Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow Treatment Approach for Out Patient Therapy Essay

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Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow Treatment Approach for Outpatient Therapy

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow treatment approach for out-patient therapy.

The study of human psychology is important in understanding personality of individuals. One can study personality of individuals, but there is no scientific method of studying personality of the whole humanity. Human are different from person to person and vey unique to some degree. This paper prompts a thesis, and it digs into the psychology of humans. It dwells on the person-Centered approach by Carl Rogers and on the Humanistic Approach by Abraham Maslow.

Both Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow have an influence on today's outpatient therapy. Both scholars have had an influence on the humanistic psychology and personal centered approach to therapy. Although humanistic psychology gained its popularity in the mid 20th century, both scholars have further entrenched theories and practices that make it important in today's outpatient therapy. Maslow and Rogers have made this perspective popular. The proponents of this approach emphasize that humans have the capacity of growth and choice. The most prominent assumption to the humanistic approach is the ability of humans to have free will (Hansen, 2012). They do not react to the environment in a certain way or behave in a specific way. Proponents of humanistic approach state the subject matter of what human experience in their daily lives while also dwell on the reasons why they experience such things.

Psychologists who agitate for humanistic approach observe human behavior not only in the eyes of the person observing, but to the eyes of the person doing. They believe that a person's behavior is connected to their self-image and inner feelings. Unlike the behaviorists, who view behavior as a product of the environment, humanistic psychologists not only view human behavior as a product of the environment. Humanistic psychologist rather view, while study human understandings, meanings and experiences as the pointer of growth (Kazantzis, Reinecke, Freeman, 2009). These scholars consider all aspects shared by humans such as love, caring, self-worth, and grief.

Humanistic psychologists, on the other hand, study how humans are influenced by personal meanings and self-perceptions relating to their experiences. One needs to note that humanistic psychologists are not motivated by instinct, past experiences or external drives. The psychologists that humans respond to personal needs, conscious choices and current events or experiences consider it. These psychologists believe that every individual has the ability to make an important contribution to the society and be a person of good character. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are perhaps the leading proponents of the humanistic approach. The importance of Carl Rogers was the development of the theory while Abraham Maslow formulated the pyramid of needs.

Abraham Maslow pyramid of needs relates to the fulfillment of individual needs in a correct order. Accomplishment of all the needs of an individual would eventually lead to self-actualization. According to Maslow, after the fulfillment of the psychological needs that an individual may proceed with the fulfillment of higher needs. Most psychological studies by other scholars borders on the study of mentally ill patients, which is not the case for Abraham Maslow. From studying humans through his procedures, Maslow came to realize that all humans have common characteristics in the case of successful individuals (Wong, 2011). In his study, he came to realize that successful individuals have the characteristics of openness, self-acceptance, and had respect for others.

Carl Rogers had some points to add on Maslow's hierarchy of needs. According to Rogers, in order for an individual to perform fully the environment had a role to play. According to him, for full development of an individual there should be empathy, healthy personalities, and relationships that would enable nourishment of relationships. Psychologists of the humanistic approach focus on the development of an individual. This approach had strong followings over the last decades while today's societies lay emphasis on contribution and conforming to political rights. Humanistic approach states that successful individuals have a better chance to contributing to society. Maslow and Rogers, argue that achievement of happiness depends upon investigating and pursuing personal desires and interests.

Humanistic Approach according to Carl Rogers

Carl Rogers has been instrumental in the understanding of individuals and their potential. He argues that an individual has the desire for self-development and achievement. Contribution of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers had an influence on the study of psychology. Carl Rogers believes that people get restriction from their own perceptions about the environment, which may influence their potential. However, an individual can overcome this perception and imitate steps towards growth. To add to this, Rogers believed that growth of an individual is more progressive in situations where the person is aware of all changes and have acceptance on their self (Clark, 2010).

Rogers, moreover, emphasized on an individual's positive development if they get a chance to have a positively influencing environment. He also believed that social influences had an influence on the development. In his argument, he states that humans will display cooperation and compassion provided they have a supportive environment. Thus, Rogers believed that environment had an influence on the development of an individual. Maslow, on the other hand, proposes human motivation based on a hierarchy of needs the lowest need are psychological needs and further includes esteem, belonging, and self-actualization.

Later contribution by Carl Rogers considered enhancing growth relationships that facilitate inner congruence and awareness. This congruence enhances motivation efforts of individuals towards set goals. He argues that personal awareness lead to growth of persons. For example, a person from a family that is encouraging and caring may see challenges as a motivator. However, Rogers's presumptions may be wrong since it is also true that situations may have detrimental consequences on the growth of individuals (Clark, 2010). Rogers view is in contrast to Abraham Maslow's ideology since it considers detrimental conditions as situations for growth. A study conducted on the cognitive abilities of humans is relevant in ascertaining whether growth occurs.

Theoretic Perspective of Rogers Humanistic concept

The humanistic perspective of Rogers's concept encompasses two theories person- centered theory and self- determination theory. The Person Centered approach by Rogers has the assumption that humans have a tendency to growth, which takes an inherent view. Person- Centered approach focus on an individual's functioning and personality development. There is an inherent tendency that motivates individuals towards their goal. Every individual processes some characteristics that allow the realization of this inherent potential within. According to Rogers, the environment where individual resides plays an important role in the realization of people's potential (Kazantzis et. al., 2009). A human child is seen as having an inherent system of motivation and another system, which regulates the feedback.

Even the young are keen at fulfilling their intrinsic needs those that depend on prior learning activities and influence of external factors. For example, children have the ability of understanding themselves and the environment through play and other activities. The theoretical application of self-evaluation by Rogers is important in understanding an individual's self-actualization. This concept has some similarities to that of Abraham Maslow, which states that an individual would first satisfy their most fundamental needs before proceeding to other needs. In his works of later times, Rogers states that certain internal directions are important in the development of attitudes and behaviors of a fully functional individual. These value additions have a profound influence in the development of a person's individual social goals. Individuals improve their level of sensitivity to others while moving towards a greater level of openness and deep relationship to personal experiences.

However, Rogers identifies with the conditions that social environment is not always a crucial element to the development of a fully functional man. It is such situations that give rise to conditions of incongruence and states of internal confusion and tension. When the social environment is not conducive for personal growth, a person's self-worth is compromised. That is why a child would always want to satisfy imposed conditions externally through learning.

Humanistic Theory Abraham Maslow

Abraham is a father of Humanistic psychology. In relation to his theory, he considers that a person's experience is very crucial in learning human behavior. The scholar places much effort at defining creativity, choice, self-realization all qualities of a fully functioning individual. According to him, growth of human worth and potential are important for humans. Maslow rejects other theories especially from behaviorist theorists. According to him, Freud's theories view human nature on a negative perspective. Therefore, he values nobility, goodness, and reason as important qualities in a person. On the other hand, Freud considered the mentality ill individuals while Maslow dealt with the psychological conditions of healthy humans.

The first two theories of psychology are psychoanalysis and behaviorism, and Maslow's contribution is coined the "Third force." The third force phenomenon is based on the values of humanism and existence of humans. Maslow is famous for his theory of motivation considering a hierarchy of needs. According to him, the lowest level of needs include survival needs as well as physiological needs.…

Sources Used in Document:


Kazantzis, N., Reinecke, M.A., Freeman, A. (2009). Cognitive and Behavioral Theories in Clinical Practice. New York: Guiford press

Clark, A.J. (2010). Empathy: An integral model in the counseling process. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88(3), 348-356.

Wong, P.T. (2011). Reclaiming Positive Psychology A Meaning-Centered Approach to Sustainable Growth and Radical Empiricism. Journal of Humanistic Psychology,

51(4), 408-412.

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