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Truancy and Court Appearances
The Relationship between School Truancy Rates and Court Cases
Research, albeit it clinical, case study, empirical, descriptive, historical, or any combination thereof, must exhibit and command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment. The first step in the attainment of a desired research effort, one that convinces the reader as to the topic's efficacy and usefulness, is to develop a scientific approach toward the phenomenon under investigation. Second, a research investigator can only accomplish meaningful research if he or she is able to grasp the intimate and often difficult relations that exist between the research question and the research design and methodology of its solution. All research must be relational, structural, and architectural.
The desired research methodology selected for the current research investigation is descriptive in design wherein the overall relationship between school truancy rates and the number of court cases filed with the Harris County Juvenile Court…
Truancy and the Fault Associated With the Practice
Truancy is an issue that is as old as schools themselves. There used to be very severe punishments for cutting class, but those have been reduced or, in some cases, passed on to another party supposedly responsible besides the actual truant. The primary issue lately has been whether the truant is at fault, or if the reason can be traced to improper parenting techniques. No matter what position an individual takes, truancy is a real issue that costs billions of dollars a year around the world and results in students who have deeper educational problems as a result. It seems though that the majority of the blame has to be placed with the truant as a person is ultimately responsible for their own actions. This paper presents the case for the student as a cause of their own truancy by looking at…
Enea, V., & Dafinoiu, I. (2009). Motivational/solution-focused intervention for reducing truancy among adolescents. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 9(2), 185-205.
Gump, S.E. (2004). The truth behind truancy: Student rationales for cutting class. Educational Research Quarterly, 28(2), 50-68.
Reid, K. (2010). Finding strategic solutions to reduce truancy. Research in Education, 84(1), 1-17.
Reid, K. (2005). The causes views and traits of school absenteeism and truancy: An analytical review. Research in Education, 74, 59-75.
The independent variable will be the positive reinforcement as represented by the incentive program. The study will be examined by examining increases or decreases on the overall attendance rate of students before application of an incentive program and then after the incentive program has been in effect for at least 1/2 of the school year. It is expected increases or decreases in the truancy rates will be due to the independent variable.
ationale, elevance, and Significance
This study is being proposed as the result of a literature review that which suggested that methods to curtail truancy in the past relied on negative consequences as key motivators. However, this research wishes to take a more positive approach to motivating students to attend school. A new approach to the problem of truancy is needed. The ultimate goal of the study is to reduce the overall truancy rate among middle school students.
Aluede, O., Adeleke, F., & Omoike, D. et al. (2008). A Review of the Extent, Nature
Characteristics and Effects of Bullying Behaviour in Schools. Journal of Instructional
Psychology. 35 (2): 151. Questia Database.
Beekhoven, S. & Dekkers, H. (2005). Early school leaving in the lower vocational track:
This method for solving problems at times appears to be trial and error rather than a comprehensive evaluation of policies or systems (Timmer, 2004). This may be in part due to the fact that we are in a time when resources are limited and the economy is such that new programs often cannot be developed and existing programs are struggling to sustain financially. Therefore, the ability of policy makers to make changes to societal circumstances relies on incremental changes to expenditures and manpower in order to facilitate change (Jones, 1973). These shifts often need to occur within existing frameworks in order for the possibility of improvement to exist. For example, in order to implement policy change, resources may need to be shifted from one service area to another in a small but meaningful way.
Policy decisions can be tested and adjusted as they are implemented and executed in order to…
California Department of Education (2010). Truancy. Retrieved from:
Garry, E.M. (1996). Truancy: First step to a lifetime of problems. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 1-7.
Hanney, S.R., Gonzalez-Block, M.A., Buxton, M.J., & Kogan, M. (2003). The utilisation of health research in policy-making: Concepts, examples and methods of assessment. Health Research Policy and Systems, 1-28.
" (Ibid) the schools in Chicago are "being held up as a model for other parts of the nation for reducing detention among juvenile delinquents, without seeing recidivism rates or crime rates increase." (Wheeler, 2002)
Each of these articles looks at truancy in the state of Illinois, in the work of Johnston (2005) it is noted that the characteristics attributed to students who have poor attendance in school include the negative perception of school in the minds of these students and further the student's perception that the parents are either too lax in their discipline or either too controlling in their discipline. These students are noted by Johnston (2005) to feel interior to other students academically and to be students who have family conflict in their lives or perceive family conflicts in their lives. Finally, Johnston notes that these students tends to feel socially incompetent in the classroom. The…
Johnston, H. (2005) Student Attendance: Research and Strategies -the Principals' Partnership. Online available at http://www.principalspartnership.com/attendance2.pdf./
Wheeler, G. (2002) Truancy, Delinquency, Prison: Can Schools Break this Cycle? Illinois School Board Journal September/October 2002. Online available at http://www.iasb.com/files/j2091005.htm/
Truancy in Illinois
Truancy is the first and most reliable indicator of future delinquent behavior. Youth missing school regularly are at a great risk of getting involved in drugs, alcohol and crimes. The rising instances of truancy in schools around the country indicate that it has become a major problem and a huge concern since most of these kids are likely to test positive for drug and alcohol use or end up in jail for violence. A deputy assistant attorney in California who deals with truancy cases maintains that all gang members that he has seen have been truants first (1). There are many studies that clearly indicate a correlation between truancy and juvenile delinquency. A study conducted by University of Maryland found that 51% of female juvenile arrestees who were caught when they were skipping school were found using drugs (2). Similarly a report by the U.S. Department of Justice's Drug Use…
1. J. Kass, Curfew Mulled as Way to Stem Truancy, Crime, Los Angeles Times, March 31, 1996, sec. B, p. 1.
2. E.D. Wish, T.A. Gray, and E.B. Levine (1996), Recent Drug Use in Female Juvenile Detainees: Estimates from Interviews, Urinalysis, and Hair Analysis (College Park, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Research, University of Maryland), p. 4.
3. Drug Use Among San Diego Arrestees, SANDAG Info, Special Issue 1996 (San Diego, CA: San Diego Association of Governments).
At the same time, it is not clear that more stringent laws or punishments would do much to alter the situation, and short of creating a school system that is as closely guarded as a prison it will be all but impossible to keep all students at school all the time. Laws in this area are this an adequate mix of liberal policy and expedience.
It is not likely that a great deal of police time is spent on this type of status offending on its own; if truant adolescents are not engaging in activity that would draw attention to themselves (such as engaging in other illicit or illegal acts), it would be very difficult to determine probable cause to approach and arrest them. Some time is definitely taken up in dealing with these issues, however, and these hours could be spent in providing additional neighborhood patrols seeking out individuals…
Attendance is a critical factor in school performance. But while poor attendance and truancy have been problems for schools virtually ever since anti-truancy laws were passed, as noted by Tomal, Schilling, & Trybus (2013), finding reliable data can be a challenge to accurately evaluate the extent of the problem, the specific groups most severely impacted by the issue of truancy, and thus solving the problem has been vexing for many educators. This paper will offer a literature review of different previous researchers’ perceptions of the issue in different contexts, the data they used, and the solutions they derived as a result of this data.
According to Kenneth Reid’s 2003 article “The Search for Solutions to Truancy and Other Forms of School Absence,” truancy is a significant factor in dropping out for many students. Reid’s article specifically focuses on the United Kingdom where nearly 35% of students leave school without any…
Alternate Practice Therapy Experiment
The truant individual also tends to manifest through dangerous behaviors and travel a path of extremity with sad endings and wasted lives. This chapter will serve to review literature that speaks to and of the problem of the truancy that is so highlighted in schools at the top of the 21st century. Extremely a progressive problem that is firmly within the very root of belief, thought and process as the truant has through reactionary events and then formation of environment. Then there were those who made a difference in the very experientially gained concepts or expressions of purpose.
The students love her and called her their teacher with red hair. Mrs. lack, the teacher who loved to read and then you follow. Those teachers who are of the teaching essence as so to captivate the child's mind are often barred from governance within the educational practice…
Kitching, Ruth "Violence, Truancy and School Exclusion in France and Britain Chameleon Press ISBN 0 9540118 0-5 [Online] available at: "http:/ / www.francobritishcouncil.org.uk.
Baker, M. et al. (2001) "Truancy Reduction: Keeping Students in School" Online] available at: http://www.ncjrs.org/html / jjdp/jjbul2001_9_1/contents.html
"Truancy Reduction Program: Working to Improve School Attendance, Increase Academic Performance, and strengthen families" KCSOS School-Community Partnerships [Online] at: http://kcsos.kern.org/schcom/trp#
Best Practice Number Eight: Reducing Crime and Supporting Education through a Comprehensive Truancy Reduction Strategy: [Online] available at: http://kcsos.kern.org/schcom/trp
I have found no evidence to suggest that those punitive measures have any long-term impacts on school attendance levels" [C]
In both the authorities under study, the class teachers reported the absence of any induction or CPD training to help them during the transition phase. Thus, this research study has helped in identifying the problem areas and in pointing out the measures needed to redress the situation. In special schools, head teachers expressed a need for more support from LEA and to be included in meetings regarding important policy decisions. Research attests that intervention programs for mentally and physically challenged students are very promising. A recent study by Jackie Micklethwaite at the Swanwick Primary School in Derbyshire showed that INPP exercise programs had a remarkable positive influence on children "the children enjoyed the discipline of performing an exercise routine at the beginning of the morning. It appeared to both calm…
1) Ken Reid, 'The views of Head Teachers and Teachers on Attendance issues in Primary Schools', Swansea Institute of Higher Education
DfES, "Every Child Counts', Accessed Apr 21st 2007, available at http://www.dfes.gov.uk/consultations/downloadableDocs/EveryChildMattersNextSteps.pdf
Jane Bruccoleri, "Primary School Puts End to High Truancy," Accessed Apr 21st 2007, available at http://www.croydonguardian.co.uk/education/educationnews/display.var.1076255.0.primary_school_puts_end_to_high_truancy.php
Sally Goddard Blythe, "the INPP School Program," Accessed Apr 21st 2007, available at http://ngfl.northumberland.gov.uk/sla/CPD%20SLA%2006-07/Behaviour%20Support/INPP%20School%20Programme.htm
Hate and Violence
Perhaps one of the greatest challenges we face in the United States today is the need to reduce hate and violence in ourselves and our society. As a teacher in a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled with ways to teach children nonviolent approaches to conflict, and the importance of tolerance and respect for others. This paper will describe student responses to a movie program designed to teach core values of non-violence and tolerance, and discuss these findings in the larger context of the juvenile criminal justice system and society.
In my last eight years as a teacher at a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled to find meaningful ways to reach my students. Students are often highly resistant to both authority and advice from sources that they initiated a Friday afternoon movie program at the juvenile detention facility as a way to encourage nonviolence as a…
Monk, Richard C. 2000. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Crime and Criminology, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill/Dushkin.
QuoteGarden. Quotations about Books & Reading. 27 May 2004. http://www.quotegarden.com/books.html
Walker, Samuel. 1997. Sense and Nonsense About Crime and Drugs: A Policy Guide (Contemporary Issues in Crime and Justice Series). Wadsworth Publishing.
4. JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hativa, N. (19, Fall). Computer-based drill and practice in arithmetic: Widening the gap between high and low achieving students. American Education Research Journal 35(3) pp. 366-397.
5. CHAPTER IN A BOOK
Sapp, M.E. (19). In the best interest of children: returning play to its pace. In Dimidjian, V.J. (Ed.), Play's pace in public education of young children. (pp49-61).
6. TABLE AND FIGURE
Mean Mood Scores Before and After Physical Aactivity
Figure 1. Record ofweekly truancy behavior
Williams and Jensen (1992) demonstrated the same effect. Neither of the books was available in the library. The team achieved improvement in its scores after undergoing training. The team achieved a 3% improvement in its scores after undergoing training. Successful problem solvers were both more adept at representing the problem and using heuristics.
The participants were introduced to each of the following trainers but were not allowed to…
Williams and Jensen (1992) demonstrated the same effect. Neither of the books was available in the library. The team achieved improvement in its scores after undergoing training. The team achieved a 38% improvement in its scores after undergoing training. Successful problem solvers were both more adept at representing the problem and using heuristics.
The participants were introduced to each of the following trainers but were not allowed to choose their own trainers. Post tests were administered to the third grade students. Of the schools that participated, twelve were elementary, six were middle schools, and four were high school.
Program Attendance Policy Proposal and Analysis
As we are nearing the end of the third school year of the P.A.S.S. program it is beneficial to evaluate the standards and practices which have been set forth through the past three years and determine the efficacy of them. In accordance with the Pennsylvania Standards for Elementary and secondary education school principals (January 2001), data driven assessment of the policies is due. The need for implementation of best practices, be they new or accepted older models is especially great given the proven success of the P.A.S.S. program which has resulted in the proposal for expansion of enrolment and services to meet a greater demand within the local district.
The establishment of best practices for the future is the goal of the current assessment. Since its inception the P.A.S.S. program has used a program completion option strategy with at-risk students attending classes at Howell…
ERIC Raising School Attendance. Education Digest, Feb2002, 67.6, pgs.54-57.
ERIC Urban Policies and Programs To Reduce Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 129.
ERIC Jay DeKalb Student Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 125.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management and Linn-Benton Education Service
(Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira, 2007)
The following labeled Figure 1 shows the factors associated with truancy among adolescents in the study conducted and reported in the work of Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira (2007)
Factors associated with truancy among adolescents in Swaziland
Factor or (95% CI)*
Schooling (years) to 8 to 11
Most of the times or always
Number of times bullied or 2
Most students kind and helpful
Most of the times
Parents checked homework
Most of the times
Parents understood problems
Most of the times
Most of the times
or (95%CI)* adjusted for all the factors in the model
Siziya et al. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2007 1:15 doi:10.1186/1753-2000-1-15
Source: Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira (2007)
The work of Stanton et al. (2004) entitled: "Randomized Trial of a Parent Intervention" states that while "numerous interventions have been demonstrated…
Cookston, Jeffrey T. (1999) Parental Supervision and Family Structure: Effects on Adolescent Problem Behaviors. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 32(1/2) 1999
Stanton, Bonita et al. (2004) Randomized Trial of a Parent Intervention: Parents Can Make a Difference in Long-Term Adolescent Risk Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 158:947-955. Online available at http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/10/947
Redd, Zakia; Brooks, Jennifer; and McGarvey, Ayelish (nd) Background for Community-level Work on Educational Adjustment, Achievement and Attainment in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors. Child Trends.
Carter, Rebecca (2000) Parental Involvement With Adolescents' Education: Do Daughters or Sons Get More Help? Journal of Adolescence, Spring 2000. Online available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_137_35/ai_62958274/print
Reaching out to Address the Needs of NEET (Not in Employment, Education or Training) Adolescents
This paper will provide an overview of the phenomenon of youth unemployment and measures to address it. Coping with the needs of NEET (Not in Employment, Education, or Training) adolescents requires the use of a variety of interventions, spanning from more effective solutions to address truancy; social support for disaffected youths and their parents; and creating a more effective job preparation curriculum within the educational system.
Categories of NEET adolescents
Truancy and NEET
Programs to Address the NEET Problem
This paper will provide an overview of the problem of disaffected and unemployed youth and the various programs and methods that have arisen to address this issue. Recent economic instability has increased the number of young people not in employment, education or training (NEET), despite longstanding attempts to rectify this problem within the United…
Beggs, J. 2015. Types of unemployment. Available from:
[4 Jan 2016]
Boffey, D. 2015. Youth unemployment rate is worst for 20 years, compared with overall figure.
This paper provides two summaries of interviews conducted with a school principal and a parent of a student attending the school. The interviews were designed to obtain data on how the two interviewees viewed their respective interests and needs. The principal saw the school’s interests and needs as focusing on diversity, ethnicity and community support. The parent saw the needs of the students and parents as being underrepresented in the school. The parent wished the school would invite more community leaders into the school as a practical example of how students should want to live and give back to the community. The paper concludes with an analysis of the interviews and suggestions for how the school could address its truancy issues.
Summary of Interview—Principal, Interests and Needs
When I interviewed the principal of my school about the interests and needs of the school, the principal responded with great consideration…
, 2008). Respondents to the study were 250 persons, aged 19-24, recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984 and pregnant women in four clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio. The pregnant women lived in areas with high concentrations of older-type of lead-contaminated dwellings (Wright et al.). Commendable efforts have been expended to reduce exposures to tobacco and environmental lead at this time. ut millions of young people continue to be exposed to them in levels sufficient to put them at risk of persistent violent and criminal behaviors (raun et al.).
Studies conducted with a wide range of age groups, populations and types of trauma showed that traumatized children and adolescents face a high risk of developing different behavioral, psychological and neurobiological problems (Caffo et al., 2005). Early traumatic experiences can have strong and lasting behavioral and psychological consequences in the young. These include Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD, depression, anxiety…
Bartlett, R., et al. (2007). Problem behaviors in adolescents. 33 (1): 13-18 Pediatric
Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc. Retrieved on February 15, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/555209
Braun, J.M., et al. (2008). Association of environmental toxicants and conduct disorder in U.S. children. 116 (7): 956-962 Environmental Health Perspectives: National Institute
of Environmental Health Sciences. Retrieved on February 15, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/577047
Moseley, chair of the Coalition advisory board and president and CEO of the Academy for Educational Development. "It is not a luxury that can be addressed at some point in the future, but rather it provides people with the tools to survive and improve their lives" (Basic Education Coalition 2004). There is no one magical, quick fix solution to Bermuda's dropout problem. The problem is complex and requires a complex array of solutions. It is the intent of this paper to study the scope of this hidden crisis, the poor dropout and graduation rates of Bermuda's Public High School System, by reviewing the most recent and accurate data on graduation and dropout rates, exploring the reasons that young people drop out of school, and presenting the most promising models for helping high school students graduate with their peers.
CHAPTER TO: LITERATURE REVIE
This chapter provides a review of the…
Winters, K.C.; Rubenstein, M.; and Winters, R.A. An Investigation of Education Options for Youth-at-Risk, Ages 9 to 15: Demographics, Legislation, and Model Programs. Research Report No. 88-10. Washington, DC: National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), May 1988.
Wood, G.D., & Ellis, R.C. (2003). Risk management practices of leading UK cost consultants. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(4), 254-62.
Wood, L.A. "An Unitended Impact of One Grading Practice." Urban Education 29/2 (1994): 188-201.
integrate evaluation techniques in your daily work routine to improve your job performance? (Answer taken from PDF uploaded - Program_Evaluation_-_Overview_and_Definitions_PowerPoint)
Gredler explains that evaluation is the structural accumulation of any and knowledge that helps to make informed and profitable choices and corporate decisions M.B. Dignan further adds that all basic evaluations are procedural assessments of the results and overall functionality of any and all programs. P.D. Sarvela and a colleague R.J. Mcdermott gave a more detailed explanation in 'Health Education Evaluation and Measurement' by saying that basic evaluation was the utilization of a number of processes that were used to understand and decipher if a program had been functionalized in accordance to the aim with which it was created. Hence, basic assessment of a program is to highlight whether or not the program was able to practically attain the objectives it had originally theoretically set. Research procedures on the other…
The incidents of April 20, 1999 from Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado put bullying into a new perspective. Two students, Dylan Klebold and Ryan Harris, who were, for all intents, intelligent and well adjusted went on a killing spree. They killed and injured several members of the school including a teacher. (Rosenberg, 2000) Then they turned the guns on themselves. Their plans were grandiose. After the massacre, they intended to flee the country. Once the furor had died down, new information showed that the two students were generally reticent, withdrawn and subjected to bullying by their peers, especially the physically stronger students. Klebold and Harris were emotionally and physically abused. Isolated, they developed a hatred for their fellow students. This manifested in initial thoughts of suicide and then murder. Stories abound about bullying turned to tragedy abound. The Columbine incident was the biggest and got the most coverage.…
Berman, H., et al. "Sexual Harassment: The Unacknowledged Face of Violence in the Lives of Girls." The Best Interests of the Girl Child. Eds. H. Berman and Y. Jiwani. London, ON: The Alliance of Five Research Centres on Violence., 2002. 15-44.
Bleuel, Hans Peter. Sex and Society in Nazi Germany. Philadelphia,: Lippincott, 1973.
Congress. An Act Concerning Bullying Behavior in Schools and Concerning the Pledge of Allegiance. Washington, D.C: House of Congress, 2002.
Fried, S., and P. Fried. Bullies and Victims: Helping Your Child through the Schoolyard Battlefield. New York, NY: M. Evans & Co., Inc., 1996.
Throughout modern history, society has struggled with how to handle children and adolescents who committed crimes. Historically, juveniles who came to the attention of the courts have been considered less guilty, because of their age, than adults (Klein, 1998). This in turn developed into an attitude at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century that the appropriate role for police and the courts was to guide the young person to a better path. This in turn encouraged the idea of "status offenses" -- that is, offenses that would not be crimes if committed by an adult. For example, a 15-year-old could be considered truant if he or she stopped attending school, but an 18-year-old who dropped out of high school without graduating would not be truant.
The change from adult to juvenile courts for youthful offenders, however, took some time to accomplish. Until 1899…
Feld, Barry C. 1997. "Abolish the Juvenile Court: Youthfulness, Criminal Responsibility, and Sentencing Policy." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 88.
Klein, Erik K. 1998. "Dennis the Menace or Billy the Kid: An Analysis of the Role of Transfer to Criminal Court in Juvenile Justice." American Criminal Law Review, Vol. 35.
O'Connor, Jennifer M., and Treat, Ludinca Kinau. 1996. "Getting Smart about Getting Tough: Juvenile Justice and the Possibility of Progressive Reform." American Criminal Law Review, Vol. 33.
Wolcott, David. 2001. "The Cop Will Get You': The Police and Discretionary Juvenile Justice, 1890-1940." Journal of Social History, Vol. 35.
In addition, gang activity and association is a big problem in many schools today, and many school systems are turning to local law enforcement agencies to help them combat school violence on a number of levels.
One of the activities that is being utilized across the country is the COPS is Schools (CIS) program, which helps local agencies hire school resource officers (SOs) to work inside the schools and develop community oriented programs that reach out to students, educators, and parents to identify and address violence issues in their particular schools. This can help the law enforcement agencies to identify the biggest problem schools in their area and address these schools with distinct problem oriented policing techniques geared to control the specific issues at a specific school, whether it is gang activity, truancy, or vandalism.
These SOs can also develop student programs that help students understand how they can help…
Editors. "Gangs." Center for Problem Oriented Policing. 2007. 8 Nov. 2007. http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=1593
Editors. "School Safety." Center for Problem Oriented Policing. 2007. 8 Nov. 2007. http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=106
The juvenile diversion system was established with funding from the iverside County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act of 2000, approved by the California Board of Corrections. This was a multi-year evaluation research project and was divided into five distinct areas to evaluate programs approved by the Board of Corrections, these being the Community-Based Probation Diversion, Youth Accountability Teams, the Gang Prevention-Project BIDGE, and the Family Violence Prevention Program-P.A.C.T., Youth Accountability Boards, and Youth Courts. The evaluation was meant to collect baseline data and follow-up data to measure the success of each program, with the data including juvenile arrest rates per 100,000; arrest rates for program participants; incarceration rats; rate of completion of probation; probation violation rate; rate of completion of restitution; rate of completion of community service; and rates of truancy and family violence for those to which these apply. Performance benchmarks were to be developed for each program (iverside…
Johnson, J.E. (1979, April 6). "The Impact of Juvenile Diversion: An Assessment Using Multiple Archival Perspectives."
Retrieved May 24, 2007 at http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED177411&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno&accno=ED177411 .
Nadell-Hayes, S. & Macallair, D. (1995) Restructuring Juvenile Corrections in California: A Report to the Legislature. Retrieved May 24, 2007 at http://www.cjcj.org/pdf/restructuring.pdf .
Riverside County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (a.B. 1913) Projects (2007). Retrieved May 25, 2007 at http://ccjr.csusb.edu/ProgEvalRiversideProjects.htm .
ere, the Plaintiff and all of the members of the God Squad were arrested and removed from school property by police.
The police acted on probable cause that the group was inciting violence on school property after observing their offensive and disruptive behavior. Additionally, the Plaintiff was given an arraignment, charged with trespassing, disturbing the peace, and inciting a riot, and was released on bail to the custody of his parents. Thus, the police were acting in accordance with the law. So, there was no false arrest.
Upon review of the facts and evidence, it can be clearly seen that the Defendant acted in the best interest of the school in protecting and preserving the campus as a safe and nurturing learning environment. Furthermore, the Defendant did not violate the Plaintiff's First Amendment Rights because the rights being argued by the Plaintiff do not exist on the limited forum…
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier. 484 U.S. 260 (1988).
42 U.S.C. Sec. 2000e-2
West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc.
On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…
Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.
Domes, 19(1), 68-81.
Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.
Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
Interview with a Principal
List the ten most important tasks / duties performed by a principal.
In the interview conducted with the principal, she suggested there are more than ten important tasks a principal must perform, but in general she was very forthcoming and helpful. She pointed out that the ten mentioned are not necessarily in any particular order, because when comparing one principal's tasks in a small rural elementary school (with 86 students) to the principal's duties in a big city middle school with 1,200 students, there are vast differences in the priorities and duties of both principals.
First Important Task: asically, she described a principal's main job as having to do with supervising teaching so that real learning is taking place. The principal must be responsible for the implementation of the curriculum, which are the nuts and bolts of what students are expected to learn while in school.…
Bibliography -- References Used
Johnson, J. (2008). Special Topic / The Principal's Priority 1. Educational Leadership, 66(1).
State University. (2011). School Principal -- The Role of Elementary and Secondary School
Principals, Principal Duties and Responsibilities, Principal Qualifications. Retrieved October 9, 2013, from http://education.stateuniversity.com .
Juvenile Delincency in Urban Areas
Juvenile delinquency is a contemporary term for an old problem. One of the oldest relevant studies of the phenomenon was 'social disorganization' theory, which was developed by the Chicago school of sociology in the 1920's. This theory posits that there exist areas in a city in which traditional institutions have little or no control. This was studied in Chicago using a system of 'Concentric Zones' which demonstrated that most of the crime in the city occurs within certain areas that are typically associated with poverty. According to studies conducted by Shaw and McKay in the 1940's, "a preponderance of the delinquent boys lived either in areas adjacent to the central business and industrial district or along the two forks of the Chicago River, ack of the Yards, or in South Chicago, with relatively few in other outlying areas." (Jacoby, 13)
Shaw and McKay discovered a…
Carlin Wong. Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay: The Social Disorganization Theory. Center for Spacially Oriented Social Science. 2002.
Terence Morris. The Criminal Area: A Study in Social Ecology Routledge & Paul, 1966
Robert C. Trojanowicz, Merry Morash, and Pamela Schram. Juvenile Delinquency Concepts and Control, 6th Edition. Prentice Hall: 2000.
Walter B. Miller. The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970-98. U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. April, 2001.
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…
non-instructional professional staff member that was most influential to my work at a middle school was named Jon. Jon was actually a custodian. However, he had been employed in the service of this particular educational institution for some time. As such, he was familiar with most of the students, and had seen them enter the school in sixth grade and watched them progress to their eighth grade graduation. He had also seen the same process for most of their brothers and sisters. He was thoroughly familiar with the faculty and the other non-instructional professionals at the school. Moreover, he was still a young man and seemed to have a pulse for the students, the schools, and the faculty as well.
Because of his increasing familiarity with just about everyone who traversed through this particular middle school on a regular basis during my tenure working there, Jon was a valuable resource…
Clark County School District. (2014). Related services and other non-instructional personnel. http://ccsd.net / Retrieved from
When it comes to children and how well they do (or do not do) in schools, a lot of the invective and scrutiny is directed towards the teachers at the school and the administrators that govern the same. Whether it be parents showing disdain for how well the students are not doing or whether it be national laws such as No Child Left Behind, the teachers seem to shoulder a lot of the blame when students do not perform as expected or desired. However, to just blame the teachers would be unwise because they are only part of equation and some would argue that teachers are not even the biggest part of the equation. While having adept teachers imparting knowledge to students is important, having parents or guardians of those children that are involved and engaged is even more important.
One of the linchpins of student success…
Harji, M. B., Balakrishnan, K., & Letchumanan, K. (2016). SPIRE Project: Parental Involvement
in Young Children's ESL Reading Development. English Language Teaching, 9(12), 1-
Hemmerechts, K., Agirdag, O., & Kavadias, D. (2017). The relationship between parental
The Home Office website was also a good source of informstion in this regard. A very good article that shed light on the more negative view of Holloway prison as well as units in other prisons was Getting it right? Services for pregnant women, new mothers, and babies in prison. An extremely useful report that deals specifically with Holloway prison was REPORT ON AN UNANNOUNCED FOLLOW-UP INSPECTION OF HM PRISON HOLLOWAY 11 -- 15 December 2000
Y HM INSPECTORATE OF PRISONS. This report provide some telling and insightful data that invaluable in terms of assessing the value and function of the mother and baby units in this prison.
4. Theoretical aspects
There are many theoretical aspects that pertain to the issue of mother and child units at a prison such as Holloway. In general terms, and from a criminological perspective, there is the view that units of this kind are…
Burrell I. Jail baby units reviewed 1998 [Online] Available at: By
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/jail-baby-units-reviewed-1189057.html [Accessed 2 April, 2010].
Female Prisoners [Online] Available at: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/adviceandsupport/prison_life/femaleprisoners / [Accessed 3 April, 2010].
Holloway [Online] Available at: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/prisoninformation/locateaprison/prison.asp?id=454,15,2,15,454,0 [Accessed 3 April, 2010].
In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that the "cycle of abuse" ceases and that they can recover from their ordeal and lead normal lives. The treatment of juvenile sex offenders is to ensure their rehabilitation, depending on the problem and also separate them from the rest of society.
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. etrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. etrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Herrmann B, Navratil F. (2004). Sexual Abuse in Pre-pubertal Children and Adolescents.
Sultan C (Editor) Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: Evidence-Based Clinical
Practice. Pakistan: Endocr Dev, Basel, Karger
Hunter, J.A. (2000). Understanding Juvenile Sex Offenders:…
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Overwhelmingly, those programs are explicitly designed to be culturally responsive, but, again, not just to tribal groups. One program, for example, is likely to have tribal students, Hispanic students, and other immigrant groups. A massive data-collection effort is underway to measure successful programmatic elements and determine which efforts have produced the most dramatic results.
One of the principles guiding the current push in California to provide more and better after-school programs is as follows: "Programs should foster a positive sense of identity, build upon the cultures of the families, and offer a curriculum that values and responds to the strengths, challenges, and needs of all of the different kinds of youth in their communities," (Olsen, 2000). hile this goal doesn't specifically identify Native American tribal needs, it does hit upon the most important element of culturally responsive programming. For many Native families, placing their children in an after-school program through…
Birmingham, Jennifer, et.al. 2005. Shared Features of High-Performing After-School
Programs: A Follow UP to the TASC Evaluation. Policy Studies Associates: Washington, D.C.
California After School Network: A Road Map to the California After School Landscape.
2010. Available at: www.afterschoolnetwork.org
If students are misbehaving, they are not engaged in their lessons. Behavior management is, unfortunately, a priority focus at Springfield Gardens, to the detriment of instruction. This is the point that the three interviewees continued to stress. None of them blamed the teachers for failing to engage students; the fault, as they see it, lies squarely with the students whose families apparently do not place a high value on education. The students, as Gordon, Benton and Johnson see it, are products of the culture in which their parents live.
The three frequently compared and contrasted the students of today with students of generations past. Students in "the good old days" did not misbehave the way students do "these days." That point was made clear, particularly in interviews with Benton and Gordon. Benton recalled a childhood outside the United States where school, he implied, was much more rigorous. It would appear…
Bali, V.A., & Alvarez, R.M. (2003). Schools and educational outcomes: What causes the "race gap" in student test scores? Social Science Quarterly 84 (3)
Biddle, R. (March 7, 2011). The condemnation of black children to dropout factories must end. Dropout Nation. Retrieved from http://dropoutnation.net/2011/03/07/condemnation-black-children/
Lewis, a.E. (2001). There is no race in the schoolyard: Color-blind ideology in an (almost)
all-white school. American Educational Research Journal 38 (4), 781-811.
Social workers try to help people make the most of their environment, their relationships, and any struggles they might have with money or family. A lot of social workers deal with people who face life-threatening circumstances, such as criminal activity or substance abuse. Other issues that social workers try to tackle are inadequate housing, unemployment, illness, disability, or difficulties around childbirth (Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields, 2010).
There are various social work specializations, but the larger categories include child, family, and school social workers, who provide social services and assistance to children and their families; medical and public health social workers who provide support for people with illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer, or AIDS; mental health and substance abuse social workers who deal with people who struggle with psychological issues; and social workers who deal with the intricacies of social policy and planning (Social Work…
Social Work Practice. (n.d.). Retrieved August 31, 2010, from Web site:
Social Work Professions: Summary of the Social Worker Fields. (2010). Retrieved August 31,
2010, from Education Portal Web site: http://education-
The nature of the juvenile justice system may be adversarial at times, but unlike the adult criminal system it is not necessarily so. Agreement is the goal. In fact, depending on the nature of the offense, a juvenile case may be dismissed or dealt with in an informal hearing, rather than subject to formal proceedings at all.
The purpose of the juvenile system is almost always to rehabilitate the offender, rather than to enact social retribution. Given that our society believes that a child usually does not have the moral or cognitive capacity to judge the wrongfulness or rightness of his or her own actions like an adult, there seems to be a need for two systems of justice. For example, a child who burns down a building because he is playing with matches is unlikely to deserve the same type of sentence or treatment as an adult who commits…
Champion, Dean J. (2006). The Juvenile Court System: Delinquency, processing and the law.
esearch shows that females and males start school on a level playing field or with girls outperforming boys on most measures (Chapman 2010). Yet by the time of middle and high school, females have already begun to ghettoize themselves. The ghettoization of females is tacitly supported by educators. Attempts to reach out to female students has been criticized harshly as an attempt to "feminize" education and take something away from boys rather than give something to all students (Frawley 2005, p. 1). The very notion that helping girls would be detrimental to boys is a sexist belief. Gender biases also represent a fundamental failure to recognize the "middle ground" for children who "are not strongly gender-typed" at any age (Frawley 2005, p. 2).
Female students may be discouraged from reaching peak athletic performance because of gender bias too. Stereotypes are often reinforced in classrooms, as female students are "negatively sanctioned...for…
Banks, T.L. (1990). Gender bias in the classroom. 14 S. Ill U.L.J. 527 (1989-1990).
Chapman, a. (2010). Gender bias in education. Critical Multicultural Pavillion. Retrieved online: http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/papers/genderbias.html
Frawley, T. (2005). Gender Bias in the Classroom: Current Controversies and Implications for Teachers. Childhood Education. Retrieved online: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3614/is_200507/ai_n14683848/
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.
On the other hand,…
Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010. http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/pubs/implementing/balanced.html
Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann
Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,
As is stated by Bennett "When teachers accept the goal of developing competencies in multiple systems of standards of perceiving, evaluating, believing and doing, it becomes obvious that knowledge about multiple dialects and languages is part of becoming educated" (p. 297).
While neither educators nor parents can magically erase all cultural and ethnic barriers and inequities, any more than they can resolve all of the communication problems created associated with an increasingly diverse classroom, they can achieve significant results by making a conscious and concerted effort to ensure that every student is treated fairly and in a manner that respects rather than ignores their cultural heritage.
Allen, S.F. & Tracy, E.M. (2004) evitalizing the role of home visiting by school social workers. Children and Schools, 26, 197-208
Baker, M.L., Sigmon, J.N., & Nugent, M.E. (2001). Truancy reduction: Keeping students in school. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 1-14
Bennett, C. (1995). Comprehensive…
Allen, S.F. & Tracy, E.M. (2004) Revitalizing the role of home visiting by school social workers. Children and Schools, 26, 197-208
Baker, M.L., Sigmon, J.N., & Nugent, M.E. (2001). Truancy reduction: Keeping students in school. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 1-14
Bennett, C. (1995). Comprehensive multicultural education: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Massachusetts: Allen & Bacon
Goodman, J.F., (1998, December) Moral descriptors and the assessment of children, Journal of Moral Education 27, 475-487
The theory sees human organizational behaviors and conceptions culturally bound, rather than natural, unlike advocates of systems theory. Systems theory has been more influenced by sociology and linguistics than the natural sciences.
Analyzing symbolic interpretations may be more useful in organizations serving diverse populations: if a public health organization wants to alleviate the prevalence of diabetes in an area, it is not enough to more effectively disseminate information through the existing channels of communication (as systems theory might suggest) or even change the environment to create healthy options for consumption. Rather the people being served may require counseling to change what they consider good foods, a healthy diet, and a positive body image, if their culture tends to reinforce unhealthy practices. An ideological overhaul is necessary to change some behaviors, like the decreased social acceptability of smoking, for example. Organizations are social as well as formal, and cultural in nature…
Hatch, Mary Jo. (1997). Organization theory: Modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives.
Oxford University Press, 2nd edition.
Nowadays, adolescent problem behavior is conceptualized as 2 empirically derived syndromes: externalizing problems (including delinquency and aggression) and internalizing problems (including depression, anxiety, and withdrawal) (Achenbach, 1991a, 1991b). Little is known about the structure of internalizing problem behavior. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to examine the structure of externalizing and internalizing problem behavior during adolescence. (eitz, Dekovic, & Meijer, 2005, ¶ 2).
At the end of their study, eitz, Dekovic, and Meijer (2005) recount that prior research primarily focused on externalizing problems, the structure of a limited range of problem behavior, and basically found support for a 1-factor structure. Their study, eitz, Dekovic, and Meijer assert, extended previoius research as it explored externalizing, as well as internalizing problems, examining whether both types of behaviors belonged to one single factor of general problem behavior (1-factor model), or whether the two types behavior ought to be deemed two separate…
Bartlett, R., Holditch-Davis, D. & Belyea, M. (2007). Problem behaviors in adolescents.
Pediatric Nursing. Jannetti Publications, Inc. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from HighBeam
Biglan, Anthony., Foster, Sharon L., Brennan, Patricia A., & Holder, Harold D. (2005). Helping
Just as parole programs typically restrict contact between offenders, a Differential Association-oriented delinquency prevention program would endeavor to prohibit the formation of deviant groups and criminally-prone gangs.
The specific mechanisms for intervention would include sentencing juvenile offenders to mandatory suspension of social relationships deemed capable of precipitating delinquent or criminal conduct in lieu of harsher penalties. Another mechanism might be the strict enforcement of particular municipal codes, such as ordinances prohibiting the public assembly of groups of individuals or the promulgation of such legislation for that purpose where existing legislation is lacking in that regard.
Likewise, the strict enforcement of other commonly overlooked activities technically prohibited by ordinance, such as the timely vacating of parks promptly at closing time, loitering on private commercial property adjacent to convenience stores, and truancy statutes would all be incorporated into a Differential Association-oriented approach to delinquency prevention.
More generally, that concept of delinquency prevention…
Henslin, J. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach Boston: Allyn
Macionis, J. (2003). Sociology 9th Ed New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., Miller, C. (2007). "Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
S. provide funds for staff development on drug use and alcohol use by school-age children. But only 26% of elementary school classes and required middle school and high school health education courses had a teacher that had received "staff development on alcohol or other drug-use prevention" (SHIPPS). Still, SHIPPS reports that 91.4% of high schools and 80.4% of middle schools surveyed teach the "benefits of not using alcohol" and 90.3% of high schools and 79.4% of middle schools teach the "benefits of not using illegal drugs." These data are based on schools that have "required instruction" in those areas of health education.
An article in the Journal of School Health (Summerlin-Long, 2008) details "tobacco-free school" (TFS) policies; the article references "positive reports" from "key informants" in 46 school districts in North Carolina that had passed TFS policies between December 2001 and August 2005. This article is particularly pertinent because of…
Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly. (2002). Teenagers abusing cough syrup. Retrieved March 1, 2009, at http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-2173465_ITM .
Brooks, Ashley, Gaier Larkin, Elizabeth M., Kishore, Sonal, & Frank, Scott. (2008).
Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 32(6),
Bryant, Alison L. (2003). How Academic Achievement, Attitudes, and Behaviors Relate
Visits home were frowned upon and discouraged, and most Indian families could not afford to pay for the long journey home from the schools, so children remained there year-round until their schooling was complete in many cases.
However, many families did see the worth of a formal education for their children. Author Child notes, "Still, many Ojibwe parents, persuaded of the importance of an education or learning a trade for their child's future, would have agreed with the North Dakota father whose son and daughter attended Flandreau when he expressed his desire for their success in school and wish to keep them there, 'as much as we can stand it'" (Child 54). These parents often hoped their children would receive an education, but also learn a trade, so they could make their way in the world as adults. In theory, children attended school for half the day, and then learned…
Child, Brenda J. Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900-1940. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.
Coleman, Michael C. American Indian Children at School, 1850-1930. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1993.
Editors. "Native Languages of the Americas: Chippewa." Native Languages.org. 2008. 5 Dec. 2008. http://www.native-languages.org/chippewa.htm .
Meyer, Melissa L. Ethnicity and Dispossession at a Minnesota Anishinaabe Reservation, 1889-1920. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.
Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715
Age: ____ Grade:
Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic
Completed by:____ Type of Class:
For each item, check the column which best describes this child:
Not at Just a Quite
1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks
2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties
5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort
7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)
8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli
9. Often is forgetful in…
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.bartleby.com/66/3/33503.html
Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1118518952.html
DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1107215868.html
Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-87015306.html
As this meme passed down through generations, it became more pervasive and it also became more complete. When slavery in the New World began, both blacks and whites were enslaved, black slaves could gain freedom, and slavery was not a condition of birth. However, as that changed, the memes surrounding African-Americans also changed. Not only were blacks seen as not equal to whites, but they were seen as incapable of becoming equal to whites. Therefore, when Jim Crow segregation was first challenged under the Fourteenth Amendment, the Supreme Court determined that separate facilities were not inherently unequal, despite overwhelming evidence that the facilities provided for African-Americans were factually inferior to those provided for whites. While this meme has been challenged by newer ideas and has, generally, not stood up to scientific, moral, and religious challenges, vestiges of it remain in almost every American person. As a result, many Americans, of…
Corrales, J. (1999) the politics of education reform: bolstering the supply and demand; overcoming institutional blocks. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from the World Bank
Web site: http://www1.worldbank.org/education/globaleducationreform/pdf/corrales.pdf
Catalano, J. (1996) Review: Richard Dawkins: books: the selfish gene. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from the World of Richard Dawkins
Web site: http://www.simonyi.ox.ac.uk/dawkins/WorldOfDawkins-archive/Dawkins/Work/Books/selfish.shtml
(Mulcahy and yszomirski 139)
However, this is not art for art's sake; it is art for our children's sake. If one has to put on the back burner that Picasso was a cubist for the sake of challenging a child to look at a painting and just experience it, than so be it. The very act of simply experiencing the art of an artist can have profound effects on the thought process of children as well as adults. They may think it is profound or they may think it is a piece of trash, but at least they are thinking.
Art outreach programs have become the sole window into the art world for some schools. Since funding for school programs has been so drastically reduced, these outreach programs have become absolute necessities for many communities. These programs also introduce not only children to art, but adults are benefiting from these…
Art Program Promotes Self-Esteem, Self-Expression." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 24
Feb. 2006: 1.
The Importance of Art to Education. Arkansas River Valley Arts Education (2007)
In numerous states, specific laws which govern how juvenile offenders are treated in the court and prison systems are separate "from the criminal code used for adult offenders," a situation which can often be found in other state correctional systems. Of course, all those convicted of crimes against society "must be held accountable for their actions," yet when dealing with young offenders, most state courts seems to stress this idea to the maximum while also taking in account that "the basis of a sound juvenile justice system lies in getting to the root causes of delinquent and law-breaking behavior," meaning that early intervention is far more important for young offenders that it is for older offenders. Basically, much more emphasis is placed on treatment programs, education and "preparing juveniles to re-enter" society as responsible adults than in adult correctional systems ("Juvenile Services," 2007, Internet).
Also, there are a number of…
Juveniles in the Adult System." (2007). Internet. Retrieved at http://law.jrank.org/pages/1532/Juveniles-in-Adult-System-Youthfulness-proportional-punishment-death-penalty.html .
Juvenile Services: FAQ's about the Dallas Juvenile Department." (2007). Internet. Retrieved at http://www.dallascounty.org/department/juvenile/faqs.htm .
The kind of work a slave did depended on where he/she ended up. In the Chesapeake region, for instance, Africans cut and burned brush, split rails, and built fences with axes and hatchets. They cut down trees and squared logs. They were wheelwrights, carpenters, shingle cutters, boat builders, cabinetmakers, and barrel makers. They built wagons, worked as blacksmiths, made saddles and harnesses. In South Carolina they built dugout canoes and boats that carried rice to Charleston. A law there required all slaves to work as ditch diggers when the growing season was over. Slaves built roads and dug waterways. In North Carolina slaves made tar and pitch from pinecones for use on English boats. In Georgia, black slaves wove fishing nets and were shrimpers. In Africa they had killed and eaten crocodiles, so they knew how to deal with alligators in the South. The women worked in the fields and…
When these components were included in bullying intervention programs, Olweus found significant reductions of 50% or more during the 2 years following their introduction in American schools with more than 2,500 students. According to Heinrich (2003), "The bullying prevention program goals are reducing or eliminating existing bullying problems and preventing new problems. The major cost of this program is not in money but in the amount of time and energy required to effect change in attitudes, knowledge, and behavior" (p. 195).
Arora, T., Sharp, S., & Thompson, D. (2002). Bullying: Effective strategies for long-term improvement. London: outledgeFalmer.
Atlas, .S., & Pepler, D.J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. The Journal of Educational esearch, 92(2), 86.
Borntrager, C., Davis, J.L., & Hallford, a. (2006). Evaluation of a bullying prevention program. Journal of esearch in Childhood Education, 21(1), 91.
Bullying by the numbers. (2007, January). Curriculum eview, 46(5), 37.
Arora, T., Sharp, S., & Thompson, D. (2002). Bullying: Effective strategies for long-term improvement. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Atlas, R.S., & Pepler, D.J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. The Journal of Educational Research, 92(2), 86.
Borntrager, C., Davis, J.L., & Hallford, a. (2006). Evaluation of a bullying prevention program. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21(1), 91.
Bullying by the numbers. (2007, January). Curriculum Review, 46(5), 37.
Since juvenile records are sealed
during ongoing investigations, the authors used multiple sources from
available national press reports, each of which was identified by more than
one source, to create a list of possible causal factors. Bender,
McLauchlin, & Shubert (2001) then outlined some of the potential causes for
shootings as reported by multiple sources in the media. The data reveal
several conclusions of concern:
1) Even though none of the perpetrators was identified as special
need student, each demonstrated some indicators to peers of quite
serious emotional problems and each demonstrated a low regard for human
2) The perpetrators were usually completely alienated from their
family and friends. Each had "warned" others in advance of the violence
that may occur by talking about killing in some context.
3) Each of the perpetrators was a White male.
4) The perpetrators seemed to have an average or above average
They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].
The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:
The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal
Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.
It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did
James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf .
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.
December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.
, 2009). While there are schools in the juvenile system, some of these Hispanic children may come in so behind in their educations that they will requires special services to bring them current in their educations. Therefore, educational and mental health concerns are highlighted for Hispanic youth entering into the juvenile justice system.
The juvenile justice system in the United States is out-of-control. While Fairfax County, Virginia's juvenile justice system is not experiencing the same problems as other areas, it would be erroneous to assume that its system is still the best way of dealing with juvenile offenders. Fairfax County has a large Hispanic population, and Hispanic youth are overrepresented in its juvenile justice system. One must assume that a lack of cultural sensitivity has helped contribute to this problem. Ensuring that Hispanic youth and their families have access to the same quality of non-penal services as other youth…
Chambers, B. (2009, June 11). Latino youth in the juvenile justice system -- key facts.
Retrieved October 11, 2011 from Reclaiming Futures website: http://www.reclaimingfutures.org/blog/node/1028
County of Fairfax Virginia. (2011). Delinquency (juvenile criminal cases). Retrieved
Community Health Statistics for Caddo Parish, Louisiana
Description of Caddo Parish, Louisiana
With about a quarter of a million residents, Caddo Parish, Louisiana is a fairly older community with almost two-thirds of its population aged 25 years or older. Most of the residents of Caddo Parish (82.3%) are high school graduate or higher and 22.3% have a bachelor's degree or higher compared to the national averages of 84.6% and 27.5%, respectively. There are slightly more females than males in Caddo Parish, and median family incomes are slightly lower than the national average at $48,522; per capita income is also slightly less than the national average at $22,323. There are also slightly more whites than blacks (50.3% compared to 46.4%, respectively) in Caddo Parish. ecent relevant statistical data for these and other areas of interest are presented below.
Biophysical Considerations: Caddo Parish
About the Parish of Caddo. (2011). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://
Annual report. (2007, 2010). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://www.caddo.
Carrabine, Lee and South 193)
As has been said before, the UK no longer makes anything, builds anything or sells anything tangible. The decline in industrial production has resulted in an overall decline in employment of industrial workers, who have not been aided by a failing system to transition to other work.
Some would say that the changes occurring in the UK, at this time with the increased importance of service industry work and intelligence rather than physical labor employment is a natural byproduct of globalization and an evolutionary product of the next phase as a "developed" nation.
They evidence this by observing that all developed nations are leaning in this direction. Yet, the transition has not and will not be easy, whether it is normal or not, a point which remains to be proven.
ith the education system in the UK in serious need of reform…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5000677576' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
These children also might see their own feelings of a wish to do physical harm toward another reflected in the feelings of others, the psychological term known as projection, and may be afraid or paranoid of others intentions.
Sometimes the criminal act of murder is an extension of previous anti-social acts of less serious forms of delinquency and criminality and children merely graduate to more extended and more violent and extreme forms of behaviour in the form of murder.
Anti-social behavior is rare but is often a trigger for the child, he or she does not have a clear sense of self or a clear sense of the pain he or she inflicts with his or her actions toward another. They are partly or completely disassociated from the emotionally charged elements of violence. They do not have fear, and as Lownstein states they do not often experience guilt.…
Associated Press "Convicted Child Killer to Return Home" CNN website http://www.cnn.com/2004/LAW/11/29/wrestling.death.ap / http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5000777505
CRIME'S POSTER CHILDREN; Debate Pits Hard Time vs. Rehabilitation." The Washington Times 23 June 2002: A01. Questia. 6 Dec. 2004
Unlike "social junk," "social dynamite" poses a threat to our system.
Spitzer states that the purpose of law is to maintain the capitalist system and control members of any social class who pose a threat. Perceived threats include: impeding production by resisting work, impeding distribution by stealing from the rich, impeding socialization through truancy and impeding ideology through counter-hegemony. In general, elites consider "social junk" as a costly, but relatively harmless burden to society. According to Spitzer, the elites view crimes committed by "social junk" such as street crimes as producing victims that are mostly members of an expendable class. The objective for coping with social junk" is to keep them from turning into "social dynamite." Social protest poses a far greater threat than ordinary street crime because it threatens social order and the status quo. Thus, populations are defined in terms of their threat and costs to capitalist relations…
Williams, F.P. And McShane, M.D., (1998). Criminlogy theory: Selected Classic readings. Cincinnati:Anderson Publishing.
Identify the three most important differences teachers are likely to encounter between a typical mainstream American students and a typical Hispanic-American student
This student may not recognize that school success can improve his or her future; may live in an economically and/or unsafe neighborhood where education is not valued; and often attend schools that themselves are economically challenged.
a typical Chinese-American student
Assuming this student is a recent immigrant, he or she may appear unduly shy, speaking with a soft voice, avoiding risk-taking, hesitating to answer because of language difficulties. They may refrain from participating because they view it as unacceptably bold behavior. Their nonverbal language may be different as they may view avoiding eye contact as a sign of respect. Their response to confusion or to not knowing an answer may be a giggle stemming from embarrassment rather than actually finding the situation humorous.
a typical American Indian…
Internet: Privacy for High School Students
An Analysis of Privacy Issues and High School Students in the United States Today
In the Age of Information, the issue of invasion of privacy continues to dominate the headlines. More and more people, it seems, are becoming victims of identity theft, one of the major forms of privacy invasion, and personal information on just about everyone in the world is available at the click of a mouse. In this environment, can anyone, especially high school students, reasonably expect to have any degree of privacy? High school students, after all, are not protected by many of the same constitutional guarantees as adults, but their needs for privacy may be as great, or greater, than their adult counterparts. To determine what measure of privacy, if any, high schools students can expect at home and school today, this paper provides an overview of the issue of…
Alarming Number of Teens Addicted to the Internet. (2001, February 1). Korea Times, 3.
Albanes, R., Armitay, O., Fischer, B., & Warner, J. (1998). Marijuana, Juveniles, and the Police: What High-School Students Believe about Detection and Enforcement.
Canadian Journal of Criminology, 40(4), 401-20.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.