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Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow Treatment Approach for Outpatient Therapy
Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow treatment approach for out-patient therapy.
The study of human psychology is important in understanding personality of individuals. One can study personality of individuals, but there is no scientific method of studying personality of the whole humanity. Human are different from person to person and vey unique to some degree. This paper prompts a thesis, and it digs into the psychology of humans. It dwells on the person-Centered approach by Carl ogers and on the Humanistic Approach by Abraham Maslow.
Both Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow have an influence on today's outpatient therapy. Both scholars have had an influence on the humanistic psychology and personal centered approach to therapy. Although humanistic psychology gained its popularity in the mid 20th century, both scholars have further entrenched theories and practices that make it important in today's outpatient therapy.…
Kazantzis, N., Reinecke, M.A., Freeman, A. (2009). Cognitive and Behavioral Theories in Clinical Practice. New York: Guiford press
Clark, A.J. (2010). Empathy: An integral model in the counseling process. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88(3), 348-356.
Wong, P.T. (2011). Reclaiming Positive Psychology A Meaning-Centered Approach to Sustainable Growth and Radical Empiricism. Journal of Humanistic Psychology,
Treatment Approach to Adolescent Substance Disorders
All over the world, the issue of substance abuse among adolescents is worrying many parents and governments. Substance abuse not only has long-term negative effects on an adolescent's brain but it may also interfere with the individual's school performance, and the relationships they have with their families and friends. The good news is no matter what one is addicted to, he or she can be helped through a substance abuse intervention. Each intervention is tweaked to the specific needs of each adolescent. Prior to the commencement of treatment, there is need for a thorough evaluation to identify an individual's strengths and weaknesses and what needs to be done. A proper intervention will look into an adolescent's: behavioural issues; physical issues; ethnic and cultural factors; their relationships with parents, friends, loved ones and community members; their gender; and degree of psychological development (National Institute on…
Barnett, E., Sussman, S., Smith, C., Rohrbach, L. A., & Spruijt-Metz, D. (2012). Motivational
Interviewing for adolescent substance use: a review of the literature. Addictive behaviors, 37(12), 1325-1334.
Dennis, M., Godley, S. H., Diamond, G., Tims, F. M., Babor, T., Donaldson, J., ... & Hamilton,
N. (2004). The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Study: main findings from two randomized trials. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 27(3), 197-213.
Paranoid/Schizoid personality disorders are difficult to treat via insight-oriented therapeutic approaches, mainly because the patient is prone to doubt the motives of the therapist by virtue of the nature of the symptoms of the disease itself: namely, paranoid delusions that convince the patient that the therapist is part of a larger "conspiracy" against the patient (Shapiro 1999).
Narcissistic, histrionic, borderline, and antisocial disorders are treatable via several insight-oriented, one-on-one psychoanalytic psychotherapeutic approaches conducted by specialists in those types of disorders, as are many obsessive-compulsive and avoidant disorders (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005). Alternatively, obsessive- compulsive, dependant, and especially, avoidant disorders are treatable in group settings as well. Avoidant and dependent personality disorders, in particular, may be best-suited to cognitive behavioral therapeutic approaches where the roots of the patient's disorder relates to distorted self-perceptions capable of being addressed directly (Coleman, Butcher and Carson 1994).
Where paranoid or schizophrenic personality disorders are associated…
Coleman, J., Butcher, J., and Carson, R. (1994). Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co.
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005).
Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Shapiro, D. (1999). Neurotic Styles. New York: Basic Books.
Care of cancer can be a complex process and always needs the engagement of several specialists because treating cancer is multifaceted. The multifaceted and complex nature of approach to care of cancer is attributed to that fact that this process not only revolves around treating the condition itself but also focuses on dealing with non-cancer issues. Some of these non-cancer issues to address during treatment and care of cancer include the patient's coexistent illnesses, health behaviors, and preventive care initiatives. Moreover, the approach to care requires coordinated efforts from various healthcare providers such as oncologists, surgeons, and radiation oncologists. However, the identification a suitable approach to care of cancer requires examining diagnosis and staging of cancer, probable complications, side effects of treatment, and measures to reduce physical and psychological impacts.
Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer
The treatment of cancer begins with diagnosis, which involves a physical examination and medical history…
"Cancer Staging." (n.d.). Diagnosis and Staging. Retrieved from National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health website: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/diagnosis-staging/staging/staging-fact-sheet
"Complications." (2014, January 20). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/basics/complications/con-20032378
Davis, C.P. & Balentine, J.R. (2014, December 22). Cancer. Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.medicinenet.com/cancer/page6.htm
"Physical Side Effects." (n.d.). American Cancer Society. Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/physicalsideeffects/physical-side-effects-landing
Studies conducted by Doughty et al. (2004) suggest that panic disorders, potentially exacerbated by the panic-inducing qualities of drug usage, are significantly associated with bi-polar disease, and Long finds that panic disorders are generationally related to bi-polar. Therefore, the well-known panic- and anxiety-related effects of drug usage have been shown to be related to bipolar disorder, so that both diseases correlate. Further, chemical responses that drive the bi-polar are complicated by the chemical effects of drug addiction, making treatment difficult to sort out. The associated risk of suicide, already high with sufferers of bi-polar disorder, is heightened. Care and treatment, both physical and mental, must be approached in an integrated fashion.
Drug and chemical treatments for dual diagnosis patients have attempted to sort out the effects of each disorder. However, because the brain centers that are impacted by drug abuse and addiction are often driven by the same or similar…
Doughty, C., Wells, J., Joyce, P., Olds, R., & Walsh, A. (2004). Bipolar-panic disorder comorbidity within bipolar disorder families: a study of siblings. Bipolar Disorders, 6(3), 245-252. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2004.00120.x.
Long, M. (2005). Bipolar Disorders. Retrieved from http:/ / www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-md02.html. Internet Mental Health.
Michael's House. n.d. 10 important facts about dual diagnosis and bipolar disorder. Retrieved from http://www.michaelshouse.com/dual-dual-diagnosis/about-dual-diagnosis-bipolar-disorder .
Whitten, L. (2008). Aripiprazole prevents rats from resuming cocaine seeking. Nida Notes, 22(2), 4-5. Retrieved from CINAHL database.
When one looks at the occurrence of recidivism in offenders who have partaken in treatment programs varying from organic programs to those geared to more social and emotional support programs, it becomes clear that recidivism of sexual re-offense is relatively low, compared to those who undergo no treatment program. However, there is still an issue with non-sexual re-offense. In addition, there is evidence that the contributing factors for adult and juvenile offenders are different.
As such, it is suggested that not all offenders should receive the same treatment. Correctional literature indicates that high-risk offender require the greatest use of resource, while lower risk offenders require the lowest level of resources (Andrews & Bonta, 2003).
As such, blanket policies that deem all offenders as 'high risk' are neither effective nor efficient. In addition, it may take away resources from those who truly need it, such as juvenile offenders who require longterm…
Abracen, J., Looman, J., DiFazio, R., Kelly, T., & Stirpe, T. (Mar 2006). Patterns of attachment and alcohol abuse in sexual and violent non-sexual offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 12(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Andrews, D. & Bonta, J. (2003). The psychology of criminal conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
Bates, a., Saunders, R., & Wilson, C. (Spring 2007). Doing something about it: A follow-up study of sex offenders participating in Thames Valley Circles of Support and Accountability. British Journal of Community Justice, 5(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from SocINDEX database.
Calley, N. (Spring 2007). Integrating theory and research: The development of a research-based treatment program for juvenile male sex offenders. Counseling & Development, 85(2). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Treatment History Of Cystic Fibrosis
The field of pediatric nursing is a particularly large one in which its members may find themselves having to counsel both young patients and their families suffering from a myriad of diseases. Cystic fibrosis (CF), in particular, is a debilitating disease that strikes many young people. In the first years following its discovery, many children could not expect to make it to their teen years. Today, with advances in the management and care of this disease, patients are living into their 40s. It is even possible that there will one day be a cure.
This paper will look at CF from a historical perspective. The timeline of its discovery and research will be briefly presented, as will a few of the significant "milestones" in the history of the treatment of CF and what these mean for people battling this disease.
References to cystic fibrosis were…
Author not available. (1994). Genetic Therapy Possible Cure for Several Diseases. Morning Edition (NPR).
Baroni, M.A., Anderson, Y.E., and Mischler, E. (1997). Cystic fibrosis newborn screening: Impact of early screening results on parenting stress. Pediatric Nursing. 23, 143(9).
Hopkin, Karen. (1998). Understanding Cystic Fibrosis. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
Orenstein, David M. (1997). Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for Patient and Family. 2nd ed., Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven.
Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
Contemporary Approaches Used for Assessment and Diagnosis
The Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental Health relates screening tools used for screening for bipolar disorder to include the 'Mood Disorder Questionnaire' (MDQ); the 'Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) ipolar Disorder Screening Scale'; Differential Diagnosis of ipolar Disorder I & II vs. Major Depressive Disorders; and Obtaining a Family History Through the Use of a Genogram. The MDQ is designed for use as a tool to aid in screening for present and past incidences of mania and hypomania and includes 13 questions related to the symptoms of bipolar disorder in addition to items that assess the clustering of symptoms as well as any functional impairment. (CQAIMH, 2014, paraphrased) The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) ipolar Disorder Screening Scale' can be used to make accurate identification of "both threshold and sub-threshold bipolar disorder." (CQAIMH, 2014, p. 1)…
Bipolar Disorder (2014) Mayo clinic. Diseases. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20027544
Bipolar Disorder (2014) University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved from: http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/bipolar-disorder
Bipolar Disorder Screening (2014) Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental Health (CQAIHM). Retrieved from: http://www.cqaimh.org/tool_bipolar.html
Bipolar Disorder Treatment (2014) NHS. Retrieved from: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Bipolar-disorder/Pages/Treatment.aspx
The other principal difference between the sources reviewed is that the first included narratives authored by different clinicians and experts and incorporated their anecdotal professional experiences as well as their description of the manner in which their treatment approaches relies on empirical research in each of their different areas of clinical expertise. As a result, that work is an appropriate reference for the available treatment options for PTSD and for the optimal combination of different approaches in specific types of cases.
By contrast, the second source consists only of a literature review of previous research without any narrative contribution from experts apart from the conclusions in each of the studies reviewed. More importantly, this source does not address or consider any non-pharmacological PTSD interventions, much less any combinations of multiple modalities concurrently. In fact, the authors expressly reference the apparent absence in the available literature of any studies specifically investigating…
Davis L.L., Frazier E.C., Williford R .B., and Newell J.M. "Long-Term
Pharmacotherapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder." CNS Drugs, Vol. 20, No.
6 (2006): 465-476.
Foa E., Keane T.M., Friedman M.J., and Cohen J.A. (2008). Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress
He realizes and wants the reader to realize that those roots have merit and modern day approaches simply that the field of mental health to the next step or next level of the industry, but he stresses the importance of action therapy not reflection therapy. Each step is a building block toward the eventual goal of having answers more quickly and more accurate than the past answers, however without Freud and those who came after him the new theories would not be possible.
he book is a refreshing approach and puts Glasser's reality therapy into play by acknowledging the others who have developed theories and giving them their dues before moving on to examine the next step which he believes is his approach.
Glasser's book is based on an individual's power to choose. hey can choose how they react to life, they can choose how they react to people and…
This book is written in a style that a mental health professional can read it and pick up the underlying meanings and ideas but a layman can also read it and gain valuable insight about how to change the way they have been approaching their life. It is an exciting how to for those who are ready to use their power to choose and get their lives on track toward success and happiness.
Glasser, William (1989) Reality Therapy: A New Approach to Psychiatry Harper Paperbacks
For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…
Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.
Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.
Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
Treatments include "a wide range of skill development including academics, language, social skills, self-help skills, behavioral issues, and leisure skills" (Editors), and most professionals agree that communication between the educator and the parents is essential to developing the most effective treatment for each autistic child. However, while there are many common treatments, in general, most treatment really boils down to education and teaching in the special education environment.
Including an autistic child in the classroom can be challenging. Studies show that inclusion rates for autistic children in the general education classroom are quite low ("fewer than one-third of autistic children spend their time in the general education classroom") (Turnbull et al. 292). Therefore, it seems the most effective learning environment may be the special education classroom. Including these children in the classroom and helping them develop relationships and assimilate with their peers is not impossible. Some effective ways of including…
Editors. "About Autism." Autism Society of America. 2005. 7 June 2005. http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer?pagename=allaboutautism&JServSessionIdr004=pv4v7my6s1.app27a
Siegel, Bryna. Helping Children with Autism Learn: Treatment Approaches for Parents and Professionals. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Turnbull, Rud, Ann Turnbull, Marilyn Shank & Sean J. Smith. Exceptional Lives 4th Edition.
Individual Programmatic Assessment
TEATMENTS OPTIONS FO IEGULA SLEEP-WAKE SYNDOME
Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome is a form of a psychological disorder also called Irregular Sleep-Wake hythm. People with Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome have non-aligned sleep times. These people have sleeping patterns that do not adhere to the "normal" times of sleeping at night. The sleeping patterns are disorganized to a magnitude that one cannot tell the presence of a clear sleep or wake pattern. Such people have a tendency to sleep off on some naps over a 24-hour period. The sleep patterns have been split into pieces. They behave like infants who sleep for a few hours, wake up for some other few hours, and also sleep off for some few hours, with the cycle repeating with no clear sequence. During the day, the number of sleep times may be high since they like napping a lot. During the night, they seem to…
American, P. A. (2015). Sleep-Wake Disorders: DSM-5 Selections. New York: American Psychiatric Pub
Flamez, B., & Sheperis, C. (2015). Diagnosing and Treating Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Fontaine, K. L. & LeFontaine (2014). Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Pearson
Kerkhof, G. A., & Dongen, H. P. A. (2011). Human Sleep and Cognition: Part II. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Treatment of Criminal Offenders
As a clinician, how can you apply the knowledge you gained from this course to more effectively serve your clients?
A connection has been established by researchers between brutal and violent susceptibility to impair a particular area of the brain. Till date, several evidence, have assisted to bring into limelight the shady aspect of human attitude and might pave the way for important interference. For instance, several types of spontaneous aggression might be a result of defective balancing of emotion within the prefrontal cortex of the brain, the centre of superior intellectual activities like judgment, analysis and substantial control of impulses. The degree of malfunctions in the core circuits of the brain related to aggressive behavior and if these circuits are capable of being repaired is of course debatable. esearchers have mentioned that individuals inclined to violence have structured blueprints in the brain that can be…
Allen, Harry E; Simonsen, C.E. (1998) "Corrections in America" New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Gendreau, P & Goggin, C. (1996) "Principles of Effective Programming with Offenders" Forum on Corrections Research, Volume: 8; No: 3, pp: 38-40.
Hoge, R.D. & Andrews, D.A. (1996) "Assessing the Youthful Offender: Issues and Techniques" New York: Plenum.
Jacobs, B. L; Azmitia, E.C. (1992) "Structure and function of the brain serotonin system" Physiological Reviews. Volume: 72; pp:165-229.
Autism: Home-Based Treatment of Young Children
Over time, research findings have shown that behavioral intervention (intensive) instituted early enough impacts significantly on the trajectory (developmental) of children having autism. In a big way, such findings have informed quite a number of treatment programs targeting youngsters with autism. Some of the main approaches that have been adopted as far as the treatment of autism is concerned include the school-based approach, the center-based approach and the home-based approach. In this text, I concern myself with treatment (home-based) of children with autism.
According to Sheinkopf and Siegel (1998), parents and professionals have often encountered difficulties formulating appropriate treatment approaches for youngsters with autism. This is mainly as a result of the variations that exist when it comes to the treatment of the condition. Indeed, Sheinkopf and Siegel (1998) note that many children with autism end up receiving a cocktail of modalities in regard…
Schopler, E. & Mesibov, G.B. (1984). The Effects of Autism on the Family. Springer.
Sheinkopf, S.J. & Siegel, B. (1998). Home-Based Behavioral Treatment of Young Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28 (1), 15-16, 22.
Volkmar, F.R., Paul, R., Klin, A. & Cohen, D.J. (2005). Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Assessment, Interventions, and Policy. John Wiley and Sons.
Many recommend use of minimally invasive techniques including SEPS to treat and address problems related to chronic venous insufficiency (Kalra & Glovisczki, 2002). Multiple studies confirm the safety and efficacy of SEPS when used early, especially resulting from its low complication rates compared with other procedures including the formerly popular Linton procedures (Kalra & Gloiscki, 2002; Lee, et al. 2003; Tenbrook, et al., 2004; Bianchi, et al. 2003).
More randomized clinical trials are necessary however to answer additional questions related to the efficacy of new procedures including SEPS, though this procedures remains important for patients with advanced CVI secondary to PVI or with patients who do not demonstrate other complications including DVT (Kalra & Gloiscki, 2002; Bianchi, et al. 2003).
Wagner-Cox (2005) also notes that it is important for nurses to be considerate, knowledgeable and compassionate toward patients with acute and chronic illnesses, especially when caring for…
Baranoski, S. & Thimsen, K. (2003, Aug). "Oasis Skin and Wound Integumentary
Assessment Items: Applying the WOCN Guidance Document." Home Healthcare Nurse, 21(8): Supplement 3-13.
Baron, H.C., Wayne, M.G., Santiago, C.A. & Grossi, R. (2004, Sep-Oct). Vasc
Endovascular Surg. 38(5): 439-42.
The inclusion of alcohol and drug education is a vital component of most drug and alcohol abuse interventions, for both the users and non-user. (Montagne et al., 1992). This education can be offered as a preventive measure to beginners of abuse of substances of to the vulnerable group to save the future generations from the menace and the whole society from the drug's association with crime. Alternatively, it should be offered to be taught as part of the educational curriculum in schools
ecent literature reviews have not found enough evidence to convince many researchers that drug and alcohol awareness programs have great impact on changing substance and drug use, attitude and behavior (Eliany et al., 1993). Although it is of great effort, it has been observed that education alone is not enough to change the actual behavior of alcohol and drug use (Tobler et al1976), in the actual examination of…
ADAM (1998) Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program):1998 Annual Report on Adult and Juvenile Arrestees. Addiction Research Foundation ( 1994). Alcohol and Drug Treatment in Ontario, Toronto:
BUREAU of JUSTICE STATISTICS (1998). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Burrell, N. And K. English. 2006. "Successful completion rates from Community Corrections in Colorado decreased for the first time in many years." Elements of Change: Highlighting Trends & Issues in the Criminal Justice System. Colorado Division of Criminal Justice, Office of Research and Statistics. Vol. 10, No.1. Viewed December 26, 2007 at http://dcj.state.co.us/ors/pdf/docs/EOC_No1_071906.pdf .
Bloom, B.E., and Covington, S.S. (2001) "Effective gender-responsive interventions in juvenile
ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression
Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…
Ai, A..L. et al. (2005). "Prayer Coping, Positive Attitudes, and Cardiac Surgery" in Lee, A.V. Coping with Disease. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 23-64.
Auer, B. And J.A. Ang (2007). Torment of the Soul: Suicidal Depression and Spirituality. AuthorHouse.
Beck, A.T. And B.A. Alford (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Biebel, D.B. And H.G. Koenig (2010). New Light on Depression: Help, Hope and Answers for the Depressed and Those Who Love Them. Zondervan Publishing House.
Cance Cae and Teatment
Diagnosis and staging of cance
In almost all cases, the disease, cance, is diagnosed by a specialist following a micoscopic examination of tissue o cell samples of a paticula individual. In a few instances, physicians may know of the pesence of a cance with the aid of tests pefomed on DNA (deoxyibo-nucleic acid), RNA (ibo-nucleic acid) and cell poteins. Such tests' outcomes pove highly citical when it comes to selecting the optimal theapeutic altenative. Tissue and cell examinations may also aid in the diagnoses of a numbe of othe foms of ailments. Fo example, if a physician is unsue of whethe a paticula lump o gowth in a patient's body is cance, he/she might extact a little bit of it fo testing to diagnose any one of many poblems, including cance, infections and othe issues which may lead to the development of cance-like lumps. This…
MFMER. (2017). Cancer Complications. Retrieved from Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/basics/complications/con-20032378
The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team. (2015, July 30). How is cancer diagnosed? Retrieved from The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team: https://www.cancer.org/treatment/understanding-your-diagnosis/tests/testing-biopsy-and-cytology-specimens-for-cancer/how-is-cancer-diagnosed.html
Addiction does not have an assigned definition. This effectively means that there are various definitions to drug and alcohol addiction that have been explored in the past. For purposes of this discussion, addiction will be defined as “a chronic, relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking, continued use despite harmful consequences, and long-lasting changes in the brain” (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2019). In addition to evaluating the effectiveness of group therapy aid in the treatment of alcohol addiction, this paper will, amongst other things, highlight various aspects of the formations designed to assist alcohol addicts as well as those affected by the alcohol addiction problems/behaviors of loved ones.
It is important to note, from the onset, that the relevance of group therapy in the treatment of alcohol addiction cannot be overstated. In essence, “the natural propensity of human beings to congregate makes group therapy a powerful therapeutic…
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on one's well being can be problematic if not successfully understood and incorporated within a person's psyche. The purpose of this essay is to critically review the literature on the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of PTSD from a "biopsychosocial" perspective. This approach is holistic in nature and is helpful in understanding that nature of disorders and their place within the medical profession. Disorders are important because they suggest a relative problem and not an objective problem. Order is subjective and the need to view PTSD from a more objective viewpoint is helpful in learning what its study can truly do for those who are suffering from the ill effects of trauma. While trauma is inherent in the human condition, successful ways of dealing with this issue of life development have not been adequately expressed in a cohesive manner. This essay attempts to bridge these gaps of…
Edwards, D. (2013). Responsive integrative treatment of clients with PTSD and trauma-related disorders: An expanded evidence-based model. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 23(1), 7- 19.
Haugen, P.T., Splaun, A.K., Evces, M.R., & Weiss, D.S. (2013). Integrative approach for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in 9/11 first responders: three core techniques. Psychotherapy, 50(3), 336.
Jakovljevi?, M., Brajkovi?, L., Jaksi?, N., Lon-ar, M., Aukst-Margeti?, B., & Lasi?, D. (2012). POSTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS (PTSD) FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: A TRANSDISCIPLINARY INTEGRATIVE APPROACH. Psychiatria Danubina, 24(3.), 246-255.
Peri, T., & Gofman, M. (2014). Narrative Reconstruction: An integrative intervention module for intrusive symptoms in PTSD patients. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(2), 176.
Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatment
Clinical Presentation of Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatments
On January 13, 2015, Andrew Brannan, a 66-year-old Vietnam veteran was executed in Georgia for killing police officer Kyle Dinkheller in 1998 (Hoffman, 2015). At the time, Brannan had been living in a bunker on his mother's property without water or electricity and had stopped taking his medications. According to the Veterans Administration (VA), he was 100% disabled due to combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He also suffered from bipolar disorder, had lost two brothers to a military plane crash and suicide, and lost a father to cancer. Veterans groups, death penalty critics, and mental health advocates, all petitioned the Georgia Supreme Court for a stay of execution unsuccessfully. The veterans groups were particularly interested in preventing the death of yet another veteran who developed severe psychiatric problems while serving his or her country.
Trauma in general…
APA (American Psychiatric Association). (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Cook, J.M., Dinnen, S., Simiola, V., Bernardy, N., Rosenheck, R., & Hoff, R. (2014). Residential treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in the Department of Veterans Affairs: A national perspective on perceived effective ingredients. Traumatology, 20(1), 43-9.
Dursa, E.K., Reinhard, M.J., Barth, S.K., & Schneiderman, A.I. (2014). Prevalence of a positive screen for PTSD among OEF/OIF and OEF/OIF-era veterans in a large population-based cohort. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27, 542-549.
Ehring, T., Welboren, R., Morina, N., Wicherts, J.M., Freitag, J., & Emmelkamp, P.M. (2014). Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Clinical Psychology Review, 34(8), 645-57.
In recent years, mental illnesses have been the focus of considerable attention from medical professionals. These are conditions that can cause disruptions in individual's moods, feelings, thinking, daily functioning, and the ability to relate with other people and things. Mental illness is a condition of the brain which results in different symptoms, as well as affecting the day-to-day life of that person and the people around him or her in different ways. The mental illnesses include borderline personality disorder, post-traumatic stress, obsessive compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety to name a few. More than sixty million people in America, i.e. one out of four adults, are going through mental illnesses in a given year. One out of seventeen people experiences disorders such as bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia while one out of ten million children are going through emotional disorders and mental illnesses. Every person who…
Miles, J., Espiritu, R., Horen, N., Sebian, J., & Waetzig, E. (2007). A public health approach to children's mental health. Georgetown: Center for Child and Human Development.
(n.d.). Models of Human Service Delivery.
NAMI. (2013). Mental Illness: What you need to know. Virginia: National Alliance on Mental Illness.
NIMH. (n.d.). NIMH Plan of Research. Retrieved from www.nimh.nih.org: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/strategic-planning-reports/introduction.shtml
treatment modalities for conduct disordered adolescent males has primarily been focused on comorbidity. Adolescent males with conduct disorder typically receive individual and family therapy, but when overt behaviors are extreme, pharmacotherapy may supplant insight-based therapy. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and social skills training are complementary approaches to intervention. Using an experimental approach, this study examines the impact of combined intervention approaches on perceived and observed improvement in the expression of problem behavior and life change strategies of adolescent males with conduct disorder.
Adolescents, across the board, experience a range of emotions. Negative impacts of these emotions include struggling with acceptance, self-esteem, isolation, confusion, anxiety, and depression, which can also be a result of instability at home (earight, et al., 2001). In addition to these social effects, many adolescents experience a distorted perception of reality (earight, et al., 2001). On occasion, this distortion may cause them to make poor choices, which demonstrates…
Subjects were adolescent males previously diagnosed as having conduct disorder (CD) and new to the family therapy milieu. The subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. The treatment and control groups were as follows: (A) CBT in family therapy plus Social Skills Training (SST) plus a placebo (B) Administration of Fluoxetine; (C) CBT in family therapy plus Social Skills Training (SST) (Control Group). A total of 9 subjects were included in the study. All treatment took place in clinical settings and was configured to be individual or family therapy rather than peer-group treatment.
The unit of analysis is the behavioral and cognitive processing performance changes in individual subjects (patients). Changes in the expression of problem behavior are noted by clinicians. Self-perception scores of the changes in cognitive processing were recorded on the surveys and two CBT instruments. The level of measurement is ordinal as dictated by the scales used in the formal CBT tools, and on the Likert scale used for the structured surveys. The Cognitive Therapy Awareness Scale (CTAS) and the Cognitive Behavior Therapy Supervision Checklist (CBTSC) will be used to measure the effectiveness of the treatment groups (Sudak, et al., 2001; Sudak,
An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Psychological and Critical Incident Stress Debriefings
The world in which we live today is an ever-changing, precarious environment. Many individuals, for these very reasons, experience stressful, life-altering incidents much more often than in the past. These experiences, transmitted more rapidly than ever thanks to newly discovered technologies, can harm an individual greatly, especially if hidden from expert analysis, and can provoke long-lasting psychological, emotional and even physical damage to an individual. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), for instance, is an umbrella term given to those individuals who have experienced traumatic or stress-inducing incidents, be they from military experiences or simply from a death in the family through some traumatic means. PTSD has been diagnosed as a disorder only recently, however, and many of the treatments that have been suggested as a means through which to deal with PTSD are still being tested. The…
1. Foa, E. & Keane, T.M. & Friedman, M.J. & Cohen, J.A. (2008). Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. New York: The Guilford Press.
2. Davis, L.L. & Frazier, E.C. & Williford, R .B. & Newell, J.M. (2006). Long-Term Pharmacotherapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. CNS Drugs, 20(6). Pp. 465-476.
Treatment to Patients
The main objective of providing treatment to patients is to relieve symptoms along with decreasing the progression of the disease as well as the mortality or morbidity. However, in some cases, this objective is not fully achieved, especially in the case of the patients who are admitted to the ICU with some serious and almost always a terminal stage of the disease. For example, when old patients are admitted in the ICU, their immunity is extremely low and this is the perfect time for the opportunistic infections to make matters worse for these patients. There are many infections that are specifically associated with patients admitted in the hospitals. Pseudomonas Aurigeonosa is a micro-organism that is well documented to cause bacterial pneumonia and bacteremia in the patients who are terminally ill and are receiving treatment in the hospital setting. Since most of the patients in the ICU are…
Beekmann, SE;Diekema, DJ; Chapin, KC;Doern, GV (2003) Effects of rapid detection of bloodstream infections on length of hospitalization and hospital charges.J ClinMicrobiol, 41:3119-3125.
Boussekey, N, Leroy, O, Georges, H, Devos, P, d'Escrivan, T, Guery, B (2005).Diagnostic and prognostic values of admission procalcitonin levels in community-acquired pneumonia in an intensive care unit.Infection, 33:257-263.
Charles, PE, Dalle, F, Aho, S, Quenot, JP, Doise, JM, Aube, H, Olsson, NO, Blettery, B: Serum procalcitonin measurement contribution to the early diagnosis of candidemia in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med, 32:1577-1583.
Digiovine, B; Chenoweth, C; Watts, C; Higgins, M (1999)The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J. RespirCrit Care Med, 160:976-981.
Anxiety and depression are the most commonly witnessed psychiatric disorders in adolescence. The prevalence of both anxiety disorder and depression increase in the adolescence period and progresses to young adulthood. The final result of these developments is low self-esteem. General prevalence measures for depression stand between 2 to 4%. Recurrence rates are placed at 70% in a span of five years. Point prevalence rates for anxiety disorders stand at 20% and show stability across one's life. Furthermore, anxiety and depression highly co-occur. They also occur along with other psychiatric complications (Lee & Hankin, 2009).
Self-Esteem, Depression and Anxiety
The CBT (2006) center describes self-image as a circus mirror which remolds the shape and size of a person into one that departs from the way one really looks like. These are perceptions of how we see and think of ourselves, how we think others see us, the beliefs about ourselves, our…
Where the hypotheses were well-followed throughout the text, the conclusion ignores the relevance of these factors to the delay experienced by patients in seeking treatment. Instead of developing a correlation between the identified behavior and the subject matter, importance of creating awareness among the general public was the highly emphasized. Furthermore, the responsibility of nurses and government authorities in this regard, was also discussed.
The study itself had a rather limited scope. Selection of convenience sample along with a particular racial background and non-inclusion of patients who died within hours of reporting AMI acted as major drawbacks. Secondly, a selection of considerably small sample also raised questions on the reliability of the sample.
The evaluation of this research does not lead to a confident and reliable conclusion. The limited scope of the sample, controlled questionnaires, neglect of other factors and the comparative analysis instead of individual examination of…
Lesneski, Lisa. (2010). Factors Influencing Tretment Delay for Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction. Applied Nursing Research. 23, pg- 185-190.
Presbyopia is a disorder, where the lens of the eye loses its capacity to focus. This incapacity makes it hard to see items up close. Some scholars have suggested that presbyopia means "age of sight." Presbyopia is not similar to farsightedness because it involves the loss of accommodation and ability for the eye to correct to enhance clarity at various distances. In this context, the young eye requires to change its interval or shape to focus on close objects. The capability of the lens to change shape gives the lens elasticity, which when lost results to presbyopia. When people grow old, they tend to lose this elasticity, and this explains why the eye gradually loses its capacity to focus on close objects (ennett, 2008).
How Presbyopia Occurs
Presbyopia happens when the cornea and lens refract light so that the light appears behind the retina
People realize they have this condition…
Adnan, A.A. et al. (2013). Prevalence of refractive errors of the eye among adults in Iraq. Journal of natural sciences research, 3(4), pp. 117-124.
Bennett, M.Q. (2008). New thoughts on the correction of presbyopia drivers.Diving and hyperbaric medicine, 38(3), pp. 163-164.
Brahma, A., & McGhee, C.N. (2000).Surgical Correction of refractive errors (Review).J Royal
Soc Medicine, 93 (3):118-23
Diabetes and Drug Treatments
TYPE II DIABETES AND DUG TEATMENTS
Type I Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus type 1 result from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas. Subsequent shortage of insulin translates to increased urine and blood glucose. The developed world is associated with increasingly variant type I diabetes with a large cause of kidney failure and non-traumatic blindness. The link is based on an increased dementia and cognitive dysfunction risk through disease processes of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The complications are inclusive of sexual dysfunction, acanthosis nigricans, and frequent infections (Jones, et al., 2012).
Type II Diabetes
The classic diabetes symptoms include polyuria (frequent urination), increased thirst, increased hunger (polyphagia), and weight loss. Alternative symptoms commonly presented in the diagnosis include histories of blurred vision, fatigue, recurrent vaginal infections, peripheral neuropathy, and itchiness (Barnett, 2012). However, many people lack symptoms in the initial years and while…
Barnett, A. (2012). Type II Diabetes. New York: OUP Oxford.
Ezrin, C. & Kowalski, R. (2011). The Type 2 Diabetes Diet Book, Fourth Edition. McGraw Hill Professional
Jones, R. M. et al., (2012). New Therapeutic Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes: Small Molecule Approaches. New York: Royal Society of Chemistry
Pereira, M. A. (2013). Nutrition and Type II Diabetes: Etiology and Prevention. New York: CRC Press.
Parents of Obese Children and Charges of Child Abuse: What Is Our
esponse? Pediatric Ethics, Issues, & Commentary, 337-342.
This article provides a discussion on the problems related to childhood obesity and the potential redresses that could be ethically used to help mitigate the growing trend. Some healthcare professionals have also argued that obesity in children is sufficient grounds for some parents to be prosecuted for a form of child abuse in extreme cases. Yet, there are many social and cultural barriers that are present that can prevent parents from being able to understand proper diets or have access to nutritious foods. Some researchers have noted the irony of a country that allows removing obese children from their homes but that does not support healthier children through controlled advertising, legislating a living wage, or making healthy foods affordable (Lang, 2012).
The article notes that states have a mandate to protect…
Hopkins, K. D., & Elliot, L. (2010). How can primary care providers manage pediatric obesity in the real world? Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 278-288.
Lang, K. (2012). Parents of Obese Children and Charges Of Child Abuse: What Is Our Response? Pediatric Ethics, Issues, & Commentary, 337-342.
Savinon, C., Taylor, J., Canty-Mitchell, J., & Blood-Siegfried, J. (2012). Childhood obesity: Can electronic medical records customized with clinical practice guidelines improve screening and diagnosis? Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 463-471.
As cellular phone usage has increased the emergency response systems in rural areas has found itself being jammed with over use while the traditional wired trunk lines go unused. Unfortunately, balancing the cost of adding new wireless trunks line in order to meet the new demand has to be balanced against the cost of maintaining the old wired trunk lines. Due to the fact that cell phone coverage is not universally available in rural areas, traditional wired phone access is still needed so rural areas must still adequately meet the needs of both technologies, the old and the new. (Kurtis)
The new E-911 system is an enhanced version of the old 911 system. The advance of wireless technology has allowed the transmission of more information in a much more efficient manner. Under the E-911 system, the 911 operator can easily identify the telephone number of the person calling and any…
Chapman, S. a. (1998). Emergency Use of Cellular (mobile) telephones.
Federal Communications Commission. (2010). Wireless 911 Services. Washington D.C.: FCC.
Habib, I.M. (20007). Wireless technologies advances for emergency and rural communications. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing .
Kurtis, M. (2004). Deploying E-911 Phase II in Rural America. Business Source Complete .
Victorian literature was remarkably concerned with the idea of childhood, but to a large degree we must understand the Victorian concept of childhood and youth as being, in some way, a revisionary response to the early nineteenth century Romantic conception. Here we must, to a certain degree, accept Harold Bloom's thesis that Victorian poetry represents a revisionary response to the revolutionary aesthetic of Romanticism, and particularly that of ordsworth. The simplest way to summarize the ordsworthian child is to recall that well-known line from a short lyric (which would be appended as epigraph to later printings of ordsworth's "Ode: Intimations of Immortality, from Recollections of Early Childhood") -- "the child is father of the man." Here, self-definition in adulthood, and indeed the poetic vocation, are founded in the perceived imaginative freedom of childhood.
Thou little Child, yet glorious in the might
Of heaven-born freedom on thy being's height,
Arnold, Matthew. "The Forsaken Merman." Web. Accessed 15 April 2012 at: http://www.bartleby.com/101/747.html
Arnold, Matthew. "William Wordsworth." In Steeves, H.R. (ed.) Selected Poems of William Wordsworth, with Matthew Arnold's Essay on Wordsworth. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1921. Print.
Arnold, Matthew. "Youth's Agitations." Web. Accessed 15 April 2012 at: http://www.readbookonline.net/readOnLine/12118/
Bloom, Harold. "Introduction." In Bloom, Harold (ed.). Bloom's Major Poets: A.E. Housman. New York: Chelsea House, 2003. Print.
Homeless Mental Health
Mental health is an issue that is deemed to be very under-treated and very under-diagnosed within the United States. Beyond that, there are populations that are much more at risk than others. A good example would be the prison population where drug use and mental health issues are both rampant. However, there is another group that is highly stricken and very vexing and difficult to treat and that would be the homeless. Indeed, many people that are homeless are in that position due to mental health issues. Mental health is often not the only issue involved as comorbidity can exist with substance abuse. However, mental health will be the focus of this report. Facets of the homeless with mental health that will be focused upon within this report will include issues like diversity, ethics, values, social justice, diagnosing of patients, initiation/termination of care, aftercare, and the broader…
Belcher, J. R. (1988). Rights vs. Needs of Homeless Mentally Ill Persons. Social Work, 33(5), 398.
Chambers, C., Chiu, S., Scott, A., Tolomiczenko, G., Redelmeier, D., Levinson, W., & Hwang,
S. (2014). Factors Associated with Poor Mental Health Status Among Homeless Women
With and Without Dependent Children. Community Mental Health Journal, 50(5), 553-
Experiential Family Therapy (EFT) is the central place of humanistic therapies and psychology. This therapy includes the works of Fritz Perls, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow, along with the communication theories and family systems of Paul Watzlavick, Don Jackson, and Gregory ateson. It is called a meeting place for all the theorists because clearly the experiential family therapy includes multiple systems used for therapy. The authors ecvar & evcar (2006) like to call these 'experimental approaches to family therapy' instead of 'experimental models'. Virginia Satir, one of the main predecessors of the experiential approach, is also considered to be part of communication approaches as well as experiential (Lester, 2009).
The family tree of the family system has three main parts: (1) the Communications approach of Virginia Satir; (2) the Gestalt experiential approach of Walter Kempler; and (3) the Symbolic experiential approach of Carl Whitaker (ecvar & ecvar, 2006). However, the…
Becvar, D.S. & Becvar, R.J. (2006). Family therapy: A systemic integration. Boston, MA: Pearson
Broderick, P., & Weston, C. (2009). Family Therapy with a Depressed Adolescent. NCBI, 32-37. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2719446/
Greenburg, L.S., Watson, J.C., & Lietaer, G. (1998). Handbook of experiential psychotherapy. New York: Guilford
Israelstam, K. (1988). Contrasting four major family therapy paradigms: implications for family therapy training. Journal of Family Therapy, 179-196.
Diabetes is regarded as one of the most problematic and major health concerns that has become prevalent across the globe. According to Kam et al. (2016), in 2012, diabetes resulted in the deaths of 1.5 million people throughout the world. Given its prevalence and devastating impacts, effective prevention and management of diabetes has become a major issue, especially among high-risk individuals/populations. Based on existing findings in the public health sector, dietary and lifestyle changes have been identified as the most suitable prevention and management techniques of diabetes. This study focuses on examining whether an intervention consisting of a traditional, organic, and all-natural diet of locally grown/produced foods plus exercise is more effective in addressing the body's issues in creating or absorbing insulin than insulin injections. In this regard, the researcher has identified relevant studies that will be synthesized based on their relevance, rigor, and level of evidence in…
Aguiar et al. (2014, January 15). Efficacy of Interventions that include Diet, Aerobic and Resistance Training Components for Type 2 Diabetes Prevention: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11(2), 1-10.
Ajala O., English, P., & Pinkney, J. (2013). Systemic Review and Meta-analysis of Different Dietary Approaches to the Management of Type 2 Diabetes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97(3), 505-516.
Cunningham-Myrie, C., Theall, K., Yonger, N., et al. (2015). Associations Between Neighborhood Effects and Physical Activity, Obesity, and Diabetes. The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey, 2008. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(9), 970-978.
Kam et al. (2016, September 27). Dietary Interventions of Type 2 Diabetes: How Millet Comes to Help. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7(1454), 1-14.
Functional Assessment eport
Summarization of Case
Luther, 80 years of age, was admitted to a nursing hospital due to Alzheimer's disease complications. As a farmer, Luther spent most of his life moving freely unlike what he was experiencing in the nursing home. However, he had to adapt to the new life. Despite his impairment memory problem, Luther was psychically fit as he managed to walk around the nursing premises. Later, he started experienced a problem in that he walked alone. For safety reasons, he was not allowed to go outside alone. Despite the warnings, he managed to walk go outside alone, even during cold periods without a coat. Each time he went out, the nursing staff had to bring him back. The architecture of the nursing home depicts one main door at the station, another one near the business office, and three fire doors at the sides and back of…
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (second Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. ISBN: 9780131421134.
Lu, L. & Bludau, J. (2011). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: ABC-CLIO
Miltenberger, R. G. (2015). Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures (Sixth Ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. ISBN: 9781305109391.
Solution-Focused Brief Therapy on Mothers with a Disabled Child
This research paper will focus on the ability of the author to effectively provide therapy services to individuals and adopt an enabling role, coaching the client in exploring his/her own way of solving the problems experienced, thereby using his own competence to the greatest extent possible. By using the Solution Focused Therapy approach and the author's own views on letting the client become the expert, promoting self-esteem, and most importantly creating change through various techniques and interventions, it will allow client to see through a new 'lens' of self.
This researcher selects Janet as a case study. She is 25 years old and lives in with her boyfriend with whom she has two son. The older son, James, has a disability in his clef foot. This incurable disability, her husband's abusive attitude and the natural inner struggles of a growing woman…
Bryman, A. (n.d.) Triangulation. Reference World. Retrieved on November 29, 2015 from http://www.referenceworld.com/sage/socialscience/triangulation.pdf
Cepeda, L. M. and Davenport, D. S. (2006). Person-centered therapy and solution-focused brief therapy: an integration of present and future awareness. Vol. 43 # 1,Psychotherapy: Pubmed.
Retrieved on November 26, 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22121955/
Darlaston-Jones, D. (2007). Making connections: the relationship between epistemology and research methods. Vol 19 # 1, The Australian Community Psychology: University of Notre
Dr. Asma Barlas. "Does the Qur'an Support Gender Equality? Or, Do I have the autonomy to answer this question?"
Questions about issues raised by the author of the dossier
The author gives a talk about whether the Qur'an supports gender equality and before the speaker delves in the matter, she decides to look at the pre-structure of understanding because it reflects on things that people encounter. The speaker reiterates why the poster includes the picture of a veiled woman that shows that the burqa has been used to define the lives of Muslim women. Therefore, the underlying question seeks to resolve whether Orientalism is supported. Her arguments are in line with the words of the immigration minister who asserted that they want to see the individual they are communicating with: she asserted the veiled woman's face should be her face on the poster. From this poster, they are showing that…
Barlas, A. (2006). Does the Qur'an Support Gender Equality? Or, Do I Have the Autonomy to Answer this Question? Keynote Address. Workshop on Islam and Autonomy at the University of Groningen.
Barlas, A. (2005). Globalizing Equality: Muslim Women, Theology, and Feminisms in on Shifting Ground, Ed. Fera Simone. New York: Feminist Press.
Crouch, G. (2006). Dutch Consider Banning Burqas In Public. NYT.
Hidayatullah, A. A. (2014). Feminist Edges of The Qur'an. New York: Oxford University Press.
Psychology and Treatment for Depression
There are many different views on depression, what causes it, and how it should be treated. The two most common options for depression treatment are medication and therapy (Lambert, 2006). These have been used for some time, mostly because they seem to have the highest rates of success. However, some people think that coupling them is the best choice while others feel that only one at a time is what is going to work. There are two points-of-view: that therapy works to "fix" depression, and that medication is what is required to correct depression problems in the population. Both of these are valid points-of-view, and both have their merits. However, whether only one is correct, one has more merit than the other, or a different (or combined) approach should be taken still has to be addressed in order to ensure that depression treatments are…
Lambert, K.G. (2006). Rising rates of depression in today's society: Consideration of the roles of effort-based rewards and enhanced resilience in day-to-day functioning. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 30(4): 497 -- 510.
Sharp, L.K., & Lipsky, M.S. (2002). Screening for depression across the lifespan: a review of measures for use in primary care settings. American Family Physician, 66(6): 1001 -- 1008.
Walker, S. (1997). A Dose of Sanity: Mind, Medicine, and Misdiagnosis. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
U.S. TAX in the TEATMENT
US Tax Treatment
Items of income considered earned from within the U.S.
Earned income can be defined as the payment for the performed personal services, for example wages, professional fees or salaries. The list below provides the categories of the types of income tax. It is essential to appreciate the fact that deductions made on the income are determined by the category in which the income falls. The column with heading variable income consists of income in the category of either unearned or earned income or even both (Fraser, 2009).
Types of income
Variable income: they include rents, royalties, and business profits
Unearned income: such incomes include annuities, pensions, social security benefits, Alimony, gambling winnings, capital gains, and interest dividends.
Earned income: tips, professional fees, bonuses, commissions, wages and salaries
Besides the types mentioned which always occur in the form of cash, other taxable sources…
Bater, P. (2007). The tax treatment of NGOs: Legal, fiscal and ethical standards for promoting NGOs and their activities. The Hague [u.a.: Kluwer Law Internat.
Dilworth, R.H. (2009). U.S. tax treatment of financial transactions involving foreign currency -- 1990. Arlington, VA: Tax Analysts.
Fraser M. (2009). Canada-U.S. Tax treaty: A practical interpretation. Toronto: CCH Canadian Limited.
Hammer, D.L., Shartsis Friese LLP., & American Bar Association. (2005). U.S. regulation of hedge funds. Chicago, Ill: American Bar Association Section of Business Law.
Situational approach to leadership issues and challenges is one of the most commonly recognized approaches to leadership. This approach was developed in 1969 by Hersey and Blanchard and based on concepts from 3D management style theory by eddin in 1967 (Northouse, 2010, p.89). As the name suggests, situational leadership emphasizes on leadership in situations based on the fact different conditions require different types of leadership. This implies that an effective leader needs to be an individual that adapt his/her leadership style and skills to the demands of various situations. This approach to leadership emphasizes that leadership consists of a directive and supportive dimension, and that each dimension has to be applied effectively in a particular situation. Notably, when addressing a leadership situation through this approach, the process usually involves applying development level and style in the particular issue or situation.
Example of Leadership Situation:
An example of a…
Northouse, P.G. (2010). Situational Approach. In Leadership theory and practice (5th ed., chap
5, pp.89-109). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Wine, S. (2013, November 6). Leadership Vacuum? Ex-players Wonder Why No Players
Intervened in Dolphins Case. The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2014, from http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2013/11/06/leadership-vacuum-ex-pla_n_4227157.html
Structural family approach
Major contributors of Structural family approach
Structural family approach mainly operates by considering problems within the family structure, it emphasizes on dealing with the individual symptom through examination of the whole family interaction pattern. Furthermore, this theory does not insist on the relation between family interactions and pathology but, it associates the symptoms with family's interaction. Structural family theory has three operating areas, these include; the family, the problem itself and the change process. First stage entails, the therapist knowing the kind of family he/she is dealing with, the composition and hierarchy of the family. he/she tries to fit in the family's environment so as to capture the real picture. In the second stage, the therapist identifies is specifically stopping the family from living harmoniously. he/she also finds out the function and position of the problem behavior Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2008()
History of Structural family…
Bobrow, E., & Ray, W.A. (2004). Strategic Family Therapy in the Trenches. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 23(4), 28-38. doi: 10.1521/jsyt.220.127.116.11840
D'Angelo, S.L. (1995). The Milan approach to therapy revisited. PsycCRITIQUES, 40(4), 352-352. doi: 10.1037/003578
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family Therapy: An Overview: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Rosen, K.H. (2003). Strategic family therapy. In L.L. Hecker & J.L. Wetchler (Eds.), An introduction to marriage and family therapy. (pp. 95-121). Binghamton, NY U.S.: Haworth Clinical Practice Press.
SHAMANIC APPOACHES vs. ALTEED STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Compare and contrast Eastern and shamanic approaches to altering consciousness
This paper focuses on the similarities and differences between eastern Shamanic practices and altered states of consciousness (ASC), and the significance of these practices in the today's urban society. Prior to going deep into the discussion, it is significance to define the terms; Shamanic and altered states of consciousness. As asserted by Oesterreich (1935:295), Shamanic illustrates what the Shamans do, while as Shamanic practices entails an intricate of belief, rituals and traditions huddled around the Shaman practices.
Some of the authors, for instance, Ashvind, (1999) relate Shaman to Siberian, Eurasian or sub-Arctic practitioners, while others extend the term Shaman to other practitioners, for example, any practitioner that interrelates with the spirit world through altered states of consciousness (ASC). Others extend the definition and define Shamans as medicine men or witch doctors. In essence,…
Ashvind N. (1999). Shamans, Healing, and Mental Health, Journal of Child and Family
Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1, pp. 131-134
Block, N. (1995). On confusion about a function of consciousness. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 18, 227 -- 247.
Block, N. (2001). Paradox and cross-purposes of recent work on consciousness. Cognition, 79,197 -- 219.
Those who suffer from it become red in the face, with their skin extremely agitated. Moreover, "they may have flushing of the face, when they are hot, drink alcohol or hot drinks, or eat spicy foods. This flushing causes the face to appear red" (AZ Network, 2013). Blood vessels under the skin often become visible along with the flush of redness experienced by rosacea sufferers. These symptoms tend to get worse with time, with multiple cyclical outbreaks.
A number of treatments exist to try to counter act the effects of rosacea. Here, the research suggests that "you can help keep rosacea under control by keeping a record of things that cause it to flare up. Try to avoid or limit these triggers as much as you can" (AZ Network, 2013). Understanding what triggers a flare up can be crucial in helping to avoid them. Yet, medical treatments also prove effective,…
AZ Network. (2013). Rosacea: Facial redness. News Medical Net. Web. http://www.news-medical.net/health/Rosacea-Facial-Redness.aspx
Clinical Reference Systems. (2004). Rosacea. Columbia University. Web. http://www.cumc.columbia.edu/student/health/pdf/R-S/Rosacea.pdf
Cole, Gary W. & Stoppler, Melissa Conrad. (2012). Rosacea. EMedicine Health. Web. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/rosacea/article_em.htm
MacKenzie, Debora. (2012). Rosacea mat be caused by mite feces in your pores. New Scientist. Web. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn22227-rosacea-may-be-caused-by-mite-faeces-in-your-pores.htmlt
Ethical Treatment of Prisoners
The treatment of a society's prisoners has been an issue of debate for centuries. The emotions surrounding such treatment are considerable and reaching a consensus on the best and fairest method is often difficult. Torture is considered illegal in most civilized societies and, therefore, in order to maintain an acceptable level of treatment an alternative and more humane approach must be established (Filter, 2000).
There presently exist two leading schools of moral thought: utilitarianism and deontology (Gibbs, 1977). Despite what has been characterized as great differences between the two schools they seem to agree on most substantive issues.
Utilitarianism argues that the right action is the one, out those available, that maximizes one's total happiness. In the prisoner treatment situation this results in considering the emotional pain, physical discomfort, expense, and time involved in housing the prisoner against the advantages garnered by society such as retribution,…
Bentham, J. (1988). Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.
Filter, J.A. (2000). Prisoner's Rights: The Supreme Court and Evolving Standards of Decency. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Gibbs, J. (1977). Social control deterrence and perspectives of social order. Social Forces, 408-423.
Kant, I. (2010). Critique of Practical Reason. Seattle: CreateSpace.
The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.
One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…
Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.
Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
Culturally Competent Trauma Care
Allen, B., Wilson, K., & Armstrong, N. (2014). Changing clinicians' beliefs about treatment for children experiencing trauma: the impact of intensive training in evidence-based, trauma-focused treatment. Psychological Trauma: Theory, esearch, Practice, and Policy, 6(4), 384-389.
Despite a recent push towards more structured treatment protocols, many clinicians have taken an unstructured approach to the treatment of trauma in children, based upon a belief that children may be unable to verbalize or otherwise express their feelings about a trauma. This study focuses on whether training can change a clinician's approach in practice and suggests that intensive training can influence clinicians in their choice of therapeutic approach and guide them to use evidence-based therapies (EBT) that are highly structured. This research fails to discuss the impact that cultural upbringing may have on the willingness or ability of children to discuss trauma early in the treatment process. As a result,…
Allen, B., Wilson, K., & Armstrong, N. (2014). Changing clinicians' beliefs about treatment for children experiencing trauma: the impact of intensive training in evidence-based, trauma-focused treatment. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(4), 384-389.
Bernal, G., Jimenez-Chafey, M. & Domenech Rodriguez, M. (2009). Cultural adaptations of treatments: a resource for considering culture in evidence-based practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(4), 361-368.
Brady, K. & Back, S. (2012). Childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcohol dependence. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 34(4), 408-413.
Couineau, A. & Forbes, D. (2011). Using predictive models of behavior change to promote evidence-based treatment for PTSD. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 3(3), 266-275.
Self-management is the goal of the client and the therapist works with the client to aid him or her in recognizing self-defeating thoughts or actions that will give negative results, and developing positive thoughts that will have positive results (Lazarus, 1997).
The first tenet that is examined is the one Lazarus calls "Positive Thinking."
Positive cognition is focusing on personal skills and strengths, on what is good in the world, believing in one's self and belief in one's ability to succeed. When this is the dominating thought, the client then acts in ways that bring him or her closer to success. Positive thoughts and images about one's abilities dramatically increase one's chances of succeeding. Believing that success is possible is a prerequisite for most achievements.
Thinking positively does not mean being unrealistically optimistic. Nor does it mean one is without limits, that others will only help and never hinder, or…
Christian Counselors. Wikipedia. Retrieved October 8, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Counselors .
Cox, R.H., Cox, B.E. And Hoffman L. (Eds) (2004) Spirituality and Psychological Health, Colorado Springs, Colorado School of Professional Psychology Press
Egan, K. (1998) the Skilled Helper. A problem-management approach to helping. 6e, Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole.
Ellis, a. (1975). A Guide to Rational Living. Los Angeles: Wilshire Book Company
65). By controlling these two aspects of a scientific experiment, researchers are able to establish the specific causality of the phenomenon being studied. In this regard, Kahle and iley note that, "Traditionally, causality is established through strict control and randomization over all other factors while experimentally manipulating the variable or variables in question" (2004, p. 165). Finally, Gliner and Morgan (2000) report that the internal validity (discussed further below) and the ability to infer causality based on the results of a study can be enhanced through the random assignment of the participants to intervention vs. control groups.
What is meant by internal validity and external validity in leadership research and discuss three factors within each (internal and external) validity factor?
Internal validity. According to Chandler and Lyon, generally speaking, "Validity refers to the establishment of evidence that the measurement is actually measuring the intended construct. Measures can be reliable…
About VA. (2011). Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.va.gov / landing2_about.htm.
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (2002). Developing potential across a full range of leadership:
Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
This has been the traditionally used mode of treatment for non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas, but the fact remains that there have not been many clinical trials conducted that would reveal the benefits of CHOP in comparison to various other chemotherapy options for the treatment of CLL, which is a very slowly growing form of cancer and is therefore conversely very difficult to treat and cure because of the fact that all the traditional methods of treatment, whether chemotherapy or radiation, are meant to quickly and rapidly destroy the fast growing cancerous cells. (Cancer Treatment and Prevention)
Curing a patient with the CLL or SLL forms of cancer is considered to be highly unusual, but it is true that these patients will b able to lead productive lives even after 6 to 10 years after the cancer have been diagnosed for them. A patient when he is making the choice of treatment for…
Bischof, Delaloye a. (2003) "The role of nuclear medicine in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)" Leuk Lymphoma. Volume: 44 Suppl 4; pp: S29-36
Cancer Treatment and Prevention" Retrieved at http://patient.cancerconsultants.com/treatment.aspx?id=782Accessed on 26 December, 2004
CHOP - complementary considerations. Lymphoma-tion" (2 October, 2004) Retrieved at http://www.lymphomation.org/chemo-CHOP.htm . Accessed on 26 December, 2004
CHOP Patient Information Sheet" Newcastle General Hospital, Northern Center for Cancer treatment. (June, 2005) Retrieved at http://www.newcastle-hospitals.org.uk/v2/PDF/patientleaflets/NCCT/Standard/CHOP.PDFAccessed on 26 December, 2004
Therefore the cognitive performance wasn't improved significantly by the use of DHEA though in the 3 months period only a fleeting effect might have been observed (Wolkowitz et al., 2003, p.1073.)
Vitamin is often prescribed by doctors for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. A large study which was funded by the federal government showed that the reduced ability to do daily activities is delayed slightly by the intake of vitamin E The useful aspects of vitamin E can be attributed to its antioxidant nature which helps in the protection of nerve cells from chemical deterioration. The physician supervision is necessary when someone takes vitamin E as an Alzheimer treatment. There were high doses of vitamin E used in the federal study and vitamin E when used with other medications can interact negatively including the ones used for preventing the clotting of the blood (Khachaturian, 1992, P.73).
Wolkowitz, O., Kramer, J., Reus, V., Costa, M., Yaffe, K., Walton, P., et al. (2003). DHEA
treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurology, 60(7): 1071-1076. Retrieved April 1, 2010, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12682308
Khachaturian, Z. (1992). Alzheimer's disease: new treatment strategies. New York: Wiley
Different routes of cocaine administration can produce different adverse effects. egularly snorting cocaine, for example, can lead to loss of sense of smell, nosebleeds, problems with swallowing, hoarseness, and an overall irritation of the nasal septum, which can lead to a chronically inflamed, runny nose. Ingested cocaine can cause severe bowel gangrene, due to reduced blood flow. Persons who inject cocaine have puncture marks and tracks, most commonly in their forearms. Intravenous cocaine users may also experience an allergic reaction, either to the drug, or to some additive in street cocaine, which can result, in severe cases, in death. Because cocaine has a tendency to decrease food intake, many chronic cocaine users lose their appetites and can experience significant weight loss and malnourishment. The human liver combines cocaine and alcohol and manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, which intensifies cocaine's euphoric effects 3. The mixture of cocaine and alcohol is the…
1. Quaglio G, Lugoboni F, Pajusco B, Fornasiero a, Mezzelani P, Lechi a. [Clinical manifestations of cocaine abuse]. Ann Ital Med Int. Oct-Dec 2004;19(4):291-301; quiz 302-293.
2. White SM, Lambe CJ. The pathophysiology of cocaine abuse. J Clin Forensic Med. Mar 2003;10(1):27-39.
3. Velasquez EM, Anand RC, Newman WP, 3rd, Richard SS, Glancy DL. Cardiovascular complications associated with cocaine use. J La State Med Soc. Nov-Dec 2004;156(6):302-310; quiz 311.
4. Sofuoglu M, Kosten TR. Novel approaches to the treatment of cocaine addiction. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(1):13-25.
Sunil's willingness to return indicates that this approach was effective. As a therapist, I would not judge Sunil and would allow him to direct the initial phases of the process. ather than immediately delving into the loss he had experienced after his wife's demise, for example, I would allow Sunil to talk about what might seem like rather petty grievances attached to his immediate living situation. Sometimes talking about external, mundane circumstances are a conduit to exploring to deeper issues; moreover, it is not my place as a therapist to judge what is 'most significant' or insignificant.
ESSAY 4: Bronfenbrenner's (1976, 1988) description
On the microsystem of Sunil's immediate psychological conflict, through talk therapy and perhaps the use in the future of some antidepressants (depending on Sunil's feelings about the use of medication), Sunil's mood disorder may be treated. The mesosystem of dealing with family conflicts may require equipping Sunil…
Brief explanation of Axis V diagnosis. Retrieved:
Sunil: Episode 1. (2010). In Treatment.
A study recently published in Global Pediatric Health by van Haselen et al. (2016) investigated the use of a homeopathic remedy as an add on therapy for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in paediatrics. This paper provides an overview of that research, including his methodology and results, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the paper.
The aim of the research was to determine whether or not the addition of a homeopathic remedy; Influid, would improve the outcome for paediatrics presenting with upper respiratory tract infections if added to an existing treatment of paracetamol, known as acetaminophen in the United States (van Haselen et al., 2016). The researchers note that homeopathy is increasing the accepted in Germany, including use the treatment of colds and flu, or flulike infections. The aim is to assess a homeopathic remedy which is specifically designed for the treatment of flulike infections…
e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.
According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites…
Becker, M.G., Chew, G.L., Correa, J.C., Hoepner, L.A., Jusino, C.M., Kinney, P.L., Miller, R.L., & Perzanowski, M.S. (2003). Distribution and determinants of mouse allergen exposure in low-income New York City apartments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1348.
Boone, J.S., & Tyler, J.W. (2001). Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1109.
Chang, Y., Cohen, J.H., Hennon, D.L., LaPorte, R.E., & McMahon, J.E. (1997). Dog bite incidence in the City of Pittsburgh: A capture-recapture approach. American Journal of Public Health, 87(10), 1703-5.
Duke, M.L., & Swain, J.L. (2001). Recommendations for research on ethics in public policy from a public administration perspective: Barking dogs and more. International Journal of Public Administration, 24(1), 125.
There are several barriers to treatment that someone with schizophrenia might encounter. Those barriers can be loosely classified as personal, institutional, and social, although these three areas often intersect. Stigmas and a lack of understanding of the disease remain key barriers to treatment.
Schizophrenia is a misunderstood condition, which is one of the reasons why there may be social impediments to a person seeking treatment. Although knowledge has increased exponentially over the past few decades, the disease is still not completely understood. It is chronic, and potentially long lasting, which presents its own set of challenges to treatment (Durand & Barlow, 2013, p. 5). Treatments that have been used in the past, such as electronic stimulation, are now considered primitive and outmoded (Durand & Barlow, 2013, p. 12). There is less than a fifty percent chance that the schizophrenia is genetic, meaning that early detection is not always…
The production and sale of alcoholic beverages contribute a small share in national product in the United States and in other advanced economies. However, the damaging effects of alcohol consumption on health and safety constitute a very significant economic burden, reducing our overall standard of living. Chronic heavy drinking causes organ damage that result in disability and early death. Other possible consequences include cognitive impairment, addiction, reduced productivity, neglect of family responsibilities, and birth defects. The acute effects of alcohol abuse are still more costly: traumatic injury and property damage from accidents, criminal victimization, domestic violence, unwanted sexual encounters and venereal diseases, and hangover. In sum, alcohol is not just another commodity. Around the world, historically and currently, public concern about the consequences of excess alcohol consumption for individual health and community well-being has been incorporated in cultural norms, which are often reinforced by private rules and government…
B.Tucker, I. Survey of economics. In I.B.Tucker.
Frank J.Chaloupka, M.G. The Effects of price on Alcohal Consumption and Alcohal Related problems.
Frank J.Chaloupka, p. G. (n.d.). National institute on Alcohal Abuse and Alcohalism. Retrieved from The Effects of Price on Alcohal Consumption and Alcohal related problems: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh26-1/22-34.htm
J.Moore, P.J. (n.d.). Health Affairs. Retrieved from The Economics of Alcohal Abuse And Alcohal Control Policies: http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/21/2/120.long
Self-harm: Classification and treatment issues in adolescents
Despite the frequent reportage on adolescent self-harm in the popular media, achieving a consensus on how to treat this difficult problem continues to vex the psychiatric community. One of the first problems is how to define deliberative self-harm (DSH). Some therapists contend that DSH is best classified as an anxiety disorder, and self-harm is a way for the adolescent to self-medicate feelings of panic and a sense of a lack of control about the future. The adolescent retaliates against the world by inflicting harm upon the self rather than dealing with unpleasant thoughts. Others view it as a subset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), given the repetitive and compulsive nature of the acts. A contrary view of the behavior is that it is less as a condition in and of itself and more of a symptom of a more severe and pervasive…