not always flow as naturally as in face-to-face settings," there is a need to embrace technologies to make the class work more interesting and vital (Revere, 120). The authors…
Aragon, Janni. (2007). Technologies and Pedagogy: How YouTubing, Social Networking, and Other Web Sources complement the Classroom. Feminist Collections, 28(4), 45.
Chmielewski, Dawn C. (2012). YouTube's Robert Kyncl charts Internet video's meteoric rise.
Los Angeles Times Business. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com .
Farnan, Jeanne M., Paro, John A.M., Higa, Jennifer, Edelson, Jay, and Arora, Vineet M.
Bune's constuctivist theoy and the conceptual paadigms of Kolb's Expeiential Leaning theoy dawing on the associated theoies ae Kinesthetic and Embodied Leaning. As also noted in the intoductoy chapte, the guiding eseach question fo this study was, "What ae the caee paths fo teaching atists seeking to deploy into the field of community at and development?" To develop timely and infomed answes to this eseach question, this chapte povides a eview of the elevant pee-eviewed and scholaly liteatue concening these theoetical famewoks to investigate the diffeent caee paths teaching atists seek to deploy into the field of community at and development, including ceative community building and adult community centes such as woking with Alzheime's Disease and stoke victims.
Adult Leaning Theoies
Kolb's Expeiential Leaning Theoy. Thee ae a wide aay of theoetical models that can be used to identify and bette undestand teaching and leaning pefeences by educatos and students,…
references to improve coaching and athletic performance: Are your players or students kinesthetic learners? The Journal of Physical
Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(3), 30-34.
Fowler, J. (2013, March). Art rescue in a troubled world. Arts & Activities, 153(2), 36-39.
Kerka, S. (2002). Somatic/embodied learning and adult education: Trends and issues alert. ERIC
Kessler, R. (2000). The soul of education: Helping students find connection, compassion, and character at school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Marital Intimacy Skills
This study examines marital intimacy skills and the impact that these skills have on the marriage in terms of marital failure or marital success. The work of Fincham, Stanley, and Beach (2006) entitled "Transformative Processes in Marriage: An Analysis of Emerging Trends" reports that it has been argued by Stanley (2007) that we "are in a new stage of marital research that reflects a growing momentum toward larger meanings and deeper motivations about relationships, including a focus on constructs that are decidedly more positive." (p.276) Good marriage is noted as that which makes the provision to spouses of "a sense of meaning in their lives" and it is suggested by Fincham, Stanley, and Beach (2006) that this momentum "has set the stage for examination of transformative, rather than merely incremental changes in relationships. (p.276)
What is Intimacy?
Linaman (2006) writes that intimacy is something that every individual…
Boa, Kenneth (nd) Marriage: Intimates or Inmates. Bible.org. Retrieved from: http://bible.org/article/marriage-intimates-or-inmates
Chia, Hans (nd) Importance of Fidelity in Marital Intimacy. Ezine. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?Importance-of-Fidelity-in-Marital-Intimacy&id=3444329
Condie Joann (nd ) Nothing to Hide: Hope for Marraiges Hurt by Pornography and infidelity. Retrieved from: http://www.renewingintimacy.com/Nothing%20to%20Hide_simple.pdf
Cordova, JV, Gee, CB, and Warren, LZ (2005) Emotional Skillfulness in Marriage: Intimacy As a Mediator of the Relationship Between Emotional Skillfulness and Marital Satisfaction. Journal of Social Change and Clinical Psychology: Vol. 24, No. 2. Pp. 218-235. Retrieved from:
The objective of this study is to read the article Ada Mawria Isasi-Diaz who died this summer and to compose a four-page reflection essay on this work in writing. This work will respond to what Diaz has to say about Solidarity in terms of the views of this writing about solidarity.
The Meaning of Solidarity
Diaz writes that the real meaning of solidarity "has been under attack" in that it has been watered down so to speak and that the word is over used and the meaning of solidarity has been lost in this overuse because it is spoken often and loosely and seems to hold no meaning. Diaz holds that there would be change that is both "visible" and "radical" if the true meaning of the word were "understood" and "intended," at least in the lives of those who adhere to solidarity. Diaz states that what Solidarity is…
"(1999) These principles are stated to be of the nature that are designed to "...be incorporated into our daily work and to shape how we think about our responsibilities, communicate our purposes, and interact with students. " (limling and Whitt, 1999)
Good practice in student affairs is stated to:
(1) Engages students in active learning;
(2) Helps students develop coherent values and ethical standards;
(3) Sets and communicates high expectations for student learning;
(4) Uses systematic inquiry to improve student and institutional performance;
(5) Uses resources effectively to achieve institutional missions and goals;
(6) Forges educational partnerships that advance student learning; and (7) uilds supportive and inclusive communities. ( limling and Whitt, 1999 as cited in: Pontius and Harper, 2006)
IV. Effective Partnership Principles
The work of Schuh (1999) entitled; "Guiding Principles for Evaluating Student and Academic Affairs Partnerships" states that principles that are stated as being of the nature…
Pontius, Jason L. And Harper, Shaun R. (2006) Principles for Good Practice in Graduate and Professional Student Engagement NEW DIRECTIONS for STUDENT SERVICES, no. 115, Fall 2006 © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Online available at:
Blimling, G.S., & Whitt, E.J. (1999). Good practice in student affairs: Principles to foster student learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.
Schuh, John H. (1999) Guiding Principles for Evaluating Student and Academic Affairs Partnerships, New Directions for Student Services, No. 87, Fall 1999. Jossey-Bass. Online available at:
2. What are the strengths and weaknesses of an individual or social perspective on adult learning? Is one more relevant than another in certain contexts? In many respects, the strengths and weaknesses of both individual and social perspectives are primarily functions of overemphasis to the exclusion of other considerations that are equally relevant to the effectiveness and appropriateness of adult learning. Quite obviously, an overly narrow focus on the individual perspective neglects other equally relevant factors including, but hardly limited to, social perspective.
However, excessive focus on the individual perspective, as pointed out in the article, also represents potential misinterpretation of the degree to which individual factor are responsible for the optimal learning environment and method with respect to certain individuals. As illustrated in the article, individuals who seem to fit the "mold" of those who are anticipated to require a learning approach dictated by individual considerations may respond to…
This view is reflected in increasing calls for financial equity among schools, desegregation, mainstreaming, and standardized testing for teachers and students alike; it has been maintained that by providing the same education to all students, schools can equalize social opportunity (Bowman, 1994).
This latter position is typically followed up with the use of a particular curriculum designed to support the approach. In this regard, Bowman suggests that, "Knowledge is thought to exist in the collected wisdom of a canon, and education is the transferral of established wisdom to the learner" (p. 218). Unfortunately, when educators attempt to impose a "one-size-fits-all" curriculum on a diverse study body, there are bound to be problems -- particularly for those students who are already marginalized through language and other socioeconomic constraints.
Furthermore, in many ways, the public schools are unique in that they have been assigned the responsibility of communicating what American society regards…
Artiles, A.J., Higareda, I., Rueda, R., & Salazar, J.J. (2005). Within-group diversity in minority disproportionate representation: English language learners in urban school districts. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 283.
Banks, J.A. (1994). An introduction to multicultural education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Bowman, B.T. (1994). The challenge of diversity. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(3), 218.
Breitborde, M.L. (1993). Multicultural education in the classroom. Childhood Education,
One student comments at the end of the video that the most difficult part of the experiment was setting it up, and that the project mostly proceeded by trial and error. Although trial and error is an important mode of learning, it should not necessarily be the primary one. Perhaps if student learning had better incorporated the "artifacts" of scientific equipment, students would have been better able to focus their work and determine which tools and strategies would have been effective in advance (John-Steiner and Mahn, 1996, p. 199). To combat this, part of the lesson could have been redesigned to include information on the various equipment students could employ, and, for future work, could include a review of this information at the end of the experiment.
Another strategy that could be used to help solidify learning in this community of practice would be to ask the student pairs to…
Annenberg Media -- Investigating Crickets. (1999). Retrieved February 27, 2011, from http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=1413
Ash, D. And Levitt, K. "Working Within the Zone of Proximal Development: Formative Assessment as Professional Development." Journal of Science Teacher Education, 14(1): 1-313, 2003.
John-Steiner, V., and Mahn, H. "Sociocultural Approaches to Learning and Development: A Vygotskian Framework." Educational Psychologist. 31(3/4): 191-206. 1996.
Ormrod, J.E. (2011). Educational psychology: Developing learners (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
This is highly believable, but it is also quite believable that institutions that wholeheartedly support distance programs will never change their basic philosophy or outlook on education and its delivery, and that will keep institutions from advancing nearly as far as possible in the distance education field. In fact, the lack of experienced and transformation would hold most institutions back from achieving their true potential in the area. The entire structure and purpose of institutions is going to have to change and grow with the future, and for many that may be too large a problem to overcome. Beaudoin calls it an "elusive goal" unless leadership and ideas are transformed, and that certainly seems to be the case. It may take another generation or more before innovative new leaders are ready to lead some of the most prestigious institutions in the nation, and that may be too late for truly…
Beaudoin, M. Viewpoint about the future of distance education.
Carrington's (2001) study focuses on a diversity of learning strategy potentials that is constructed not by way of race or ethnicity, but by individualized media preferences and sensory strategies for learning. Carrington presents the conclusion that such methods of literacy development which occur in one's formative stages before school will reveal learning dispositions. For example, her examination recognizes that early exposure to the internet bears a positive correlation to one's media literacy, cognitive proficiency and capacity to identify and locate content suited to their individual learning strategies and needs. The underpinning of this study, as it pertains to our larger purpose, is that one means through which to help include all cultural backgrounds in literacy instruction appears to be to diversify the media used in class and to largely incorporate computing advancements at every level. In addition to the benefits discussed here throughout, we can see that the present challenges…
Anderson, T. (2003). E-Learning in the 21st Century. Routledge.
Bates, A.W. & Bates, T. (2005). Technology, e-learning and distance education. Routledge.
Berson, M.J. (1996). Effectiveness of Computer Technology in the Social Studies: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 28(4), 486-499.
Carrington, V. (2001). Emergent Home Literacies: A Challenge for Educators. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 24.
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
A particular individual might look for a solution to a problem which will have a least effect on the organization, whereas another individual might look for a solution to shake the organization. (Scott, 2007)
4) if a team is not at its most efficient, discuss how performance could be improved in each of these areas.
It has been observed that a lot of managers have been toying with the use of small groups in their learning abilities and the available literature on the subject has been on the rise. The most interesting part on this score is that there are a lot of interesting and divergent ideas regarding the manner in which to teach small groups. The difficult part is the fact that the vast multitude of ideas can create confusion by managers who are merely learning about small groups and also regarding what they should do or refrain from…
Brannick, Michael. T; Salas, Eduardo; Prince, Carolyn. (1997) "Team performance
Assessment and Measurement: Theory, Methods and Applications" Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Michaelsen, Larry. K; Kinght, Arletta Bauman; Fink, Dee. L. (2002) "Team-based Learning:
Transformative Use of Small Groups" Westport.
Copland and Knapp's belief that an inquiry into learning is an integral part of the existence of a professional learning community is definitely true. Learning itself is a life-long process. It never ends, regardless of whether or not people have completed their formal education or if they are even educator-researchers. However, particularly in the case when a person is involved in the profession mentioned in the latter situation, inquiries into learning play an essential part in the expansion of learning and the facilitation for the development of new methodologies and approaches that can effectively improve learning. Today's world is constantly changing and the information pertinent to it is in a state of flux as well, so it is actually part of the duty of any sort of educator-researcher or education practitioner to continue to revise and refine his or her methods of conveying education.
One of the most important…
Copland, M.A., Knapp, M.S. (2006). Connecting Leadership with Learning: A Framework for Reflection, Planning and Action.
Smith, M.K. (2009). "Donald Schon (schon): Learning, reflection and change." Infed. Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-schon.htm
Not all teachers are aware of the fact that formative assessments should be used to modify their own teaching approach, and not merely to see if students are doing their homework. Teachers should also be more willing to pool their collective knowledge and resources, so they can exchange ideas about using different forms of formative assessments besides quizzes.
3. Formative assessments are as much of a "check in" for me as your child. I am trying to "check" to see what he or she does not understand.
4. The overemphasis on standardized testing can cause teachers to focus too much on the stated goals of the lesson, and not enough on the process of learning. It is not possible to remove this impediment, however. Instead teachers should find ways to make formative assessment useful in meeting the goals set for the class. Students should be encouraged to use periodic formative…
Garrison, Catherine & Michael Ehringhaus (2011).Formative and summative assessment.
National and Middle School Association. Retrieved March 29, 2011 at http://www.nmsa.org/Publications/WebExclusive/Assessment/tabid/1120/Default.aspx
My classroom management theory is based on a constructivist approach to learning, which implies that there is a mutual responsibility between the learner and the instructor to move forward with the learning experience. My current position is in the First Grade, which at times can make this somewhat challenging. In many ways, First Grade is a segue into a "real" school atmosphere: longer day, more academics, less play, stricter expectations, social growth, challenging social and academic environment and more. Often, the first few months of First Grade are transitions into expected behaviors and a more regimented school day, so classroom management can be challenging at times. Overall, I have been using placement of students (moving desks, etc.), challenging paced lessons and a reward system for good behavior, excellence in teamwork, assignments, etc. By in large, this has been quite effective for this level of student, most of whom…
Sutton-Smith, B. (1997). The Ambiguity of Play. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
The National Institute for Play. (2011). Play Science -- The Patterns of Play. Retrieved from: http://www.nifplay.org/states_play.html
Rimm-Kaufman, S., et al. (2009). The Contribution of Children's Self-Regulation and Classroom Quality to Children's Adaptive Behaviors. Journal of Developmental Psychology. 45 (4), 958-72.
Schneider, M. (2003). Linking School Conditions to Teacher Satisfaction. Retrieved from: http://www.edfacilities.org/pubs/teachersurvey.pdf
constant inflow of new teachers means the inflow of new ideas and new ways of learning. The organization becomes stronger when strong teachers can be effectively recruited by school leadership and faculty. This course has highlighted this process and its importance in creating and fostering a transformative and learning-based environment. Recruiting new teachers is a team effort that requires a direct and planned approach that includes presenting the best aspects of the school to the targeted recruit. The knowledge gained through the practical application of evaluating and reforming a teacher recruitment model has raised significant awareness regarding the topic and can easily be applied in a real world situation where new teachers are in high demand. Remembering the overall objectives of the organization is important in recruiting efforts and new teachers should always reflect these ideals in their approach to education and learning.
Hiring a new teacher is a…
1998 novel About a Boy addresses the gamut of human relationships within the context of post-modern life. ill and Marcus are unlikely friends. A generation gap apart, they seem to have little in common until they start to bond. ill Freeman is 36 years old, and a kid in many ways. He lies so that people will like him, and does not have a job because of his inheritance. Marcus is a 12-year-old boy whose mother is depressed and whose peers are bullied; Marcus seems destined toward stunted emotional growth and development until he meets ill. ill likely sees himself in Marcus, which is why their friendship was meaningful to both parties. The fact that their relationship becomes transformative and helps the two of them grow offers hope that all people can come to appreciate their quirks, preserving individuality while maintaining healthy relationships. About a Boy is therefore about the…
Hornby, Nick. About a Boy. New York: Riverhead, 1998.
Curriculum Development Application
Integration of more interaction between students
As an instructor in an equipment maintenance course there are several challenges that I face. One of the challenges is the interaction between the students in my class. There is a tendency in the class for minority students keeping to themselves during class. Female students are almost invisible in class and they rarely speak or interact with others in the class. This lack of interaction between students could hurt their job placement in the future when they are through with their course. There are several things I can do as an instructor to integrate more interaction between my students. Among the things I can integrate in my course work is group projects and assignments. I will ensure that groups of up to four students are set up on all the course projects. There will also be some class assignments which must…
Jews Without Money and the Mumbai Slums
Michael Gold's 1930 "Jews without Money" is a clear example that history does not only repeat itself but creates a certain pattern out of which human kind cannot be taken out and redirected to another path. Taking the topic from Gold's book and comparing it to current cases of other slums throughout the globe, it can be said that the conditions of the poor people have not changed throughout the decades and even more, despite the international development, the discrepancies between the rich and the poor are constantly increasing.
The present research takes into account the way in which the living conditions of people in the slums of Mumbai (Dharavi) can be compared to the situations to those in "Jews Without Money" by Michael Gold. It is argued that the living conditions are similar, yet for the people living in the slums of…
BBC. Life in a slum. 2014. 23 March 2014 .
Bertaud, Alain. "Mumbai FSI conundrum: The perfect storm: the four factors restricting the construction of new floor space in Mumbai." July 2004. 23 March 2014 .
Gold, Michael. Jews without money. New York: International Publishers, 1930.
Lauter, Paul. Michael Gold. 2014. 23 March 2014 .
principals who are equity-oriented, marginalized dynamics may crop up in schools that are changing demographically at a rapid pace (Cooper, 2009). This essay reflects upon how educators may play the role of transformative leaders by way of carrying out cultural work that tackles inequity, addresses and/or attempts to remove socio-cultural limits, and promotes inclusion. The theories of Cornel West on 'the new cultural politics of difference' appraise the topic, as do literary works on transformative leadership to promote social justice.
Highlighting the ever-changing policy responses in the history of educational leadership, along with their contextual settings, explains the necessity for another glimpse at the manner in which educational leadership should be considered in recent times. Gale & Densmore (2003) found that educational leaders are now faced with contradictory pressures -- on the one hand, to favor some student groups over others, yet, on the other hand, to ensure that disadvantaged…
Appiah, K.A. (2006). The politics of identity. Daedulus, 135(4), 15-22.
Barrett, A. (2012). Transformative leadership and the purpose of schooling. Unpublished dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.
Bell, D.A. (1987). Neither separate schools nor mixed schools: The chronicle of the sacrificed Black schoolchildren. In D. Bell (Ed.); And we are not saved: The elusive quest for racial justice (pp. 102 -- 122). New York: Basic Books.
Brown, K.M. (2004). Leadership for social justice and equity: Weaving a transformative framework and pedagogy. Education Administration Quarterly, 40(1), 77-108.
alt Disney including: a history leader- page applying leadership traits-: inspiration, goal setting, praise recognition, training/coaching, problem solving, planning,
alt Disney: Leadership style
alt Disney was a creative man who built an empire around his vision. Love or hate his product, he created a distinct, family-focused 'Disney style' of entertainment. Before alt Disney, cartoons were regarded as largely derivative forms of entertainment, as a warm-up to the feature film. Disney placed cartoons front and center of the American entertainment experience during a time when movies were one of the central ways in which Americans came together to enjoy a commonly-enjoyed fantasy. He later parlayed this success into television, and even into theme parks which brought the cartoon experience to life. Disney was able to create his cutting-edge vision through near obsessive control of his product and tunnel-vision focus upon his goals. He was a transformative leader, inspiring his subordinates with…
Cherry, Kendra. "Transactional leadership." About.com. 2012. [30 Nov 2012]
Krasniewicz, Louise. Walt Disney: A Biography. Greenwood, 2010
Straker, David. "Transformational leadership." Changing Minds. 2012.
Another way to reinforce teaching is through quizzes and classroom participationg. Quizzes do not only test student knowledge, but also evaluate comprehension, which is a good measure of the job that the counselor educator is doing. Likewise, having students engage in classroom presentations and other peer-to-peer teaching is important because that opens up the opportunity for students to put theory into practice.
Techniques and Methods to Engage Students
Anything that can encourage students to discuss their experience is going to help get students engaged. There are several techniques that teachers can use to encourage that discussion including: assisting students to understand the subject matter by giving them practice in thinking; challenging students to evaluate logic of and evidence for their own and others' positions; giving students opportunities to formulate applications of principles; developing motivation for further learning; helping students articulate what they've learned; and getting prompt feedback on student understanding…
Bass, B. (1996). A new paradigm of leadership: An inquiry into transformational leadership.
Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Institute for Behavioral & Social Sciences.
Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. (4th Ed.) Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Secondary Students |
Some Particular issues with Secondary Students
How have you adjusted both the types of questions you ask as well as how you ask questions to developmentally suit students with disabilities in grades 7-12?
Explaining my question and extensively describe what am I asking to assure that the student has understood what information is been asked.
Giving them Time to process my question.
elate my question with images.
Answers of two choices.
Eye contact and sense of my role to be supportive and trusting me to express themselves.
Explaining my question and extensively describe what am I asking to assure that the student has understood what information is been asked.
elate my question with images
e. Eye contact and sense of my role to be supportive and trusting me to express themselves.
Making questions clearer to learning-disabled pupils through description and explanation will aid both their academic…
Cohen, J., Cardillo, R., & Pickeral, T. (2011). Creating a Climate of Respect. Promoting Respectful Schools, Vol 69, No. 1. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept11/vol69/num01/Creating-a-Climate-of-Respect.aspx
Pella, S. (2012). What Should Count As Data For Data Driven Instruction? Middle Grades Research Journal, Vol 7, Issue 1, 57 -- 75. Retrieved from EBSCOHostConnection: http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/78098255/what-should-count-as-data-data-driven-instruction-toward-contextualized-data-inquiry-models-teacher-education-professional-development
Vaughn, S., Schumm, J. S., & Forgan, J. W. (2016). Instructing Students With High-Incidence Disabilities in the General Education Classroom. Retrieved October 25, 2016, from Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: http://www.ascd.org/publications/curriculum_handbook/413/chapters/Instructing_Students_With_High-Incidence_Disabilities_in_the_General_Education_Classroom.aspx
For example, let's say that a student has tremendous amounts of respect for their history teacher. While at the same time, they do not like their math teacher. These two contrasting views will have a negative impact on how they will deal with a host of situation. As, the student is more willing to listen to ideas of teachers they like and respect. Whereas those educators, that are often looked down upon will be ineffective in reaching out to their student. This is significant, because it is showing how inside the classroom the teacher must be able to relate to each person. As a result, the way that this idea can be used in the classroom is to establish an initial foundation of support for the educator and the views that are being presented. The way that this is accomplished is through effectively reaching out to the student by ensuring…
McFerrin, K. (2008). Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference. Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
McGlyn, A. (2009). Millennials in College. Education Digest, 73 (6), 19 -- 22.
Shindler, J. (2010). Transformative Classroom Management. San Francisco, CA: Josey Bass.
The Vietnam War was a turning point in the Army's growing realization that senior military leaders, and not just political leaders, had a responsibility to be able to speak to soldiers, to the American people, and to the press about ethical issues.
The Professionalism Study of 1970, examined institutional systems and requirements for success in the Army, attitudes and values of senior officers, and tasks for the 1970s. One of the striking conclusions of the first study was that the Army contained "untoward and unhealthy pressures to strive for success" on the part of officers. Systems that regulated the selection, education, promotion, and reward of Army officers were in need of major correction.
It was clear that the Army needed to evaluate its concepts of values and ethics.
During the decades of the 1970s and 1980s senior commanders in all the services began to exert their influence on the direction…
Angelo, T.A., & Cross, K.P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd edition). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Carter, D. & Wilson, R. (1995). Thirteenth annual status report on minorities in higher education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Farris, P. (1996). Teaching, Bearing the Torch. Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark
Connecting Theory and Meaning of Disability Studies in Schools
The connecting theory application in the system of basic education has contributed to the development and establishment of a trans-disciplinary scientific strategized framework. This framework bases on the specified reverence for a considerable orientation in long-term and the engagement of decision makers in the education system on its application. The connecting theory involves work that cuts across education disciplines. This is with the aim of exposing the aspects perceived to be of outdated assumptions in the education system. This happens with their respective enrichment in the technological and social practice. The theory constitutes well-strategized research with knowledge meant for informing a scientific framework designated. This is to enable direct transformation towards the education system future with worldview fit (Fenton-Smith, & Stillwell, 2011).
The concrete developed strategic objectives aim at addressing the advancements with accuracy in understanding the aspect of science. This…
Albrecht, G.L. (2003). Handbook of disability studies. Thousand Oaks, Calif. [u.a.: Sage.
Dan Goodley & Michele Moore. (2010). Doing Disability Research: Activist lives and the academy. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cdso20
Danforth, S. (2006). Vital questions facing disability studies in education. New York: Lang.
Fenton-Smith, B., & Stillwell, C. (2011). Reading Discussion Groups for Teachers:
Environment Science education and its effect on Students' Improvement
Does the current curriculum actually improve the student's decision making regarding environmental issues?
Sample Size and Sampling Method
Time Frame for the Study
Scope and Limitations
Current Environmental Science Curriculum
Is the current curriculum design actually improves the decision making regarding environmental issues?
For years it has been a tough job to implement the appropriate environmental education in the colleges. esearch in the field has pointed out several challenges in the creation of effective environmental curricula. esearchers also examined different strategies being used for the promotion of student awareness as well as fostering them to engage in the ever changing circumstances. The empirical research studies have made it clear that just acquiring the information on the environment science and ecology is not enough to motivate students to practically participate in environment protection. For the motivation there is a need…
Balgopal, M., & Wallace, A. (2009). Decisions and dilemmas: Using writing to learn activities to increase ecological literacy. Journal of Environmental Education, 40(13), 13 -- 22.
Balgopal, M., & Wallace, A. (2009). Decisions and dilemmas: Using writing to learn activities to increase ecological literacy. Journal of Environmental Education, 40(13), 13 -- 22.
Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Biriukova, N. (2005).The formation of an ecological consciousness. Russian Education and Society, 47(12), 34 -- 45.
Culture and education are inherently linked (Adams, 1992; Gay, 2000, Jones 2004; Wlodkcowski & Ginsberg, 1995 in: Guo and Jamal, 2007) In order to understand impact of diversity in the educational setting, Guo and Jamal write that it appears necessary to "first define some key terms, including culture and cultural diversity. Culture can be defined as a dynamic system of values, beliefs and behaviors that influence how people experience and respond to the world around them. For many, cultural diversity can be referred to as 'distinctions in the lived experiences, and the related perception of and reactions to those experiences that serve to differentiate collective populations from one another." (Marshall, 2002, p. 7)
Culture plays a key role in forming the manner in which students learn and communicate,"…how they relate to other students and instructors, their motivation levels, and their sense of what is worth learning." The extent…
Adams, M. (1992). Cultural inclusion in the American college classroom. In L.L.B. Border & N.V. Chism (Eds.), Teaching for diversity. New Dire
Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (pp. 229-250). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Banks, C.A.M. (2005). Improving multicultural education: Lessons from the intergroup education movement. New York: Teachers College Press.
Banks, J.A. (1997b). Approaches to multicultural curricular reform. In J.A. Banks & C.A.M.
The teacher is then given this goal oriented time specific goal development document to aide in supplementing or altering instruction to meet the needs of the specialized student in inclusion and seclusion. (Filler & Xu, 2006, p. 92) This document and its development are created whenever and individual child is observed and then designated to need such assistance based on his or her inability to meet age appropriate developmental goals, in large part based on standardized developmental scales that designate age appropriate ranges for physical and cognitive skill development and though they have been around almost since the inception of IDEA and the LE they were not always developed or used to their fullest extent for any given child. (Filler & Xu, 2006, p. 92) Filler & Xu also stress that inclusion is not successful if a child with special needs is simply placed in a classroom with average learning…
Filler, J., & Xu, Y. (2006). Including Children with Disabilities in Early Childhood Education Programs: Individualizing Developmentally Appropriate Practices. Childhood Education, 83 (2), 93-102.
Kavale, K., & Forness, S. (2000). History, Rhetoric and Reality. Remedial Special Education, 21 (5), 279-291.
National Collaberative on Workforce and Disability. (2004, December). Special Education Law Enacted. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from ERIC: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/1b/ac/d8.pdf
Odom, S. (2000). Preschool Inclusion: What We Know and Where We Go from Here. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20 (1), 20-25.
icio.us, which enable users to publish, categorize, and share their bookmarks
Enables users to create and edit the content of a Web site, leveraging the expertise of online users
Consumer Wikis enable users to comment on content, in addition to editing content
Wikipedia, a community Wiki encyclopedia, includes approximately 1.3 million English-language articles
Sources: (Bernoff, Li. 2008, et.al.)
Web 2.0 Explained
Inherent in the user dynamics of the map completed by O'eilly and Battelle are the catalyst of why social networking is such a fertile platform for spreading word of God's love and peace to the world. Ironically the foundations of social networking as defined by O'eilly and Battelle are identical to the needs that churches fulfill. The "architecture of participation" that is mentioned by O'eilly in his definition of Web 2.0 (Weinberger, 2007, 19) exactly parallels the needs that any church fulfill as well. In addition,…
Celeste Biever "When pastors swap the pulpit for the webcam." New Scientist, February 17, 2007, 24-25 (Accessed October 1, 2008).
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. "Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web." MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1, 2008): 36-42. (Accessed October 2, 2008).
Kimberly Chopin "Finding communities: alternative viewpoints through weblogs and tagging." Journal of Documentation 64, no. 4 (July 1, 2008): 552-575. (Accessed October 1, 2008).
Aaron M. Cohen "Young, Single, and Spiritual." The Futurist 42, no. 4 (July 1, 2008): 16-17. (Accessed October 1, 2008).