Truancy Essays (Examples)

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Truancy and Court Appearances
The Relationship between School Truancy Rates and Court Cases

Research, albeit it clinical, case study, empirical, descriptive, historical, or any combination thereof, must exhibit and command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment. The first step in the attainment of a desired research effort, one that convinces the reader as to the topic's efficacy and usefulness, is to develop a scientific approach toward the phenomenon under investigation. Second, a research investigator can only accomplish meaningful research if he or she is able to grasp the intimate and often difficult relations that exist between the research question and the research design and methodology of its solution. All research must be relational, structural, and architectural.

The desired research methodology selected for the current research investigation is descriptive in design wherein the overall relationship between school truancy rates and the number of court cases filed with the Harris County Juvenile Court System was examined….

Truancy and the Fault Associated With the Practice
Truancy is an issue that is as old as schools themselves. There used to be very severe punishments for cutting class, but those have been reduced or, in some cases, passed on to another party supposedly responsible besides the actual truant. The primary issue lately has been whether the truant is at fault, or if the reason can be traced to improper parenting techniques. No matter what position an individual takes, truancy is a real issue that costs billions of dollars a year around the world and results in students who have deeper educational problems as a result. It seems though that the majority of the blame has to be placed with the truant as a person is ultimately responsible for their own actions. This paper presents the case for the student as a cause of their own truancy by looking at research….

The independent variable will be the positive reinforcement as represented by the incentive program. The study will be examined by examining increases or decreases on the overall attendance rate of students before application of an incentive program and then after the incentive program has been in effect for at least 1/2 of the school year. It is expected increases or decreases in the truancy rates will be due to the independent variable.
ationale, elevance, and Significance

This study is being proposed as the result of a literature review that which suggested that methods to curtail truancy in the past relied on negative consequences as key motivators. However, this research wishes to take a more positive approach to motivating students to attend school. A new approach to the problem of truancy is needed. The ultimate goal of the study is to reduce the overall truancy rate among middle school students.

This is a….

This method for solving problems at times appears to be trial and error rather than a comprehensive evaluation of policies or systems (Timmer, 2004). This may be in part due to the fact that we are in a time when resources are limited and the economy is such that new programs often cannot be developed and existing programs are struggling to sustain financially. Therefore, the ability of policy makers to make changes to societal circumstances relies on incremental changes to expenditures and manpower in order to facilitate change (Jones, 1973). These shifts often need to occur within existing frameworks in order for the possibility of improvement to exist. For example, in order to implement policy change, resources may need to be shifted from one service area to another in a small but meaningful way.
Policy decisions can be tested and adjusted as they are implemented and executed in order to….

" (Ibid) the schools in Chicago are "being held up as a model for other parts of the nation for reducing detention among juvenile delinquents, without seeing recidivism rates or crime rates increase." (Wheeler, 2002)
Summary

Each of these articles looks at truancy in the state of Illinois, in the work of Johnston (2005) it is noted that the characteristics attributed to students who have poor attendance in school include the negative perception of school in the minds of these students and further the student's perception that the parents are either too lax in their discipline or either too controlling in their discipline. These students are noted by Johnston (2005) to feel interior to other students academically and to be students who have family conflict in their lives or perceive family conflicts in their lives. Finally, Johnston notes that these students tends to feel socially incompetent in the classroom. The study of….

Truancy is the first and most reliable indicator of future delinquent behavior. Youth missing school regularly are at a great risk of getting involved in drugs, alcohol and crimes. The rising instances of truancy in schools around the country indicate that it has become a major problem and a huge concern since most of these kids are likely to test positive for drug and alcohol use or end up in jail for violence. A deputy assistant attorney in California who deals with truancy cases maintains that all gang members that he has seen have been truants first (1). There are many studies that clearly indicate a correlation between truancy and juvenile delinquency. A study conducted by University of Maryland found that 51% of female juvenile arrestees who were caught when they were skipping school were found using drugs (2). Similarly a report by the U.S. Department of Justice's Drug Use….

At the same time, it is not clear that more stringent laws or punishments would do much to alter the situation, and short of creating a school system that is as closely guarded as a prison it will be all but impossible to keep all students at school all the time. Laws in this area are this an adequate mix of liberal policy and expedience.
It is not likely that a great deal of police time is spent on this type of status offending on its own; if truant adolescents are not engaging in activity that would draw attention to themselves (such as engaging in other illicit or illegal acts), it would be very difficult to determine probable cause to approach and arrest them. Some time is definitely taken up in dealing with these issues, however, and these hours could be spent in providing additional neighborhood patrols seeking out individuals….

Truancy
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CHAPTER : METHODOLOGYIntroductionThe purpose of the study is to understand school leaders perspectives about how policies and procedures reduce truancy and improve student attendance. By interviewing key school leaders from Charter Secondary School (CSS), a public charter school with low truancy levels, information on effective policies and procedures can be gathered (Brinkmann & Kvale, 2015). The research method that will be used for this study will be a qualitative case study. Merriam & Tisdell (2016) stated, a case study is an intensive, holistic description and analysis of a single, bounded unit. In a case study, the researcher focuses on the exploration of an activity, event, process, or individuals (Creswell, 2014). The following research questions will guide the study:1. Why does CSS have a low truancy rate?2. What theoretical framework serves as the foundation for policies at CSS?The researcher will use interviews to collect qualitative data. The interview has today become….

Truancy A Case Study
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…Chapter 1IntroductionStudent truancy is a growing problem in the United States. Over the last twenty years the truancy rates have grown nationwide with the highest rates in inner cities (Jacob & Lovett, 2017). Research indicates that student truancy leads to potential socially deviant behavior in adulthood (Dronkers, Veerman, & Pong, 2017). Many students who are absent for prolonged periods are more likely to perform poorly academically, risking failure in classes and facing disciplinary action. Characteristics of some schools with high truancy rates are punitive truancy programs, lack of alternative study options for suspended students, and lack of counseling and tutoring (Bye, 2010). While high truancy is an issue, other schools maintain low truancy rates. Those schools give students the option for tutoring, allow distance learning for suspended students, and take on a mixture of punitive and non-punitive measures (Duarte & Hatch, 2014).With a national ranking of 764 and a Florida….

The problem with truancy
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…[…… parts of this paper are missing, click here to view or download the entire document ]…EffectivePoliciesandProceduresCanAffectTruancyRate47EFFECTIVEPOLICIESANDPROCEDURESCANAFFECTTRUANCYRATEPoliciesandproceduresperceivedbyschoolleaderstoreducetruancyinapubliccharterschoolAProposalPresentedinPartialFulfillmentOftheRequirementsfortheDegreeofDoctorofEducationUniversityofNewEnglandOctober15,2017Chapter1Introduction:PrevalenceofStudentTruancyStudenttruancyisagrowingproblemintheUnitedStates.Overthelasttwentyyearsthetruancyrateshavegrownnationwidewiththehighestratesininnercities(Jacob&Lovett,2017).Researchindicatesthatstudenttruancyleadstopotentialsociallydeviantbehaviorinadulthood(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017).Manystudentswhoareabsentforprolongedperiodsaremorelikelytoperformpoorlyacademically,riskingfailureinclassesandfacingdisciplinaryaction.Characteristicsofschoolswithhightruancyratesareuseofonlypunitivetruancyprograms,lackofalternativestudyoptionsforsuspendedstudents,andlackofcounselingandtutoring(Bye,2010).Thereareschoolsthathavebeendoingwellinmaintaininglowtruancyrates,however.Thoseschoolsgivestudentstheoptionfortutoring,allowdistancelearningforsuspendedstudents,andtakeonamixtureofpunitiveandnon-punitivemeasures(Duarte&Hatch,2014).Theselowtruancyratessomeresearcherssuggestcomebecauseofpoverty,crime,andrace(Bye,2010).However,thereareschoolswithnon-whitestudentsthathavelowtruancyrates.Withanationalrankingof764andaFloridarankingof66,DoctorsCharterSchoolisconsideredoneofthebesthighschoolsinthestateregardingstudentattendanceratesandoverallschoolparticipation.Theschoolhasalowtruancyamongstudents,whichisanotableanddistinctivequality.Suchaqualitywillbeanalyzedindepthinthispaperalongwiththevariouspossiblereasonsforthestudentswillingnesstoattendclassregularlyandwhatmethodsareemployedbyschoolstafftokeeptheschoolenvironmentpositive.Firstestablishedin2005,DoctorsCharterSchoolofMiamiShoreisapubliccharterschoolbuiltontheBarryUniversityCampus,sittingon5acresofproperty.ItisinMiamiShore,anareaofFlorida.Thecurrentenrollmentnumberstandsat599andthecampustypeissuburban.TheschoolmascotaretheHawksandtheprincipleisDr.KellyAndrews.RateAasacollegepreparatoryschool,theschoolholdsamunicipalcharterviaVillageofMiamiShoresthatservesstudentsfromgrades6-12(DoctorsCharterSchoolofMiamiShores,2007).ThegradesDoctorsservesarefrom6-12.Initsearlyhistory,DoctorsCharterSchoolwasoriginallyamiddleschoolestablishedin1997underthename,MiamiShores/BarryUniversityCharterSchool.Thenineportablestructuresthatcomprisedtheschool,servedasanalternativeforMiamiShorestudentsthatwouldotherwiseattendHoraceMannMiddleSchool(DoctorsCharterSchoolofMiamiShores,2007).However,after8years,theschoolsecuredmorefundingandin2005,renamedtheschoolitscurrentname.TheschoolgainedapermanentstructurethankstothedonationsgivenbythecitizensofMiamiShoresandadditionalfundsfromtheNorthDadeMedicalFoundation.DCSdrawsfundsfromtwoseparatestreams.OnepartofthefundingcomesfromabondissueapprovedbyVillageresidentsandalargetwo-yeargrantgivenbytheNorthDadeMedicalFoundationforFY2006and2007.DCSraisestheremainderofitsoperatingexpensesfromthestatethroughitsFTEfunding(asetamountforeachstudentintheclassroomperday)andthroughthecollectionofstudentfeesforsuchthingsasmaterialsandtrips(DoctorsCharterSchoolofMiamiShores,2007).Theschoolhas31full-timeteachersforstudentsdisplayingforastudentpopulationof598studentsthatreflectaratiooflessthan20studentsperteacher(19:1)(USNEWS,2017).Thecompletepercentageofeconomicallydisadvantagedstudentsliesat33%withcompleteminorityenrollmentatof83%.Althoughclassattendanceishigh,andthepercentageofstudentswhoAPtestedforAPexamspercentageat(81%),thepercentageofstudentsthatwhopasstheAPexamsstandatis47%,orlessthanhalf.EnglishandMathematicproficiencylevelsliealsohavelowpercentagesat70%and68%respectively,whichisabovethedistrictandnationwideaverage(USNEWS,2017).WithaCollegeReadinessIndexof48.8,theschoolhasroomforimprovement.EvenwiththeWhilestudentsearnaveragetestscores,overall,studentswhoattendDoctorsperformsbetterthanstudentsatotherschoolsinitsdistrict.ThedistrictaverageforEnglishproficiencyis50%andMathematicproficiencyat37%.Thedistrictaverageforcollegereadinessisat44.7andthisisoutof113schoolsand113,242students(USNEWS,2017).Withagraduationrateof98%,DoctorsCharterSchoolofMiamiShoreshasalotgoingforitregardingpositiveaspectsandstudentinterest.Thesekindsofschoolsaimtoprovidethebridgefortruancytobeimproved.However,therearisesaneedtounderstandwhystudentsaretruantinthefirstplace.Parentsworrythattheirchildrenwillbetruantduetocertainbehaviors.However,thesebehaviorscouldbeattributedtoanegativeenvironmentinthehomeoratschool.UnderstandingtheReasonsforTruancyThereareseveralreasonsfortruancyandtheyareoftencomplexandvaried.Somepertaintoanegativeschoolenvironment,studentbehavior,familyeconomicstatus,mentalhealthproblems,tonameafew.Parentsthatputtheirchildreninschoolhaveworriesthattheymaynotreceivethekindofhighqualityeducationtheydeserve.Anegativeschoolenvironmentcancauseproblemsforstudentswishingtolearn.UnlikeDoctorsCharterSchool,classroomsacrosstheMiamioftenhavelargeclassroomsforexample,makingitdifficultforstudentstopayattentioninclassandreceiveattentionnecessaryforunderstandingthecurriculum(Losen,2015).Ifforexample,astudenthasquestionsorneedsexamplesforaspecificassignmentinclass,theteachermaynothavethetimeorpatiencetodealwiththatstudentwhenheorshemustdealwith29otherstudentsallneedingthesamelevelofattention.Manyschoolsacrossthecountryhavestrictpoliciesregardingdisruptivestudentbehaviorthatcouldlandastudentundersuspensionoreven,expulsion.Severalfactorscouldcausedisruptivebehavioramongstudents(Losen,2015).Onecommonreasonispoverty.highlevelsofpovertyhaveanegativeeffectonschoolbehavior.Thisisattributedlargelytothechronicandacutestressexperiencedbystudentslivinginpoverty.Theexposureisassociatedwithexternalizingbehaviorsthataredisruptiveinschoolsettings(Hutcheson,2014,p.1).Studentsfacingpovertymaybepartofanunstablehousehold.Theymayendureproblematicandabusiveparents,andhavetodealwithlackofresources.Thesestudentsneedachanceeverynowandthentolearnfromtheirmistakesandreceivethehelpandresourcesthatcouldmakeapositivedifferenceintheirlives.Instead,theyaresuspendedorexpelledandnotgivenachancetoimprove.Highratesofsuspensioncanlendtoahigherrateoftruancy.ThebifactorstructurereflectedageneralfactorofProblemsinBehavioralEngagementandtwogroupfactors:ProblemsinSocialEngagementandProblemsinAcademicEngagement(Barghausetal.,2016,p.154).Researchersnotestudentsoftenmaynothaveproblemsacademically,butinsteadsocially.Theymaynotfeelcomfortableengagingwithotherstudentsduetofearofjudgementorinabilitytoproperlysocialize.Providingstudentswiththetoolstobothengagesociallyandacademicallycanallowforahigherpercentageofacademic-basedpositiveoutcomes.Studentinterestmayalsoplayakeyroleintruancy(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017)..Thisisbecausesuspensionsandexpulsionsmayimpactstudentinterestinanegativeway.Whenstudentsreceivesuspensions,theyhavenoaccesstotheschoolwork.Whenthesuspensionends,dependingonhowlongthetimeoutofschoolwas,theymayhaveincreaseddifficultycatchingupwiththeclass.Ifthereisnooptiontocompleteschoolworkviaonlineaccess,andtheycannotgotoschoolorcontacttheteacherforassignments,thiswhichputsthesekindsofstudentsatanautomaticdisadvantage.Thisisespeciallythecaseiftheyhaveahardtimeacademicallyalready.Tofallbehindinschoolworkwhenthestudenthasexperiencedlowgradescouldsetbackastudentandcouldendupinhavingfailuresinclasses.Byexploringincentivetheoryofmotivationandresearchshowingtheconnectionbetweenexpulsion/suspension,interest,andtruancy,thehopeistoofferclarityinwhytruancyratesarehighandwhatcanbedonetocounteractit.Theseproblems:negativeschoolenvironment,studentbehavior,familyeconomicstatus,mentalhealthproblem(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017)(Dembo,Wareham,Schmeidler,Briones-Robinson,&Winters,2014)mustbeaddressedfortruancyprogramstobeeffective.ThescopeofthepProblemsassociatedwithtruancyislarge.Forthepurposeofthisstudy,thespecificfocuswillbeschool-basedpoliciesandproceduresthatmaymitigateorreducetruancy.sneedtobeclarified.Withoutapropersynthesisofthereasonssurroundingtheproblem,thereiswillbelimitedunderstandingabouthowtoapproachthestudy.Therefore,itisimportanttostatewhatthiskindthescopeofproblemistodefinethefocusandimprovepotentialexaminationandsynthesis.thequalityofthestudy.StatementoftheProblemTruancyratesintheUnitedStatesareagrowingproblem(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014).Whetherastudentisabsentduetoasuspensionorbecausetheywillinglychoosetobeabsent,theproblemhasbecomeworthyofresearchandpossibleintervention.Truancyratesarehigherinschoolswithlowsocio-economicstatus(Dembo,Wareham,Schmeidler,Briones-Robinson,&Winters,2014).Mostofthestudentsthatattendtheschoolareofminority.Someofthetruancyproblemsoccurinminoritypopulations(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014).Whatpolicieshastheschooladoptedtosupportapositiveenvironmentthatmotivatesstudentstoattendschoolandlearn?Theproblemaddressedbythestudyis:Educationalleadersmayhaveimplementedpoliciesandproceduresinpubliccharterschools,butdocumentationaboutwhicharemosteffectiveandwhytheyareislargelyabsent.Actionmustbetakentohelpavoidproblemsinthefuture.Currentpolicieshaveenabledhighertruancyratesduetothezero-toleranceaspectthatenablesharsherandstricterpunishmentofstudentbehavior.Sincethe1990s,implementationofzerotolerancepoliciesinschoolshasledtoincreaseduseofschoolsuspensionandexpulsionasdisciplinarytechniquesforstudentswithvaryingdegreesofinfractions(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014,p.1110).Whenstudentsaresuspended,orexpelledfortheirbehavior,theymayhaveatoughertimecatchingupinschoolandsucceedingintheiracademicendeavors.Thiscanleadtootherproblemsdownthelineasthestudentsmatureandbecomeadults.Researchsuggeststheexperienceofsuspensionofexpulsioncouldleadtoillegalbehaviorthatisassociatedwithacriminalrecord.Beingsuspendedorexpelledfromschoolincreasedthelikelihoodofarrestinthatsamemonthandthiseffectwasstrongeramongyouthwhodidnothaveahistoryofbehaviorproblemsandwhenyouthassociatedwithlessdelinquentpeers(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014,p.1110).Whenschoolsexpelandsuspendstudents,addingtothetruancyratesoftheschool,negativebehaviorsmayincrease.Thezerotolerancepoliciesofschoolshavebecomethemaincauseforconcerninthesegrowingcasesofsuspensionandexpulsion.Therefore,policiesneedtobechangedtoaddressthisproblem.Todoso,onemustexamineschoolslikeDoctorsCharterSchooltodeterminewhatstepstotaketomakeapositivechange.Althoughtruancydoesnotdirectlyleadtocrime,itoftenhasahighcorrelation.PurposeoftheStudyThepurposeofthestudyistounderstandhowschoolleadersperspectivesaboutwhethereffectivepoliciesandproceduresycanenableimprovedreducetruancyandimprovestudentattendanceforstudents.ByinterviewingkeystaffinDoctorsCharterSchool,asuccessfulpubliccharterschoolinrelationtowithlowtruancylevels,theremaybeenoughinformationoneffectivepoliciesandprocedurescanbegathered.Thesefindingsmayythatcanprovideabetterunderstandingofwhatschoolleadersincanbedoneinotherschoolscandotoimprovetruancy.Onepotentialaspectofeffectiveschoolpolicyishomeschooling.Schoolswiththeoptionofhomeschoolingmayprovidehopeforthosewhocannotattendschoolorwhoaresuspendedandareunabletoattend.Attendanceplaysalargepartinfacingsuspensionandperformingwellacademically.However,ifschoolshaveanonlineoption,thismayhelpstudentskeepupwithschoolworkandhaveoptions.TheDoctorsCharterSchoolhasastudentportalontheirwebsitethatallowsstudentstoaccessonlineresourcesandevencontactteachersandstaff.ThroughhereResearchabouttruancyreductionsuggestsstudentswithmoreattendanceoptionsmayWhenstudentshavemoreoptions,theycanbeabletoovercomedifficultiesthatcontributetotruancy.theymayfacewithothersorintheirhousehold.Effectiveschoolpoliciesthatimproveattendancemaycontainprocessesandoptionsthatprovidesuchsupportandvariability.Withoutunderstandingsuchaspects,littlehelpcouldbegeneratedandimplementedtohelpstudentsinneedandhelpthemavoidhightruancyrates.Thisareaofresearchwillbeexploredintheinterviewsectionandresults.DoctorsCharterSchoolhasbetterattendanceandbetteracademicperformancecomparedtoalltheotherschoolsinthedistrict(onaverage).Furthermore,mostofthestudentsareminorityornon-white.Thisschoolisaperfectstartingpointforinvestigationintoeffectiveschoolpolicies.Alookintoothersuccessfulschoolsshouldprovideameasureofeffectivenessneededtounderstandbetterwhatstrategiescanimproveattendance.Itcanalsoshowhowotherschoolshandlethingslikeminoritymajorityandlocationofschoollikeanurban,rural,orsuburbansetting.ResearchQuestions1.HowdothepoliciesineffectatDoctorsCharterSchooldiscouragetruancy?Howdoschoolleadersdescribeattendance?Anti-truancy?Policiesandprocedures?2.Whatpoliciesandproceduresareineffectinotherpubliccharterschoolswhereattendanceishigh?andhowcantheycontributetoananti-truancypolicy?Doesthisinformationshowupintheliteraturereview?Ifnot,thenplantokeepaversionofthisquestion.3.TowhatdegreedostaffatDoctorsperceivetheyadheretothewrittenpoliciesandproceduresy?Thisquestionisamorespecificversionofthethirdquestiontohelpunderstandwhythepolicyimplementedintheseschoolsisineffective.Ifthepoliciespromotestrictadherence,itcouldincreaseratesofsuspensionandexpulsion,increasingratesoftruancy.4.Cantheoptionofonlineeducationreducetruancyratesinschools?Onlineeducationcanbeapowerfultoolforlearning.Asschoolbegintomodernize,theymayofferstudentportalsasseeninDoctorsCharterSchool.However,canonlineclassesbeaviableoptionforstudentsexperiencingproblemsinschool?QualitativeStudiesandInterviewsThestudyisaqualitativeonethatfocusesontheuseofinterviewstocollectqualitativedata.Theinterviewhastodaybecomeoneofthemostwidespreadknowledge-producingpracticesacrossthehumanandsocialsciencesingeneralandalsoincriticalpsychologymorespecifically(Brinkmann,2014,p.1008).Interviewscanrangefromformalinterviewsorinformalinterviews.Theycanbedoneface-to-face,overthephone,orovertheinternet.Formalinterviewshaveastructuretothemwheretheresearcherasksaquestionandtheparticipantanswers.However,ininformalinterviews,therecanbediscussionanddoesnothavetosticktothequestionsasked.Themajorityofqualitativeinterviewshavesomestructuretothemandarelabeled,semi-structured.Mostqualitativeinterviews,however,aresemi-structured.Inasemi-structuredinterview,theresearcherprovidessomestructurebasedonherresearchinterestsandinterviewguidebutworksflexiblywiththeguideandallowsroomfortherespondentsmorespontaneousdescriptionsandnarratives(Brinkmann,2014,p.1008).ThereisaneedtounderstandfromthestafforschoolleadersperspectivesthatworkatDoctorsCharterSchoolwhythepoliciesattheschoolwork.Tounderstandwhatimprovementshavebeenmadeandwhatkindofschoolenvironmentsuchpoliciespromote,thiscangiveagoodpictureofwhatisbeingdonetoachievepositiveoutcomesforthestudentpopulationattending.Similarstudiesusinginterviewshavegatheredasignificantamountofinsightfulinformationthatallowsfortheabilitytoanswerimportantquestions.Usingfixedeffectsregressionsandcontrollingfortruancypeergroupeffects,weobservethattruancy(measuredasbothadiscretedummyvariableandacontinuouscountmeasure)positivelycorrelatestoearlyschoolleaving.Atruanthasa3.4percentagepointshigherriskofleavingschoolwithoutaqualification(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Interviewshelpanswerassumptionsthatcommonlyareassociatedwithattendancerecord.Forexample,highertruancyratescanleadtonegativeacademicoutcomesforstudents.Becausethequalitativestudyisasimpleone,thequestionswillnotbeanalyzedextensively,rather,theywillbeexaminedtoidentifyunderlyingthemes.Thesethemeswillthenbecomparedtothemesfoundintheliteraturereviewtoseeifthereisauniversalthemeorconceptbeingappliedthatleadstosuccessfulacademicperformancebystudentsandgoodattendancerecords.Itisimportanttoallowstudentsandstafferstogivetheiropinionsaswellasenablediscussionofwhatcausedthepositiveornegativeopinion.Thiswillallowforeasieranalysisofresponses.Anotherstudyinterviewedyouthsandtheirexperiencesshowedtheyneededsupportfromtheirparentsandmoreengagementfromtheschooltomotivatethemtocometoschoolmoreandlearn.Youthsexperiencesandrecommendationsillustratethemultiplefactorsthatinfluenceschooltruancyandsuggestpotentialleveragepointsforreducingtruancy,includingmodificationstotheschoolenvironmenttoincreasestudentengagement;amoreeffectiveschoolresponsetoaddresstruancy(Gase,DeFosset,Perry,&Kuo,2016,p.299).Motivationisanintegralaspectofreducingtruancyamongstudents.(WillkeepinthissectionbecauseIamintroducingtheconceptualframeworkdiscussedinliteraturereview.Thiswasaskedtobeexpandedinpreviouscorrection.)Animportanttheorythatwillbeexploredinthispaperistheincentivetheoryofmotivation.peoplearepulledtowardsbehaviorsthatofferpositiveincentivesandpushedawayfrombehaviorsassociatedwithnegativeincentives.Theincentivetheorysuggeststhatpeoplearemotivatedtodothingsbecauseofexternalrewards(Rehman&Haider,2013,p.141).Ifstudentsareincentivizedtoattendclassbyreceivingareward,thismaybeacrucialpartmissinginschoolswithhightruancyratesandmayexplainthedownwardspiralofsomestudentswhentheyarepunishedseverelyforbeingabsent.DoctorsCharterSchoolhasnon-academicawardsthattheygiveouttostudentswhoarerespectfulandhavegoodattendancerecords.Thesecouldbeincentivesforstudentstocontinueattendingclass.Theschoolsattendanceprocedureisstrict,butallowsforevaluationofthereasonsbehindastudentsabsence.Suchconsiderationforastudentallowsforroomforthestudenttoresolvehisorherproblemsandcontinuegoingtoschool.Oneruleinparticular,isthatifastudentmissesanxamountofdays,theywillhavethesameamountofdaystomakeuptheassignment.Althoughthismaybedifficulttoaccomplish,itdoesleavesomewiggleroomforstudents,thusincreasingtheirmotivationtocontinuefollowingtherulesoftheschool.AssumptionsThemainassumptionthatguidesthisstudyisthattruancypoliciesandproceduresarethecornerstoneforreductionintruancyrates.Otherassumptionsincludethenotionthathigherratesoftruancyleadtopooreracademicperformance.Whenstudentsfailtoattendclassvoluntarily,theyputthemselvesatgreaterriskofperformingpoorlyinschool.Thiscanhappenduetotheirinabilitytokeepupinschoolandlackofmotivationtocompleteassignments.Theymaybeunwillingtoattendschoolduetomentalhealthproblems,anunstablehomelife,orphysicalhealthconditions.Anotherassumptionisthatstudentslivinginpovertyandminoritystudentsmayhaveamoredifficulttimewithschoolduetoaturbulenthomelifeanddealingwithinstitutionalizedracism.Althoughthisisnotatopicthatwillbecoveredin-depthinthispaper,itisimportanttorecognizethedifficultiesthatcomefromlackofresourcesandpotentiallybeingaminority,andseehowthatcouldaffecttruancyrates.Thiscouldlendtocreationandimplementationofevenmoreeffectiveschoolpoliciesthatcanultimatelyreducetruancyratesandmaintainthemlowinthefuture.LimitationsThestudywillbelimitedtoonepubliccharterschool.theDoctorsChartersSchool.Thisisbecauseoftheneedtounderstandwhattheschooldoesandthencomparethatinformationtoothersuccessfulschools.Anotherlimitationisthenumberofpeopletointerviewforthestudy.Becausetheinterviewisqualitativeandin-person,notmanypeoplecanandwillbeavailabletoanswerquestions.ThestudyisalsolimitedtotheschoolswithintheUnitedStates.TheliteraturereviewwillonlyexaminehowAmericanschoolshandletruancyandpolicesthateitherdecreaseorincreasetruancyrates.Thefinallimitationisparents.Althoughparentalopinionmaybehelpful,itwouldbebettertoleavetheinterviewstostudentsandstafferswithparentsgivingpermissiontothestudenttospeak.Nootherlimitationsarenoted.ScopeoftheStudyThestudyisqualitative,andwilluseinterviewswithschoolstafftocollectdata.Interviewtranscriptswillbe-basedandaimstoanalyzedthetoidentifyunderlyingthemesfromrespondentsoftheDoctorsCharterSchool.Byaskingquestionsstafffromtheschool,thehopeistounderstandwhateffectivepoliciesareinplacethatallowsforbetterattendanceratesthanotherschoolsinthedistrict.Interestingly,theschoolalsofaresbetterregardingacademicscoresandhasahighgraduationrate.Iflocationplaysapart(itislocatedinasuburbanarea),thisshouldbeexploredviatheinterviewquestionstogainabetterunderstandingofallaspectsofeffectivepolicywithintheschool.Theliteraturereviewprovidesafoundation,theinterviewsprovidethedata.Asidefromthequalitativeinterviews,theliteraturereviewwillserveasacomparativeguidetonotonlybasesomeofthequestions,butalsocomparethedatagarneredfromtheinterviews.Ifothersuccessfulschoolshavesimilarpoliciesinplace,thiscouldserveasapotentialstandardthatcanappliednationallytohelpdecreasetruancyinallschoolsthroughoutthecountry.Theliteraturereviewwillalsoservetoprovideexamplesofpoliciesinschoolwithhightruancyratestoseewhatshouldnotbedone.Theresultswillalsobediscussedwithinthecontextofpotentialmodificationthatcanbemadetohelpimproveattendanceratesandacademicsuccessofstudentsevenfurther.Ultimately,itisimportanttoacknowledgewhatDoctorsCharterSchoolhastoofferandseewhetherthatcanserveasagaugeforotherschoolsinthedistrict,anymaybe,inthecountry.Althoughthequalitativestudyissmall,onlyincludingsixstudentsandfourstaffmembersfromtheschool,itmayprovidethekindofinsightthatcannotbegatheredelsewhere.Useofdatabasesavailabletohighlightnationwidetruancyratesmayalsobeused,againasacomparativetool.SignificanceThestudycanbeanimportantstepinlearningmoreabouthowretentionpoliciesinfluencedecisionmakinginschools.Thefindingsmayleadtothisschoolandothersstandardizingeffectiveprogramsandpolicies.PublicschoolsacrosstheUnitedStatesneedtoknowthattheycanhavetheknowledgetoimprovetheirstudentpopulationsacademicprogressandattendance.First,however,theyneedtoseetheinformationthatprovescertainpolicyimplementationsworkandareworththetime,money,andeffort.Similartoevidence-basedpracticeinnursing,staffneedtoseeevidenceofpoliciesthathavealreadybeenenabledandimplementedthathaveledtothesuccessofstudentsandtheimprovedratesofattendance.WhileithelpsseeingthestatisticsofasuccessfulschoollikeDoctorsCharterSchool,itisevenmoresignificantifschoolsseethestepsittooktoreachthatlevelofsuccess.Thenthatcollectedinformationcanbecomparedtootherschoolsastoidentifywhatcoreprinciplesandactionshavebeenusedtoachievesuchapositiveresult.Growthandpositiveoutcomescanonlycomefromtestedandapprovedpractices.Thisstudywilldissectsuchpoliciespracticesthroughasoundconceptualframeworkandthenseeifassumptionsandhypothesescanbeprovenordisproven.Researchersneedtocontinuetheirpursuitofinformationandanalysistoofferpotentialguidelinesanddirectionsforschoolsthatneedit.ThegrowingproblemoftruancyintheUnitedStatesrequiresathoughtfulandconsiderateassessmentofongoingissues.Theseissueswillcontinuetoremainprevalentunlessactionistaken.Actioncannotbetakenunlessthereissoundresearchandevidencebehindit.Lastly,studiesliketheonehereoffersananchorpointtoinvestigateotheraspectsofschoollife,schoolenvironment,andstudentbehavioralproblems.Ifstudentshaveproblemsduetostruggleswithsexuality,genderidentity,orevenpoliticalaffiliation,thiscouldalsobeinvestigatedinfuturestudies.Theresultscouldthenbeusedtospearheadchangesinpoliciesinthenearfuture,leadingtocontinueprogressiontowardsasafeandpositiveschoolenvironment.DefinitionofTermsThetermsutilizedinthisstudyaredetailedbelow.TruancyWhenastudentstaysawayfromschoolwithoutasufficientreason;canbealsolabeledasabsenteeism.Dayssuspendedmaybeincludedintruancyrates.CharterSchool(intheUnitedStates)apubliclyfundedindependentschoolestablishedbycommunitygroups,parents,orteachersunderthetermsofacharterwithnational/localauthority.ExpulsionMeaningpermanentwithdrawing/exclusion,whenastudentisbannedorremovedfromaschoolsystem/universityduetoconsistentviolationsofaninstitution'srules.However,itcanalsobeforasingleoffenseoffittingharshnessinextremecases.SuspensionRegardingschools,suspension(a.k.a.temporaryexclusion)isanobligatoryleavegiventoastudentasamethodofpenaltythatcanlastanywherefromasingledaytoaslongasseveralweeks,whereastudentcannotattendschoolorstepfootinsidetheschool(Kaufman&Kaufman,2013).StudentPortalServesasanonlinegatewaywherestudentscanaccesscurriculum,internetresourcesrelatedtothecurriculumandmayhavetheoptiontocommunicateelectronicallywithteachersand/orstudents.ConclusionInconclusion,truancyratesareagrowingprobleminUnitedStatesschools.DoctorsCharterSchoolisoneschoolthataimstoreducetruancyratesandhavedonesoaccordingtorecentstatistics.ByexploringDoctorsCharterSchoolsschoolpoliciesandotherschoolpoliciesthatincreaseordecreasetruancyratesinFloridathestudyhopestounderstandwhatmaycausetruancyinschoolsandwhatreducesit.Ifbetterandimprovedhandlingofstudentissuesisthesolutiontotruancy,itneedstobeexplored.Thenextsectionisaliteraturereview.TheliteraturereviewwillfocusonimportantpoliciesalreadyinplaceinotherschoolsandhowthesepoliciescouldbesimilarordifferenttoDoctorsCharterSchoolalongwiththenegativeeffectsofhightruancyratesandthecauseoftheseratesinschools.Thenextsectionallowsonetoseethroughrecentliterature,thesignificanceoftruancyandhowitconnectsschoolmeasureswithstudentbehavior.Someschoolstakepunitivemeasurestowardstruancy,otherstakenon-punitive,andstillmoretakeamixtureofboth.Whyaresuchmeasuresadopted?Theaimistounderstandthisandwhystudentsaretruant.Thereareseveralfactorsthatcanbeatplayfromenvironmenttomentalhealth,andsoforth.Theliteraturereviewwillbringintocontextmoreoftheseaspects.Withsomanyschoolsthroughoutthecountryexperiencinghightruancyrates,whatdoesDoctorsCharterSchooldothatenableshighattendanceamongitsstudentpopulation?Whatpolicieshastheschooladoptedtosupportapositiveenvironmentthatmotivatesstudentstoattendschoolandlearn?Chapter2LiteratureReviewIntroduction:AddressingSchoolTruancyHighschooltruancyisnottheonlythingbeingaddressedastheschoolinterviewedhaschildrenfrom6-12.Studenttruancyhasbecomeamajorissueschoolstrytotackle.Therefore,toimprovetruancytheneedarisestoresearchandcultivateworthwhilestrategiestoreducenegativebehaviorsthatleadtotruancy.However,thereisalsoaneedtounderstandwhystudentsaretruantinthefirstplace.Povertyandnegativeschoolenvironmentareissuesthathaveraisedconcernforthelikelihoodoftruancyinstudents.Thissectionhopestoilluminatetheissueofstudenttruancy.Itbecomesdifficulttoidentifythecostsofbenefitsofvariousmeasures.Thosethatfallintothepunitivedisciplineisnecessarybecausetraditionalistviewsbelieveadherencetorulesleadstopositiveoutcomes.Thoseinthecampofnonpunitivedisciplinedesiretodemonstratehowgivingstudentsoptionscanleadtobetterresultsnotjustintruancyrates,butthepersonalgrowthofthestudent.Withallthestrategiesandmethodsavailable,itcanbedifficultforschoolleadstodeterminewhatmixtureofpunitiveandnonpunitivedisciplinewillwork.Thedesireistoshowthesuccessofprogramsand/orschoolsthathaveenabledareductionintruancyratesaswellaspoliciesineffectthatincreasetruancyratestodemonstratehowtoimprovestudenttruancy.PunitivePunitivemeasuresfortruancycanbeseenthroughtheintroductionofthird-partypolicinginschools.Third-partypolicingisanapproachtocrimepreventionandcontrolinvolvingthepolicepartneringwithorganizationsorindividualstopreventorreducecrimeproblems(Nitschke,Mazerolle,&Bennett,2014,p.5211).Relyingonavailablecriminal,regulatory,orcivillawsandrules(legallevers)thatallowthirdpartiestotakeaccountability,partially,forcontrolofcrime,itcreatesanenvironmentwhereapprehensionofproblemstudentsisfeasible.Thismayhelpschoolsdealwiththegrowingdelinquencyinstudents,butmayalsomakeiteasierforstudentstobecomepartofthecriminaljusticesystematanearlyage.Punitivemeasurescanalsobecostlier.Thisisbecausepunitivemeasureslikeexpulsionorsuspensioncanfurtherincreasethelikelihoodofstudentsbeingtruantandperformingpoorlyacademically(Shelton,2014).Studentsmustbeguidedtowardsapositiveoutcomeandthatmeansreducingthebeliefthatpunitivemeasureswillkeepstudentsfrombeingtruant.Althoughshort-termresultsmayindicatereduction,thelong-termeffectscouldbemorenegativeandlong-lasting.Sheltonmentionedthatstudentswhofacepunitivemeasuresmayhaveahigherchanceofcommittingcrimesversusthosewhofacednon-punitivemeasures.Whilesomeresearchsuggestspolice-interventionregardingtruancycanhelpstudentsinthatparentsaremoreawareofwhathappenstothem,therearestillmanyfactorstoconsiderinrelationtoefficacy.Forexample,police-interventionmayleadtohigherparentalawareness,butalsoincreasedpotentialfortruantstudentstoendupinthejuvenilecriminaljusticesystem(Mazerolle,Bennett,Antrobus,&Eggins,2017).Amixtureofbothpunitiveandnon-punitivemeasuresmaybemostbeneficialintacklingtheproblemoftruancy.Non-PunitivePunitivemeasuresfortruancyhavetheirplaceinschools.However,researchshowsnon-punitivemeasuresarealsousefulandofferachanceforstudentstoimproveandremovesomeofthestigmaattachedtopastmistakes.Successfulprotocolsintegrateflexibilityintostandardmethodstohelptheschool,family,andstudent.Suchprogramsunderstandindividualstudentsneedsanddowhateverisessentialtoassistthefamilyandstudentinvolvedintruancy(Mallett,2015).OnestudyinAustraliaaimedtounderstandtruancyandtheeffectsoftruancytogenerateprogramsthatallowedforeffectivemeasuresatreducingtruancyratesamongstudents(Taylor,Gray,&Stanton,2016).Thisshowsthatwithproperresearch,non-punitiveoptionsarefeasible.However,theymustbedoneinconjunctionwithsignificantresearchthatallowsabetterunderstandingoftheneedsofstudentswhoparticipateintruancy.Theexpectationisthatnon-punitivemeasuresaremoreeffectivethanpunitivemeasures.However,ifthereisnosignificantdifference,non-punitivemeasuresmustbeassessedforefficacy.Haight,Chapman,Hendron,Loftis,&Kearney(2014),demonstratedhownon-punitivemeasureslikeatruancyprogrammaynotworkifakeyprocessisnotimplemented.Meaning,ifthereisnoskill-buildingaspecttotheprogramliketutoring,thechancefortruancytodecreasedeclines.StudentCharacteristicsTruancycanhavealastingimpactonthelifeofastudent.Schooldropouthasbeenextensivelystudiedintheliteratureasacorrelateofnegativelifeoutcomes.Aprecursortoschooldropoutistruancy,theunexcusedorillegitimatestudentabsencefromschool(Rocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016,p.592).Studentsmaybeabsentortruantduetoamultitudeofreasons.Researchersidentifiedthroughafewexaminedstudies,thatstudentswhoareoftenmoretruantthanothers,maybemoreinvolvedincrime.Suchinvolvementpointstothenegativecorrelationoftruancyandlaterlifeoutcomeslikedelinquencyandcrime.Theresearchersalsostatetruancycanleadtoproblemdrinking.Resultsindicatethattruancyhaslong-lastingassociationswithnegativelifeoutcomes,especiallyfornon-violentcrimeandproblemdrinking(Rocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016,p.592).Ifaddictiveorcriminalbehaviorleadstotruancyandtruancycanfurtherleadtoaddictiveorcriminalbehavior,itseemsacyclethatjustfeedsitselfwithnegativeoverallbehavior.Thisisimportanttoknowbecausestudentsexperiencingaddictionproblemsorbecominginvolvedindelinquentbehaviorcanreceivehelptonotonlykeepthemfromengaginginsuchriskyactionswhilealsopositivelycontributingtoreductionintruancyrates.Essentially,thenotionthatfortheretobeareductionintruancyrates,schoolsmusthelpstudentsdealwiththenegativebehaviorstheyareengagingin,outsideofschool.Thesenegativebehaviorscouldcomebecauseofnegativeexperiences.Frombullyingtopooracademicperformance,studentsoftenexperiencestressthatcouldbedetrimentaltotheiracademicsuccess.Birkett,Russell,&Corliss,(2014)observetherolesexual-orientationdisparitieshaveonstudentsinrelationtoacademicachievementandtruancy.Throughtheutilizationofpoolinformation,theyidentifiedbeingpartoftheLGBTgroupaffectedratesoftruancyandacademicperformance.LGBT-identifiedyouthsreportedsignificantlyelevatedoddsoftruancyandlowgrades(oddsratios?=?1.63.2;allP?.

…[…… parts of this paper are missing, click here to view or download the entire document ]…EffectivePoliciesandProceduresCanAffectTruancyRatePoliciesandproceduresperceivedbyschoolleaderstoreducetruancyinapubliccharterschoolChapter1IntroductionStudenttruancyisagrowingproblemintheUnitedStates.Overthelasttwentyyearsthetruancyrateshavegrownnationwidewiththehighestratesininnercities(Jacob&Lovett,2017).Researchindicatesthatstudenttruancyleadstopotentialsociallydeviantbehaviorinadulthood(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017).Manystudentswhoareabsentforprolongedperiodsaremorelikelytoperformpoorlyacademically,riskingfailureinclassesandfacingdisciplinaryaction.Characteristicsofschoolswithhightruancyratesareuseofonlypunitivetruancyprograms,lackofalternativestudyoptionsforsuspendedstudents,andlackofcounselingandtutoring(Bye,2010).Thereareschoolsthathavebeendoingwellinmaintaininglowtruancyrates,however.Thoseschoolsgivestudentstheoptionfortutoring,allowdistancelearningforsuspendedstudents,andtakeonamixtureofpunitiveandnon-punitivemeasures(Duarte&Hatch,2014).Withanationalrankingof764andaFloridarankingof66,CharterSecondarySchoolisconsideredoneofthebesthighschoolsinthestateregardingstudentattendanceratesandoverallschoolparticipation(GreatSchools!,2017).Theschoolhasalowtruancyamongminoritystudents,whichisanotableanddistinctivequality,makingitananomalyinthesurroundingarea(GreatSchools!,2017).Firstestablishedin2005,CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShoreisapubliccharterschoolbuiltontheBarryUniversityCampus,sittingon5acresofproperty(GreatSchools!,2017).ItisinMiamiShore,anareaofFlorida.Thecurrentenrollmentnumberstandsat599andthecampustypeissuburban(GreatSchools!,2017).TheschoolmascotaretheHawks.RateAasacollegepreparatoryschool,theschoolholdsamunicipalcharterviaVillageofMiamiShoresthatservesstudentsfromgrades6-12(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).Initsearlyhistory,CharterSecondarySchoolwasoriginallyamiddleschoolestablishedin1997underthename,MiamiShores/BarryUniversityCharterSchool(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).ThenineportablestructuresthatcomprisedtheschoolservedasanalternativeforMiamiShorestudentsthatwouldotherwiseattendHoraceMannMiddleSchool(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).However,after8years,theschoolsecuredmorefundingandin2005,renamedtheschool.TheschoolgainedapermanentstructurethankstothedonationsgivenbythecitizensofMiamiShoresandadditionalfundsfromtheNorthDadeMedicalFoundation.DCSdrawsfundsfromtwoseparatestreams.OnepartofthefundingcomesfromabondissueapprovedbyVillageresidentsandalargetwo-yeargrantgivenbytheNorthDadeMedicalFoundationforFY2006and2007.DCSraisestheremainderofitsoperatingexpensesfromthestatethroughitsFTEfunding(asetamountforeachstudentintheclassroomperday)andthroughthecollectionofstudentfeesforsuchthingsasmaterialsandtrips(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).Theschoolhas31full-timeteachersforastudentpopulationof598studentsthatreflectaratiooflessthan20studentsperteacher(19:1)(USNEWS,2017).Thepercentageofeconomicallydisadvantagedstudentsliesat33%withminorityenrollmentof83%.AlthoughclassattendanceishighandthepercentageofstudentswhotestedforAPexamsat81%,thepercentageofstudentswhopasstheAPexamsis47%,orlessthanhalf.EnglishandMathematicproficiencylevelslieat70%and68%respectively,whichisabovethedistrictandnationwideaverage(USNEWS,2017).WithaCollegeReadinessIndexof48.8,theschoolhasroomforimprovement.Whilestudentsearnaveragetestscoresoverall,studentswhoattendDoctorsperformbetterthanstudentsatotherschoolsinthesamedistrict(USNEWS,2017).ThedistrictaverageforEnglishproficiencyis50%andMathematicsproficiencyat37%.Thedistrictaverageforcollegereadinessisat44.7.Thisdatarepresentsassessmentsconductedat113schoolsfor113,242students(USNEWS,2017).Withagraduationrateof98%,CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShoresprovidesacaseworthyoffurtherstudy.UnderstandingtheReasonsforTruancyThereareseveralreasonsfortruancyandtheyareoftencomplexandvaried.Researchontruancysuggeststhatanegativeschoolenvironment,studentbehavior,familyeconomicstatus,andmentalhealthproblemsarekeycontributors(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017)(Dembo,Wareham,Schmeidler,Briones-Robinson,&Winters,2014).Anegativeschoolenvironmentcancauseproblemsforstudentswishingtolearn.SchoolsinMiamioftenhavelargeclassrooms,makingitdifficultforstudentstofocusinclassandreceiveattentionnecessaryforunderstandingthecurriculum(Losen,2015).Ifforexample,astudenthasquestionsorneedsexamplesforaspecificassignmentinclass,theteachermaynothavethetimeorpatiencetodealwiththatstudentwhenheorshemustdealwith29otherstudentsallneedingthesamelevelofattention.Manyschoolsacrossthecountryhavestrictpoliciesregardingdisruptivestudentbehaviorthatcouldlandastudentundersuspensionoreven,expulsion.Severalfactorscouldcausedisruptivebehavioramongstudents(Losen,2015).Onecommonreasonispoverty.highlevelsofpovertyhaveanegativeeffectonschoolbehavior.Thisisattributedlargelytothechronicandacutestressexperiencedbystudentslivinginpoverty.Theexposureisassociatedwithexternalizingbehaviorsthataredisruptiveinschoolsettings(Hutcheson,2014,p.1).Studentsfacingpovertymaybepartofanunstablehousehold.Theymayendureproblematicandabusiveparentsandhavetodealwithlackofresources.Thesestudentsneedachanceeverynowandthentolearnfromtheirmistakesandreceivethehelpandresourcesthatcouldmakeapositivedifferenceintheirlives.Instead,theyaresuspendedorexpelledandnotgivenachancetoimprove.Highratesofsuspensioncanlendtoahigherrateoftruancy.ThebifactorstructurereflectedageneralfactorofProblemsinBehavioralEngagementandtwogroupfactors:ProblemsinSocialEngagementandProblemsinAcademicEngagement(Barghausetal.,2016,p.154).Researchersnotestudentsoftenmaynothaveproblemsacademically,butinsteadsocially.Theymaynotfeelcomfortableengagingwithotherstudentsduetofearofjudgementorinabilitytoproperlysocialize.Providingstudentswiththetoolstobothengagesociallyandacademicallycanallowforahigherpercentageofacademic-basedpositiveoutcomes.Studentinterestmayalsoplayakeyroleintruancy(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017).Thisisbecausesuspensionsandexpulsionsmayimpactstudentinterestinanegativeway.Whenstudentsreceivesuspensions,theyhavenoaccesstotheschoolwork.Whenthesuspensionends,dependingonhowlongthetimeoutofschoolwas,theymayhaveincreaseddifficultycatchingupwiththeclass(Reid,2014).Ifthereisnooptiontocompleteschoolwork,andtheycannotgotoschoolorcontacttheteacherforassignments,itmayputthesekindsofstudentsatanautomaticdisadvantage(Reid,2014).Thisisespeciallythecaseiftheyhaveahardtimeacademicallyalready.Tofallbehindinschoolworkwhenthestudenthasexperiencedlowgradescouldsetbackastudentandcouldendupinhavingfailuresinclasses(Reid,2014).Byexploringincentivetheoryofmotivationandresearchshowingtheconnectionbetweenexpulsion/suspension,interest,andtruancy,thehopeistoofferclarityinwhytruancyratesarehighandwhatcanbedonetocounteractit.Theseproblems:negativeschoolenvironment,studentbehavior,familyeconomicstatus,mentalhealthproblem(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017)(Dembo,Wareham,Schmeidler,Briones-Robinson,&Winters,2014)mustbeaddressedfortruancyprogramstobeeffective.Thescopeoftheproblemsassociatedwithtruancyislarge.Forthepurposeofthisstudy,thespecificfocuswillbeschool-basedpoliciesandproceduresthatmaymitigateorreducetruancy.Withoutapropersynthesisofthereasonssurroundingtheproblem,therewillbelimitedunderstandingabouthowtoapproachthestudy.Therefore,itisimportanttostatethescopeofproblemtodefinethefocusandimprovethequalityofthestudy.StatementoftheProblemTruancyratesintheUnitedStatesareagrowingproblem(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014).Whetherastudentisabsentduetoasuspensionorbecausetheywillinglychoosetobeabsent,theproblemhasbecomeworthyofresearchandpossibleintervention.Theproblemaddressedbythestudyis:Educationalleadersmayhaveimplementedpoliciesandproceduresinpubliccharterschools,butdocumentationaboutwhicharemosteffectiveandwhytheyareislargelyabsentCurrentpolicieshaveenabledhighertruancyratesduetothezero-toleranceaspectthatenablesharsherandstricterpunishmentofstudentbehavior.Sincethe1990s,implementationofzerotolerancepoliciesinschoolshasledtoincreaseduseofschoolsuspensionandexpulsionasdisciplinarytechniquesforstudentswithvaryingdegreesofinfractions(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014,p.1110).Whenstudentsaresuspended,orexpelledfortheirbehavior,theymayhaveatoughertimecatchingupinschoolandsucceedingintheiracademicendeavors.Thiscanleadtootherproblemsdownthelineasstudentsmatureandbecomeadults.Researchsuggeststheexperienceofsuspensionorexpulsioncouldleadtoillegalbehaviorthatisassociatedwithacriminalrecord.Beingsuspendedorexpelledfromschoolincreasedthelikelihoodofarrestinthatsamemonthandthiseffectwasstrongeramongyouthwhodidnothaveahistoryofbehaviorproblemsandwhenyouthassociatedwithlessdelinquentpeers(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014,p.1110).Whenschoolsexpelandsuspendstudents,schoolleadersaddtothetruancyratesoftheschool.Negativebehaviorsassociatedwithtruancymayincrease.Thezerotolerancepoliciesofschoolshavebecomethemaincauseforconcerninthesegrowingcasesofsuspensionandexpulsionbecausetheyareconsideredpunitivemeasures(Schargel,2014).Therefore,policiesneedtobechangedtoaddressthisproblem.Todoso,onemustexamineschoolslikeCharterSecondarySchooltodeterminewhatstepstotaketomakeapositivechange.Althoughtruancydoesnotdirectlyleadtocrime,itoftenhasahighcorrelation(Schargel,2014).PurposeoftheStudyEffectiveschoolpoliciesthatimproveattendancemaycontainprocessesandoptionsthatprovidesuchsupportandvariability.Withoutunderstandingsuchaspects,littlehelpcouldbegeneratedandimplementedtohelpstudentsinneedandhelpthemavoidhightruancyrates.Thepurposeofthestudyistounderstandschoolleadersperspectivesabouthowpoliciesandproceduresreducetruancyandimprovestudentattendance.ByinterviewingkeystaffinCharterSecondarySchool,apubliccharterschoolwithlowtruancylevels,informationoneffectivepoliciesandprocedurescanbegathered.Thesefindingsmayprovideabetterunderstandingofwhatschoolleadersinotherschoolscandotoimprovetruancy.Attendanceplaysalargepartinfacingsuspensionandperformingwellacademically(Schargel,2014).Researchabouttruancyreductionsuggestsstudentswithmoreattendanceoptionsmaybeabletoovercomedifficultiesthatcontributetotruancy(Reid,2014).Effectiveschoolpoliciesthatimproveattendancemaycontainprocessesandoptionsthatprovidesuchsupportandvariability.Withoutunderstandingsuchaspects,littlehelpcouldbegeneratedandimplementedtohelpstudentsinneedandhelpthemavoidhightruancyrates.Thisareaofresearchwillbeexploredintheinterviewsectionandresults.CharterSecondarySchoolhasbetterattendanceandbetteracademicperformancecomparedtoalltheotherschoolsinthedistrict(onaverage).Furthermore,mostofthestudentsareminorityornon-white.Thisschoolisaperfectstartingpointforinvestigationintoeffectiveschoolpolicies.Examinationofothersuccessfulschoolsshouldprovideameasureofeffectivenessneededtounderstandbetterwhatstrategiescanimproveattendance.Itcanalsoshowhowotherschoolshandlethingslikeminoritymajorityandlocationofschoollikeanurban,rural,orsuburbansetting.ResearchQuestions1.WhydoesDCShavealowtruancyrate?2.WhattheoreticalframeworkservesasthefoundationforpoliciesatDCS?QualitativeStudiesandInterviewsThestudyisaqualitativeonethatfocusesontheuseofinterviewstocollectqualitativedata.Theinterviewhastodaybecomeoneofthemostwidespreadknowledge-producingpracticesacrossthehumanandsocialsciencesingeneralandincriticalpsychologymorespecifically(Brinkmann,2014,p.1008).Interviewscanrangefromformalinterviewsorinformalinterviews.Theycanbedoneface-to-face,overthephone,orovertheinternet.Formalinterviewshaveastructuretothemwheretheresearcherasksaquestionandtheparticipantanswers.However,ininformalinterviews,therecanbediscussionanddoesnothavetosticktothequestionsasked(Brinkmann,2014).Mostqualitativeinterviewshavesomestructuretothemandarelabeled,semi-structured.Mostqualitativeinterviews,however,aresemi-structured.Inasemi-structuredinterview,theresearcherprovidessomestructurebasedonherresearchinterestsandinterviewguidebutworksflexiblywiththeguideandallowsroomfortherespondentsmorespontaneousdescriptionsandnarratives(Brinkmann,2014,p.1008).ThereisaneedtounderstandfromthestafforschoolleadersperspectivesthatworkatCharterSecondarySchoolwhatimprovementshavebeenmadeandwhatkindofschoolenvironmentsuchpoliciespromote,thiscangiveagoodpictureofwhatisbeingdonetoachievepositiveoutcomesforthestudentpopulationattending.Similarstudiesusinginterviewshavegatheredasignificantamountofinsightfulinformationthatallowsfortheabilitytoanswerimportantquestions(DeWitte&Csillag,2012)Usingfixedeffectsregressionsandcontrollingfortruancypeergroupeffects,weobservethattruancy(measuredasbothadiscretedummyvariableandacontinuouscountmeasure)positivelycorrelatestoearlyschoolleaving.Atruanthasa3.4percentagepointshigherriskofleavingschoolwithoutaqualification(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Thepoliciessurroundingtruancyprogramsandhowacademicstaffreactallowforthemesdiscoveredthroughtheinterviewprocesstothenbecomparedtothemesfoundintheliteraturereviewtoseeifthereisauniversalthemeorconceptbeingappliedthatleadstosuccessfulacademicperformancebystudentsandgoodattendancerecords.Itisimportanttoallowstudentsandstafferstogivetheiropinionsaswellasenablediscussionofwhatcausedthepositiveornegativeopinion.Thiswillallowforeasieranalysisofresponses.Conceptualframework:Organizationalstructures,leadersvision,FamilySystemstheory,andMotivationtheoryTheideathattruancyisacomplexproblemallowsforfocusonthevariousnarrativesincorporatedinattemptsatunderstandingandresolvingtheproblem.Somanydifferentavenuespointtopotentialsolutions,however,experiencedenotesnegativeorpositiveoutcomes.Therefore,theleadersvisionoftheselectedschoolandofsuccessfultruancyprograms,willallowforascopeofwhatmaybevaluabletowardsreductionofstudenttruancyrates.Withintheconceptualframeworkliesthetheoreticalframework,incentiveandmotivationandfamilysystemstheory.Animportanttheorythatwillbeexploredinthisstudyistheincentivetheoryofmotivation.peoplearepulledtowardsbehaviorsthatofferpositiveincentivesandpushedawayfrombehaviorsassociatedwithnegativeincentives.Theincentivetheorysuggeststhatpeoplearemotivatedtodothingsbecauseofexternalrewards(Rehman&Haider,2013,p.141).Ifstudentsareincentivizedtoattendclassbyreceivingareward,thismaybeacrucialpartmissinginschoolswithhightruancyratesandmayexplainthedownwardspiralofsomestudentswhentheyarepunishedseverelyforbeingabsent.Familysystemstheoryisasystems-leveltheorythatallowsexplorationofapersonslifethroughthecontextofthefamilyandunderstandingtheindividualsfamilyasanemotionalunitcontributingtotheemotionalwellbeingoftheperson(Breda,2014).AtheoryintroducedbyDr.MurrayBowen,thetheorypostsfamiliesexistasinterdependentandinterconnectedindividualsthatcannotbeunderstoodinisolationfromthesystem(Breda,2014).Inthecaseoftruancy,ifastudentisperformingpoorlyinschoolandbecomesabsent,thiscouldbeduetofamilyresponsibilitiesathomesuchasgainingajobtoprovideforthefamilyortakingcareofanillparent.Familysystemstheoryallowsforidentificationofpotentialconnectionswithinthefamilythatcouldbecausingstressforthestudentleadingtotruantbehavior.AssumptionsThemainassumptionthatguidesthisstudyisthateffectivetruancypoliciesandproceduresarethecornerstoneforreductionintruancyrates.Otherassumptionsincludethenotionthathigherratesoftruancyleadtopooreracademicperformance.Whenstudentsfailtoattendclassvoluntarily,theyputthemselvesatgreaterriskofperformingpoorlyinschool.Thiscanhappenduetotheirinabilitytokeepupinschoolandlackofmotivationtocompleteassignments(Rollnick,2016).Theymaybeunwillingtoattendschoolduetomentalhealthproblems,anunstablehomelife,orphysicalhealthconditions.Anotherassumptionisthatstudentslivinginpovertyandminoritystudentsmayhaveamoredifficulttimewithschoolduetoaturbulenthomelifeanddealingwithinstitutionalizedracism.Althoughthisisnotatopicthatwillbecoveredin-depthinthispaper,itisimportanttorecognizethedifficultiesthatcomefromlackofresourcesandpotentiallybeingaminority,andseehowthatcouldaffecttruancyrates.Thiscouldlendtocreationandimplementationofevenmoreeffectiveschoolpoliciesthatcanultimatelyreducetruancyratesandmaintainthemlowinthefuture.LimitationsThestudywillbelimitedtoonepubliccharterschooltounderstandhowtheschoolmaintainsalowertruancyrate.Anotherlimitationisthenumberofpeopletointerviewforthestudy.Becausetheinterviewisqualitativeandin-person,notmanypeoplecanandwillbeavailabletoanswerquestions.ThestudyisalsolimitedtotheschoolswithintheUnitedStates.TheliteraturereviewwillonlyexaminehowAmericanschoolshandletruancyandpolicesthateitherdecreaseorincreasetruancyrates.Thefinallimitationisparents.Althoughparentalopinionmaybehelpful,itwouldbebettertoleavetheinterviewstostudentsandstafferswithparentsgivingpermissiontothestudenttospeak.Nootherlimitationsarenoted.ScopeoftheStudyThestudyisqualitative,andwilluseinterviewswithschoolstafftocollectdata.InterviewtranscriptswillbeanalyzedtoidentifyunderlyingthemesfromrespondentsoftheCharterSecondarySchool.Byaskingquestionsthehopeistounderstandwhateffectivepoliciesareinplacethatallowsforbetterattendanceratesthanotherschoolsinthedistrict.Interestingly,theschoolalsofaresbetterregardingacademicscoresandhasahighgraduationrate.Iflocationplaysapart(itisinasuburbanarea),thisshouldbeexploredviatheinterviewquestionstogainabetterunderstandingofallaspectsofeffectivepolicywithintheschool.Theliteraturereviewprovidesafoundation,theinterviewsprovidethedata.Asidefromthequalitativeinterviews,theliteraturereviewwillserveasacomparativeguidetonotonlybasesomeofthequestions,butalsocomparethedatagarneredfromtheinterviews.Ifothersuccessfulschoolshavesimilarpoliciesinplace,thiscouldserveasapotentialstandardthatcanappliednationallytohelpdecreasetruancyinallschoolsthroughoutthecountry.Theliteraturereviewwillalsoservetoprovideexamplesofpoliciesinschoolwithhightruancyratestoseewhatshouldnotbedone.Theresultswillalsobediscussedwithinthecontextofpotentialmodificationthatcanbemadetohelpimproveattendanceratesandacademicsuccessofstudentsevenfurther.Ultimately,itisimportanttoacknowledgewhatCharterSecondarySchoolhastoofferandseewhetherthatcanserveasagaugeforotherschoolsinthedistrict,anymaybe,inthecountry.Althoughthequalitativestudyissmall,onlyincludingsixstudentsandfourstaffmembersfromtheschool,itmayprovidethekindofinsightthatcannotbegatheredelsewhere.Useofdatabasesavailabletohighlightnationwidetruancyratesmayalsobeused,againasacomparativetool.SignificanceThestudycanbeanimportantstepinlearningwhatisworkableforschoolsaimedatreducingtruancyamongstudentsandwhatisnot.Furthermore,findingsmayleadtothisschoolandothersstandardizingeffectiveprogramsandpolicies.PublicschoolsacrosstheUnitedStatesneedtoknowthattheycanhavetheknowledgetoimprovetheirstudentpopulationsacademicprogressandattendance.First,however,theyneedtoseetheinformationthatprovescertainpolicyimplementationsworkandareworththetime,money,andeffort.Likeevidence-basedpracticeinnursing,staffneedtoseeevidenceofpoliciesthathavealreadybeenenabledandimplementedthathaveledtothesuccessofstudentsandtheimprovedratesofattendance.WhileithelpsseeingthestatisticsofasuccessfulschoollikeCharterSecondarySchool,itisevenmoresignificantifschoolsseethestepsittooktoreachthatlevelofsuccess.Thenthatcollectedinformationcanbecomparedtootherschoolsastoidentifywhatcoreprinciplesandactionshavebeenusedtoachievesuchapositiveresult.Growthandpositiveoutcomescanonlycomefromtestedandapprovedpractices.Theconceptualframeworkwillworkasaguidetoseeandunderstandifassumptionsandhypothesescanbeprovenordisprovenviacomparisonandanalysis.Researchersneedtocontinuetheirpursuitofinformationandanalysistoofferpotentialguidelinesanddirectionsforschoolsthatneedit.ThegrowingproblemoftruancyintheUnitedStatesrequiresathoughtfulandconsiderateassessmentofongoingissues.Theseissueswillcontinuetoremainprevalentunlessactionistaken.Actioncannotbetakenunlessthereissoundresearchandevidencebehindit.Lastly,studiesliketheonehereoffersananchorpointtoinvestigateotheraspectsofschoollife,schoolenvironment,andstudentbehavioralproblems.Ifstudentshaveproblemsduetostruggleswithsexuality,genderidentity,orevenpoliticalaffiliation,thiscouldalsobeinvestigatedinfuturestudies.Theresultscouldthenbeusedtospearheadchangesinpoliciessoon,leadingtocontinueprogressiontowardsasafeandpositiveschoolenvironment.DefinitionofTermsThetermsutilizedinthisstudyaredetailedbelow.TruancyWhenastudentstaysawayfromschoolwithoutasufficientreason;canbealsolabeledasabsenteeism.Dayssuspendedmaybeincludedintruancyrates.CharterSchool(intheUnitedStates)apubliclyfundedindependentschoolestablishedbycommunitygroups,parents,orteachersunderthetermsofacharterwithnational/localauthority.ExpulsionMeaningpermanentwithdrawing/exclusion,whenastudentisbannedorremovedfromaschoolsystem/universityduetoconsistentviolationsofaninstitution\'srules.However,itcanalsobeforasingleoffenseoffittingharshnessinextremecases.SuspensionRegardingschools,suspension(a.k.a.temporaryexclusion)isanobligatoryleavegiventoastudentasamethodofpenaltythatcanlastanywherefromasingledaytoaslongasseveralweeks,whereastudentcannotattendschoolorstepfootinsidetheschool(Kaufman&Kaufman,2013).ConclusionInconclusion,truancyratesareagrowingprobleminUnitedStatesschools.CharterSecondarySchoolisoneschoolthataimstoreducetruancyratesandhavedonesoaccordingtorecentstatistics.ByexploringCharterSecondarySchoolsschoolpoliciesandotherschoolpoliciesthatincreaseordecreasetruancyratesinFloridathestudyhopestounderstandwhatmaycausetruancyinschoolsandwhatreducesit.Ifbetterandimprovedhandlingofstudentissuesisthesolutiontotruancy,itneedstobeexplored.Thenextsectionisaliteraturereview.TheliteraturereviewwillfocusonimportantpoliciesalreadyinplaceinotherschoolsandhowthesepoliciescouldbesimilarordifferenttoCharterSecondarySchoolalongwiththenegativeeffectsofhightruancyratesandthecauseoftheseratesinschools.Thenextsectionallowsonetoseethroughrecentliterature,thesignificanceoftruancyandhowitconnectsschoolmeasureswithstudentbehavior.Someschoolstakepunitivemeasurestowardstruancy,otherstakenon-punitive,andstillmoretakeamixtureofboth.Whyaresuchmeasuresadopted?Theaimistounderstandthisandwhystudentsaretruant.Thereareseveralfactorsthatcanbeatplayfromenvironmenttomentalhealth,andsoforth.Theliteraturereviewwillbringintocontextmoreoftheseaspects.Withsomanyschoolsthroughoutthecountryexperiencinghightruancyrates,whatdoesCharterSecondarySchooldothatenableshighattendanceamongitsstudentpopulation?Whatpolicieshastheschooladoptedtosupportapositiveenvironmentthatmotivatesstudentstoattendschoolandlearn?Chapter2LiteratureReviewRoadmap:Thisliteraturereviewwillfocusonseveralkeytopicsbecausemanyreasonscontributetotruancy.Theseare:addressingschooltruancy,school-basedprograms,punitive/non-punitivetruancyprograms,studentandfamilycharacteristics,parentalengagement,tacklingtheschooltruancyproblem,typesofprogramslikeschool-basedprograms,problemswithcurrenttruancyprograms,characteristicsofsuccessfultruancyprograms,andtheoreticalframework:IncentiveTheoryofMotivation.Thehopeistoilluminatethewaytowardsunderstandingtheproblemofschooltruancyandwaystoreduceit.Introduction:AddressingSchoolTruancyStudenttruancyhasbecomeamajorissueschoolstrytotackle(Rollnick,2016).Therefore,toimprovetruancytheneedarisestoresearchandcultivateworthwhilestrategiestoreducenegativebehaviorsthatleadtotruancy.However,thereisalsoaneedtounderstandwhystudentsaretruantinthefirstplace.Povertyandnegativeschoolenvironmentareissuesthathaveraisedconcernforthelikelihoodoftruancyinstudents(Reid,2014).Thissectionhopestoilluminatetheissueofstudenttruancy.Itbecomesdifficulttoidentifythecostsofbenefitsofvariousmeasures.Thosethatfallintothepunitivedisciplineisnecessarybecausetraditionalistviewsbelieveadherencetorulesleadstopositiveoutcomes(Rollnick,2016).Thoseinthecampofnonpunitivedisciplinedesiretodemonstratehowgivingstudentsoptionscanleadtobetterresultsnotjustintruancyrates,butthepersonalgrowthofthestudent(Rollnick,2016).Withallthestrategiesandmethodsavailable,itcanbedifficultforschoolleadstodeterminewhatmixtureofpunitiveandnonpunitivedisciplinewillwork.Thedesireistoshowthesuccessofprogramsand/orschoolsthathaveenabledareductionintruancyratesaswellaspoliciesineffectthatincreasetruancyratestodemonstratehowtoimprovestudenttruancy.School-basedProgramsAsidefromcreatingastrongerconnectiontocommunity,anotherwayschoolscanandhavehelpeddecreasetruancyratesisthroughtruancyreporting.Truancyreportingallowsstudentstobeassessedtoseeiftheyarehigh-risk(DeWitte&Csillag,2012).Becausetruancycanhaveaprofoundlynegativeeffectonstudentsinthelongterm,schoolshavebegunbecomingmorestringentontruancyreporting.Atruanthasa3.4percentagepointshigherriskofleavingschoolwithoutaqualification(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Theresearchersnotethatbecausetruancyreportingallowsforbetterassessmentofat-riskyouth,itcanprovideameansofidentifyingpotentialproblemswithstudentearlyon(DeWitte&Csillag,2012).Thismakestruancyreportingapreventativemeasure.Suchapreventativemeasureappearstohavepositiveeffectsonstudentsatrisk..Theideaisstraightforward:ifstudentsarebettermonitoredwithrespecttotruancy,schoolscanidentifymoreeasilystudentsatrisk.Theresultsindicatethatimprovedtruancyreportingsignificantlyreducesschooldropoutby5percentagepoints(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Tojumpstarttheprocessofhelpingstudents,schoolsmustfigureoutwaystohelpstudentsconnecttotheircommunity.Apreventativemeasureusedtohelpidentifyat-riskyouth,canhaveinterventionsthatleadtopositiveeducationaloutcomes(DeWitte&Csillag,2012).Schoolsliketheoneusedforthisstudyandthoselikeit,alreadyhaveinplacearobusttruancyreportingprotocol.Theruleswithinthisprotocolshowthatstudentscannotbeabsentmorethanafewdaysortheschoolwillbeinvolvedandwillcontactthestudentshousehold(DeWitte&Csillag,2012).Moreresearchshouldbededicatedtohowpreventativemeasurescanexpandtoincludeotherwaystoassessforat-riskbehavior.Thiscanincludelatenessforclass,missedhomeworkassignments,andsoforth(Reid,2017).Ifthiscanbedone,thismayfurtherallowforagreaterassessmentofpotentialtruancyproblemsinthefuture.Applyingresearchtopracticeispopularinhealthcare,perhapsitcanalsobecomepopularineducationasmoreinformationcomesoutonhotbuttontopicslikestudenttruancy(Reid,2017).PunitivePunitivemeasuresfortruancycanbeseenthroughtheintroductionofthird-partypolicinginschools.Third-partypolicingisanapproachtocrimepreventionandcontrolinvolvingthepolicepartneringwithorganizationsorindividualstopreventorreducecrimeproblems(Nitschke,Mazerolle,&Bennett,2014,p.5211).Relyingonavailablecriminal,regulatory,orcivillawsandrules(legallevers)thatallowthirdpartiestotakeaccountability,partially,forcontrolofcrime,itcreatesanenvironmentwhereapprehensionofproblemstudentsisfeasible(Nitschke,Mazerolle,&Bennett,2014).Thismayhelpschoolsdealwiththegrowingdelinquencyinstudents,butmayalsomakeiteasierforstudentstobecomepartofthecriminaljusticesystematanearlyage.Punitivemeasurescanalsobecostlier(Nitschke,Mazerolle,&Bennett,2014).Thisisbecausepunitivemeasureslikeexpulsionorsuspensioncanfurtherincreasethelikelihoodofstudentsbeingtruantandperformingpoorlyacademically(Shelton,2014).Studentsmustbeguidedtowardsapositiveoutcomeandthatmeansreducingthebeliefthatpunitivemeasureswillkeepstudentsfrombeingtruant.Althoughshort-termresultsmayindicatereduction,thelong-termeffectscouldbemorenegativeandlong-lasting(Shelton,2014).Sheltonmentionedthatstudentswhofacepunitivemeasuresmayhaveahigherchanceofcommittingcrimesversusthosewhofacednon-punitivemeasures.Whilesomeresearchsuggestspolice-interventionregardingtruancycanhelpstudentsinthatparentsaremoreawareofwhathappenstothem,therearestillmanyfactorstoconsiderinrelationtoefficacy.Forexample,police-interventionmayleadtohigherparentalawareness,butalsoincreasedpotentialfortruantstudentstoendupinthejuvenilecriminaljusticesystem(Mazerolle,Bennett,Antrobus,&Eggins,2017).Amixtureofbothpunitiveandnon-punitivemeasuresmaybemostbeneficialintacklingtheproblemoftruancy.Non-PunitivePunitivemeasuresfortruancyhavetheirplaceinschools.However,researchshowsnon-punitivemeasuresarealsousefulandofferachanceforstudentstoimproveandremovesomeofthestigmaattachedtopastmistakes(Reid,2017).Successfulprotocolsintegrateflexibilityintostandardmethodstohelptheschool,family,andstudent.Suchprogramsunderstandindividualstudentsneedsanddowhateverisessentialtoassistthefamilyandstudentinvolvedintruancy(Mallett,2015).OnestudyinAustraliaaimedtounderstandtruancyandtheeffectsoftruancytogenerateprogramsthatallowedforeffectivemeasuresatreducingtruancyratesamongstudents(Taylor,Gray,&Stanton,2016).Thisshowsthatwithproperresearch,non-punitiveoptionsarefeasible.However,theymustbedoneinconjunctionwithsignificantresearchthatallowsabetterunderstandingoftheneedsofstudentswhoparticipateintruancy(Mallett,2015).Theexpectationisthatnon-punitivemeasuresaremoreeffectivethanpunitivemeasures.However,ifthereisnosignificantdifference,non-punitivemeasuresmustbeassessedforefficacy.Haight,Chapman,Hendron,Loftis,&Kearney(2014),demonstratedhownon-punitivemeasureslikeatruancyprogrammaynotworkifakeyprocessisnotimplemented.Meaning,ifthereisnoskill-buildingaspecttotheprogramliketutoring,thechancefortruancytodecreasedeclines.StudentCharacteristicsTruancycanhavealastingimpactonthelifeofastudent.Schooldropouthasbeenextensivelystudiedintheliteratureasacorrelateofnegativelifeoutcomes.Aprecursortoschooldropoutistruancy,theunexcusedorillegitimatestudentabsencefromschool(Rocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016,p.592).Studentsmaybeabsentortruantduetoamultitudeofreasons.Researchersidentifiedthroughafewexaminedstudies,thatstudentswhoareoftenmoretruantthanothers,maybemoreinvolvedincrime(Shelton,2014)(Shute&Cooper,2014)(Virtanen,Lerkkanen,Poikkeus,&Kuorelahti,2014).Suchinvolvementpointstothenegativecorrelationoftruancyandlaterlifeoutcomeslikedelinquencyandcrime(Rocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016.Theresearchersalsostatetruancycanleadtoproblemdrinking.Resultsindicatethattruancyhaslong-lastingassociationswithnegativelifeoutcomes,especiallyfornon-violentcrimeandproblemdrinking(Rocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016,p.592).Ifaddictiveorcriminalbehaviorleadstotruancyandtruancycanfurtherleadtoaddictiveorcriminalbehavior,itseemsacyclethatjustfeedsitselfwithnegativeoverallbehavior.Thisisimportanttoknowbecausestudentsexperiencingaddictionproblemsorbecominginvolvedindelinquentbehaviorcanreceivehelptonotonlykeepthemfromengaginginsuchriskyactionswhilealsopositivelycontributingtoreductionintruancyrates(Rocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016).Essentially,thenotionthatfortheretobeareductionintruancyrates,schoolsmusthelpstudentsdealwiththenegativebehaviorstheyareengagingin,outsideofschool.Thesenegativebehaviorscouldcomebecauseofnegativeexperiences.Frombullyingtopooracademicperformance,studentsoftenexperiencestressthatcouldbedetrimentaltotheiracademicsuccess.Birkett,Russell,&Corliss,(2014)observetherolesexual-orientationdisparitieshaveonstudentsinrelationtoacademicachievementandtruancy.Throughtheutilizationofpoolinformation,theyidentifiedbeingpartoftheLGBTgroupaffectedratesoftruancyandacademicperformance.LGBT-identifiedyouthsreportedsignificantlyelevatedoddsoftruancyandlowgrades(oddsratios?=?1.63.2;allP?.

Truancy A Case Study
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…Effective Policies and Procedures Can Affect Truancy Rate49Policies and procedures perceived by school leadersto reduce truancy in a public charter schoolAlix DesulmeB.A (St. Thomas University) 2004M.S (St. Thomas University) 2006A Proposal Presented in Partial FulfillmentOf the Requirements for the Degree ofDoctor of EducationUniversity of New EnglandOctober 15, 2017Change the date each time you submit the draft pleaseChapter 1IntroductionStudent truancy is a growing problem in the United States. Over the last twenty years the truancy rates have grown nationwide with the highest rates in inner cities (Jacob & Lovett, 2017). Research indicates that student truancy leads to potential socially deviant behavior in adulthood (Dronkers, Veerman, & Pong, 2017). Many students who are absent for prolonged periods are more likely to perform poorly academically, risking failure in classes and facing disciplinary action. Characteristics of schools with high truancy rates are use of only punitive truancy programs, lack of alternative study options for….

Truancy A Case Study
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…Policies and procedures perceived by school leadersto reduce truancy in a public charter schoolAlix DesulmeB.A (St. Thomas University) 2004M.S (St. Thomas University) 2006A Proposal Presented in Partial FulfillmentOf the Requirements for the Degree ofDoctor of EducationUniversity of New England3/14/2018Chapter 1IntroductionStudent truancy is a growing problem in the United States. Over the last twenty years the truancy rates have grown nationwide with the highest rates in inner cities (Jacob & Lovett, 2017). Research indicates that student truancy leads to potential socially deviant behavior in adulthood (Dronkers, Veerman, & Pong, 2017). Many students who are absent for prolonged periods are more likely to perform poorly academically, risking failure in classes and facing disciplinary action. Characteristics of schools with high truancy rates are use of only punitive truancy programs, lack of alternative study options for suspended students, and lack of counseling and tutoring (Bye, 2010). There are schools that have been doing well….

…[…… parts of this paper are missing, click here to view or download the entire document ]…EffectivePoliciesandProceduresCanAffectTruancyate50PoliciesandproceduresperceivedbyschoolleaderstoreducetruancyinapubliccharterschoolAlixDesulmeB.A(St.ThomasUniversity)2004M.S(St.ThomasUniversity)2006AProposalPresentedinPartialFulfillmentOftheequirementsfortheDegreeofDoctorofEducationUniversityofNewEnglandOctober15,2017Chapter1IntroductionStudenttruancyisagrowingproblemintheUnitedStates.Overthelasttwentyyearsthetruancyrateshavegrownnationwidewiththehighestratesininnercities(Jacob&Lovett,2017).esearchindicatesthatstudenttruancyleadstopotentialsociallydeviantbehaviorinadulthood(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017).Manystudentswhoareabsentforprolongedperiodsaremorelikelytoperformpoorlyacademically,riskingfailureinclassesandfacingdisciplinaryaction.Characteristicsofschoolswithhightruancyratesareuseofonlypunitivetruancyprograms,lackofalternativestudyoptionsforsuspendedstudents,andlackofcounselingandtutoring(Bye,2010).Thereareschoolsthathavebeendoingwellinmaintaininglowtruancyrates,however.Thoseschoolsgivestudentstheoptionfortutoring,allowdistancelearningforsuspendedstudents,andtakeonamixtureofpunitiveandnon-punitivemeasures(Duarte&Hatch,2014).Withanationalrankingof764andaFloridarankingof66,CharterSecondarySchoolisconsideredoneofthebesthighschoolsinthestateregardingstudentattendanceratesandoverallschoolparticipation.Theschoolhasalowtruancyamongminoritystudents,whichisanotableanddistinctivequality,makingitananomalyinthesurroundingarea.Suchaqualitywillbeanalyzedindepthinthispaperalongwiththevariouspossiblereasonsforthestudentswillingnesstoattendclassregularlyandwhatmethodsareemployedbyschoolstafftokeeptheschoolenvironmentpositivebecausetruancyratesaresolowcomparedtootherschoolsintheareaandnationwide.Firstestablishedin2005,CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShoreisapubliccharterschoolbuiltontheBarryUniversityCampus,sittingon5acresofproperty.ItisinMiamiShore,anareaofFlorida.Thecurrentenrollmentnumberstandsat599andthecampustypeissuburban.TheschoolmascotaretheHawks.ateAasacollegepreparatoryschool,theschoolholdsamunicipalcharterviaVillageofMiamiShoresthatservesstudentsfromgrades6-12(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).Initsearlyhistory,CharterSecondarySchoolwasoriginallyamiddleschoolestablishedin1997underthename,MiamiShores/BarryUniversityCharterSchool.ThenineportablestructuresthatcomprisedtheschoolservedasanalternativeforMiamiShorestudentsthatwouldotherwiseattendHoraceMannMiddleSchool(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).However,after8years,theschoolsecuredmorefundingandin2005,renamedtheschool.TheschoolgainedapermanentstructurethankstothedonationsgivenbythecitizensofMiamiShoresandadditionalfundsfromtheNorthDadeMedicalFoundation.DCSdrawsfundsfromtwoseparatestreams.OnepartofthefundingcomesfromabondissueapprovedbyVillageresidentsandalargetwo-yeargrantgivenbytheNorthDadeMedicalFoundationforFY2006and2007.DCSraisestheremainderofitsoperatingexpensesfromthestatethroughitsFTEfunding(asetamountforeachstudentintheclassroomperday)andthroughthecollectionofstudentfeesforsuchthingsasmaterialsandtrips(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).Theschoolhas31full-timeteachersforastudentpopulationof598studentsthatreflectaratiooflessthan20studentsperteacher(19:1)(USNEWS,2017).Thepercentageofeconomicallydisadvantagedstudentsliesat33%withminorityenrollmentof83%.AlthoughclassattendanceishighandthepercentageofstudentswhotestedforAPexamsat81%,thepercentageofstudentswhopasstheAPexamsis47%,orlessthanhalf.EnglishandMathematicproficiencylevelslieat70%and68%respectively,whichisabovethedistrictandnationwideaverage(USNEWS,2017).WithaCollegeeadinessIndexof48.8,theschoolhasroomforimprovement.Whilestudentsearnaveragetestscores,overall,studentswhoattendDoctorsperformbetterthanstudentsatotherschoolsinitsdistrict.ThedistrictaverageforEnglishproficiencyis50%andMathematicproficiencyat37%.Thedistrictaverageforcollegereadinessisat44.7andthisisoutof113schoolsand113,242students(USNEWS,2017).Withagraduationrateof98%,CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShoreshasalotgoingforitregardingpositiveaspectsandstudentinterest.UnderstandingtheeasonsforTruancyThereareseveralreasonsfortruancyandtheyareoftencomplexandvaried.Somepertaintoanegativeschoolenvironment,studentbehavior,familyeconomicstatus,mentalhealthproblems,tonameafew.Anegativeschoolenvironmentcancauseproblemsforstudentswishingtolearn.UnlikeCharterSecondarySchool,classroomsacrosstheMiamioftenhavelargeclassroomsforexample,makingitdifficultforstudentstopayattentioninclassandreceiveattentionnecessaryforunderstandingthecurriculum(Losen,2015).Ifforexample,astudenthasquestionsorneedsexamplesforaspecificassignmentinclass,theteachermaynothavethetimeorpatiencetodealwiththatstudentwhenheorshemustdealwith29otherstudentsallneedingthesamelevelofattention.Manyschoolsacrossthecountryhavestrictpoliciesregardingdisruptivestudentbehaviorthatcouldlandastudentundersuspensionoreven,expulsion.Severalfactorscouldcausedisruptivebehavioramongstudents(Losen,2015).Onecommonreasonispoverty.highlevelsofpovertyhaveanegativeeffectonschoolbehavior.Thisisattributedlargelytothechronicandacutestressexperiencedbystudentslivinginpoverty.Theexposureisassociatedwithexternalizingbehaviorsthataredisruptiveinschoolsettings(Hutcheson,2014,p.1).Studentsfacingpovertymaybepartofanunstablehousehold.Theymayendureproblematicandabusiveparents,andhavetodealwithlackofresources.Thesestudentsneedachanceeverynowandthentolearnfromtheirmistakesandreceivethehelpandresourcesthatcouldmakeapositivedifferenceintheirlives.Instead,theyaresuspendedorexpelledandnotgivenachancetoimprove.Highratesofsuspensioncanlendtoahigherrateoftruancy.ThebifactorstructurereflectedageneralfactorofProblemsinBehavioralEngagementandtwogroupfactors:ProblemsinSocialEngagementandProblemsinAcademicEngagement(Barghausetal.,2016,p.154).esearchersnotestudentsoftenmaynothaveproblemsacademically,butinsteadsocially.Theymaynotfeelcomfortableengagingwithotherstudentsduetofearofjudgementorinabilitytoproperlysocialize.Providingstudentswiththetoolstobothengagesociallyandacademicallycanallowforahigherpercentageofacademic-basedpositiveoutcomes.Studentinterestmayalsoplayakeyroleintruancy(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017).Thisisbecausesuspensionsandexpulsionsmayimpactstudentinterestinanegativeway.Whenstudentsreceivesuspensions,theyhavenoaccesstotheschoolwork.Whenthesuspensionends,dependingonhowlongthetimeoutofschoolwas,theymayhaveincreaseddifficultycatchingupwiththeclass.Ifthereisnooptiontocompleteschoolwork,andtheycannotgotoschoolorcontacttheteacherforassignments,itmayputthesekindsofstudentsatanautomaticdisadvantage.Thisisespeciallythecaseiftheyhaveahardtimeacademicallyalready.Tofallbehindinschoolworkwhenthestudenthasexperiencedlowgradescouldsetbackastudentandcouldendupinhavingfailuresinclasses.Byexploringincentivetheoryofmotivationandresearchshowingtheconnectionbetweenexpulsion/suspension,interest,andtruancy,thehopeistoofferclarityinwhytruancyratesarehighandwhatcanbedonetocounteractit.Theseproblems:negativeschoolenvironment,studentbehavior,familyeconomicstatus,mentalhealthproblem(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017)(Dembo,Wareham,Schmeidler,Briones-obinson,&Winters,2014)mustbeaddressedfortruancyprogramstobeeffective.Thescopeoftheproblemsassociatedwithtruancyislarge.Forthepurposeofthisstudy,thespecificfocuswillbeschool-basedpoliciesandproceduresthatmaymitigateorreducetruancy.Withoutapropersynthesisofthereasonssurroundingtheproblem,therewillbelimitedunderstandingabouthowtoapproachthestudy.Therefore,itisimportanttostatethescopeofproblemtodefinethefocusandimprovethequalityofthestudy.StatementoftheProblemTruancyratesintheUnitedStatesareagrowingproblem(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014).Whetherastudentisabsentduetoasuspensionorbecausetheywillinglychoosetobeabsent,theproblemhasbecomeworthyofresearchandpossibleintervention.Truancyratesarehigherinschoolswithlowsocio-economicstatus(Dembo,Wareham,Schmeidler,Briones-obinson,&Winters,2014).Theproblemaddressedbythestudyis:Educationalleadersmayhaveimplementedpoliciesandproceduresinpubliccharterschools,butdocumentationaboutwhicharemosteffectiveandwhytheyareislargelyabsent.Currentpolicieshaveenabledhighertruancyratesduetothezero-toleranceaspectthatenablesharsherandstricterpunishmentofstudentbehavior.Sincethe1990s,implementationofzerotolerancepoliciesinschoolshasledtoincreaseduseofschoolsuspensionandexpulsionasdisciplinarytechniquesforstudentswithvaryingdegreesofinfractions(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014,p.1110).Whenstudentsaresuspended,orexpelledfortheirbehavior,theymayhaveatoughertimecatchingupinschoolandsucceedingintheiracademicendeavors.Thiscanleadtootherproblemsdownthelineasstudentsmatureandbecomeadults.esearchsuggeststheexperienceofsuspensionofexpulsioncouldleadtoillegalbehaviorthatisassociatedwithacriminalrecord.Beingsuspendedorexpelledfromschoolincreasedthelikelihoodofarrestinthatsamemonthandthiseffectwasstrongeramongyouthwhodidnothaveahistoryofbehaviorproblemsandwhenyouthassociatedwithlessdelinquentpeers(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014,p.1110).Whenschoolsexpelandsuspendstudents,addingtothetruancyratesoftheschool,negativebehaviorsmayincrease.Thezerotolerancepoliciesofschoolshavebecomethemaincauseforconcerninthesegrowingcasesofsuspensionandexpulsion.Therefore,policiesneedtobechangedtoaddressthisproblem.Todoso,onemustexamineschoolslikeCharterSecondarySchooltodeterminewhatstepstotaketomakeapositivechange.Althoughtruancydoesnotdirectlyleadtocrime,itoftenhasahighcorrelation.PurposeoftheStudyThepurposeofthestudyistounderstandschoolleadersperspectivesaboutwhethereffectivepoliciesandproceduresreducetruancyandimprovestudentattendance.ByinterviewingkeystaffinCharterSecondarySchool,apubliccharterschoolwithlowtruancylevels,informationoneffectivepoliciesandprocedurescanbegathered.Thesefindingsmayprovideabetterunderstandingofwhatschoolleadersinotherschoolscandotoimprovetruancy.Attendanceplaysalargepartinfacingsuspensionandperformingwellacademically.esearchabouttruancyreductionsuggestsstudentswithmoreattendanceoptionsmaybeabletoovercomedifficultiesthatcontributetotruancy.Effectiveschoolpoliciesthatimproveattendancemaycontainprocessesandoptionsthatprovidesuchsupportandvariability.Withoutunderstandingsuchaspects,littlehelpcouldbegeneratedandimplementedtohelpstudentsinneedandhelpthemavoidhightruancyrates.Thisareaofresearchwillbeexploredintheinterviewsectionandresults.CharterSecondarySchoolhasbetterattendanceandbetteracademicperformancecomparedtoalltheotherschoolsinthedistrict(onaverage).Furthermore,mostofthestudentsareminorityornon-white.Thisschoolisaperfectstartingpointforinvestigationintoeffectiveschoolpolicies.Alookintoothersuccessfulschoolsshouldprovideameasureofeffectivenessneededtounderstandbetterwhatstrategiescanimproveattendance.Itcanalsoshowhowotherschoolshandlethingslikeminoritymajorityandlocationofschoollikeanurban,rural,orsuburbansetting.esearchQuestions1.Whatmaybethecauseoftruancyinstudents?2.Howdoesincentivetheoryplayaroleinunderstandingschooltruancy?3.Whataretheeffectsofpunitiveornon-punitivetruancyprogramsonstudents?4.Whataresuccessfultruancyprogramsdoingthathasledtoreductionintruancy?5.Whyaresometruancyprogramsunsuccessfulatreducingtruancy?Theresearchneedstodelveintounderstandingthereasonsbehindtruancy.Fortheretobesolutionstothenationwidetruancyproblem,researchmustbedirectedtowardsevidencethatexplainsmotivationsbehindtruancybehaviorandwhataspectsoftruancyprogramshelpeliminatesuchbehavior.Bydevelopingaclearideaofschooltruancyandwhystudentsbecometruant,thehopeistodevelopevidence-basedpracticesthatreduceschooltruancyinstudents.Amyriadofschoolprogramsexistsfortruancy,buttherealityis,notmanyareeffective.QualitativeStudiesandInterviewsThestudyisaqualitativeonethatfocusesontheuseofinterviewstocollectqualitativedata.Theinterviewhastodaybecomeoneofthemostwidespreadknowledge-producingpracticesacrossthehumanandsocialsciencesingeneralandincriticalpsychologymorespecifically(Brinkmann,2014,p.1008).Interviewscanrangefromformalinterviewsorinformalinterviews.Theycanbedoneface-to-face,overthephone,orovertheinternet.Formalinterviewshaveastructuretothemwheretheresearcherasksaquestionandtheparticipantanswers.However,ininformalinterviews,therecanbediscussionanddoesnothavetosticktothequestionsasked.Mostqualitativeinterviewshavesomestructuretothemandarelabeled,semi-structured.Mostqualitativeinterviews,however,aresemi-structured.Inasemi-structuredinterview,theresearcherprovidessomestructurebasedonherresearchinterestsandinterviewguidebutworksflexiblywiththeguideandallowsroomfortherespondentsmorespontaneousdescriptionsandnarratives(Brinkmann,2014,p.1008).ThereisaneedtounderstandfromthestafforschoolleadersperspectivesthatworkatCharterSecondarySchoolwhythepoliciesattheschoolwork.Tounderstandwhatimprovementshavebeenmadeandwhatkindofschoolenvironmentsuchpoliciespromote,thiscangiveagoodpictureofwhatisbeingdonetoachievepositiveoutcomesforthestudentpopulationattending.Similarstudiesusinginterviewshavegatheredasignificantamountofinsightfulinformationthatallowsfortheabilitytoanswerimportantquestions.Usingfixedeffectsregressionsandcontrollingfortruancypeergroupeffects,weobservethattruancy(measuredasbothadiscretedummyvariableandacontinuouscountmeasure)positivelycorrelatestoearlyschoolleaving.Atruanthasa3.4percentagepointshigherriskofleavingschoolwithoutaqualification(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Thepoliciessurroundingtruancyprogramsandhowacademicstaffreactallowforthemesdiscoveredthroughtheinterviewprocesstothenbecomparedtothemesfoundintheliteraturereviewtoseeifthereisauniversalthemeorconceptbeingappliedthatleadstosuccessfulacademicperformancebystudentsandgoodattendancerecords.Itisimportanttoallowstudentsandstafferstogivetheiropinionsaswellasenablediscussionofwhatcausedthepositiveornegativeopinion.Thiswillallowforeasieranalysisofresponses.Conceptualframework:OrganizationalstructuresandleadersvisionTheideathattruancyisacomplexproblemallowsforfocusonthevariousnarrativesincorporatedinattemptsatunderstandingandresolvingtheproblem.Somanydifferentavenuespointtopotentialsolutions,however,experiencedenotesnegativeorpositiveoutcomes.Therefore,theleadersvisonoftheselectedschoolandofsuccessfultruancyprograms,willallowforascopeofwhatmaybevaluabletowardsreductionofstudenttruancyrates.Withintheconceptualframeworkliesthetheoreticalframework,incentiveandmotivation.Animportanttheorythatwillbeexploredinthispaperistheincentivetheoryofmotivation.peoplearepulledtowardsbehaviorsthatofferpositiveincentivesandpushedawayfrombehaviorsassociatedwithnegativeincentives.Theincentivetheorysuggeststhatpeoplearemotivatedtodothingsbecauseofexternalrewards(ehman&Haider,2013,p.141).Ifstudentsareincentivizedtoattendclassbyreceivingareward,thismaybeacrucialpartmissinginschoolswithhightruancyratesandmayexplainthedownwardspiralofsomestudentswhentheyarepunishedseverelyforbeingabsent.CharterSecondarySchoolhasnon-academicawardsthattheygiveouttostudentswhoarerespectfulandhavegoodattendancerecords.Thesecouldbeincentivesforstudentstocontinueattendingclass.Theschoolsattendanceprocedureisstrict,butallowsforevaluationofthereasonsbehindastudentsabsence.Suchconsiderationforastudentallowsforroomforthestudenttoresolvehisorherproblemsandcontinuegoingtoschool.Onerule,isthatifastudentmissesanxamountofdays,theywillhavethesameamountofdaystomakeuptheassignment.Althoughthismaybedifficulttoaccomplish,itdoesleavesomewiggleroomforstudents,thusincreasingtheirmotivationtocontinuefollowingtherulesoftheschool.AssumptionsThemainassumptionthatguidesthisstudyisthattruancypoliciesandproceduresarethecornerstoneforreductionintruancyrates.Otherassumptionsincludethenotionthathigherratesoftruancyleadtopooreracademicperformance.Whenstudentsfailtoattendclassvoluntarily,theyputthemselvesatgreaterriskofperformingpoorlyinschool.Thiscanhappenduetotheirinabilitytokeepupinschoolandlackofmotivationtocompleteassignments.Theymaybeunwillingtoattendschoolduetomentalhealthproblems,anunstablehomelife,orphysicalhealthconditions.Anotherassumptionisthatstudentslivinginpovertyandminoritystudentsmayhaveamoredifficulttimewithschoolduetoaturbulenthomelifeanddealingwithinstitutionalizedracism.Althoughthisisnotatopicthatwillbecoveredin-depthinthispaper,itisimportanttorecognizethedifficultiesthatcomefromlackofresourcesandpotentiallybeingaminority,andseehowthatcouldaffecttruancyrates.Thiscouldlendtocreationandimplementationofevenmoreeffectiveschoolpoliciesthatcanultimatelyreducetruancyratesandmaintainthemlowinthefuture.LimitationsThestudywillbelimitedtoonepubliccharterschool.theDoctorsChartersSchool.Thisisbecauseoftheneedtounderstandwhattheschooldoesandthencomparethatinformationtoothersuccessfulschools.Anotherlimitationisthenumberofpeopletointerviewforthestudy.Becausetheinterviewisqualitativeandin-person,notmanypeoplecanandwillbeavailabletoanswerquestions.ThestudyisalsolimitedtotheschoolswithintheUnitedStates.TheliteraturereviewwillonlyexaminehowAmericanschoolshandletruancyandpolicesthateitherdecreaseorincreasetruancyrates.Thefinallimitationisparents.Althoughparentalopinionmaybehelpful,itwouldbebettertoleavetheinterviewstostudentsandstafferswithparentsgivingpermissiontothestudenttospeak.Nootherlimitationsarenoted.ScopeoftheStudyThestudyisqualitative,andwilluseinterviewswithschoolstafftocollectdata.InterviewtranscriptswillbeanalyzedtoidentifyunderlyingthemesfromrespondentsoftheCharterSecondarySchool.Byaskingquestionsthehopeistounderstandwhateffectivepoliciesareinplacethatallowsforbetterattendanceratesthanotherschoolsinthedistrict.Interestingly,theschoolalsofaresbetterregardingacademicscoresandhasahighgraduationrate.Iflocationplaysapart(itisinasuburbanarea),thisshouldbeexploredviatheinterviewquestionstogainabetterunderstandingofallaspectsofeffectivepolicywithintheschool.Theliteraturereviewprovidesafoundation,theinterviewsprovidethedata.Asidefromthequalitativeinterviews,theliteraturereviewwillserveasacomparativeguidetonotonlybasesomeofthequestions,butalsocomparethedatagarneredfromtheinterviews.Ifothersuccessfulschoolshavesimilarpoliciesinplace,thiscouldserveasapotentialstandardthatcanappliednationallytohelpdecreasetruancyinallschoolsthroughoutthecountry.Theliteraturereviewwillalsoservetoprovideexamplesofpoliciesinschoolwithhightruancyratestoseewhatshouldnotbedone.Theresultswillalsobediscussedwithinthecontextofpotentialmodificationthatcanbemadetohelpimproveattendanceratesandacademicsuccessofstudentsevenfurther.Ultimately,itisimportanttoacknowledgewhatCharterSecondarySchoolhastoofferandseewhetherthatcanserveasagaugeforotherschoolsinthedistrict,anymaybe,inthecountry.Althoughthequalitativestudyissmall,onlyincludingsixstudentsandfourstaffmembersfromtheschool,itmayprovidethekindofinsightthatcannotbegatheredelsewhere.Useofdatabasesavailabletohighlightnationwidetruancyratesmayalsobeused,againasacomparativetool.SignificanceThestudycanbeanimportantstepinlearningwhatisworkableforschoolsaimedatreducingtruancyamongstudentsandwhatisnot.Furthermore,findingsmayleadtothisschoolandothersstandardizingeffectiveprogramsandpolicies.PublicschoolsacrosstheUnitedStatesneedtoknowthattheycanhavetheknowledgetoimprovetheirstudentpopulationsacademicprogressandattendance.First,however,theyneedtoseetheinformationthatprovescertainpolicyimplementationsworkandareworththetime,money,andeffort.Likeevidence-basedpracticeinnursing,staffneedtoseeevidenceofpoliciesthathavealreadybeenenabledandimplementedthathaveledtothesuccessofstudentsandtheimprovedratesofattendance.WhileithelpsseeingthestatisticsofasuccessfulschoollikeCharterSecondarySchool,itisevenmoresignificantifschoolsseethestepsittooktoreachthatlevelofsuccess.Thenthatcollectedinformationcanbecomparedtootherschoolsastoidentifywhatcoreprinciplesandactionshavebeenusedtoachievesuchapositiveresult.Growthandpositiveoutcomescanonlycomefromtestedandapprovedpractices.Theconceptualframeworkwillworkasaguidetoseeandunderstandifassumptionsandhypothesescanbeprovenordisprovenviacomparisonandanalysis.esearchersneedtocontinuetheirpursuitofinformationandanalysistoofferpotentialguidelinesanddirectionsforschoolsthatneedit.ThegrowingproblemoftruancyintheUnitedStatesrequiresathoughtfulandconsiderateassessmentofongoingissues.Theseissueswillcontinuetoremainprevalentunlessactionistaken.Actioncannotbetakenunlessthereissoundresearchandevidencebehindit.Lastly,studiesliketheonehereoffersananchorpointtoinvestigateotheraspectsofschoollife,schoolenvironment,andstudentbehavioralproblems.Ifstudentshaveproblemsduetostruggleswithsexuality,genderidentity,orevenpoliticalaffiliation,thiscouldalsobeinvestigatedinfuturestudies.Theresultscouldthenbeusedtospearheadchangesinpoliciesinthenearfuture,leadingtocontinueprogressiontowardsasafeandpositiveschoolenvironment.DefinitionofTermsThetermsutilizedinthisstudyaredetailedbelow.TruancyWhenastudentstaysawayfromschoolwithoutasufficientreason;canbealsolabeledasabsenteeism.Dayssuspendedmaybeincludedintruancyrates.CharterSchool(intheUnitedStates)apubliclyfundedindependentschoolestablishedbycommunitygroups,parents,orteachersunderthetermsofacharterwithnational/localauthority.ExpulsionMeaningpermanentwithdrawing/exclusion,whenastudentisbannedorremovedfromaschoolsystem/universityduetoconsistentviolationsofaninstitution\\\'srules.However,itcanalsobeforasingleoffenseoffittingharshnessinextremecases.Suspensionegardingschools,suspension(a.k.a.temporaryexclusion)isanobligatoryleavegiventoastudentasamethodofpenaltythatcanlastanywherefromasingledaytoaslongasseveralweeks,whereastudentcannotattendschoolorstepfootinsidetheschool(Kaufman&Kaufman,2013).ConclusionInconclusion,truancyratesareagrowingprobleminUnitedStatesschools.CharterSecondarySchoolisoneschoolthataimstoreducetruancyratesandhavedonesoaccordingtorecentstatistics.ByexploringCharterSecondarySchoolsschoolpoliciesandotherschoolpoliciesthatincreaseordecreasetruancyratesinFloridathestudyhopestounderstandwhatmaycausetruancyinschoolsandwhatreducesit.Ifbetterandimprovedhandlingofstudentissuesisthesolutiontotruancy,itneedstobeexplored.Thenextsectionisaliteraturereview.TheliteraturereviewwillfocusonimportantpoliciesalreadyinplaceinotherschoolsandhowthesepoliciescouldbesimilarordifferenttoCharterSecondarySchoolalongwiththenegativeeffectsofhightruancyratesandthecauseoftheseratesinschools.Thenextsectionallowsonetoseethroughrecentliterature,thesignificanceoftruancyandhowitconnectsschoolmeasureswithstudentbehavior.Someschoolstakepunitivemeasurestowardstruancy,otherstakenon-punitive,andstillmoretakeamixtureofboth.Whyaresuchmeasuresadopted?Theaimistounderstandthisandwhystudentsaretruant.Thereareseveralfactorsthatcanbeatplayfromenvironmenttomentalhealth,andsoforth.Theliteraturereviewwillbringintocontextmoreoftheseaspects.Withsomanyschoolsthroughoutthecountryexperiencinghightruancyrates,whatdoesCharterSecondarySchooldothatenableshighattendanceamongitsstudentpopulation?Whatpolicieshastheschooladoptedtosupportapositiveenvironmentthatmotivatesstudentstoattendschoolandlearn?Chapter2Literatureeviewoadmap:Thisliteraturereviewwillfocusonseveralkeytopicsbecausemanyreasonscontributetotruancy.Theseare:addressingschooltruancy,school-basedprograms,punitive/non-punitivetruancyprograms,studentandfamilycharacteristics,parentalengagement,tacklingtheschooltruancyproblem,typesofprogramslikeschool-basedprograms,problemswithcurrenttruancyprograms,characteristicsofsuccessfultruancyprograms,andtheoreticalframework:IncentiveTheoryofMotivation.Thehopeistoilluminatethewaytowardsunderstandingtheproblemofschooltruancyandwaystoreduceit.(IcantincludenaturaldisastersasIfeelthatisitsowntopicandtooextensivetojustbrieflycover.)Introduction:AddressingSchoolTruancyStudenttruancyhasbecomeamajorissueschoolstrytotackle.Therefore,toimprovetruancytheneedarisestoresearchandcultivateworthwhilestrategiestoreducenegativebehaviorsthatleadtotruancy.However,thereisalsoaneedtounderstandwhystudentsaretruantinthefirstplace.Povertyandnegativeschoolenvironmentareissuesthathaveraisedconcernforthelikelihoodoftruancyinstudents.Thissectionhopestoilluminatetheissueofstudenttruancy.Itbecomesdifficulttoidentifythecostsofbenefitsofvariousmeasures.Thosethatfallintothepunitivedisciplineisnecessarybecausetraditionalistviewsbelieveadherencetorulesleadstopositiveoutcomes.Thoseinthecampofnonpunitivedisciplinedesiretodemonstratehowgivingstudentsoptionscanleadtobetterresultsnotjustintruancyrates,butthepersonalgrowthofthestudent.Withallthestrategiesandmethodsavailable,itcanbedifficultforschoolleadstodeterminewhatmixtureofpunitiveandnonpunitivedisciplinewillwork.Thedesireistoshowthesuccessofprogramsand/orschoolsthathaveenabledareductionintruancyratesaswellaspoliciesineffectthatincreasetruancyratestodemonstratehowtoimprovestudenttruancy.School-basedProgramsAsidefromcreatingastrongerconnectiontocommunity,anotherwayschoolscanandhavehelpeddecreasetruancyratesisthroughtruancyreporting.Truancyreportingallowsstudentstobeassessedtoseeiftheyarehigh-risk.Becausetruancycanhaveaprofoundlynegativeeffectonstudentsinthelongterm,schoolshavebegunbecomingmorestringentontruancyreporting.Atruanthasa3.4percentagepointshigherriskofleavingschoolwithoutaqualification(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Theresearchersnotethatbecausetruancyreportingallowsforbetterassessmentofat-riskyouth,itcanprovideameansofidentifyingpotentialproblemswithstudentearlyon.Thismakestruancyreportingapreventativemeasure.Suchapreventativemeasureappearstohavepositiveeffectsonstudentsatrisk..Theideaisstraightforward:ifstudentsarebettermonitoredwithrespecttotruancy,schoolscanidentifymoreeasilystudentsatrisk.Theresultsindicatethatimprovedtruancyreportingsignificantlyreducesschooldropoutby5percentagepoints(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Tojumpstarttheprocessofhelpingstudents,schoolsmustfigureoutwaystohelpstudentsconnecttotheircommunity.Then,apreventativemeasureusedtohelpidentifyat-riskyouth,sotheycanhaveinterventionsthatcanleadtopositiveeducationaloutcomes(DeWitte&Csillag,2012).Schoolsliketheoneusedforthisstudyandthoselikeit,alreadyhaveinplacearobusttruancyreportingprotocol.Theruleswithinthisprotocolshowthatstudentscannotbeabsentmorethanafewdaysortheschoolwillbeinvolvedandwillcontactthestudentshousehold.Moreresearchshouldbededicatedtohowpreventativemeasurescanexpandtoincludeotherwaystoassessforat-riskbehavior.Thiscanincludelatenessforclass,missedhomeworkassignments,andsoforth.Ifthiscanbedone,thismayfurtherallowforagreaterassessmentofpotentialtruancyproblemsinthefuture.Applyingresearchtopracticeispopularinhealthcare,perhapsitcanalsobecomepopularineducationasmoreinformationcomesoutonhotbuttontopicslikestudenttruancy.PunitivePunitivemeasuresfortruancycanbeseenthroughtheintroductionofthird-partypolicinginschools.Third-partypolicingisanapproachtocrimepreventionandcontrolinvolvingthepolicepartneringwithorganizationsorindividualstopreventorreducecrimeproblems(Nitschke,Mazerolle,&Bennett,2014,p.5211).elyingonavailablecriminal,regulatory,orcivillawsandrules(legallevers)thatallowthirdpartiestotakeaccountability,partially,forcontrolofcrime,itcreatesanenvironmentwhereapprehensionofproblemstudentsisfeasible.Thismayhelpschoolsdealwiththegrowingdelinquencyinstudents,butmayalsomakeiteasierforstudentstobecomepartofthecriminaljusticesystematanearlyage.Punitivemeasurescanalsobecostlier.Thisisbecausepunitivemeasureslikeexpulsionorsuspensioncanfurtherincreasethelikelihoodofstudentsbeingtruantandperformingpoorlyacademically(Shelton,2014).Studentsmustbeguidedtowardsapositiveoutcomeandthatmeansreducingthebeliefthatpunitivemeasureswillkeepstudentsfrombeingtruant.Althoughshort-termresultsmayindicatereduction,thelong-termeffectscouldbemorenegativeandlong-lasting(Shelton,2014).Sheltonmentionedthatstudentswhofacepunitivemeasuresmayhaveahigherchanceofcommittingcrimesversusthosewhofacednon-punitivemeasures.Whilesomeresearchsuggestspolice-interventionregardingtruancycanhelpstudentsinthatparentsaremoreawareofwhathappenstothem,therearestillmanyfactorstoconsiderinrelationtoefficacy.Forexample,police-interventionmayleadtohigherparentalawareness,butalsoincreasedpotentialfortruantstudentstoendupinthejuvenilecriminaljusticesystem(Mazerolle,Bennett,Antrobus,&Eggins,2017).Amixtureofbothpunitiveandnon-punitivemeasuresmaybemostbeneficialintacklingtheproblemoftruancy.Non-PunitivePunitivemeasuresfortruancyhavetheirplaceinschools.However,researchshowsnon-punitivemeasuresarealsousefulandofferachanceforstudentstoimproveandremovesomeofthestigmaattachedtopastmistakes.Successfulprotocolsintegrateflexibilityintostandardmethodstohelptheschool,family,andstudent.Suchprogramsunderstandindividualstudentsneedsanddowhateverisessentialtoassistthefamilyandstudentinvolvedintruancy(Mallett,2015).OnestudyinAustraliaaimedtounderstandtruancyandtheeffectsoftruancytogenerateprogramsthatallowedforeffectivemeasuresatreducingtruancyratesamongstudents(Taylor,Gray,&Stanton,2016).Thisshowsthatwithproperresearch,non-punitiveoptionsarefeasible.However,theymustbedoneinconjunctionwithsignificantresearchthatallowsabetterunderstandingoftheneedsofstudentswhoparticipateintruancy.Theexpectationisthatnon-punitivemeasuresaremoreeffectivethanpunitivemeasures.However,ifthereisnosignificantdifference,non-punitivemeasuresmustbeassessedforefficacy.Haight,Chapman,Hendron,Loftis,&Kearney(2014),demonstratedhownon-punitivemeasureslikeatruancyprogrammaynotworkifakeyprocessisnotimplemented.Meaning,ifthereisnoskill-buildingaspecttotheprogramliketutoring,thechancefortruancytodecreasedeclines.StudentCharacteristicsTruancycanhavealastingimpactonthelifeofastudent.Schooldropouthasbeenextensivelystudiedintheliteratureasacorrelateofnegativelifeoutcomes.Aprecursortoschooldropoutistruancy,theunexcusedorillegitimatestudentabsencefromschool(ocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016,p.592).Studentsmaybeabsentortruantduetoamultitudeofreasons.esearchersidentifiedthroughafewexaminedstudies,thatstudentswhoareoftenmoretruantthanothers,maybemoreinvolvedincrime.Suchinvolvementpointstothenegativecorrelationoftruancyandlaterlifeoutcomeslikedelinquencyandcrime.Theresearchersalsostatetruancycanleadtoproblemdrinking.esultsindicatethattruancyhaslong-lastingassociationswithnegativelifeoutcomes,especiallyfornon-violentcrimeandproblemdrinking(ocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016,p.592).Ifaddictiveorcriminalbehaviorleadstotruancyandtruancycanfurtherleadtoaddictiveorcriminalbehavior,itseemsacyclethatjustfeedsitselfwithnegativeoverallbehavior.Thisisimportanttoknowbecausestudentsexperiencingaddictionproblemsorbecominginvolvedindelinquentbehaviorcanreceivehelptonotonlykeepthemfromengaginginsuchriskyactionswhilealsopositivelycontributingtoreductionintruancyrates.Essentially,thenotionthatfortheretobeareductionintruancyrates,schoolsmusthelpstudentsdealwiththenegativebehaviorstheyareengagingin,outsideofschool.Thesenegativebehaviorscouldcomebecauseofnegativeexperiences.Frombullyingtopooracademicperformance,studentsoftenexperiencestressthatcouldbedetrimentaltotheiracademicsuccess.Birkett,ussell,&Corliss,(2014)observetherolesexual-orientationdisparitieshaveonstudentsinrelationtoacademicachievementandtruancy.Throughtheutilizationofpoolinformation,theyidentifiedbeingpartoftheLGBTgroupaffectedratesoftruancyandacademicperformance.LGBT-identifiedyouthsreportedsignificantlyelevatedoddsoftruancyandlowgrades(oddsratios?=?1.63.2;allP?.

Attendance is a critical factor in school performance. But while poor attendance and truancy have been problems for schools virtually ever since anti-truancy laws were passed, as noted by Tomal, Schilling, & Trybus (2013), finding reliable data can be a challenge to accurately evaluate the extent of the problem, the specific groups most severely impacted by the issue of truancy, and thus solving the problem has been vexing for many educators. This paper will offer a literature review of different previous researchers’ perceptions of the issue in different contexts, the data they used, and the solutions they derived as a result of this data.
According to Kenneth Reid’s 2003 article “The Search for Solutions to Truancy and Other Forms of School Absence,” truancy is a significant factor in dropping out for many students. Reid’s article specifically focuses on the United Kingdom where nearly 35% of students leave school without any formal….

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Truancy and Court Appearances the Relationship Between

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Truancy and Court Appearances The Relationship between School Truancy Rates and Court Cases Research, albeit it clinical, case study, empirical, descriptive, historical, or any combination thereof, must exhibit and command interest,…

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Truancy and the Fault Associated With the Practice Truancy is an issue that is as old as schools themselves. There used to be very severe punishments for cutting class, but…

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Truancy Rationale Relevance Significance Organization

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The independent variable will be the positive reinforcement as represented by the incentive program. The study will be examined by examining increases or decreases on the overall attendance…

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" (Ibid) the schools in Chicago are "being held up as a model for other parts of the nation for reducing detention among juvenile delinquents, without seeing recidivism rates…

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Truancy is the first and most reliable indicator of future delinquent behavior. Youth missing school regularly are at a great risk of getting involved in drugs, alcohol and crimes.…

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At the same time, it is not clear that more stringent laws or punishments would do much to alter the situation, and short of creating a school system…

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CHAPTER : METHODOLOGYIntroductionThe purpose of the study is to understand school leaders perspectives about how policies and procedures reduce truancy and improve student attendance. By interviewing key school leaders…

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…Chapter 1IntroductionStudent truancy is a growing problem in the United States. Over the last twenty years the truancy rates have grown nationwide with the highest rates in inner cities…

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…[…… parts of this paper are missing, click here to view or download the entire document ]…EffectivePoliciesandProceduresCanAffectTruancyRate47EFFECTIVEPOLICIESANDPROCEDURESCANAFFECTTRUANCYRATEPoliciesandproceduresperceivedbyschoolleaderstoreducetruancyinapubliccharterschoolAProposalPresentedinPartialFulfillmentOftheRequirementsfortheDegreeofDoctorofEducationUniversityofNewEnglandOctober15,2017Chapter1Introduction:PrevalenceofStudentTruancyStudenttruancyisagrowingproblemintheUnitedStates.Overthelasttwentyyearsthetruancyrateshavegrownnationwidewiththehighestratesininnercities(Jacob&Lovett,2017).Researchindicatesthatstudenttruancyleadstopotentialsociallydeviantbehaviorinadulthood(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017).Manystudentswhoareabsentforprolongedperiodsaremorelikelytoperformpoorlyacademically,riskingfailureinclassesandfacingdisciplinaryaction.Characteristicsofschoolswithhightruancyratesareuseofonlypunitivetruancyprograms,lackofalternativestudyoptionsforsuspendedstudents,andlackofcounselingandtutoring(Bye,2010).Thereareschoolsthathavebeendoingwellinmaintaininglowtruancyrates,however.Thoseschoolsgivestudentstheoptionfortutoring,allowdistancelearningforsuspendedstudents,andtakeonamixtureofpunitiveandnon-punitivemeasures(Duarte&Hatch,2014).Theselowtruancyratessomeresearcherssuggestcomebecauseofpoverty,crime,andrace(Bye,2010).However,thereareschoolswithnon-whitestudentsthathavelowtruancyrates.Withanationalrankingof764andaFloridarankingof66,DoctorsCharterSchoolisconsideredoneofthebesthighschoolsinthestateregardingstudentattendanceratesandoverallschoolparticipation.Theschoolhasalowtruancyamongstudents,whichisanotableanddistinctivequality.Suchaqualitywillbeanalyzedindepthinthispaperalongwiththevariouspossiblereasonsforthestudentswillingnesstoattendclassregularlyandwhatmethodsareemployedbyschoolstafftokeeptheschoolenvironmentpositive.Firstestablishedin2005,DoctorsCharterSchoolofMiamiShoreisapubliccharterschoolbuiltontheBarryUniversityCampus,sittingon5acresofproperty.ItisinMiamiShore,anareaofFlorida.Thecurrentenrollmentnumberstandsat599andthecampustypeissuburban.TheschoolmascotaretheHawksandtheprincipleisDr.KellyAndrews.RateAasacollegepreparatoryschool,theschoolholdsamunicipalcharterviaVillageofMiamiShoresthatservesstudentsfromgrades6-12(DoctorsCharterSchoolofMiamiShores,2007).ThegradesDoctorsservesarefrom6-12.Initsearlyhistory,DoctorsCharterSchoolwasoriginallyamiddleschoolestablishedin1997underthename,MiamiShores/BarryUniversityCharterSchool.Thenineportablestructuresthatcomprisedtheschool,servedasanalternativeforMiamiShorestudentsthatwouldotherwiseattendHoraceMannMiddleSchool(DoctorsCharterSchoolofMiamiShores,2007).However,after8years,theschoolsecuredmorefundingandin2005,renamedtheschoolitscurrentname.TheschoolgainedapermanentstructurethankstothedonationsgivenbythecitizensofMiamiShoresandadditionalfundsfromtheNorthDadeMedicalFoundation.DCSdrawsfundsfromtwoseparatestreams.OnepartofthefundingcomesfromabondissueapprovedbyVillageresidentsandalargetwo-yeargrantgivenbytheNorthDadeMedicalFoundationforFY2006and2007.DCSraisestheremainderofitsoperatingexpensesfromthestatethroughitsFTEfunding(asetamountforeachstudentintheclassroomperday)andthroughthecollectionofstudentfeesforsuchthingsasmaterialsandtrips(DoctorsCharterSchoolofMiamiShores,2007).Theschoolhas31full-timeteachersforstudentsdisplayingforastudentpopulationof598studentsthatreflectaratiooflessthan20studentsperteacher(19:1)(USNEWS,2017).Thecompletepercentageofeconomicallydisadvantagedstudentsliesat33%withcompleteminorityenrollmentatof83%.Althoughclassattendanceishigh,andthepercentageofstudentswhoAPtestedforAPexamspercentageat(81%),thepercentageofstudentsthatwhopasstheAPexamsstandatis47%,orlessthanhalf.EnglishandMathematicproficiencylevelsliealsohavelowpercentagesat70%and68%respectively,whichisabovethedistrictandnationwideaverage(USNEWS,2017).WithaCollegeReadinessIndexof48.8,theschoolhasroomforimprovement.EvenwiththeWhilestudentsearnaveragetestscores,overall,studentswhoattendDoctorsperformsbetterthanstudentsatotherschoolsinitsdistrict.ThedistrictaverageforEnglishproficiencyis50%andMathematicproficiencyat37%.Thedistrictaverageforcollegereadinessisat44.7andthisisoutof113schoolsand113,242students(USNEWS,2017).Withagraduationrateof98%,DoctorsCharterSchoolofMiamiShoreshasalotgoingforitregardingpositiveaspectsandstudentinterest.Thesekindsofschoolsaimtoprovidethebridgefortruancytobeimproved.However,therearisesaneedtounderstandwhystudentsaretruantinthefirstplace.Parentsworrythattheirchildrenwillbetruantduetocertainbehaviors.However,thesebehaviorscouldbeattributedtoanegativeenvironmentinthehomeoratschool.UnderstandingtheReasonsforTruancyThereareseveralreasonsfortruancyandtheyareoftencomplexandvaried.Somepertaintoanegativeschoolenvironment,studentbehavior,familyeconomicstatus,mentalhealthproblems,tonameafew.Parentsthatputtheirchildreninschoolhaveworriesthattheymaynotreceivethekindofhighqualityeducationtheydeserve.Anegativeschoolenvironmentcancauseproblemsforstudentswishingtolearn.UnlikeDoctorsCharterSchool,classroomsacrosstheMiamioftenhavelargeclassroomsforexample,makingitdifficultforstudentstopayattentioninclassandreceiveattentionnecessaryforunderstandingthecurriculum(Losen,2015).Ifforexample,astudenthasquestionsorneedsexamplesforaspecificassignmentinclass,theteachermaynothavethetimeorpatiencetodealwiththatstudentwhenheorshemustdealwith29otherstudentsallneedingthesamelevelofattention.Manyschoolsacrossthecountryhavestrictpoliciesregardingdisruptivestudentbehaviorthatcouldlandastudentundersuspensionoreven,expulsion.Severalfactorscouldcausedisruptivebehavioramongstudents(Losen,2015).Onecommonreasonispoverty.highlevelsofpovertyhaveanegativeeffectonschoolbehavior.Thisisattributedlargelytothechronicandacutestressexperiencedbystudentslivinginpoverty.Theexposureisassociatedwithexternalizingbehaviorsthataredisruptiveinschoolsettings(Hutcheson,2014,p.1).Studentsfacingpovertymaybepartofanunstablehousehold.Theymayendureproblematicandabusiveparents,andhavetodealwithlackofresources.Thesestudentsneedachanceeverynowandthentolearnfromtheirmistakesandreceivethehelpandresourcesthatcouldmakeapositivedifferenceintheirlives.Instead,theyaresuspendedorexpelledandnotgivenachancetoimprove.Highratesofsuspensioncanlendtoahigherrateoftruancy.ThebifactorstructurereflectedageneralfactorofProblemsinBehavioralEngagementandtwogroupfactors:ProblemsinSocialEngagementandProblemsinAcademicEngagement(Barghausetal.,2016,p.154).Researchersnotestudentsoftenmaynothaveproblemsacademically,butinsteadsocially.Theymaynotfeelcomfortableengagingwithotherstudentsduetofearofjudgementorinabilitytoproperlysocialize.Providingstudentswiththetoolstobothengagesociallyandacademicallycanallowforahigherpercentageofacademic-basedpositiveoutcomes.Studentinterestmayalsoplayakeyroleintruancy(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017)..Thisisbecausesuspensionsandexpulsionsmayimpactstudentinterestinanegativeway.Whenstudentsreceivesuspensions,theyhavenoaccesstotheschoolwork.Whenthesuspensionends,dependingonhowlongthetimeoutofschoolwas,theymayhaveincreaseddifficultycatchingupwiththeclass.Ifthereisnooptiontocompleteschoolworkviaonlineaccess,andtheycannotgotoschoolorcontacttheteacherforassignments,thiswhichputsthesekindsofstudentsatanautomaticdisadvantage.Thisisespeciallythecaseiftheyhaveahardtimeacademicallyalready.Tofallbehindinschoolworkwhenthestudenthasexperiencedlowgradescouldsetbackastudentandcouldendupinhavingfailuresinclasses.Byexploringincentivetheoryofmotivationandresearchshowingtheconnectionbetweenexpulsion/suspension,interest,andtruancy,thehopeistoofferclarityinwhytruancyratesarehighandwhatcanbedonetocounteractit.Theseproblems:negativeschoolenvironment,studentbehavior,familyeconomicstatus,mentalhealthproblem(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017)(Dembo,Wareham,Schmeidler,Briones-Robinson,&Winters,2014)mustbeaddressedfortruancyprogramstobeeffective.ThescopeofthepProblemsassociatedwithtruancyislarge.Forthepurposeofthisstudy,thespecificfocuswillbeschool-basedpoliciesandproceduresthatmaymitigateorreducetruancy.sneedtobeclarified.Withoutapropersynthesisofthereasonssurroundingtheproblem,thereiswillbelimitedunderstandingabouthowtoapproachthestudy.Therefore,itisimportanttostatewhatthiskindthescopeofproblemistodefinethefocusandimprovepotentialexaminationandsynthesis.thequalityofthestudy.StatementoftheProblemTruancyratesintheUnitedStatesareagrowingproblem(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014).Whetherastudentisabsentduetoasuspensionorbecausetheywillinglychoosetobeabsent,theproblemhasbecomeworthyofresearchandpossibleintervention.Truancyratesarehigherinschoolswithlowsocio-economicstatus(Dembo,Wareham,Schmeidler,Briones-Robinson,&Winters,2014).Mostofthestudentsthatattendtheschoolareofminority.Someofthetruancyproblemsoccurinminoritypopulations(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014).Whatpolicieshastheschooladoptedtosupportapositiveenvironmentthatmotivatesstudentstoattendschoolandlearn?Theproblemaddressedbythestudyis:Educationalleadersmayhaveimplementedpoliciesandproceduresinpubliccharterschools,butdocumentationaboutwhicharemosteffectiveandwhytheyareislargelyabsent.Actionmustbetakentohelpavoidproblemsinthefuture.Currentpolicieshaveenabledhighertruancyratesduetothezero-toleranceaspectthatenablesharsherandstricterpunishmentofstudentbehavior.Sincethe1990s,implementationofzerotolerancepoliciesinschoolshasledtoincreaseduseofschoolsuspensionandexpulsionasdisciplinarytechniquesforstudentswithvaryingdegreesofinfractions(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014,p.1110).Whenstudentsaresuspended,orexpelledfortheirbehavior,theymayhaveatoughertimecatchingupinschoolandsucceedingintheiracademicendeavors.Thiscanleadtootherproblemsdownthelineasthestudentsmatureandbecomeadults.Researchsuggeststheexperienceofsuspensionofexpulsioncouldleadtoillegalbehaviorthatisassociatedwithacriminalrecord.Beingsuspendedorexpelledfromschoolincreasedthelikelihoodofarrestinthatsamemonthandthiseffectwasstrongeramongyouthwhodidnothaveahistoryofbehaviorproblemsandwhenyouthassociatedwithlessdelinquentpeers(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014,p.1110).Whenschoolsexpelandsuspendstudents,addingtothetruancyratesoftheschool,negativebehaviorsmayincrease.Thezerotolerancepoliciesofschoolshavebecomethemaincauseforconcerninthesegrowingcasesofsuspensionandexpulsion.Therefore,policiesneedtobechangedtoaddressthisproblem.Todoso,onemustexamineschoolslikeDoctorsCharterSchooltodeterminewhatstepstotaketomakeapositivechange.Althoughtruancydoesnotdirectlyleadtocrime,itoftenhasahighcorrelation.PurposeoftheStudyThepurposeofthestudyistounderstandhowschoolleadersperspectivesaboutwhethereffectivepoliciesandproceduresycanenableimprovedreducetruancyandimprovestudentattendanceforstudents.ByinterviewingkeystaffinDoctorsCharterSchool,asuccessfulpubliccharterschoolinrelationtowithlowtruancylevels,theremaybeenoughinformationoneffectivepoliciesandprocedurescanbegathered.Thesefindingsmayythatcanprovideabetterunderstandingofwhatschoolleadersincanbedoneinotherschoolscandotoimprovetruancy.Onepotentialaspectofeffectiveschoolpolicyishomeschooling.Schoolswiththeoptionofhomeschoolingmayprovidehopeforthosewhocannotattendschoolorwhoaresuspendedandareunabletoattend.Attendanceplaysalargepartinfacingsuspensionandperformingwellacademically.However,ifschoolshaveanonlineoption,thismayhelpstudentskeepupwithschoolworkandhaveoptions.TheDoctorsCharterSchoolhasastudentportalontheirwebsitethatallowsstudentstoaccessonlineresourcesandevencontactteachersandstaff.ThroughhereResearchabouttruancyreductionsuggestsstudentswithmoreattendanceoptionsmayWhenstudentshavemoreoptions,theycanbeabletoovercomedifficultiesthatcontributetotruancy.theymayfacewithothersorintheirhousehold.Effectiveschoolpoliciesthatimproveattendancemaycontainprocessesandoptionsthatprovidesuchsupportandvariability.Withoutunderstandingsuchaspects,littlehelpcouldbegeneratedandimplementedtohelpstudentsinneedandhelpthemavoidhightruancyrates.Thisareaofresearchwillbeexploredintheinterviewsectionandresults.DoctorsCharterSchoolhasbetterattendanceandbetteracademicperformancecomparedtoalltheotherschoolsinthedistrict(onaverage).Furthermore,mostofthestudentsareminorityornon-white.Thisschoolisaperfectstartingpointforinvestigationintoeffectiveschoolpolicies.Alookintoothersuccessfulschoolsshouldprovideameasureofeffectivenessneededtounderstandbetterwhatstrategiescanimproveattendance.Itcanalsoshowhowotherschoolshandlethingslikeminoritymajorityandlocationofschoollikeanurban,rural,orsuburbansetting.ResearchQuestions1.HowdothepoliciesineffectatDoctorsCharterSchooldiscouragetruancy?Howdoschoolleadersdescribeattendance?Anti-truancy?Policiesandprocedures?2.Whatpoliciesandproceduresareineffectinotherpubliccharterschoolswhereattendanceishigh?andhowcantheycontributetoananti-truancypolicy?Doesthisinformationshowupintheliteraturereview?Ifnot,thenplantokeepaversionofthisquestion.3.TowhatdegreedostaffatDoctorsperceivetheyadheretothewrittenpoliciesandproceduresy?Thisquestionisamorespecificversionofthethirdquestiontohelpunderstandwhythepolicyimplementedintheseschoolsisineffective.Ifthepoliciespromotestrictadherence,itcouldincreaseratesofsuspensionandexpulsion,increasingratesoftruancy.4.Cantheoptionofonlineeducationreducetruancyratesinschools?Onlineeducationcanbeapowerfultoolforlearning.Asschoolbegintomodernize,theymayofferstudentportalsasseeninDoctorsCharterSchool.However,canonlineclassesbeaviableoptionforstudentsexperiencingproblemsinschool?QualitativeStudiesandInterviewsThestudyisaqualitativeonethatfocusesontheuseofinterviewstocollectqualitativedata.Theinterviewhastodaybecomeoneofthemostwidespreadknowledge-producingpracticesacrossthehumanandsocialsciencesingeneralandalsoincriticalpsychologymorespecifically(Brinkmann,2014,p.1008).Interviewscanrangefromformalinterviewsorinformalinterviews.Theycanbedoneface-to-face,overthephone,orovertheinternet.Formalinterviewshaveastructuretothemwheretheresearcherasksaquestionandtheparticipantanswers.However,ininformalinterviews,therecanbediscussionanddoesnothavetosticktothequestionsasked.Themajorityofqualitativeinterviewshavesomestructuretothemandarelabeled,semi-structured.Mostqualitativeinterviews,however,aresemi-structured.Inasemi-structuredinterview,theresearcherprovidessomestructurebasedonherresearchinterestsandinterviewguidebutworksflexiblywiththeguideandallowsroomfortherespondentsmorespontaneousdescriptionsandnarratives(Brinkmann,2014,p.1008).ThereisaneedtounderstandfromthestafforschoolleadersperspectivesthatworkatDoctorsCharterSchoolwhythepoliciesattheschoolwork.Tounderstandwhatimprovementshavebeenmadeandwhatkindofschoolenvironmentsuchpoliciespromote,thiscangiveagoodpictureofwhatisbeingdonetoachievepositiveoutcomesforthestudentpopulationattending.Similarstudiesusinginterviewshavegatheredasignificantamountofinsightfulinformationthatallowsfortheabilitytoanswerimportantquestions.Usingfixedeffectsregressionsandcontrollingfortruancypeergroupeffects,weobservethattruancy(measuredasbothadiscretedummyvariableandacontinuouscountmeasure)positivelycorrelatestoearlyschoolleaving.Atruanthasa3.4percentagepointshigherriskofleavingschoolwithoutaqualification(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Interviewshelpanswerassumptionsthatcommonlyareassociatedwithattendancerecord.Forexample,highertruancyratescanleadtonegativeacademicoutcomesforstudents.Becausethequalitativestudyisasimpleone,thequestionswillnotbeanalyzedextensively,rather,theywillbeexaminedtoidentifyunderlyingthemes.Thesethemeswillthenbecomparedtothemesfoundintheliteraturereviewtoseeifthereisauniversalthemeorconceptbeingappliedthatleadstosuccessfulacademicperformancebystudentsandgoodattendancerecords.Itisimportanttoallowstudentsandstafferstogivetheiropinionsaswellasenablediscussionofwhatcausedthepositiveornegativeopinion.Thiswillallowforeasieranalysisofresponses.Anotherstudyinterviewedyouthsandtheirexperiencesshowedtheyneededsupportfromtheirparentsandmoreengagementfromtheschooltomotivatethemtocometoschoolmoreandlearn.Youthsexperiencesandrecommendationsillustratethemultiplefactorsthatinfluenceschooltruancyandsuggestpotentialleveragepointsforreducingtruancy,includingmodificationstotheschoolenvironmenttoincreasestudentengagement;amoreeffectiveschoolresponsetoaddresstruancy(Gase,DeFosset,Perry,&Kuo,2016,p.299).Motivationisanintegralaspectofreducingtruancyamongstudents.(WillkeepinthissectionbecauseIamintroducingtheconceptualframeworkdiscussedinliteraturereview.Thiswasaskedtobeexpandedinpreviouscorrection.)Animportanttheorythatwillbeexploredinthispaperistheincentivetheoryofmotivation.peoplearepulledtowardsbehaviorsthatofferpositiveincentivesandpushedawayfrombehaviorsassociatedwithnegativeincentives.Theincentivetheorysuggeststhatpeoplearemotivatedtodothingsbecauseofexternalrewards(Rehman&Haider,2013,p.141).Ifstudentsareincentivizedtoattendclassbyreceivingareward,thismaybeacrucialpartmissinginschoolswithhightruancyratesandmayexplainthedownwardspiralofsomestudentswhentheyarepunishedseverelyforbeingabsent.DoctorsCharterSchoolhasnon-academicawardsthattheygiveouttostudentswhoarerespectfulandhavegoodattendancerecords.Thesecouldbeincentivesforstudentstocontinueattendingclass.Theschoolsattendanceprocedureisstrict,butallowsforevaluationofthereasonsbehindastudentsabsence.Suchconsiderationforastudentallowsforroomforthestudenttoresolvehisorherproblemsandcontinuegoingtoschool.Oneruleinparticular,isthatifastudentmissesanxamountofdays,theywillhavethesameamountofdaystomakeuptheassignment.Althoughthismaybedifficulttoaccomplish,itdoesleavesomewiggleroomforstudents,thusincreasingtheirmotivationtocontinuefollowingtherulesoftheschool.AssumptionsThemainassumptionthatguidesthisstudyisthattruancypoliciesandproceduresarethecornerstoneforreductionintruancyrates.Otherassumptionsincludethenotionthathigherratesoftruancyleadtopooreracademicperformance.Whenstudentsfailtoattendclassvoluntarily,theyputthemselvesatgreaterriskofperformingpoorlyinschool.Thiscanhappenduetotheirinabilitytokeepupinschoolandlackofmotivationtocompleteassignments.Theymaybeunwillingtoattendschoolduetomentalhealthproblems,anunstablehomelife,orphysicalhealthconditions.Anotherassumptionisthatstudentslivinginpovertyandminoritystudentsmayhaveamoredifficulttimewithschoolduetoaturbulenthomelifeanddealingwithinstitutionalizedracism.Althoughthisisnotatopicthatwillbecoveredin-depthinthispaper,itisimportanttorecognizethedifficultiesthatcomefromlackofresourcesandpotentiallybeingaminority,andseehowthatcouldaffecttruancyrates.Thiscouldlendtocreationandimplementationofevenmoreeffectiveschoolpoliciesthatcanultimatelyreducetruancyratesandmaintainthemlowinthefuture.LimitationsThestudywillbelimitedtoonepubliccharterschool.theDoctorsChartersSchool.Thisisbecauseoftheneedtounderstandwhattheschooldoesandthencomparethatinformationtoothersuccessfulschools.Anotherlimitationisthenumberofpeopletointerviewforthestudy.Becausetheinterviewisqualitativeandin-person,notmanypeoplecanandwillbeavailabletoanswerquestions.ThestudyisalsolimitedtotheschoolswithintheUnitedStates.TheliteraturereviewwillonlyexaminehowAmericanschoolshandletruancyandpolicesthateitherdecreaseorincreasetruancyrates.Thefinallimitationisparents.Althoughparentalopinionmaybehelpful,itwouldbebettertoleavetheinterviewstostudentsandstafferswithparentsgivingpermissiontothestudenttospeak.Nootherlimitationsarenoted.ScopeoftheStudyThestudyisqualitative,andwilluseinterviewswithschoolstafftocollectdata.Interviewtranscriptswillbe-basedandaimstoanalyzedthetoidentifyunderlyingthemesfromrespondentsoftheDoctorsCharterSchool.Byaskingquestionsstafffromtheschool,thehopeistounderstandwhateffectivepoliciesareinplacethatallowsforbetterattendanceratesthanotherschoolsinthedistrict.Interestingly,theschoolalsofaresbetterregardingacademicscoresandhasahighgraduationrate.Iflocationplaysapart(itislocatedinasuburbanarea),thisshouldbeexploredviatheinterviewquestionstogainabetterunderstandingofallaspectsofeffectivepolicywithintheschool.Theliteraturereviewprovidesafoundation,theinterviewsprovidethedata.Asidefromthequalitativeinterviews,theliteraturereviewwillserveasacomparativeguidetonotonlybasesomeofthequestions,butalsocomparethedatagarneredfromtheinterviews.Ifothersuccessfulschoolshavesimilarpoliciesinplace,thiscouldserveasapotentialstandardthatcanappliednationallytohelpdecreasetruancyinallschoolsthroughoutthecountry.Theliteraturereviewwillalsoservetoprovideexamplesofpoliciesinschoolwithhightruancyratestoseewhatshouldnotbedone.Theresultswillalsobediscussedwithinthecontextofpotentialmodificationthatcanbemadetohelpimproveattendanceratesandacademicsuccessofstudentsevenfurther.Ultimately,itisimportanttoacknowledgewhatDoctorsCharterSchoolhastoofferandseewhetherthatcanserveasagaugeforotherschoolsinthedistrict,anymaybe,inthecountry.Althoughthequalitativestudyissmall,onlyincludingsixstudentsandfourstaffmembersfromtheschool,itmayprovidethekindofinsightthatcannotbegatheredelsewhere.Useofdatabasesavailabletohighlightnationwidetruancyratesmayalsobeused,againasacomparativetool.SignificanceThestudycanbeanimportantstepinlearningmoreabouthowretentionpoliciesinfluencedecisionmakinginschools.Thefindingsmayleadtothisschoolandothersstandardizingeffectiveprogramsandpolicies.PublicschoolsacrosstheUnitedStatesneedtoknowthattheycanhavetheknowledgetoimprovetheirstudentpopulationsacademicprogressandattendance.First,however,theyneedtoseetheinformationthatprovescertainpolicyimplementationsworkandareworththetime,money,andeffort.Similartoevidence-basedpracticeinnursing,staffneedtoseeevidenceofpoliciesthathavealreadybeenenabledandimplementedthathaveledtothesuccessofstudentsandtheimprovedratesofattendance.WhileithelpsseeingthestatisticsofasuccessfulschoollikeDoctorsCharterSchool,itisevenmoresignificantifschoolsseethestepsittooktoreachthatlevelofsuccess.Thenthatcollectedinformationcanbecomparedtootherschoolsastoidentifywhatcoreprinciplesandactionshavebeenusedtoachievesuchapositiveresult.Growthandpositiveoutcomescanonlycomefromtestedandapprovedpractices.Thisstudywilldissectsuchpoliciespracticesthroughasoundconceptualframeworkandthenseeifassumptionsandhypothesescanbeprovenordisproven.Researchersneedtocontinuetheirpursuitofinformationandanalysistoofferpotentialguidelinesanddirectionsforschoolsthatneedit.ThegrowingproblemoftruancyintheUnitedStatesrequiresathoughtfulandconsiderateassessmentofongoingissues.Theseissueswillcontinuetoremainprevalentunlessactionistaken.Actioncannotbetakenunlessthereissoundresearchandevidencebehindit.Lastly,studiesliketheonehereoffersananchorpointtoinvestigateotheraspectsofschoollife,schoolenvironment,andstudentbehavioralproblems.Ifstudentshaveproblemsduetostruggleswithsexuality,genderidentity,orevenpoliticalaffiliation,thiscouldalsobeinvestigatedinfuturestudies.Theresultscouldthenbeusedtospearheadchangesinpoliciesinthenearfuture,leadingtocontinueprogressiontowardsasafeandpositiveschoolenvironment.DefinitionofTermsThetermsutilizedinthisstudyaredetailedbelow.TruancyWhenastudentstaysawayfromschoolwithoutasufficientreason;canbealsolabeledasabsenteeism.Dayssuspendedmaybeincludedintruancyrates.CharterSchool(intheUnitedStates)apubliclyfundedindependentschoolestablishedbycommunitygroups,parents,orteachersunderthetermsofacharterwithnational/localauthority.ExpulsionMeaningpermanentwithdrawing/exclusion,whenastudentisbannedorremovedfromaschoolsystem/universityduetoconsistentviolationsofaninstitution'srules.However,itcanalsobeforasingleoffenseoffittingharshnessinextremecases.SuspensionRegardingschools,suspension(a.k.a.temporaryexclusion)isanobligatoryleavegiventoastudentasamethodofpenaltythatcanlastanywherefromasingledaytoaslongasseveralweeks,whereastudentcannotattendschoolorstepfootinsidetheschool(Kaufman&Kaufman,2013).StudentPortalServesasanonlinegatewaywherestudentscanaccesscurriculum,internetresourcesrelatedtothecurriculumandmayhavetheoptiontocommunicateelectronicallywithteachersand/orstudents.ConclusionInconclusion,truancyratesareagrowingprobleminUnitedStatesschools.DoctorsCharterSchoolisoneschoolthataimstoreducetruancyratesandhavedonesoaccordingtorecentstatistics.ByexploringDoctorsCharterSchoolsschoolpoliciesandotherschoolpoliciesthatincreaseordecreasetruancyratesinFloridathestudyhopestounderstandwhatmaycausetruancyinschoolsandwhatreducesit.Ifbetterandimprovedhandlingofstudentissuesisthesolutiontotruancy,itneedstobeexplored.Thenextsectionisaliteraturereview.TheliteraturereviewwillfocusonimportantpoliciesalreadyinplaceinotherschoolsandhowthesepoliciescouldbesimilarordifferenttoDoctorsCharterSchoolalongwiththenegativeeffectsofhightruancyratesandthecauseoftheseratesinschools.Thenextsectionallowsonetoseethroughrecentliterature,thesignificanceoftruancyandhowitconnectsschoolmeasureswithstudentbehavior.Someschoolstakepunitivemeasurestowardstruancy,otherstakenon-punitive,andstillmoretakeamixtureofboth.Whyaresuchmeasuresadopted?Theaimistounderstandthisandwhystudentsaretruant.Thereareseveralfactorsthatcanbeatplayfromenvironmenttomentalhealth,andsoforth.Theliteraturereviewwillbringintocontextmoreoftheseaspects.Withsomanyschoolsthroughoutthecountryexperiencinghightruancyrates,whatdoesDoctorsCharterSchooldothatenableshighattendanceamongitsstudentpopulation?Whatpolicieshastheschooladoptedtosupportapositiveenvironmentthatmotivatesstudentstoattendschoolandlearn?Chapter2LiteratureReviewIntroduction:AddressingSchoolTruancyHighschooltruancyisnottheonlythingbeingaddressedastheschoolinterviewedhaschildrenfrom6-12.Studenttruancyhasbecomeamajorissueschoolstrytotackle.Therefore,toimprovetruancytheneedarisestoresearchandcultivateworthwhilestrategiestoreducenegativebehaviorsthatleadtotruancy.However,thereisalsoaneedtounderstandwhystudentsaretruantinthefirstplace.Povertyandnegativeschoolenvironmentareissuesthathaveraisedconcernforthelikelihoodoftruancyinstudents.Thissectionhopestoilluminatetheissueofstudenttruancy.Itbecomesdifficulttoidentifythecostsofbenefitsofvariousmeasures.Thosethatfallintothepunitivedisciplineisnecessarybecausetraditionalistviewsbelieveadherencetorulesleadstopositiveoutcomes.Thoseinthecampofnonpunitivedisciplinedesiretodemonstratehowgivingstudentsoptionscanleadtobetterresultsnotjustintruancyrates,butthepersonalgrowthofthestudent.Withallthestrategiesandmethodsavailable,itcanbedifficultforschoolleadstodeterminewhatmixtureofpunitiveandnonpunitivedisciplinewillwork.Thedesireistoshowthesuccessofprogramsand/orschoolsthathaveenabledareductionintruancyratesaswellaspoliciesineffectthatincreasetruancyratestodemonstratehowtoimprovestudenttruancy.PunitivePunitivemeasuresfortruancycanbeseenthroughtheintroductionofthird-partypolicinginschools.Third-partypolicingisanapproachtocrimepreventionandcontrolinvolvingthepolicepartneringwithorganizationsorindividualstopreventorreducecrimeproblems(Nitschke,Mazerolle,&Bennett,2014,p.5211).Relyingonavailablecriminal,regulatory,orcivillawsandrules(legallevers)thatallowthirdpartiestotakeaccountability,partially,forcontrolofcrime,itcreatesanenvironmentwhereapprehensionofproblemstudentsisfeasible.Thismayhelpschoolsdealwiththegrowingdelinquencyinstudents,butmayalsomakeiteasierforstudentstobecomepartofthecriminaljusticesystematanearlyage.Punitivemeasurescanalsobecostlier.Thisisbecausepunitivemeasureslikeexpulsionorsuspensioncanfurtherincreasethelikelihoodofstudentsbeingtruantandperformingpoorlyacademically(Shelton,2014).Studentsmustbeguidedtowardsapositiveoutcomeandthatmeansreducingthebeliefthatpunitivemeasureswillkeepstudentsfrombeingtruant.Althoughshort-termresultsmayindicatereduction,thelong-termeffectscouldbemorenegativeandlong-lasting.Sheltonmentionedthatstudentswhofacepunitivemeasuresmayhaveahigherchanceofcommittingcrimesversusthosewhofacednon-punitivemeasures.Whilesomeresearchsuggestspolice-interventionregardingtruancycanhelpstudentsinthatparentsaremoreawareofwhathappenstothem,therearestillmanyfactorstoconsiderinrelationtoefficacy.Forexample,police-interventionmayleadtohigherparentalawareness,butalsoincreasedpotentialfortruantstudentstoendupinthejuvenilecriminaljusticesystem(Mazerolle,Bennett,Antrobus,&Eggins,2017).Amixtureofbothpunitiveandnon-punitivemeasuresmaybemostbeneficialintacklingtheproblemoftruancy.Non-PunitivePunitivemeasuresfortruancyhavetheirplaceinschools.However,researchshowsnon-punitivemeasuresarealsousefulandofferachanceforstudentstoimproveandremovesomeofthestigmaattachedtopastmistakes.Successfulprotocolsintegrateflexibilityintostandardmethodstohelptheschool,family,andstudent.Suchprogramsunderstandindividualstudentsneedsanddowhateverisessentialtoassistthefamilyandstudentinvolvedintruancy(Mallett,2015).OnestudyinAustraliaaimedtounderstandtruancyandtheeffectsoftruancytogenerateprogramsthatallowedforeffectivemeasuresatreducingtruancyratesamongstudents(Taylor,Gray,&Stanton,2016).Thisshowsthatwithproperresearch,non-punitiveoptionsarefeasible.However,theymustbedoneinconjunctionwithsignificantresearchthatallowsabetterunderstandingoftheneedsofstudentswhoparticipateintruancy.Theexpectationisthatnon-punitivemeasuresaremoreeffectivethanpunitivemeasures.However,ifthereisnosignificantdifference,non-punitivemeasuresmustbeassessedforefficacy.Haight,Chapman,Hendron,Loftis,&Kearney(2014),demonstratedhownon-punitivemeasureslikeatruancyprogrammaynotworkifakeyprocessisnotimplemented.Meaning,ifthereisnoskill-buildingaspecttotheprogramliketutoring,thechancefortruancytodecreasedeclines.StudentCharacteristicsTruancycanhavealastingimpactonthelifeofastudent.Schooldropouthasbeenextensivelystudiedintheliteratureasacorrelateofnegativelifeoutcomes.Aprecursortoschooldropoutistruancy,theunexcusedorillegitimatestudentabsencefromschool(Rocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016,p.592).Studentsmaybeabsentortruantduetoamultitudeofreasons.Researchersidentifiedthroughafewexaminedstudies,thatstudentswhoareoftenmoretruantthanothers,maybemoreinvolvedincrime.Suchinvolvementpointstothenegativecorrelationoftruancyandlaterlifeoutcomeslikedelinquencyandcrime.Theresearchersalsostatetruancycanleadtoproblemdrinking.Resultsindicatethattruancyhaslong-lastingassociationswithnegativelifeoutcomes,especiallyfornon-violentcrimeandproblemdrinking(Rocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016,p.592).Ifaddictiveorcriminalbehaviorleadstotruancyandtruancycanfurtherleadtoaddictiveorcriminalbehavior,itseemsacyclethatjustfeedsitselfwithnegativeoverallbehavior.Thisisimportanttoknowbecausestudentsexperiencingaddictionproblemsorbecominginvolvedindelinquentbehaviorcanreceivehelptonotonlykeepthemfromengaginginsuchriskyactionswhilealsopositivelycontributingtoreductionintruancyrates.Essentially,thenotionthatfortheretobeareductionintruancyrates,schoolsmusthelpstudentsdealwiththenegativebehaviorstheyareengagingin,outsideofschool.Thesenegativebehaviorscouldcomebecauseofnegativeexperiences.Frombullyingtopooracademicperformance,studentsoftenexperiencestressthatcouldbedetrimentaltotheiracademicsuccess.Birkett,Russell,&Corliss,(2014)observetherolesexual-orientationdisparitieshaveonstudentsinrelationtoacademicachievementandtruancy.Throughtheutilizationofpoolinformation,theyidentifiedbeingpartoftheLGBTgroupaffectedratesoftruancyandacademicperformance.LGBT-identifiedyouthsreportedsignificantlyelevatedoddsoftruancyandlowgrades(oddsratios?=?1.63.2;allP?

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Education

Exploration of Truancy Behavior

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…[…… parts of this paper are missing, click here to view or download the entire document ]…EffectivePoliciesandProceduresCanAffectTruancyRatePoliciesandproceduresperceivedbyschoolleaderstoreducetruancyinapubliccharterschoolChapter1IntroductionStudenttruancyisagrowingproblemintheUnitedStates.Overthelasttwentyyearsthetruancyrateshavegrownnationwidewiththehighestratesininnercities(Jacob&Lovett,2017).Researchindicatesthatstudenttruancyleadstopotentialsociallydeviantbehaviorinadulthood(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017).Manystudentswhoareabsentforprolongedperiodsaremorelikelytoperformpoorlyacademically,riskingfailureinclassesandfacingdisciplinaryaction.Characteristicsofschoolswithhightruancyratesareuseofonlypunitivetruancyprograms,lackofalternativestudyoptionsforsuspendedstudents,andlackofcounselingandtutoring(Bye,2010).Thereareschoolsthathavebeendoingwellinmaintaininglowtruancyrates,however.Thoseschoolsgivestudentstheoptionfortutoring,allowdistancelearningforsuspendedstudents,andtakeonamixtureofpunitiveandnon-punitivemeasures(Duarte&Hatch,2014).Withanationalrankingof764andaFloridarankingof66,CharterSecondarySchoolisconsideredoneofthebesthighschoolsinthestateregardingstudentattendanceratesandoverallschoolparticipation(GreatSchools!,2017).Theschoolhasalowtruancyamongminoritystudents,whichisanotableanddistinctivequality,makingitananomalyinthesurroundingarea(GreatSchools!,2017).Firstestablishedin2005,CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShoreisapubliccharterschoolbuiltontheBarryUniversityCampus,sittingon5acresofproperty(GreatSchools!,2017).ItisinMiamiShore,anareaofFlorida.Thecurrentenrollmentnumberstandsat599andthecampustypeissuburban(GreatSchools!,2017).TheschoolmascotaretheHawks.RateAasacollegepreparatoryschool,theschoolholdsamunicipalcharterviaVillageofMiamiShoresthatservesstudentsfromgrades6-12(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).Initsearlyhistory,CharterSecondarySchoolwasoriginallyamiddleschoolestablishedin1997underthename,MiamiShores/BarryUniversityCharterSchool(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).ThenineportablestructuresthatcomprisedtheschoolservedasanalternativeforMiamiShorestudentsthatwouldotherwiseattendHoraceMannMiddleSchool(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).However,after8years,theschoolsecuredmorefundingandin2005,renamedtheschool.TheschoolgainedapermanentstructurethankstothedonationsgivenbythecitizensofMiamiShoresandadditionalfundsfromtheNorthDadeMedicalFoundation.DCSdrawsfundsfromtwoseparatestreams.OnepartofthefundingcomesfromabondissueapprovedbyVillageresidentsandalargetwo-yeargrantgivenbytheNorthDadeMedicalFoundationforFY2006and2007.DCSraisestheremainderofitsoperatingexpensesfromthestatethroughitsFTEfunding(asetamountforeachstudentintheclassroomperday)andthroughthecollectionofstudentfeesforsuchthingsasmaterialsandtrips(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).Theschoolhas31full-timeteachersforastudentpopulationof598studentsthatreflectaratiooflessthan20studentsperteacher(19:1)(USNEWS,2017).Thepercentageofeconomicallydisadvantagedstudentsliesat33%withminorityenrollmentof83%.AlthoughclassattendanceishighandthepercentageofstudentswhotestedforAPexamsat81%,thepercentageofstudentswhopasstheAPexamsis47%,orlessthanhalf.EnglishandMathematicproficiencylevelslieat70%and68%respectively,whichisabovethedistrictandnationwideaverage(USNEWS,2017).WithaCollegeReadinessIndexof48.8,theschoolhasroomforimprovement.Whilestudentsearnaveragetestscoresoverall,studentswhoattendDoctorsperformbetterthanstudentsatotherschoolsinthesamedistrict(USNEWS,2017).ThedistrictaverageforEnglishproficiencyis50%andMathematicsproficiencyat37%.Thedistrictaverageforcollegereadinessisat44.7.Thisdatarepresentsassessmentsconductedat113schoolsfor113,242students(USNEWS,2017).Withagraduationrateof98%,CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShoresprovidesacaseworthyoffurtherstudy.UnderstandingtheReasonsforTruancyThereareseveralreasonsfortruancyandtheyareoftencomplexandvaried.Researchontruancysuggeststhatanegativeschoolenvironment,studentbehavior,familyeconomicstatus,andmentalhealthproblemsarekeycontributors(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017)(Dembo,Wareham,Schmeidler,Briones-Robinson,&Winters,2014).Anegativeschoolenvironmentcancauseproblemsforstudentswishingtolearn.SchoolsinMiamioftenhavelargeclassrooms,makingitdifficultforstudentstofocusinclassandreceiveattentionnecessaryforunderstandingthecurriculum(Losen,2015).Ifforexample,astudenthasquestionsorneedsexamplesforaspecificassignmentinclass,theteachermaynothavethetimeorpatiencetodealwiththatstudentwhenheorshemustdealwith29otherstudentsallneedingthesamelevelofattention.Manyschoolsacrossthecountryhavestrictpoliciesregardingdisruptivestudentbehaviorthatcouldlandastudentundersuspensionoreven,expulsion.Severalfactorscouldcausedisruptivebehavioramongstudents(Losen,2015).Onecommonreasonispoverty.highlevelsofpovertyhaveanegativeeffectonschoolbehavior.Thisisattributedlargelytothechronicandacutestressexperiencedbystudentslivinginpoverty.Theexposureisassociatedwithexternalizingbehaviorsthataredisruptiveinschoolsettings(Hutcheson,2014,p.1).Studentsfacingpovertymaybepartofanunstablehousehold.Theymayendureproblematicandabusiveparentsandhavetodealwithlackofresources.Thesestudentsneedachanceeverynowandthentolearnfromtheirmistakesandreceivethehelpandresourcesthatcouldmakeapositivedifferenceintheirlives.Instead,theyaresuspendedorexpelledandnotgivenachancetoimprove.Highratesofsuspensioncanlendtoahigherrateoftruancy.ThebifactorstructurereflectedageneralfactorofProblemsinBehavioralEngagementandtwogroupfactors:ProblemsinSocialEngagementandProblemsinAcademicEngagement(Barghausetal.,2016,p.154).Researchersnotestudentsoftenmaynothaveproblemsacademically,butinsteadsocially.Theymaynotfeelcomfortableengagingwithotherstudentsduetofearofjudgementorinabilitytoproperlysocialize.Providingstudentswiththetoolstobothengagesociallyandacademicallycanallowforahigherpercentageofacademic-basedpositiveoutcomes.Studentinterestmayalsoplayakeyroleintruancy(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017).Thisisbecausesuspensionsandexpulsionsmayimpactstudentinterestinanegativeway.Whenstudentsreceivesuspensions,theyhavenoaccesstotheschoolwork.Whenthesuspensionends,dependingonhowlongthetimeoutofschoolwas,theymayhaveincreaseddifficultycatchingupwiththeclass(Reid,2014).Ifthereisnooptiontocompleteschoolwork,andtheycannotgotoschoolorcontacttheteacherforassignments,itmayputthesekindsofstudentsatanautomaticdisadvantage(Reid,2014).Thisisespeciallythecaseiftheyhaveahardtimeacademicallyalready.Tofallbehindinschoolworkwhenthestudenthasexperiencedlowgradescouldsetbackastudentandcouldendupinhavingfailuresinclasses(Reid,2014).Byexploringincentivetheoryofmotivationandresearchshowingtheconnectionbetweenexpulsion/suspension,interest,andtruancy,thehopeistoofferclarityinwhytruancyratesarehighandwhatcanbedonetocounteractit.Theseproblems:negativeschoolenvironment,studentbehavior,familyeconomicstatus,mentalhealthproblem(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017)(Dembo,Wareham,Schmeidler,Briones-Robinson,&Winters,2014)mustbeaddressedfortruancyprogramstobeeffective.Thescopeoftheproblemsassociatedwithtruancyislarge.Forthepurposeofthisstudy,thespecificfocuswillbeschool-basedpoliciesandproceduresthatmaymitigateorreducetruancy.Withoutapropersynthesisofthereasonssurroundingtheproblem,therewillbelimitedunderstandingabouthowtoapproachthestudy.Therefore,itisimportanttostatethescopeofproblemtodefinethefocusandimprovethequalityofthestudy.StatementoftheProblemTruancyratesintheUnitedStatesareagrowingproblem(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014).Whetherastudentisabsentduetoasuspensionorbecausetheywillinglychoosetobeabsent,theproblemhasbecomeworthyofresearchandpossibleintervention.Theproblemaddressedbythestudyis:Educationalleadersmayhaveimplementedpoliciesandproceduresinpubliccharterschools,butdocumentationaboutwhicharemosteffectiveandwhytheyareislargelyabsentCurrentpolicieshaveenabledhighertruancyratesduetothezero-toleranceaspectthatenablesharsherandstricterpunishmentofstudentbehavior.Sincethe1990s,implementationofzerotolerancepoliciesinschoolshasledtoincreaseduseofschoolsuspensionandexpulsionasdisciplinarytechniquesforstudentswithvaryingdegreesofinfractions(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014,p.1110).Whenstudentsaresuspended,orexpelledfortheirbehavior,theymayhaveatoughertimecatchingupinschoolandsucceedingintheiracademicendeavors.Thiscanleadtootherproblemsdownthelineasstudentsmatureandbecomeadults.Researchsuggeststheexperienceofsuspensionorexpulsioncouldleadtoillegalbehaviorthatisassociatedwithacriminalrecord.Beingsuspendedorexpelledfromschoolincreasedthelikelihoodofarrestinthatsamemonthandthiseffectwasstrongeramongyouthwhodidnothaveahistoryofbehaviorproblemsandwhenyouthassociatedwithlessdelinquentpeers(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014,p.1110).Whenschoolsexpelandsuspendstudents,schoolleadersaddtothetruancyratesoftheschool.Negativebehaviorsassociatedwithtruancymayincrease.Thezerotolerancepoliciesofschoolshavebecomethemaincauseforconcerninthesegrowingcasesofsuspensionandexpulsionbecausetheyareconsideredpunitivemeasures(Schargel,2014).Therefore,policiesneedtobechangedtoaddressthisproblem.Todoso,onemustexamineschoolslikeCharterSecondarySchooltodeterminewhatstepstotaketomakeapositivechange.Althoughtruancydoesnotdirectlyleadtocrime,itoftenhasahighcorrelation(Schargel,2014).PurposeoftheStudyEffectiveschoolpoliciesthatimproveattendancemaycontainprocessesandoptionsthatprovidesuchsupportandvariability.Withoutunderstandingsuchaspects,littlehelpcouldbegeneratedandimplementedtohelpstudentsinneedandhelpthemavoidhightruancyrates.Thepurposeofthestudyistounderstandschoolleadersperspectivesabouthowpoliciesandproceduresreducetruancyandimprovestudentattendance.ByinterviewingkeystaffinCharterSecondarySchool,apubliccharterschoolwithlowtruancylevels,informationoneffectivepoliciesandprocedurescanbegathered.Thesefindingsmayprovideabetterunderstandingofwhatschoolleadersinotherschoolscandotoimprovetruancy.Attendanceplaysalargepartinfacingsuspensionandperformingwellacademically(Schargel,2014).Researchabouttruancyreductionsuggestsstudentswithmoreattendanceoptionsmaybeabletoovercomedifficultiesthatcontributetotruancy(Reid,2014).Effectiveschoolpoliciesthatimproveattendancemaycontainprocessesandoptionsthatprovidesuchsupportandvariability.Withoutunderstandingsuchaspects,littlehelpcouldbegeneratedandimplementedtohelpstudentsinneedandhelpthemavoidhightruancyrates.Thisareaofresearchwillbeexploredintheinterviewsectionandresults.CharterSecondarySchoolhasbetterattendanceandbetteracademicperformancecomparedtoalltheotherschoolsinthedistrict(onaverage).Furthermore,mostofthestudentsareminorityornon-white.Thisschoolisaperfectstartingpointforinvestigationintoeffectiveschoolpolicies.Examinationofothersuccessfulschoolsshouldprovideameasureofeffectivenessneededtounderstandbetterwhatstrategiescanimproveattendance.Itcanalsoshowhowotherschoolshandlethingslikeminoritymajorityandlocationofschoollikeanurban,rural,orsuburbansetting.ResearchQuestions1.WhydoesDCShavealowtruancyrate?2.WhattheoreticalframeworkservesasthefoundationforpoliciesatDCS?QualitativeStudiesandInterviewsThestudyisaqualitativeonethatfocusesontheuseofinterviewstocollectqualitativedata.Theinterviewhastodaybecomeoneofthemostwidespreadknowledge-producingpracticesacrossthehumanandsocialsciencesingeneralandincriticalpsychologymorespecifically(Brinkmann,2014,p.1008).Interviewscanrangefromformalinterviewsorinformalinterviews.Theycanbedoneface-to-face,overthephone,orovertheinternet.Formalinterviewshaveastructuretothemwheretheresearcherasksaquestionandtheparticipantanswers.However,ininformalinterviews,therecanbediscussionanddoesnothavetosticktothequestionsasked(Brinkmann,2014).Mostqualitativeinterviewshavesomestructuretothemandarelabeled,semi-structured.Mostqualitativeinterviews,however,aresemi-structured.Inasemi-structuredinterview,theresearcherprovidessomestructurebasedonherresearchinterestsandinterviewguidebutworksflexiblywiththeguideandallowsroomfortherespondentsmorespontaneousdescriptionsandnarratives(Brinkmann,2014,p.1008).ThereisaneedtounderstandfromthestafforschoolleadersperspectivesthatworkatCharterSecondarySchoolwhatimprovementshavebeenmadeandwhatkindofschoolenvironmentsuchpoliciespromote,thiscangiveagoodpictureofwhatisbeingdonetoachievepositiveoutcomesforthestudentpopulationattending.Similarstudiesusinginterviewshavegatheredasignificantamountofinsightfulinformationthatallowsfortheabilitytoanswerimportantquestions(DeWitte&Csillag,2012)Usingfixedeffectsregressionsandcontrollingfortruancypeergroupeffects,weobservethattruancy(measuredasbothadiscretedummyvariableandacontinuouscountmeasure)positivelycorrelatestoearlyschoolleaving.Atruanthasa3.4percentagepointshigherriskofleavingschoolwithoutaqualification(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Thepoliciessurroundingtruancyprogramsandhowacademicstaffreactallowforthemesdiscoveredthroughtheinterviewprocesstothenbecomparedtothemesfoundintheliteraturereviewtoseeifthereisauniversalthemeorconceptbeingappliedthatleadstosuccessfulacademicperformancebystudentsandgoodattendancerecords.Itisimportanttoallowstudentsandstafferstogivetheiropinionsaswellasenablediscussionofwhatcausedthepositiveornegativeopinion.Thiswillallowforeasieranalysisofresponses.Conceptualframework:Organizationalstructures,leadersvision,FamilySystemstheory,andMotivationtheoryTheideathattruancyisacomplexproblemallowsforfocusonthevariousnarrativesincorporatedinattemptsatunderstandingandresolvingtheproblem.Somanydifferentavenuespointtopotentialsolutions,however,experiencedenotesnegativeorpositiveoutcomes.Therefore,theleadersvisionoftheselectedschoolandofsuccessfultruancyprograms,willallowforascopeofwhatmaybevaluabletowardsreductionofstudenttruancyrates.Withintheconceptualframeworkliesthetheoreticalframework,incentiveandmotivationandfamilysystemstheory.Animportanttheorythatwillbeexploredinthisstudyistheincentivetheoryofmotivation.peoplearepulledtowardsbehaviorsthatofferpositiveincentivesandpushedawayfrombehaviorsassociatedwithnegativeincentives.Theincentivetheorysuggeststhatpeoplearemotivatedtodothingsbecauseofexternalrewards(Rehman&Haider,2013,p.141).Ifstudentsareincentivizedtoattendclassbyreceivingareward,thismaybeacrucialpartmissinginschoolswithhightruancyratesandmayexplainthedownwardspiralofsomestudentswhentheyarepunishedseverelyforbeingabsent.Familysystemstheoryisasystems-leveltheorythatallowsexplorationofapersonslifethroughthecontextofthefamilyandunderstandingtheindividualsfamilyasanemotionalunitcontributingtotheemotionalwellbeingoftheperson(Breda,2014).AtheoryintroducedbyDr.MurrayBowen,thetheorypostsfamiliesexistasinterdependentandinterconnectedindividualsthatcannotbeunderstoodinisolationfromthesystem(Breda,2014).Inthecaseoftruancy,ifastudentisperformingpoorlyinschoolandbecomesabsent,thiscouldbeduetofamilyresponsibilitiesathomesuchasgainingajobtoprovideforthefamilyortakingcareofanillparent.Familysystemstheoryallowsforidentificationofpotentialconnectionswithinthefamilythatcouldbecausingstressforthestudentleadingtotruantbehavior.AssumptionsThemainassumptionthatguidesthisstudyisthateffectivetruancypoliciesandproceduresarethecornerstoneforreductionintruancyrates.Otherassumptionsincludethenotionthathigherratesoftruancyleadtopooreracademicperformance.Whenstudentsfailtoattendclassvoluntarily,theyputthemselvesatgreaterriskofperformingpoorlyinschool.Thiscanhappenduetotheirinabilitytokeepupinschoolandlackofmotivationtocompleteassignments(Rollnick,2016).Theymaybeunwillingtoattendschoolduetomentalhealthproblems,anunstablehomelife,orphysicalhealthconditions.Anotherassumptionisthatstudentslivinginpovertyandminoritystudentsmayhaveamoredifficulttimewithschoolduetoaturbulenthomelifeanddealingwithinstitutionalizedracism.Althoughthisisnotatopicthatwillbecoveredin-depthinthispaper,itisimportanttorecognizethedifficultiesthatcomefromlackofresourcesandpotentiallybeingaminority,andseehowthatcouldaffecttruancyrates.Thiscouldlendtocreationandimplementationofevenmoreeffectiveschoolpoliciesthatcanultimatelyreducetruancyratesandmaintainthemlowinthefuture.LimitationsThestudywillbelimitedtoonepubliccharterschooltounderstandhowtheschoolmaintainsalowertruancyrate.Anotherlimitationisthenumberofpeopletointerviewforthestudy.Becausetheinterviewisqualitativeandin-person,notmanypeoplecanandwillbeavailabletoanswerquestions.ThestudyisalsolimitedtotheschoolswithintheUnitedStates.TheliteraturereviewwillonlyexaminehowAmericanschoolshandletruancyandpolicesthateitherdecreaseorincreasetruancyrates.Thefinallimitationisparents.Althoughparentalopinionmaybehelpful,itwouldbebettertoleavetheinterviewstostudentsandstafferswithparentsgivingpermissiontothestudenttospeak.Nootherlimitationsarenoted.ScopeoftheStudyThestudyisqualitative,andwilluseinterviewswithschoolstafftocollectdata.InterviewtranscriptswillbeanalyzedtoidentifyunderlyingthemesfromrespondentsoftheCharterSecondarySchool.Byaskingquestionsthehopeistounderstandwhateffectivepoliciesareinplacethatallowsforbetterattendanceratesthanotherschoolsinthedistrict.Interestingly,theschoolalsofaresbetterregardingacademicscoresandhasahighgraduationrate.Iflocationplaysapart(itisinasuburbanarea),thisshouldbeexploredviatheinterviewquestionstogainabetterunderstandingofallaspectsofeffectivepolicywithintheschool.Theliteraturereviewprovidesafoundation,theinterviewsprovidethedata.Asidefromthequalitativeinterviews,theliteraturereviewwillserveasacomparativeguidetonotonlybasesomeofthequestions,butalsocomparethedatagarneredfromtheinterviews.Ifothersuccessfulschoolshavesimilarpoliciesinplace,thiscouldserveasapotentialstandardthatcanappliednationallytohelpdecreasetruancyinallschoolsthroughoutthecountry.Theliteraturereviewwillalsoservetoprovideexamplesofpoliciesinschoolwithhightruancyratestoseewhatshouldnotbedone.Theresultswillalsobediscussedwithinthecontextofpotentialmodificationthatcanbemadetohelpimproveattendanceratesandacademicsuccessofstudentsevenfurther.Ultimately,itisimportanttoacknowledgewhatCharterSecondarySchoolhastoofferandseewhetherthatcanserveasagaugeforotherschoolsinthedistrict,anymaybe,inthecountry.Althoughthequalitativestudyissmall,onlyincludingsixstudentsandfourstaffmembersfromtheschool,itmayprovidethekindofinsightthatcannotbegatheredelsewhere.Useofdatabasesavailabletohighlightnationwidetruancyratesmayalsobeused,againasacomparativetool.SignificanceThestudycanbeanimportantstepinlearningwhatisworkableforschoolsaimedatreducingtruancyamongstudentsandwhatisnot.Furthermore,findingsmayleadtothisschoolandothersstandardizingeffectiveprogramsandpolicies.PublicschoolsacrosstheUnitedStatesneedtoknowthattheycanhavetheknowledgetoimprovetheirstudentpopulationsacademicprogressandattendance.First,however,theyneedtoseetheinformationthatprovescertainpolicyimplementationsworkandareworththetime,money,andeffort.Likeevidence-basedpracticeinnursing,staffneedtoseeevidenceofpoliciesthathavealreadybeenenabledandimplementedthathaveledtothesuccessofstudentsandtheimprovedratesofattendance.WhileithelpsseeingthestatisticsofasuccessfulschoollikeCharterSecondarySchool,itisevenmoresignificantifschoolsseethestepsittooktoreachthatlevelofsuccess.Thenthatcollectedinformationcanbecomparedtootherschoolsastoidentifywhatcoreprinciplesandactionshavebeenusedtoachievesuchapositiveresult.Growthandpositiveoutcomescanonlycomefromtestedandapprovedpractices.Theconceptualframeworkwillworkasaguidetoseeandunderstandifassumptionsandhypothesescanbeprovenordisprovenviacomparisonandanalysis.Researchersneedtocontinuetheirpursuitofinformationandanalysistoofferpotentialguidelinesanddirectionsforschoolsthatneedit.ThegrowingproblemoftruancyintheUnitedStatesrequiresathoughtfulandconsiderateassessmentofongoingissues.Theseissueswillcontinuetoremainprevalentunlessactionistaken.Actioncannotbetakenunlessthereissoundresearchandevidencebehindit.Lastly,studiesliketheonehereoffersananchorpointtoinvestigateotheraspectsofschoollife,schoolenvironment,andstudentbehavioralproblems.Ifstudentshaveproblemsduetostruggleswithsexuality,genderidentity,orevenpoliticalaffiliation,thiscouldalsobeinvestigatedinfuturestudies.Theresultscouldthenbeusedtospearheadchangesinpoliciessoon,leadingtocontinueprogressiontowardsasafeandpositiveschoolenvironment.DefinitionofTermsThetermsutilizedinthisstudyaredetailedbelow.TruancyWhenastudentstaysawayfromschoolwithoutasufficientreason;canbealsolabeledasabsenteeism.Dayssuspendedmaybeincludedintruancyrates.CharterSchool(intheUnitedStates)apubliclyfundedindependentschoolestablishedbycommunitygroups,parents,orteachersunderthetermsofacharterwithnational/localauthority.ExpulsionMeaningpermanentwithdrawing/exclusion,whenastudentisbannedorremovedfromaschoolsystem/universityduetoconsistentviolationsofaninstitution\'srules.However,itcanalsobeforasingleoffenseoffittingharshnessinextremecases.SuspensionRegardingschools,suspension(a.k.a.temporaryexclusion)isanobligatoryleavegiventoastudentasamethodofpenaltythatcanlastanywherefromasingledaytoaslongasseveralweeks,whereastudentcannotattendschoolorstepfootinsidetheschool(Kaufman&Kaufman,2013).ConclusionInconclusion,truancyratesareagrowingprobleminUnitedStatesschools.CharterSecondarySchoolisoneschoolthataimstoreducetruancyratesandhavedonesoaccordingtorecentstatistics.ByexploringCharterSecondarySchoolsschoolpoliciesandotherschoolpoliciesthatincreaseordecreasetruancyratesinFloridathestudyhopestounderstandwhatmaycausetruancyinschoolsandwhatreducesit.Ifbetterandimprovedhandlingofstudentissuesisthesolutiontotruancy,itneedstobeexplored.Thenextsectionisaliteraturereview.TheliteraturereviewwillfocusonimportantpoliciesalreadyinplaceinotherschoolsandhowthesepoliciescouldbesimilarordifferenttoCharterSecondarySchoolalongwiththenegativeeffectsofhightruancyratesandthecauseoftheseratesinschools.Thenextsectionallowsonetoseethroughrecentliterature,thesignificanceoftruancyandhowitconnectsschoolmeasureswithstudentbehavior.Someschoolstakepunitivemeasurestowardstruancy,otherstakenon-punitive,andstillmoretakeamixtureofboth.Whyaresuchmeasuresadopted?Theaimistounderstandthisandwhystudentsaretruant.Thereareseveralfactorsthatcanbeatplayfromenvironmenttomentalhealth,andsoforth.Theliteraturereviewwillbringintocontextmoreoftheseaspects.Withsomanyschoolsthroughoutthecountryexperiencinghightruancyrates,whatdoesCharterSecondarySchooldothatenableshighattendanceamongitsstudentpopulation?Whatpolicieshastheschooladoptedtosupportapositiveenvironmentthatmotivatesstudentstoattendschoolandlearn?Chapter2LiteratureReviewRoadmap:Thisliteraturereviewwillfocusonseveralkeytopicsbecausemanyreasonscontributetotruancy.Theseare:addressingschooltruancy,school-basedprograms,punitive/non-punitivetruancyprograms,studentandfamilycharacteristics,parentalengagement,tacklingtheschooltruancyproblem,typesofprogramslikeschool-basedprograms,problemswithcurrenttruancyprograms,characteristicsofsuccessfultruancyprograms,andtheoreticalframework:IncentiveTheoryofMotivation.Thehopeistoilluminatethewaytowardsunderstandingtheproblemofschooltruancyandwaystoreduceit.Introduction:AddressingSchoolTruancyStudenttruancyhasbecomeamajorissueschoolstrytotackle(Rollnick,2016).Therefore,toimprovetruancytheneedarisestoresearchandcultivateworthwhilestrategiestoreducenegativebehaviorsthatleadtotruancy.However,thereisalsoaneedtounderstandwhystudentsaretruantinthefirstplace.Povertyandnegativeschoolenvironmentareissuesthathaveraisedconcernforthelikelihoodoftruancyinstudents(Reid,2014).Thissectionhopestoilluminatetheissueofstudenttruancy.Itbecomesdifficulttoidentifythecostsofbenefitsofvariousmeasures.Thosethatfallintothepunitivedisciplineisnecessarybecausetraditionalistviewsbelieveadherencetorulesleadstopositiveoutcomes(Rollnick,2016).Thoseinthecampofnonpunitivedisciplinedesiretodemonstratehowgivingstudentsoptionscanleadtobetterresultsnotjustintruancyrates,butthepersonalgrowthofthestudent(Rollnick,2016).Withallthestrategiesandmethodsavailable,itcanbedifficultforschoolleadstodeterminewhatmixtureofpunitiveandnonpunitivedisciplinewillwork.Thedesireistoshowthesuccessofprogramsand/orschoolsthathaveenabledareductionintruancyratesaswellaspoliciesineffectthatincreasetruancyratestodemonstratehowtoimprovestudenttruancy.School-basedProgramsAsidefromcreatingastrongerconnectiontocommunity,anotherwayschoolscanandhavehelpeddecreasetruancyratesisthroughtruancyreporting.Truancyreportingallowsstudentstobeassessedtoseeiftheyarehigh-risk(DeWitte&Csillag,2012).Becausetruancycanhaveaprofoundlynegativeeffectonstudentsinthelongterm,schoolshavebegunbecomingmorestringentontruancyreporting.Atruanthasa3.4percentagepointshigherriskofleavingschoolwithoutaqualification(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Theresearchersnotethatbecausetruancyreportingallowsforbetterassessmentofat-riskyouth,itcanprovideameansofidentifyingpotentialproblemswithstudentearlyon(DeWitte&Csillag,2012).Thismakestruancyreportingapreventativemeasure.Suchapreventativemeasureappearstohavepositiveeffectsonstudentsatrisk..Theideaisstraightforward:ifstudentsarebettermonitoredwithrespecttotruancy,schoolscanidentifymoreeasilystudentsatrisk.Theresultsindicatethatimprovedtruancyreportingsignificantlyreducesschooldropoutby5percentagepoints(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Tojumpstarttheprocessofhelpingstudents,schoolsmustfigureoutwaystohelpstudentsconnecttotheircommunity.Apreventativemeasureusedtohelpidentifyat-riskyouth,canhaveinterventionsthatleadtopositiveeducationaloutcomes(DeWitte&Csillag,2012).Schoolsliketheoneusedforthisstudyandthoselikeit,alreadyhaveinplacearobusttruancyreportingprotocol.Theruleswithinthisprotocolshowthatstudentscannotbeabsentmorethanafewdaysortheschoolwillbeinvolvedandwillcontactthestudentshousehold(DeWitte&Csillag,2012).Moreresearchshouldbededicatedtohowpreventativemeasurescanexpandtoincludeotherwaystoassessforat-riskbehavior.Thiscanincludelatenessforclass,missedhomeworkassignments,andsoforth(Reid,2017).Ifthiscanbedone,thismayfurtherallowforagreaterassessmentofpotentialtruancyproblemsinthefuture.Applyingresearchtopracticeispopularinhealthcare,perhapsitcanalsobecomepopularineducationasmoreinformationcomesoutonhotbuttontopicslikestudenttruancy(Reid,2017).PunitivePunitivemeasuresfortruancycanbeseenthroughtheintroductionofthird-partypolicinginschools.Third-partypolicingisanapproachtocrimepreventionandcontrolinvolvingthepolicepartneringwithorganizationsorindividualstopreventorreducecrimeproblems(Nitschke,Mazerolle,&Bennett,2014,p.5211).Relyingonavailablecriminal,regulatory,orcivillawsandrules(legallevers)thatallowthirdpartiestotakeaccountability,partially,forcontrolofcrime,itcreatesanenvironmentwhereapprehensionofproblemstudentsisfeasible(Nitschke,Mazerolle,&Bennett,2014).Thismayhelpschoolsdealwiththegrowingdelinquencyinstudents,butmayalsomakeiteasierforstudentstobecomepartofthecriminaljusticesystematanearlyage.Punitivemeasurescanalsobecostlier(Nitschke,Mazerolle,&Bennett,2014).Thisisbecausepunitivemeasureslikeexpulsionorsuspensioncanfurtherincreasethelikelihoodofstudentsbeingtruantandperformingpoorlyacademically(Shelton,2014).Studentsmustbeguidedtowardsapositiveoutcomeandthatmeansreducingthebeliefthatpunitivemeasureswillkeepstudentsfrombeingtruant.Althoughshort-termresultsmayindicatereduction,thelong-termeffectscouldbemorenegativeandlong-lasting(Shelton,2014).Sheltonmentionedthatstudentswhofacepunitivemeasuresmayhaveahigherchanceofcommittingcrimesversusthosewhofacednon-punitivemeasures.Whilesomeresearchsuggestspolice-interventionregardingtruancycanhelpstudentsinthatparentsaremoreawareofwhathappenstothem,therearestillmanyfactorstoconsiderinrelationtoefficacy.Forexample,police-interventionmayleadtohigherparentalawareness,butalsoincreasedpotentialfortruantstudentstoendupinthejuvenilecriminaljusticesystem(Mazerolle,Bennett,Antrobus,&Eggins,2017).Amixtureofbothpunitiveandnon-punitivemeasuresmaybemostbeneficialintacklingtheproblemoftruancy.Non-PunitivePunitivemeasuresfortruancyhavetheirplaceinschools.However,researchshowsnon-punitivemeasuresarealsousefulandofferachanceforstudentstoimproveandremovesomeofthestigmaattachedtopastmistakes(Reid,2017).Successfulprotocolsintegrateflexibilityintostandardmethodstohelptheschool,family,andstudent.Suchprogramsunderstandindividualstudentsneedsanddowhateverisessentialtoassistthefamilyandstudentinvolvedintruancy(Mallett,2015).OnestudyinAustraliaaimedtounderstandtruancyandtheeffectsoftruancytogenerateprogramsthatallowedforeffectivemeasuresatreducingtruancyratesamongstudents(Taylor,Gray,&Stanton,2016).Thisshowsthatwithproperresearch,non-punitiveoptionsarefeasible.However,theymustbedoneinconjunctionwithsignificantresearchthatallowsabetterunderstandingoftheneedsofstudentswhoparticipateintruancy(Mallett,2015).Theexpectationisthatnon-punitivemeasuresaremoreeffectivethanpunitivemeasures.However,ifthereisnosignificantdifference,non-punitivemeasuresmustbeassessedforefficacy.Haight,Chapman,Hendron,Loftis,&Kearney(2014),demonstratedhownon-punitivemeasureslikeatruancyprogrammaynotworkifakeyprocessisnotimplemented.Meaning,ifthereisnoskill-buildingaspecttotheprogramliketutoring,thechancefortruancytodecreasedeclines.StudentCharacteristicsTruancycanhavealastingimpactonthelifeofastudent.Schooldropouthasbeenextensivelystudiedintheliteratureasacorrelateofnegativelifeoutcomes.Aprecursortoschooldropoutistruancy,theunexcusedorillegitimatestudentabsencefromschool(Rocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016,p.592).Studentsmaybeabsentortruantduetoamultitudeofreasons.Researchersidentifiedthroughafewexaminedstudies,thatstudentswhoareoftenmoretruantthanothers,maybemoreinvolvedincrime(Shelton,2014)(Shute&Cooper,2014)(Virtanen,Lerkkanen,Poikkeus,&Kuorelahti,2014).Suchinvolvementpointstothenegativecorrelationoftruancyandlaterlifeoutcomeslikedelinquencyandcrime(Rocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016.Theresearchersalsostatetruancycanleadtoproblemdrinking.Resultsindicatethattruancyhaslong-lastingassociationswithnegativelifeoutcomes,especiallyfornon-violentcrimeandproblemdrinking(Rocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016,p.592).Ifaddictiveorcriminalbehaviorleadstotruancyandtruancycanfurtherleadtoaddictiveorcriminalbehavior,itseemsacyclethatjustfeedsitselfwithnegativeoverallbehavior.Thisisimportanttoknowbecausestudentsexperiencingaddictionproblemsorbecominginvolvedindelinquentbehaviorcanreceivehelptonotonlykeepthemfromengaginginsuchriskyactionswhilealsopositivelycontributingtoreductionintruancyrates(Rocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016).Essentially,thenotionthatfortheretobeareductionintruancyrates,schoolsmusthelpstudentsdealwiththenegativebehaviorstheyareengagingin,outsideofschool.Thesenegativebehaviorscouldcomebecauseofnegativeexperiences.Frombullyingtopooracademicperformance,studentsoftenexperiencestressthatcouldbedetrimentaltotheiracademicsuccess.Birkett,Russell,&Corliss,(2014)observetherolesexual-orientationdisparitieshaveonstudentsinrelationtoacademicachievementandtruancy.Throughtheutilizationofpoolinformation,theyidentifiedbeingpartoftheLGBTgroupaffectedratesoftruancyandacademicperformance.LGBT-identifiedyouthsreportedsignificantlyelevatedoddsoftruancyandlowgrades(oddsratios?=?1.63.2;allP?

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…Effective Policies and Procedures Can Affect Truancy Rate49Policies and procedures perceived by school leadersto reduce truancy in a public charter schoolAlix DesulmeB.A (St. Thomas University) 2004M.S (St. Thomas University)…

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…Policies and procedures perceived by school leadersto reduce truancy in a public charter schoolAlix DesulmeB.A (St. Thomas University) 2004M.S (St. Thomas University) 2006A Proposal Presented in Partial FulfillmentOf the…

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…[…… parts of this paper are missing, click here to view or download the entire document ]…EffectivePoliciesandProceduresCanAffectTruancyate50PoliciesandproceduresperceivedbyschoolleaderstoreducetruancyinapubliccharterschoolAlixDesulmeB.A(St.ThomasUniversity)2004M.S(St.ThomasUniversity)2006AProposalPresentedinPartialFulfillmentOftheequirementsfortheDegreeofDoctorofEducationUniversityofNewEnglandOctober15,2017Chapter1IntroductionStudenttruancyisagrowingproblemintheUnitedStates.Overthelasttwentyyearsthetruancyrateshavegrownnationwidewiththehighestratesininnercities(Jacob&Lovett,2017).esearchindicatesthatstudenttruancyleadstopotentialsociallydeviantbehaviorinadulthood(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017).Manystudentswhoareabsentforprolongedperiodsaremorelikelytoperformpoorlyacademically,riskingfailureinclassesandfacingdisciplinaryaction.Characteristicsofschoolswithhightruancyratesareuseofonlypunitivetruancyprograms,lackofalternativestudyoptionsforsuspendedstudents,andlackofcounselingandtutoring(Bye,2010).Thereareschoolsthathavebeendoingwellinmaintaininglowtruancyrates,however.Thoseschoolsgivestudentstheoptionfortutoring,allowdistancelearningforsuspendedstudents,andtakeonamixtureofpunitiveandnon-punitivemeasures(Duarte&Hatch,2014).Withanationalrankingof764andaFloridarankingof66,CharterSecondarySchoolisconsideredoneofthebesthighschoolsinthestateregardingstudentattendanceratesandoverallschoolparticipation.Theschoolhasalowtruancyamongminoritystudents,whichisanotableanddistinctivequality,makingitananomalyinthesurroundingarea.Suchaqualitywillbeanalyzedindepthinthispaperalongwiththevariouspossiblereasonsforthestudentswillingnesstoattendclassregularlyandwhatmethodsareemployedbyschoolstafftokeeptheschoolenvironmentpositivebecausetruancyratesaresolowcomparedtootherschoolsintheareaandnationwide.Firstestablishedin2005,CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShoreisapubliccharterschoolbuiltontheBarryUniversityCampus,sittingon5acresofproperty.ItisinMiamiShore,anareaofFlorida.Thecurrentenrollmentnumberstandsat599andthecampustypeissuburban.TheschoolmascotaretheHawks.ateAasacollegepreparatoryschool,theschoolholdsamunicipalcharterviaVillageofMiamiShoresthatservesstudentsfromgrades6-12(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).Initsearlyhistory,CharterSecondarySchoolwasoriginallyamiddleschoolestablishedin1997underthename,MiamiShores/BarryUniversityCharterSchool.ThenineportablestructuresthatcomprisedtheschoolservedasanalternativeforMiamiShorestudentsthatwouldotherwiseattendHoraceMannMiddleSchool(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).However,after8years,theschoolsecuredmorefundingandin2005,renamedtheschool.TheschoolgainedapermanentstructurethankstothedonationsgivenbythecitizensofMiamiShoresandadditionalfundsfromtheNorthDadeMedicalFoundation.DCSdrawsfundsfromtwoseparatestreams.OnepartofthefundingcomesfromabondissueapprovedbyVillageresidentsandalargetwo-yeargrantgivenbytheNorthDadeMedicalFoundationforFY2006and2007.DCSraisestheremainderofitsoperatingexpensesfromthestatethroughitsFTEfunding(asetamountforeachstudentintheclassroomperday)andthroughthecollectionofstudentfeesforsuchthingsasmaterialsandtrips(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).Theschoolhas31full-timeteachersforastudentpopulationof598studentsthatreflectaratiooflessthan20studentsperteacher(19:1)(USNEWS,2017).Thepercentageofeconomicallydisadvantagedstudentsliesat33%withminorityenrollmentof83%.AlthoughclassattendanceishighandthepercentageofstudentswhotestedforAPexamsat81%,thepercentageofstudentswhopasstheAPexamsis47%,orlessthanhalf.EnglishandMathematicproficiencylevelslieat70%and68%respectively,whichisabovethedistrictandnationwideaverage(USNEWS,2017).WithaCollegeeadinessIndexof48.8,theschoolhasroomforimprovement.Whilestudentsearnaveragetestscores,overall,studentswhoattendDoctorsperformbetterthanstudentsatotherschoolsinitsdistrict.ThedistrictaverageforEnglishproficiencyis50%andMathematicproficiencyat37%.Thedistrictaverageforcollegereadinessisat44.7andthisisoutof113schoolsand113,242students(USNEWS,2017).Withagraduationrateof98%,CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShoreshasalotgoingforitregardingpositiveaspectsandstudentinterest.UnderstandingtheeasonsforTruancyThereareseveralreasonsfortruancyandtheyareoftencomplexandvaried.Somepertaintoanegativeschoolenvironment,studentbehavior,familyeconomicstatus,mentalhealthproblems,tonameafew.Anegativeschoolenvironmentcancauseproblemsforstudentswishingtolearn.UnlikeCharterSecondarySchool,classroomsacrosstheMiamioftenhavelargeclassroomsforexample,makingitdifficultforstudentstopayattentioninclassandreceiveattentionnecessaryforunderstandingthecurriculum(Losen,2015).Ifforexample,astudenthasquestionsorneedsexamplesforaspecificassignmentinclass,theteachermaynothavethetimeorpatiencetodealwiththatstudentwhenheorshemustdealwith29otherstudentsallneedingthesamelevelofattention.Manyschoolsacrossthecountryhavestrictpoliciesregardingdisruptivestudentbehaviorthatcouldlandastudentundersuspensionoreven,expulsion.Severalfactorscouldcausedisruptivebehavioramongstudents(Losen,2015).Onecommonreasonispoverty.highlevelsofpovertyhaveanegativeeffectonschoolbehavior.Thisisattributedlargelytothechronicandacutestressexperiencedbystudentslivinginpoverty.Theexposureisassociatedwithexternalizingbehaviorsthataredisruptiveinschoolsettings(Hutcheson,2014,p.1).Studentsfacingpovertymaybepartofanunstablehousehold.Theymayendureproblematicandabusiveparents,andhavetodealwithlackofresources.Thesestudentsneedachanceeverynowandthentolearnfromtheirmistakesandreceivethehelpandresourcesthatcouldmakeapositivedifferenceintheirlives.Instead,theyaresuspendedorexpelledandnotgivenachancetoimprove.Highratesofsuspensioncanlendtoahigherrateoftruancy.ThebifactorstructurereflectedageneralfactorofProblemsinBehavioralEngagementandtwogroupfactors:ProblemsinSocialEngagementandProblemsinAcademicEngagement(Barghausetal.,2016,p.154).esearchersnotestudentsoftenmaynothaveproblemsacademically,butinsteadsocially.Theymaynotfeelcomfortableengagingwithotherstudentsduetofearofjudgementorinabilitytoproperlysocialize.Providingstudentswiththetoolstobothengagesociallyandacademicallycanallowforahigherpercentageofacademic-basedpositiveoutcomes.Studentinterestmayalsoplayakeyroleintruancy(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017).Thisisbecausesuspensionsandexpulsionsmayimpactstudentinterestinanegativeway.Whenstudentsreceivesuspensions,theyhavenoaccesstotheschoolwork.Whenthesuspensionends,dependingonhowlongthetimeoutofschoolwas,theymayhaveincreaseddifficultycatchingupwiththeclass.Ifthereisnooptiontocompleteschoolwork,andtheycannotgotoschoolorcontacttheteacherforassignments,itmayputthesekindsofstudentsatanautomaticdisadvantage.Thisisespeciallythecaseiftheyhaveahardtimeacademicallyalready.Tofallbehindinschoolworkwhenthestudenthasexperiencedlowgradescouldsetbackastudentandcouldendupinhavingfailuresinclasses.Byexploringincentivetheoryofmotivationandresearchshowingtheconnectionbetweenexpulsion/suspension,interest,andtruancy,thehopeistoofferclarityinwhytruancyratesarehighandwhatcanbedonetocounteractit.Theseproblems:negativeschoolenvironment,studentbehavior,familyeconomicstatus,mentalhealthproblem(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017)(Dembo,Wareham,Schmeidler,Briones-obinson,&Winters,2014)mustbeaddressedfortruancyprogramstobeeffective.Thescopeoftheproblemsassociatedwithtruancyislarge.Forthepurposeofthisstudy,thespecificfocuswillbeschool-basedpoliciesandproceduresthatmaymitigateorreducetruancy.Withoutapropersynthesisofthereasonssurroundingtheproblem,therewillbelimitedunderstandingabouthowtoapproachthestudy.Therefore,itisimportanttostatethescopeofproblemtodefinethefocusandimprovethequalityofthestudy.StatementoftheProblemTruancyratesintheUnitedStatesareagrowingproblem(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014).Whetherastudentisabsentduetoasuspensionorbecausetheywillinglychoosetobeabsent,theproblemhasbecomeworthyofresearchandpossibleintervention.Truancyratesarehigherinschoolswithlowsocio-economicstatus(Dembo,Wareham,Schmeidler,Briones-obinson,&Winters,2014).Theproblemaddressedbythestudyis:Educationalleadersmayhaveimplementedpoliciesandproceduresinpubliccharterschools,butdocumentationaboutwhicharemosteffectiveandwhytheyareislargelyabsent.Currentpolicieshaveenabledhighertruancyratesduetothezero-toleranceaspectthatenablesharsherandstricterpunishmentofstudentbehavior.Sincethe1990s,implementationofzerotolerancepoliciesinschoolshasledtoincreaseduseofschoolsuspensionandexpulsionasdisciplinarytechniquesforstudentswithvaryingdegreesofinfractions(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014,p.1110).Whenstudentsaresuspended,orexpelledfortheirbehavior,theymayhaveatoughertimecatchingupinschoolandsucceedingintheiracademicendeavors.Thiscanleadtootherproblemsdownthelineasstudentsmatureandbecomeadults.esearchsuggeststheexperienceofsuspensionofexpulsioncouldleadtoillegalbehaviorthatisassociatedwithacriminalrecord.Beingsuspendedorexpelledfromschoolincreasedthelikelihoodofarrestinthatsamemonthandthiseffectwasstrongeramongyouthwhodidnothaveahistoryofbehaviorproblemsandwhenyouthassociatedwithlessdelinquentpeers(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014,p.1110).Whenschoolsexpelandsuspendstudents,addingtothetruancyratesoftheschool,negativebehaviorsmayincrease.Thezerotolerancepoliciesofschoolshavebecomethemaincauseforconcerninthesegrowingcasesofsuspensionandexpulsion.Therefore,policiesneedtobechangedtoaddressthisproblem.Todoso,onemustexamineschoolslikeCharterSecondarySchooltodeterminewhatstepstotaketomakeapositivechange.Althoughtruancydoesnotdirectlyleadtocrime,itoftenhasahighcorrelation.PurposeoftheStudyThepurposeofthestudyistounderstandschoolleadersperspectivesaboutwhethereffectivepoliciesandproceduresreducetruancyandimprovestudentattendance.ByinterviewingkeystaffinCharterSecondarySchool,apubliccharterschoolwithlowtruancylevels,informationoneffectivepoliciesandprocedurescanbegathered.Thesefindingsmayprovideabetterunderstandingofwhatschoolleadersinotherschoolscandotoimprovetruancy.Attendanceplaysalargepartinfacingsuspensionandperformingwellacademically.esearchabouttruancyreductionsuggestsstudentswithmoreattendanceoptionsmaybeabletoovercomedifficultiesthatcontributetotruancy.Effectiveschoolpoliciesthatimproveattendancemaycontainprocessesandoptionsthatprovidesuchsupportandvariability.Withoutunderstandingsuchaspects,littlehelpcouldbegeneratedandimplementedtohelpstudentsinneedandhelpthemavoidhightruancyrates.Thisareaofresearchwillbeexploredintheinterviewsectionandresults.CharterSecondarySchoolhasbetterattendanceandbetteracademicperformancecomparedtoalltheotherschoolsinthedistrict(onaverage).Furthermore,mostofthestudentsareminorityornon-white.Thisschoolisaperfectstartingpointforinvestigationintoeffectiveschoolpolicies.Alookintoothersuccessfulschoolsshouldprovideameasureofeffectivenessneededtounderstandbetterwhatstrategiescanimproveattendance.Itcanalsoshowhowotherschoolshandlethingslikeminoritymajorityandlocationofschoollikeanurban,rural,orsuburbansetting.esearchQuestions1.Whatmaybethecauseoftruancyinstudents?2.Howdoesincentivetheoryplayaroleinunderstandingschooltruancy?3.Whataretheeffectsofpunitiveornon-punitivetruancyprogramsonstudents?4.Whataresuccessfultruancyprogramsdoingthathasledtoreductionintruancy?5.Whyaresometruancyprogramsunsuccessfulatreducingtruancy?Theresearchneedstodelveintounderstandingthereasonsbehindtruancy.Fortheretobesolutionstothenationwidetruancyproblem,researchmustbedirectedtowardsevidencethatexplainsmotivationsbehindtruancybehaviorandwhataspectsoftruancyprogramshelpeliminatesuchbehavior.Bydevelopingaclearideaofschooltruancyandwhystudentsbecometruant,thehopeistodevelopevidence-basedpracticesthatreduceschooltruancyinstudents.Amyriadofschoolprogramsexistsfortruancy,buttherealityis,notmanyareeffective.QualitativeStudiesandInterviewsThestudyisaqualitativeonethatfocusesontheuseofinterviewstocollectqualitativedata.Theinterviewhastodaybecomeoneofthemostwidespreadknowledge-producingpracticesacrossthehumanandsocialsciencesingeneralandincriticalpsychologymorespecifically(Brinkmann,2014,p.1008).Interviewscanrangefromformalinterviewsorinformalinterviews.Theycanbedoneface-to-face,overthephone,orovertheinternet.Formalinterviewshaveastructuretothemwheretheresearcherasksaquestionandtheparticipantanswers.However,ininformalinterviews,therecanbediscussionanddoesnothavetosticktothequestionsasked.Mostqualitativeinterviewshavesomestructuretothemandarelabeled,semi-structured.Mostqualitativeinterviews,however,aresemi-structured.Inasemi-structuredinterview,theresearcherprovidessomestructurebasedonherresearchinterestsandinterviewguidebutworksflexiblywiththeguideandallowsroomfortherespondentsmorespontaneousdescriptionsandnarratives(Brinkmann,2014,p.1008).ThereisaneedtounderstandfromthestafforschoolleadersperspectivesthatworkatCharterSecondarySchoolwhythepoliciesattheschoolwork.Tounderstandwhatimprovementshavebeenmadeandwhatkindofschoolenvironmentsuchpoliciespromote,thiscangiveagoodpictureofwhatisbeingdonetoachievepositiveoutcomesforthestudentpopulationattending.Similarstudiesusinginterviewshavegatheredasignificantamountofinsightfulinformationthatallowsfortheabilitytoanswerimportantquestions.Usingfixedeffectsregressionsandcontrollingfortruancypeergroupeffects,weobservethattruancy(measuredasbothadiscretedummyvariableandacontinuouscountmeasure)positivelycorrelatestoearlyschoolleaving.Atruanthasa3.4percentagepointshigherriskofleavingschoolwithoutaqualification(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Thepoliciessurroundingtruancyprogramsandhowacademicstaffreactallowforthemesdiscoveredthroughtheinterviewprocesstothenbecomparedtothemesfoundintheliteraturereviewtoseeifthereisauniversalthemeorconceptbeingappliedthatleadstosuccessfulacademicperformancebystudentsandgoodattendancerecords.Itisimportanttoallowstudentsandstafferstogivetheiropinionsaswellasenablediscussionofwhatcausedthepositiveornegativeopinion.Thiswillallowforeasieranalysisofresponses.Conceptualframework:OrganizationalstructuresandleadersvisionTheideathattruancyisacomplexproblemallowsforfocusonthevariousnarrativesincorporatedinattemptsatunderstandingandresolvingtheproblem.Somanydifferentavenuespointtopotentialsolutions,however,experiencedenotesnegativeorpositiveoutcomes.Therefore,theleadersvisonoftheselectedschoolandofsuccessfultruancyprograms,willallowforascopeofwhatmaybevaluabletowardsreductionofstudenttruancyrates.Withintheconceptualframeworkliesthetheoreticalframework,incentiveandmotivation.Animportanttheorythatwillbeexploredinthispaperistheincentivetheoryofmotivation.peoplearepulledtowardsbehaviorsthatofferpositiveincentivesandpushedawayfrombehaviorsassociatedwithnegativeincentives.Theincentivetheorysuggeststhatpeoplearemotivatedtodothingsbecauseofexternalrewards(ehman&Haider,2013,p.141).Ifstudentsareincentivizedtoattendclassbyreceivingareward,thismaybeacrucialpartmissinginschoolswithhightruancyratesandmayexplainthedownwardspiralofsomestudentswhentheyarepunishedseverelyforbeingabsent.CharterSecondarySchoolhasnon-academicawardsthattheygiveouttostudentswhoarerespectfulandhavegoodattendancerecords.Thesecouldbeincentivesforstudentstocontinueattendingclass.Theschoolsattendanceprocedureisstrict,butallowsforevaluationofthereasonsbehindastudentsabsence.Suchconsiderationforastudentallowsforroomforthestudenttoresolvehisorherproblemsandcontinuegoingtoschool.Onerule,isthatifastudentmissesanxamountofdays,theywillhavethesameamountofdaystomakeuptheassignment.Althoughthismaybedifficulttoaccomplish,itdoesleavesomewiggleroomforstudents,thusincreasingtheirmotivationtocontinuefollowingtherulesoftheschool.AssumptionsThemainassumptionthatguidesthisstudyisthattruancypoliciesandproceduresarethecornerstoneforreductionintruancyrates.Otherassumptionsincludethenotionthathigherratesoftruancyleadtopooreracademicperformance.Whenstudentsfailtoattendclassvoluntarily,theyputthemselvesatgreaterriskofperformingpoorlyinschool.Thiscanhappenduetotheirinabilitytokeepupinschoolandlackofmotivationtocompleteassignments.Theymaybeunwillingtoattendschoolduetomentalhealthproblems,anunstablehomelife,orphysicalhealthconditions.Anotherassumptionisthatstudentslivinginpovertyandminoritystudentsmayhaveamoredifficulttimewithschoolduetoaturbulenthomelifeanddealingwithinstitutionalizedracism.Althoughthisisnotatopicthatwillbecoveredin-depthinthispaper,itisimportanttorecognizethedifficultiesthatcomefromlackofresourcesandpotentiallybeingaminority,andseehowthatcouldaffecttruancyrates.Thiscouldlendtocreationandimplementationofevenmoreeffectiveschoolpoliciesthatcanultimatelyreducetruancyratesandmaintainthemlowinthefuture.LimitationsThestudywillbelimitedtoonepubliccharterschool.theDoctorsChartersSchool.Thisisbecauseoftheneedtounderstandwhattheschooldoesandthencomparethatinformationtoothersuccessfulschools.Anotherlimitationisthenumberofpeopletointerviewforthestudy.Becausetheinterviewisqualitativeandin-person,notmanypeoplecanandwillbeavailabletoanswerquestions.ThestudyisalsolimitedtotheschoolswithintheUnitedStates.TheliteraturereviewwillonlyexaminehowAmericanschoolshandletruancyandpolicesthateitherdecreaseorincreasetruancyrates.Thefinallimitationisparents.Althoughparentalopinionmaybehelpful,itwouldbebettertoleavetheinterviewstostudentsandstafferswithparentsgivingpermissiontothestudenttospeak.Nootherlimitationsarenoted.ScopeoftheStudyThestudyisqualitative,andwilluseinterviewswithschoolstafftocollectdata.InterviewtranscriptswillbeanalyzedtoidentifyunderlyingthemesfromrespondentsoftheCharterSecondarySchool.Byaskingquestionsthehopeistounderstandwhateffectivepoliciesareinplacethatallowsforbetterattendanceratesthanotherschoolsinthedistrict.Interestingly,theschoolalsofaresbetterregardingacademicscoresandhasahighgraduationrate.Iflocationplaysapart(itisinasuburbanarea),thisshouldbeexploredviatheinterviewquestionstogainabetterunderstandingofallaspectsofeffectivepolicywithintheschool.Theliteraturereviewprovidesafoundation,theinterviewsprovidethedata.Asidefromthequalitativeinterviews,theliteraturereviewwillserveasacomparativeguidetonotonlybasesomeofthequestions,butalsocomparethedatagarneredfromtheinterviews.Ifothersuccessfulschoolshavesimilarpoliciesinplace,thiscouldserveasapotentialstandardthatcanappliednationallytohelpdecreasetruancyinallschoolsthroughoutthecountry.Theliteraturereviewwillalsoservetoprovideexamplesofpoliciesinschoolwithhightruancyratestoseewhatshouldnotbedone.Theresultswillalsobediscussedwithinthecontextofpotentialmodificationthatcanbemadetohelpimproveattendanceratesandacademicsuccessofstudentsevenfurther.Ultimately,itisimportanttoacknowledgewhatCharterSecondarySchoolhastoofferandseewhetherthatcanserveasagaugeforotherschoolsinthedistrict,anymaybe,inthecountry.Althoughthequalitativestudyissmall,onlyincludingsixstudentsandfourstaffmembersfromtheschool,itmayprovidethekindofinsightthatcannotbegatheredelsewhere.Useofdatabasesavailabletohighlightnationwidetruancyratesmayalsobeused,againasacomparativetool.SignificanceThestudycanbeanimportantstepinlearningwhatisworkableforschoolsaimedatreducingtruancyamongstudentsandwhatisnot.Furthermore,findingsmayleadtothisschoolandothersstandardizingeffectiveprogramsandpolicies.PublicschoolsacrosstheUnitedStatesneedtoknowthattheycanhavetheknowledgetoimprovetheirstudentpopulationsacademicprogressandattendance.First,however,theyneedtoseetheinformationthatprovescertainpolicyimplementationsworkandareworththetime,money,andeffort.Likeevidence-basedpracticeinnursing,staffneedtoseeevidenceofpoliciesthathavealreadybeenenabledandimplementedthathaveledtothesuccessofstudentsandtheimprovedratesofattendance.WhileithelpsseeingthestatisticsofasuccessfulschoollikeCharterSecondarySchool,itisevenmoresignificantifschoolsseethestepsittooktoreachthatlevelofsuccess.Thenthatcollectedinformationcanbecomparedtootherschoolsastoidentifywhatcoreprinciplesandactionshavebeenusedtoachievesuchapositiveresult.Growthandpositiveoutcomescanonlycomefromtestedandapprovedpractices.Theconceptualframeworkwillworkasaguidetoseeandunderstandifassumptionsandhypothesescanbeprovenordisprovenviacomparisonandanalysis.esearchersneedtocontinuetheirpursuitofinformationandanalysistoofferpotentialguidelinesanddirectionsforschoolsthatneedit.ThegrowingproblemoftruancyintheUnitedStatesrequiresathoughtfulandconsiderateassessmentofongoingissues.Theseissueswillcontinuetoremainprevalentunlessactionistaken.Actioncannotbetakenunlessthereissoundresearchandevidencebehindit.Lastly,studiesliketheonehereoffersananchorpointtoinvestigateotheraspectsofschoollife,schoolenvironment,andstudentbehavioralproblems.Ifstudentshaveproblemsduetostruggleswithsexuality,genderidentity,orevenpoliticalaffiliation,thiscouldalsobeinvestigatedinfuturestudies.Theresultscouldthenbeusedtospearheadchangesinpoliciesinthenearfuture,leadingtocontinueprogressiontowardsasafeandpositiveschoolenvironment.DefinitionofTermsThetermsutilizedinthisstudyaredetailedbelow.TruancyWhenastudentstaysawayfromschoolwithoutasufficientreason;canbealsolabeledasabsenteeism.Dayssuspendedmaybeincludedintruancyrates.CharterSchool(intheUnitedStates)apubliclyfundedindependentschoolestablishedbycommunitygroups,parents,orteachersunderthetermsofacharterwithnational/localauthority.ExpulsionMeaningpermanentwithdrawing/exclusion,whenastudentisbannedorremovedfromaschoolsystem/universityduetoconsistentviolationsofaninstitution\\\'srules.However,itcanalsobeforasingleoffenseoffittingharshnessinextremecases.Suspensionegardingschools,suspension(a.k.a.temporaryexclusion)isanobligatoryleavegiventoastudentasamethodofpenaltythatcanlastanywherefromasingledaytoaslongasseveralweeks,whereastudentcannotattendschoolorstepfootinsidetheschool(Kaufman&Kaufman,2013).ConclusionInconclusion,truancyratesareagrowingprobleminUnitedStatesschools.CharterSecondarySchoolisoneschoolthataimstoreducetruancyratesandhavedonesoaccordingtorecentstatistics.ByexploringCharterSecondarySchoolsschoolpoliciesandotherschoolpoliciesthatincreaseordecreasetruancyratesinFloridathestudyhopestounderstandwhatmaycausetruancyinschoolsandwhatreducesit.Ifbetterandimprovedhandlingofstudentissuesisthesolutiontotruancy,itneedstobeexplored.Thenextsectionisaliteraturereview.TheliteraturereviewwillfocusonimportantpoliciesalreadyinplaceinotherschoolsandhowthesepoliciescouldbesimilarordifferenttoCharterSecondarySchoolalongwiththenegativeeffectsofhightruancyratesandthecauseoftheseratesinschools.Thenextsectionallowsonetoseethroughrecentliterature,thesignificanceoftruancyandhowitconnectsschoolmeasureswithstudentbehavior.Someschoolstakepunitivemeasurestowardstruancy,otherstakenon-punitive,andstillmoretakeamixtureofboth.Whyaresuchmeasuresadopted?Theaimistounderstandthisandwhystudentsaretruant.Thereareseveralfactorsthatcanbeatplayfromenvironmenttomentalhealth,andsoforth.Theliteraturereviewwillbringintocontextmoreoftheseaspects.Withsomanyschoolsthroughoutthecountryexperiencinghightruancyrates,whatdoesCharterSecondarySchooldothatenableshighattendanceamongitsstudentpopulation?Whatpolicieshastheschooladoptedtosupportapositiveenvironmentthatmotivatesstudentstoattendschoolandlearn?Chapter2Literatureeviewoadmap:Thisliteraturereviewwillfocusonseveralkeytopicsbecausemanyreasonscontributetotruancy.Theseare:addressingschooltruancy,school-basedprograms,punitive/non-punitivetruancyprograms,studentandfamilycharacteristics,parentalengagement,tacklingtheschooltruancyproblem,typesofprogramslikeschool-basedprograms,problemswithcurrenttruancyprograms,characteristicsofsuccessfultruancyprograms,andtheoreticalframework:IncentiveTheoryofMotivation.Thehopeistoilluminatethewaytowardsunderstandingtheproblemofschooltruancyandwaystoreduceit.(IcantincludenaturaldisastersasIfeelthatisitsowntopicandtooextensivetojustbrieflycover.)Introduction:AddressingSchoolTruancyStudenttruancyhasbecomeamajorissueschoolstrytotackle.Therefore,toimprovetruancytheneedarisestoresearchandcultivateworthwhilestrategiestoreducenegativebehaviorsthatleadtotruancy.However,thereisalsoaneedtounderstandwhystudentsaretruantinthefirstplace.Povertyandnegativeschoolenvironmentareissuesthathaveraisedconcernforthelikelihoodoftruancyinstudents.Thissectionhopestoilluminatetheissueofstudenttruancy.Itbecomesdifficulttoidentifythecostsofbenefitsofvariousmeasures.Thosethatfallintothepunitivedisciplineisnecessarybecausetraditionalistviewsbelieveadherencetorulesleadstopositiveoutcomes.Thoseinthecampofnonpunitivedisciplinedesiretodemonstratehowgivingstudentsoptionscanleadtobetterresultsnotjustintruancyrates,butthepersonalgrowthofthestudent.Withallthestrategiesandmethodsavailable,itcanbedifficultforschoolleadstodeterminewhatmixtureofpunitiveandnonpunitivedisciplinewillwork.Thedesireistoshowthesuccessofprogramsand/orschoolsthathaveenabledareductionintruancyratesaswellaspoliciesineffectthatincreasetruancyratestodemonstratehowtoimprovestudenttruancy.School-basedProgramsAsidefromcreatingastrongerconnectiontocommunity,anotherwayschoolscanandhavehelpeddecreasetruancyratesisthroughtruancyreporting.Truancyreportingallowsstudentstobeassessedtoseeiftheyarehigh-risk.Becausetruancycanhaveaprofoundlynegativeeffectonstudentsinthelongterm,schoolshavebegunbecomingmorestringentontruancyreporting.Atruanthasa3.4percentagepointshigherriskofleavingschoolwithoutaqualification(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Theresearchersnotethatbecausetruancyreportingallowsforbetterassessmentofat-riskyouth,itcanprovideameansofidentifyingpotentialproblemswithstudentearlyon.Thismakestruancyreportingapreventativemeasure.Suchapreventativemeasureappearstohavepositiveeffectsonstudentsatrisk..Theideaisstraightforward:ifstudentsarebettermonitoredwithrespecttotruancy,schoolscanidentifymoreeasilystudentsatrisk.Theresultsindicatethatimprovedtruancyreportingsignificantlyreducesschooldropoutby5percentagepoints(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Tojumpstarttheprocessofhelpingstudents,schoolsmustfigureoutwaystohelpstudentsconnecttotheircommunity.Then,apreventativemeasureusedtohelpidentifyat-riskyouth,sotheycanhaveinterventionsthatcanleadtopositiveeducationaloutcomes(DeWitte&Csillag,2012).Schoolsliketheoneusedforthisstudyandthoselikeit,alreadyhaveinplacearobusttruancyreportingprotocol.Theruleswithinthisprotocolshowthatstudentscannotbeabsentmorethanafewdaysortheschoolwillbeinvolvedandwillcontactthestudentshousehold.Moreresearchshouldbededicatedtohowpreventativemeasurescanexpandtoincludeotherwaystoassessforat-riskbehavior.Thiscanincludelatenessforclass,missedhomeworkassignments,andsoforth.Ifthiscanbedone,thismayfurtherallowforagreaterassessmentofpotentialtruancyproblemsinthefuture.Applyingresearchtopracticeispopularinhealthcare,perhapsitcanalsobecomepopularineducationasmoreinformationcomesoutonhotbuttontopicslikestudenttruancy.PunitivePunitivemeasuresfortruancycanbeseenthroughtheintroductionofthird-partypolicinginschools.Third-partypolicingisanapproachtocrimepreventionandcontrolinvolvingthepolicepartneringwithorganizationsorindividualstopreventorreducecrimeproblems(Nitschke,Mazerolle,&Bennett,2014,p.5211).elyingonavailablecriminal,regulatory,orcivillawsandrules(legallevers)thatallowthirdpartiestotakeaccountability,partially,forcontrolofcrime,itcreatesanenvironmentwhereapprehensionofproblemstudentsisfeasible.Thismayhelpschoolsdealwiththegrowingdelinquencyinstudents,butmayalsomakeiteasierforstudentstobecomepartofthecriminaljusticesystematanearlyage.Punitivemeasurescanalsobecostlier.Thisisbecausepunitivemeasureslikeexpulsionorsuspensioncanfurtherincreasethelikelihoodofstudentsbeingtruantandperformingpoorlyacademically(Shelton,2014).Studentsmustbeguidedtowardsapositiveoutcomeandthatmeansreducingthebeliefthatpunitivemeasureswillkeepstudentsfrombeingtruant.Althoughshort-termresultsmayindicatereduction,thelong-termeffectscouldbemorenegativeandlong-lasting(Shelton,2014).Sheltonmentionedthatstudentswhofacepunitivemeasuresmayhaveahigherchanceofcommittingcrimesversusthosewhofacednon-punitivemeasures.Whilesomeresearchsuggestspolice-interventionregardingtruancycanhelpstudentsinthatparentsaremoreawareofwhathappenstothem,therearestillmanyfactorstoconsiderinrelationtoefficacy.Forexample,police-interventionmayleadtohigherparentalawareness,butalsoincreasedpotentialfortruantstudentstoendupinthejuvenilecriminaljusticesystem(Mazerolle,Bennett,Antrobus,&Eggins,2017).Amixtureofbothpunitiveandnon-punitivemeasuresmaybemostbeneficialintacklingtheproblemoftruancy.Non-PunitivePunitivemeasuresfortruancyhavetheirplaceinschools.However,researchshowsnon-punitivemeasuresarealsousefulandofferachanceforstudentstoimproveandremovesomeofthestigmaattachedtopastmistakes.Successfulprotocolsintegrateflexibilityintostandardmethodstohelptheschool,family,andstudent.Suchprogramsunderstandindividualstudentsneedsanddowhateverisessentialtoassistthefamilyandstudentinvolvedintruancy(Mallett,2015).OnestudyinAustraliaaimedtounderstandtruancyandtheeffectsoftruancytogenerateprogramsthatallowedforeffectivemeasuresatreducingtruancyratesamongstudents(Taylor,Gray,&Stanton,2016).Thisshowsthatwithproperresearch,non-punitiveoptionsarefeasible.However,theymustbedoneinconjunctionwithsignificantresearchthatallowsabetterunderstandingoftheneedsofstudentswhoparticipateintruancy.Theexpectationisthatnon-punitivemeasuresaremoreeffectivethanpunitivemeasures.However,ifthereisnosignificantdifference,non-punitivemeasuresmustbeassessedforefficacy.Haight,Chapman,Hendron,Loftis,&Kearney(2014),demonstratedhownon-punitivemeasureslikeatruancyprogrammaynotworkifakeyprocessisnotimplemented.Meaning,ifthereisnoskill-buildingaspecttotheprogramliketutoring,thechancefortruancytodecreasedeclines.StudentCharacteristicsTruancycanhavealastingimpactonthelifeofastudent.Schooldropouthasbeenextensivelystudiedintheliteratureasacorrelateofnegativelifeoutcomes.Aprecursortoschooldropoutistruancy,theunexcusedorillegitimatestudentabsencefromschool(ocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016,p.592).Studentsmaybeabsentortruantduetoamultitudeofreasons.esearchersidentifiedthroughafewexaminedstudies,thatstudentswhoareoftenmoretruantthanothers,maybemoreinvolvedincrime.Suchinvolvementpointstothenegativecorrelationoftruancyandlaterlifeoutcomeslikedelinquencyandcrime.Theresearchersalsostatetruancycanleadtoproblemdrinking.esultsindicatethattruancyhaslong-lastingassociationswithnegativelifeoutcomes,especiallyfornon-violentcrimeandproblemdrinking(ocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016,p.592).Ifaddictiveorcriminalbehaviorleadstotruancyandtruancycanfurtherleadtoaddictiveorcriminalbehavior,itseemsacyclethatjustfeedsitselfwithnegativeoverallbehavior.Thisisimportanttoknowbecausestudentsexperiencingaddictionproblemsorbecominginvolvedindelinquentbehaviorcanreceivehelptonotonlykeepthemfromengaginginsuchriskyactionswhilealsopositivelycontributingtoreductionintruancyrates.Essentially,thenotionthatfortheretobeareductionintruancyrates,schoolsmusthelpstudentsdealwiththenegativebehaviorstheyareengagingin,outsideofschool.Thesenegativebehaviorscouldcomebecauseofnegativeexperiences.Frombullyingtopooracademicperformance,studentsoftenexperiencestressthatcouldbedetrimentaltotheiracademicsuccess.Birkett,ussell,&Corliss,(2014)observetherolesexual-orientationdisparitieshaveonstudentsinrelationtoacademicachievementandtruancy.Throughtheutilizationofpoolinformation,theyidentifiedbeingpartoftheLGBTgroupaffectedratesoftruancyandacademicperformance.LGBT-identifiedyouthsreportedsignificantlyelevatedoddsoftruancyandlowgrades(oddsratios?=?1.63.2;allP?

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4 Pages
Research Paper

Education - Social Issues

Confronting the Problem of Truancy

Words: 1246
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Attendance is a critical factor in school performance. But while poor attendance and truancy have been problems for schools virtually ever since anti-truancy laws were passed, as noted by…

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