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Violence Against Women
Social Welfare Congressional Legislation Violence against Women Act Bill # S.47
Problem Examination: The reason why this Bill/policy is essential? Why must the Mayor Pay attention?
The reason why the mayor should care is because whilst incredible development continues to be made since the Violence against Women Act (VAWA) had been initially passed; domestic abuse, sexual attacks, as well as harassment are nonetheless substantial issues facing women, family members, as well as neighborhoods. Domestic abuse leads to three deaths each day to women, as well as one out of four women have encountered serious abuse by a close companion. One out of five women as well as One out of Seventy one males happen to be raped in their lives. The brand new VAWA bill finalized into law from President Barack Obama will keep efficient programs; help to make focused expansions to deal with the requirements of…
Goldfarb, S. (2008). Reconceiving Civil Protection Orders For Domestic Violence: Can Law Help End The Abuse Without Ending The Relationship, 29 CARDOZO L. REV. 1487, 1488 -- 89.
Olsen, L. (2007). Battered WOMEN'S SHELTERS: REFLECTIONS 5, available at http://www.wscadv.org/docs/Mar_07_Inside_Scoop.pdf (describing the structures of battered women's shelters and the limited stay required in most shelters).
Orloff, L.E. And Kaguyutan, J.V. (2001). Offering A Helping Hand: Legal Protections for Battered Immigrant Women: A History of Legislative Responses, 10 AM U.J. GENDER SOC. POL'Y & L. 95, 108 -- 09.
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, § 1203, 114 Stat. 1464 (2000) (authorizing $25 million dollars for fiscal year 2001).
Indeed, this explains why it is necessary to achieve a more open discourse on the implications of violence with specific and tangible reference to women and how they are impacted. Proper psychological profiling of those with aggressive tendencies toward women or irrational behaviors relating to women should be factored into the type of sentencing and post sentence attention that individuals are given. ithout receiving proper attention from legal, penal or social service agencies designed to address the problems of criminal violence, individuals like Stirpe are unlikely to be deterred from their aggressive proclivities.
To the point, violence against woman has been subject to a significantly raised degree of popular and legal scrutiny given its social pravelance and yet it remains unclear how the legal system can address such individuals as Stirpe, who have served their time but are likely to still represent a threat of violence.
Burgmann, T. (2009). Accused…
Aulakh, R. (2009). Desperate Moms Want Boys. The Toronto Star.
Burgmann, T. (2009). Accused Killed 4 to Steal Their IDs, get rich, trial Told. The Canadian Press.
Dimanno, R. (2009). Natural Born Killer. The Toronto Star.
Marriner, S. (2003). Media Toolkit Piece. Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women.
There are a variety of theoretical explanations that have been put forward to explain female abuse and violent crimes against women. These include feminist and gender theories and extend to theories of genetic pathology.
However, in the criminological literature a distinction is made between two categories of explanation. On the one hand, there are theories that tend to focus on individual pathology and forms of deviance that can lead to these crimes. On the other hand, the more socially inclined theorists tend to focus on the common patterns between individuals and the social milieu and its influences. The promoters of social control and other socially based theories argue that social factors rather then individual differences are the most suitable explanatory factors for these crimes. Social control theories argue, for example, that, the importance of social factors over and above individual stability" Juvenile recidivism: criminal propensity, social control and social learning…
Aker, R.L. (1973). Deviant Behavior: A Social Learning Approach. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc. Belmont, CA.
Akers, R.L., (1992). Linking Sociology and Its Specialties: The Case of Criminology. Social Forces, 71(1), pp. 1-16.
Akers, R.L., (1996). Is Differential Association / Social Learning Cultural Deviance Theory? Criminology, 34 (2) pp. 229-247.
Akers, R.L. (1998). Social Learning and Social Structure: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. Northeastern University Press. Boston MA.
Because funding these programs is sound policy, to fail to properly fund these programs results in poor policy being implemented and at a great detriment to society. This is not lightly stated as fact but is based upon more than 1,000 victim services providers who were surveyed and whose responses "clearly demonstrate that without adequate funds from VOCA, many cannot meet the growing demand for services." (Violence Against Women Act, 2004) Alternative views do exist as stated previously however, these claims that domestic violence has decreased are erroneous and faulty. If indeed, individuals in the U.S. are to be as safe in their own homes as in the world around them, it is imperative that these programs received funding that allows them to be effective.
The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) (2004) Campaign for Funding to End Domestic and Sexual Violence. Online available at: http://www.americanhumane.org/site/DocServer/Campaign-Letter-Full-Funding-2008.pdf?docID=6901
The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) (2004) Campaign for Funding to End Domestic and Sexual Violence. Online available at: http://www.americanhumane.org/site/DocServer/Campaign-Letter-Full-Funding-2008.pdf?docID=6901
The 113th United States Congress is among the recent meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government. The following study focuses on the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 especially on its history, congressional activity and developmental stages that saw its ratification (VAWA 2013). The legislation of the 113th Congress is relevant to grants consolidation as it addresses intimate partner violence (IPV). VAWA 2013 was signed into law by President Obama on March 7, and it managed to recognize those tribes’ that were faced with inherent power when exercising “special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction” (SDVCJ) over certain defendants. The legislation is relevant regarding strengthening the healthcare systems when responding to the violence of different natures such as domestic, dating, sexual assault, and stalking. Therefore, passing the law meant that certain tribes or groups (Native American women, the LGBT community, and those women immigrants that have…
“Violence against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013.” \\"One Hundred Thirteenth Congress of the United States of America.\\" (2014). Retrieved 23 Nov. 2017 from https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-113s47enr/pdf/BILLS-113s47enr.pdf
Ball, Molly. “Why Would Anyone Oppose The Violence Against Women Act?” The Atlantic, 12 Feb. 2013. Web. 23 Nov. 2017.
Hackett, Shannon, McWhirter T. Paula, and Lesher Susan. \\"The therapeutic efficacy of domestic violence victim interventions.\\" Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 17.2 (2016): 123-132.
Modi, Monica N., Palmer Sheallah, and Armstrong Alicia. \\"The role of Violence against Women Act in Addressing Intimate Partner Violence: A Public Health Issue.\\" Journal of Women\\'s Health 23.3 (2014): 253-259.
Sacco, Lisa N. The Violence against Women Act: Overview, Legislation, and Federal Funding. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved on 23 Nov. 2017 from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42499.pdf
The White House. The Council on Women and Girls: Violence against Women Accomplishments, 9 June 2016. Web. 23 Nov. 2017.
Violence Against Women
Since the beginning of times, women have been subjected to violence, not just of one kind but many different kinds. It should be noted here that although all sorts of violence against women are common in all parts of the world, some particular kinds of violence are location specific. Political and democratic governments have taken a number of steps all over the world and have passed bills to protect the rights of women, but somehow these have not been enough to completely eradicate this evil from the face of the earth (Gerstenfeld, 2013).
In this paper, we shall discuss sexual violence, domestic violence and discrimination against aboriginal women. The aforementioned types of violence would be discussed according to the areas of the world where they are relatively more common and if any steps have been taken by the government regarding this matter. At the end of the…
Australian Human Rights Commission (2013).Sexual Harassment.
Cunningham, R (2000). "From great expectations to hard times-Managing equal opportunities under new public management." Public Administration.
Gerstenfeld, Phyllis B. (2013). Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies. Sage.
Human Rights Watch (1999).'Crime or Custom-Violence against Women in Pakistan, Report of Human Rights Watch 1999.
Advocacy Strategy: Domestic Violence Against Women
Arizona Coalition Against Domestic Violence states domestic violence is a pattern of behavior that includes the use or threat of violence and intimidation for gaining power and control over another person. Violence is characterized by: Physical Abuse, Economic Abuse, Emotional Abuse, Verbal Abuse, Sexual Abuse, Isolation, and Control (AzCADV, 2011). The battering of women by men continues to be a significant social problem -- men commit 86 to 97% of all criminal assaults and women are killed 3.5 times more often than men in domestic homicides (NCADV, 2011). It is a EAL problem that affects EAL people! Domestic Violence is a problem and continues to plague society today. Our Domestic Violence Victim Advocate program was established in 2010 as one of the three stakeholders to comprise Arizona's Superior Court Domestic Violence Court. The Court is a problem-solving court based on a model endorsed by…
Arizona Coalition Against Domestic Violence - AzCADV. (2011). Domestic violence facts. Retrieved from http://www.azcadv.org/domestic-violence-info/domestic-violence-fa/facts-and-statistics/dv-fact-sheet/top
Domestic Abuse Intervention Programs - DAIP. (2011). What is the Duluth model? Retrieved from http://www.theduluthmodel.org/about/index.html
Klein, A., and Crowe A. (2008, Feb). Findings from an outcome examination of Rhode Island's specialized domestic violence probation supervision program: Do specialized supervision programs of batterers reduce re-abuse? Violence Against Women 14(2): 226-46.
National Coalition Against Domestic Violence - NCADV. (2011). Domestic violence facts. Retrieved from http://www.ncadv.org/files/DomesticViolenceFactSheet (National).pdf
a) According to Katz, what is gender violence?
Gender violence is a social problem that includes sexual assault, domestic violence, sexual harassment, relationship abuse, and sexual abuse of children (Katz, 2013). Gender violence has been seen as a women’s issue, but it is as much a men’s issue that affects first men, as much as it affects women.
b) Why is calling gender violence a "women's issue" problematic?
Gender violence has been previously misleadingly and wrongly described as a women issue, and that is problematic. This description forms a basis for men to overlook the issue and excuse themselves and not pay attention. When the majority of men hear of the term “women’s issue”, they simply tune it out. In addition, this misleading description sets the ground for diversion from the core issue and questions for example, why do men perpetuate gender-based acts of violence towards women? Why…
Katz, J. (2013). Violence against women—It’s a men’s issue. TEDxFiDi Women.
Women and men are two parts of the human race. Men are important to society just as women are. However, because of the social structure of many cultures and society, men appear as the dominant, superior sex. This leads to the belief that men must control women, dominate them in order to be seen as 'real men'. Katz explore in his novel the need to remove such belief systems and create gender equality to end violence against women and create a balanced society.
Domestic violence is an issue many people face on a daily basis. However, in Katz book, The Macho Paradox, chapter 1 opens the discussion of domestic abuse seen as a common event in the American landscape. "...found that two-thirds of American men say that domestic violence is very or fairly common in the U.S., and in a 2005 national survey...92% of respondents said that family violence is…
Thus, as Kurtz approached his death, he came upon the realization of this possibility -- a possibility that came true upon his 'defeat' (death). This realization was embodied in his exclamation, "The horror! The horror!" As he neared his death. Explicit violence was, evidently, just a "mask" that colonizers used to cover up their fears of the potential power and control of the natives over them (colonizers).
In the same vein, violence was also portrayed in Achebe's "Things Fall Apart," although this was expressed implicitly through the inherent tendency of Africans to view women as the weaker and inferior sex. Okonkwo's behavior towards his wives and daughters showed this animosity between sexes in African culture. However, it was also implicitly shown in the novel how, despite their apparent submissiveness, the women in Okonkwo's life and in the Mbanta tribe showed strength of character and control over males more than the…
Achebe, C. (1994). Things Fall Apart. New York: First Anchor Books.
Conrad, J. E-text of "Heart of Darkness." Available at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=ConDark.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=all .
Indeed, the most serious health issue related to domestic violence of course is mortality, and the California omen's Law Center (CLC) conducted a survey of 100 murders of women by their male intimate partners. The results are very germane for those interested in health-related gender fairness through the law in California.
CLC found that in 59% of the surveyed cases of women homicide victims the murder was not the first abusive episode; and a "history of threats to the victims' life" by the killer was available in 47% of the cases. Because seeking a "restraining order" and/or domestic violence services increases a victim's safety in many cases, 68% of abused murder victims "...never obtained, or attempted to obtain, a protective order against their abusive partner" (CLC, 2003). Just 20% of those women killed by intimate partners had an active restraining order against their abuser at the time they were murdered.…
Austin, Emily. "Teen Dating Violence and School Response." California Commission on the Status of Women. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008 at http://www.CWLC.org .
Bellasalma, Patricia. "Taking a Close Look at Prop. 4, Californians Will Vote No as they Have Two Times When Similar Measures Were on the Ballot." California Progress Report. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008, at http://www.californiaprogressreport.com.(2008).
Buckland, Katie. "Lawsuit Charges Hormone Cream Manufacturers with Deceptive Marketing." California Women's Law Center. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2008 at
In album after album, women are referred to as *****es, hoes, gold diggers, and chickenheads, and this representation of women as sexual objects for men's use is a common trope within this genre (Crossley 2005). The sex act is openly portrayed as being about the body and the availability of the body, and the use of neuter pronouns heightens its alleged objectivity and divorces it from personal significance (Crossley 2005). For example, lyrics in Snoop Dogg's "Bring it on," include, "I'm qualified to knock a hoe, "Got it cracking with my hoe" (Crossley 2005).
Gangsta rap music is essentially the vocalization of sentiments that have lived long within the political environment of the African-American community. To feel empowered, African-American males attempt to keep women subordinate.
Cheney, Charise. (2005 June 22). In search of the "revolutionary generation":
en) gendering the golden age of rap nationalism. The Journal of African-American…
Cheney, Charise. (2005 June 22). In search of the "revolutionary generation":
en) gendering the golden age of rap nationalism. The Journal of African-American History. Retrieved December 17, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Crossley, Scott. (2005 December 22). Metaphorical conceptions in hip-hop music.
African-American Review. Retrieved December 17, 2006 from HighBeam
The subordination of women manifests in distinct patterns of physical, psychological, political, and economic oppression. Women's work is undervalued, whether that work is classified as domestic labor or as labor in the patriarchal universe. The readings from Chapter 8 reveal the ways domestic servitude continues to define women's work. Domestic servitude constrains women's participation in the patriarchal market economy, too, perpetuating cycles of subordination. Readings in Chapter 10 address another dimension of misogyny: physical abuse and violence. Sexual slavery and domestic abuse are manifestations of patriarchy with disturbing political and social dimensions.
In "Maid to Order," Barbara Ehrenreich (2000) uses the maid as the primary motif to discuss women's labor rights issues. Ehrenreich (2000) states that the "politics of housework" is rarely discussed in public arenas. Housework constitutes an "uncounted and invisible" aspect of the larger economy. Ehrenreich's (2000) astute analysis takes into account poor immigrant domestic laborers as…
But sometimes the victims themselves are afraid to voice their grievances in the public because speaking up entails shame, ostracization, and even extra-judicial killings. The victims can express their grievances in public "only at certain times and in certain ways" because their rights are infringed on social and cultural levels (Dewey).
The fact that cultural and traditional beliefs and attitudes contribute to violations of women's rights in a systematic manner can be observed by reading literature on the practice of dowry. Many Indian legal and philosophical thinkers use relativistic terms to contest the notion that the practice contributes to the abuse of women. They contest the notion because they argue the concept of human rights is a estern notion, sometimes disregarding cultural variations and sensibilities of the Indian nation (Gupta). The general critique of the concept of human rights as a western notion may be valid in some matters, but…
Dewey, Susan. "Dear Dr. Kothari': Sexuality, Violence Against Women, and the Parallel Public Sphere in India." American Ethnologist, 36/1 (2009): 124-139.
Duggal, Ravi. "The Political Economy of Abortion in India: Cost and Expenditure Patterns." Reproductive Health Matters, 12/24 (Nov. 2004): 130-137.
Grewal, Indu and Kishore, J. "Female Foeticide in India." International Humanist and Ethical Union. 1 May 2004. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
Gupta, Nidhi. "Women's Human Rights and the Practice of Dowry in India." Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 48 (2003): 85-123. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
, 1994)." (Salazar, 253) This is not just troubling as a statistical illustrator of the problem's prevalence but it is indicative of a much larger cultural condition predisposing us to violence toward women. ith ties to the patriarchal machinations of the country's monarchical origins and a dependency upon the fortification of such leanings in modern legal, social and even familial structure, the issue of domestic violence is very much a result of a long-standing and still present heritage of sexism. As we contend with the apparent root causes of domestic violence by helping women find ways out of negative relationships, we are yet contending with a more deep-seeded impulse toward misogyny and violence.
The rationale for further study on this subject will be to provide those in social services, outreach programs and other positions of counsel with the understanding of this problem to address and navigate the correlation and cycle…
An Abuse, Rape and Domestic Violence Aid and Resource Collection (AARDVARC). (2008). Long-Term Effects of Domestic Violence. Aardvarc.org.
Belmonte, J. (2007). Domestic Violence and Abuse. Helpguide.org.
Butter, V. (2006). The Physical and Psychological Effects of Domestic Violence on Women. Inver Hills Community College. Online at http://faculty.inverhills.edu/vbutter/domesticviolenceweb.htm
Goelman, Deborah M. (2004). Shelter from the Storm: Using Jurisdictional Statutes to Protect Victims of Domestic Violence after the Violence against Women Act of 2000. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law.
Nonetheless, Lu sees some hope for transgressive representations of Asian women in media, particularly in those films which actively seek to explode stereotypes regarding Asian women not simply by fulfilling the desires of a white, patriarchal society but rather by demonstrating full-fledged, unique characters whose Asian and female identity is only one constituent part of their personality and whose expression is not limited to the roles prescribed for Asian women in American media (24-26).
Lu, Lynn. "Critical Visions: The Representation and Resistance of Asian omen." Dragon
Ladies: Asian-American Feminists Breathe Fire. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End
Press, 1999. 184-189. Print.
Mihesuah, David Abbot. "Feminists, Tribalists, or Activists?" Indigenous American omen:
Decolonization, Empowerment, Activism. 1st ed. Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska
Press, 2003. 115-123. Print.
Smith, Andrea. "Sexual Violence as a Tool of Genocide." Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End Press,…
Lu, Lynn. "Critical Visions: The Representation and Resistance of Asian Women." Dragon
Ladies: Asian-American Feminists Breathe Fire. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End
Press, 1999. 184-189. Print.
Mihesuah, David Abbot. "Feminists, Tribalists, or Activists?" Indigenous American Women:
The problems that these women have encountered have ranged from domestic issues to career issues to stereotypes. To solve these problems, the United Status must view them in the light of immigrant women.
Anderson, M.J. (1993, April). A License to Abuse: The Impact of Conditional Status on Female Immigrants. The Yale Law Journal 102(6). etrieved January 28, 2008, from No Status Quo. Web Site: http://www.nostatusquo.com/ACLU/anderson/brides/pg2.html
Grieco, E. (2002, May). Immigrant Women. etrieved January 28, 2008, from Migration Information Source. Web Site: http://www.migrationinformation.org/usfocus/display.cfm?ID=2
Jewish Women's Archive. (2009, January 27). Exhibit: Women of Valor, Emma Lazarus
Introduction. etrieved January 27, 2009, from the Jewish Women's Archive. Web site: http://jwa.org/exhibits/wov/lazarus/
Lee, a. (2008, March 10). Justice Denied for Battered Immigrant Women.
etrieved January 28, 2009, from the American Prospect. Web Site: http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?
McDonnell, J. And de Lourenco, C.I., 2005-08-12 "Women's Stories: Brazilian
Immigrant Women as "Transnational" Migrants" Paper presented at…
Anderson, M.J. (1993, April). A License to Abuse: The Impact of Conditional Status on Female Immigrants. The Yale Law Journal 102(6). Retrieved January 28, 2008, from No Status Quo. Web Site: http://www.nostatusquo.com/ACLU/anderson/brides/pg2.html
Grieco, E. (2002, May). Immigrant Women. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from Migration Information Source. Web Site: http://www.migrationinformation.org/usfocus/display.cfm?ID=2
Jewish Women's Archive. (2009, January 27). Exhibit: Women of Valor, Emma Lazarus
Introduction. Retrieved January 27, 2009, from the Jewish Women's Archive. Web site: http://jwa.org/exhibits/wov/lazarus/
Women of today have come along way because society has recognized that they have voices as well as men do. From the entire world, women have maintained their place due to the new customs that have arisen over the years. They have been able to go vote and work, which puts them as equals with men For example, South Korea; there is a female president instead of a make. Therefore, women have overcome the stereotypes that society has created from sixty years ago. No matter what country or culture women are in, it has been proven during the last two decades they are no longer inferior when it comes to being equals with men. In other words, regardless of what society throws at women, they become stronger and more powerful every day.
In Mexico, Mexicans place a high value on family and traditional values. lthough women make up an increasingly…
Along with India, South Korea has build up support for women so that they can be equal. The Korean Women's Development Institute or KWDI was established in 1983 to promote women's social participation and welfare by carrying out research and studies on women, by providing education and training for women, and by assisting women's activities. A law passed by the Korean National Assembly in 1982 mandates the KWDI to assist government in popularizing gender consciousness, as well as in promoting gender equality in policy formulation and implementation. Originally under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and then under the Ministry of Political Affairs, KWDI is now being coordinated by the Special Committee on Women's Affairs directly under the Office of the President (South Korea).
KWDI has three anchor programs, namely; the Research Center, the Lifelong Education Center, and the Women's Information Center. The Research Center carries out basic research and policy studies to promote gender consciousness in various fields of society and life as well as to formulate and implement policies that supports gender equality. The Lifelong Education Center provides gender consciousness education, women's leadership training, women's capacity development, and training of international experts. It also hosts international activities, and acts as a comprehensive assistance center for women's non-formal education. Last but not the least, the Women's Information Center produces and distributes information about the research and projects of the KWDI, as well as information about women's issues and concerns. It systematizes and computerizes various kinds of women's information through databases, and provides information service through its library, various publications, and its nation-wide electronic information network (South Korea). Therefore, women in South Korea have become very strong and determined without the help with men which only means they are growing more powerful every day.
In that case, women in most societies were denied some of the legal and political rights accorded to men. Although women in much of the world have gained significant legal rights, many people believe that women still do not have complete political, economic, and social equality with men. In South Korea, through AWORC, the KWDI hopes to share its resource and library holdings to women outside of South Korea, and to make resource and information generated by women's organizations and institutes accessible to the communities it serves. Throughout each countrywomen are becoming more self-made and the only people that they rely on themselves.
omen in Abusive Relationships
According to a report in the Public Broadcasting Service, the home is one of the "most dangerous places for a woman" (PBS). That is because of the legacy of domestic abuse that many women have had to go through, and are going through today. Indeed, the U.S. Department of Justice reports that two-thirds of violent attacks against women are perpetrated by someone that woman knows. Every year about 1,500 women are actually killed by boyfriends or husbands, the Justice Department explains. And every year nearly 2 million men "beat their partners," according to the FBI. This paper reviews the statistics, the reasons that women decide to stay in those relationships, and what alternatives there are for her.
The Abuse of omen -- Background Information
The Public Broadcasting Service story indicates that 95% of victims of domestic violence are women, and that women are "7 to 10…
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). (2011). Antoine Robert Three Fingers Sentenced in U.S. District Court. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from http://saltlakecity.fbi.gov .
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Retrieved June 12, 2011, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/domestic-violence/WO00044/method=print .
Morris, Carrie A. Wachter, Shoffner, Marie F., and Newsome, Deborah W. (2009). Career
WOMEN'S IGHTS: EQUALITY IN THE WOKFOCE, EQUAL PAY
Women's ights: Equality in the Workplace, Equal Pay
Legislative background. The word "sex" is always an attention-getter, and when used in legislation, it can be polarizing. Public Law 82-352 (78 Stat. 241) was passed by Congress in 1964 as a civil rights statute. The Law made it a crime to discriminate in all aspects of employment on the basis of race and sex. epresentative Howard W. Smith (D-VA) added the word "sex" at the eleventh hour (O'Neill, 2011), reported to keep the bill from being passed. As a conservative Southerner, Smith was seen as an opponent of federal civil rights legislation. But Smith defended his action, explaining that he had amended the bill because of his work with the National Women's Party and his efforts to support Alice Paul. The effort to retain the word "sex" in the bill was led by…
About NOW, National Organization of Women. Retrieved http://www.now.org / organization/info.html
About Us, Women's International Forum. Retrieved http://www.iwf.org/
About Us, WorkLife Law. 2011. A Center of UC Hastings College of the Law. Retrieved http://www.worklifelaw.org/ProveitAgain.html
Thomas, M. 2011. Another equal pay day. Really? Ms. Foundation for Women. Retrieved http://ms.foundation.org/
Not only was it cost effective but the study also reported that offenders who were treated in the community setting were 43% less likely to reoffend compared to the prison population clearly suggesting the effectiveness of community-based sentences. [Amanda Noblet, 2008, pg 27]
The criminal justice system is clearly unprepared and ill equipped to manage the unique needs of women in prison. There is clearly a need for a specific focus on Mental illness, sexual violence and drug abuse, reproductive health and other issues that are very relevant to the incarcerated female population. Clearly our female correctional facilities are under resourced and over crowded and overcrowded prisons are not ideal for reformation but instead create more problems. Since majority of women prisoners are incarcerated for minor drug related offenses and property crimes, a more liberal and effective reformative approach should be pursued. Community based alternative sentencing programs should be…
1) the Sentencing Project, (2007), 'Women in the Criminal Justice System: Briefing Sheets', retrieved April 25th 2010, from, http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/womenincj_total.pdf
2) Amanda Noblet, (2008), ' Women in Prison: A Review of Current Female Prison System: Future Directions and Alternatives',, retrieved April 25th 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Noblet%20-%20Women%20in%20Prison.pdf
3) Nancy Kurshan, 'Women and imprisonment in U.S.', retrieved April 25th 2010, from, http://www.prisonactivist.org/archive/women/women-and-imprisonment.html
4) Barbara Owen, 2010, ' Women in Prison', retrieved April 25th 2010 http://www.drugpolicy.org/communities/women/womeninpriso/
International Human ights, Women and Gender
International Human ights: Women and Gender
Women are the most assaulted segment of the human society. A shocking statistic reveals that a majority of the females are subjected to violence and sexual violence by the time they reach their late teens (Fergus, 2012).
Definitions of Violence against women, constitutes the mental and physical torture they are subjected to by way of restricting their right to freedom in the broader sense of the term. The crimes and exploitation against younger girls implies, by definition, violence based on gender discrimination. It has been observed that this act of violence is fallout of the negligence shown towards equality of the female child and womenfolk in general (Fergus, 2012).
The act of violence exposes the women and specifically the younger female child to isolation, loss of identity, unhealthy overall development, psychological and social stigma (WHO, 2006) and hence…
Arbour, L. (2007). Human Rights. Yes! Human Rights Resource Center, University of Minnesota.
Bhattacharya, D. (2013). Global Health Disputes and Disparities: A Critical Appraisal of International Law and Population Health. Routledge.
CEDAW (n.d.). Strengthening Health System Responses to Gender-based Violence in Eastern Europe & Central Asia: A programmatic package. A United Nations Publication.
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Author Goldman continues, "ather than assuming that all women are incapable of performance by virtue of the average woman's lack of capability, specific requirements should serve as the selection criteria, not gender" (Goldman 271). Gender should not matter if it does not matter to the women who want to join.
The government could open up more combat jobs to women to help solve the problem, and women who were interested in combat positions should be encouraged to serve in the armed forces. Indeed, in their own study, the government found that with the right training, women's physical capabilities can increase. Another author notes, "An Army esearch Institute of Environmental Medicine report (January 26, 1996) shows that intensive training of motivated women can increase their physical abilities" (Jernigan 51). Thus, physical limitations are simply an excuse many people use to argue against women in the military. Even the military itself recognizes…
Goldman, Nancy Loring, ed. Female Soldiers -- Combatants or Noncombatants?: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.
Jernigan, Pat. "Women at War: Gender Issues of Americans in Combat." Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military 19.1 (2001): 51.
Marley, David John. "Phyllis Schlafly's Battle against the ERA and Women in the Military." Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military 18.2 (2000):
Toktas, Sule. "Nationalism, Militarism and Gender Politics: Women in the Military." Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military 20.2 (2002): 29+.
woman who has been blessed with the birth of healthy children in her life has a passion and a duty to make the best life possible for those children. But unless her own life is productive, meaningful, is free from physical and emotional abuse and has the substance that comes with a good education, she cannot hope to provide that often elusive "better life" for her progeny. Hence, as I seek to complete my portfolio and pass this course, I am of mindful of the value my education offers to my own life, but also, my education will have a profound impact on the future for my children.
In India, as recent news reports reflect, many woman face social and personal obstacles that are so daunting as to be debilitating. hile I too have experienced the degrading reality of domestic violence, I am a bright, alert, hard-working woman with the…
Paul, Stella. (2013). The War Against Rape Begins With Taking Responsibility. Huffpost Impact. Retrieved February 28, 2013, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
Not all nursery rhymes, folktales, and fables depict 'sweet' stories. The horrific images of women held in captivity in pumpkin shells and starving dogs demonstrate examples of atrocities portrayed in the early stories. Over the years, Mary Goose stories have undergone 'sanitization'. Earlier versions of the stories portrayed a myriad of atrocities. Earlier versions of the rhymes depict gruesomeness of the violence. Domestic violence occurs as a core theme in the old Mary Goose nursery. Wives and daughters suffered the brunt of abuse that included beatings and murder. Early Victorians believed that the rhymes would encourage their daughters to grow and become dutiful and obedient wives.
Nature of domestic violence
The stories present a multifaceted and complex approach to the issue of domestic violence. For example, the story of an old woman who lived in a shoe presents depicts a bizarre meaning of the text that talks about…
Gustafson, S. (2014). Favorite Nursery Rhymes from Mother Goose. New York: Artisan
White, J.W., Koss, M.P., Kazdin, A. (2011). Violence against Women and Children: Mapping the terrain. New York: American Psychological Association
This made the United States the only estern nation to criminalize contraception at that time (Time). hile women (and men) continued to illegally access birth control, often using devices labeled differently for contraceptive purposes, it would be decades before birth control could be openly used within the United States. In 1916, Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in the United States, but it is shut down in 10 days (Time). It was not until 1938 that the federal ban against birth control was lifted by a federal judge (Time).
hile women did not enjoy an abrupt increase in civil rights following the Civil ar, it is important to realize that there was a gradual increase in attention towards civil rights and support for women's rights after the Civil ar. In 1868, the National Labor Union supported equal pay for equal work, which was the first real call for…
A&E Television Networks. "The Fight for Women's Suffrage." History.com. N.p. 2012.
Web. 16 May 2012.
The Prism. "The Path of the Women's Rights Movement: A Timeline of the Women's Rights
Movement 1848-1998." The Prism. N.P. Mar. 1998. Web. 16 May 2012.
World-ank-assisted Women-in-Development project for Ethiopia proposes to socially and economically help vulnerable women participate and benefit from its increasingly expanding economy and opportunities in the private sector. It hopes to raise the standard of living of these women and contribute to alleviating poverty. On the whole, addressing all the constraints to the effective and realistic implementation of the National Policy on Women and forming grassroots women's organization would work towards building women's capability. This would then enable them to effectively verbalize their situation, aspirations and problems or sentiments about their economic, social and civic rights.
1. C (2006). Rural Ethiopian Women Are Most Abused. C.com. http://news.lbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6040180.htm
2. Gopal, G. (1998). Women in Ethiopia. The Women's Affair Office. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: the World ank. http://www.ethioembassy.org.uk/fact%20file/a-z/women-1.htm
3. U.S. Department of State. (2006). Ethiopia. AFROL Gender Profiles: Central Intelligence Agency. http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm
US Department of State, "Ethiopia," Central Intelligence Agency, http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm…
1. BBC (2006). Rural Ethiopian Women Are Most Abused. BBC.com. http://news.lbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6040180.htm
2. Gopal, G. (1998). Women in Ethiopia. The Women's Affair Office. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: the World Bank. http://www.ethioembassy.org.uk/fact%20file/a-z/women-1.htm
3. U.S. Department of State. (2006). Ethiopia. AFROL Gender Profiles: Central Intelligence Agency. http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm
US Department of State, "Ethiopia," Central Intelligence Agency, http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm
Ultimately Judith Shakespeare, (like Hedda Gabler) according to Virginia oolf, would have very likely taken her own life (1382). Although life today is still far from perfect for many women in many areas of the world, and while some women (in various poorer parts of Africa, Latin America, and Asia, for example) face many of the same attitudes and obstacles Judith Shakespeare would have faced, women in the United States, Europe, and many other areas today are infinitely freer than Virginia oolf's Judith Shakespeare would have been to pursue artistic (or other careers); support themselves while doing so; and to avoid unwanted pregnancies and childbirths.
Henrik Ibsen, Kate Chopin, and Virginia oolf, all writing in either the late 19th or early 20th centuries, all depict, within the works I have discussed, various strictures and limitations on the lives and aspirations of women during those times. For today's women, there are…
Chopin, Kate. "A Pair of Silk Stockings." Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia
Library. December 13, 2004. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2id=ChoSilk sgm&images=images/moden... html>. 4 pages.
Ibsen, Henrik. Hedda Gabler. Henrik Ibsen: Four Major Plays. Ed. John Grube. New York:
Airmont, 1966. 153-221.
Finally, WIC is the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (ohio.gov, 2011). WIC offers programs to ensure adequate nutrition for low-income women and infants, during and after pregnancy (ohio.gov, 2011). WIC also offers referrals for "prenatal and pediatric" health care through Medicaid (ohio.gov, 2011
Identify the philosophical attitudes and perspectives that have led to either the support or lack of understanding for and marginalizing of this group.
Women have faced many challenges that do not generally apply to men, including violence and abuse, low relative wages, unequal opportunities in the workplace, insufficient prenatal and general health care, and a lack of emotional and financial support for single-parenting. Progress along these lines has sometimes been slow due to discriminatory attitudes against: women in general (sexism, or objectification leads to abuse), women in the workplace, women who have children when unmarried, birth control and abortion, and low-income women.
Antonopoulos, R. (2010). Social Protection for Woman. UN Chronicle, 47 (1), 22+.
Bortz, a. (1980). Historical Development of the Social Security Act. Retrieved 03-04, 2011, from ssa.gov: http://www.ssa.gov/history/bortz.html
Hanratty, M. (1994). Social Welfare Programs for Women and Children. In R. Blank, Social Protection vs. Economic Flexibility: Is There a Trade-off? (pp. 301-332). Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press.
ohio.gov. (2011). Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Retrieved 03-04, 2011, from odh.ohio.gov: http://www.odh.ohio.gov/odhprograms/ns/wicn/wic1.aspx
Once the practice of Islamic worship the women of that region began to be subjected to stricter codes, from marriage to dress and the risk of honor becoming an even greater issue grew. The terrorization by the Mongols and Turks was quite different from the terror under Saddam. The Mongols and Turks utilized slavery, rape, beatings and murder. Saddam instead took on an entirely different approach. His first goal was fear coupled with violence to maintain the plans he made for the society and culture. He was less about Islam and more about self-promotion and the glorification of Iraq. This type of leader is most like Josef Stalin of the Soviet Union. One never knew when or why you might be targeted.
Following the fall of the Ba'th government, the population of women in Iraq was at approximately 60%. They are a definite majority and should be in a better…
"AEI - Post-Saddam Iraq Conference Series." Welcome to AEI. Web. 7 July 2010. .
Chesler, Phyliss. "Are Honor Killings Simply Domestic Violence?" The Phyllis Chesler Organization. Web. 7 July 2010. .
Coleman, Isobel. "Women, Islam, and the New Iraq | Foreign Affairs." Home | Foreign Affairs. Web. 7 July 2010. .
"Culture in Post-Saddam Iraq:: Middle East Quarterly." Middle East Forum. Web. 7 July 2010. .
Violence in Video Games
Unlike movies, video games are not regulated by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is ironic because there are a wealth of studies indicating children do not distinguish between fantasy and reality in a gaming environment (Ferguson, 2011). Simply put, the more time children, adolescents and teenagers spend playing a video game the more they see their reality as the gaming environment (Boyle, McLeod, ojas, 2008) (Hartmann, Vorderer, 2010). To argue that games are not as powerful of an influence on children is ridiculous, yet ironically the FCC regulates who can see a movie by its content alone and has refused to take action on games (Soh, Tan, 2008). In June, 2011 the Supreme Court struck down a California law that fined retailers $1,000 for each occurrence or infraction of selling or renting violent games to anyone under the age of 18 (Lemmens, Valkenburg, Peter, 2011).…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42.
Boyle, M., McLeod, D., & Rojas, H.. (2008). The Role of Ego Enhancement and Perceived Message Exposure in Third-Person Judgments Concerning Violent Video Games. The American Behavioral Scientist, 52(2), 165.
Beth Snyder Bulik (2008, May). Despite recession, video-game industry shows massive growth. Advertising Age, 79(20), 6.
Cliff Cheetham (2008, April). Marketing strategies in the gaming community.
We are extremely close.
Amazing - I've found someone I can really trust. I feel really lucky at the moment because all my other relationships have been *****.
Too good. it's really hard to describe. Unreal! I guess I now can't live without him. it's too good. He's grown on me.
I think I need to clarify I'm still married. I feel that in a marriage there ought to be a sexual relationship but in the last four years, I have been unable to give that and nor do I desire resuming it with my husband.
Fairly close but since I broke up with my husband I find it difficult to trust somebody. He tells me I'm a lot closer to him than I realize. I find it difficult to relax and believe it's too good to be true. I'm always looking for something to be wrong.
Excellent. He's very…
Mullen, Paul E. And Fleming, Jillian (1998) Long-term Effects of Child Sexual Abuse. Issues in Child Abuse Prevention. No. 9 Autumn 1998. Online available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/nch/pubs/issues/issues9/issues9.html
Hughes, Karen et al. (1998) the Health Impacts on Adult Women of Childhood Sexual Violence Before the Age of Twelve Years. Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse. A Report on Community Research. Online available at http://www.mincava.umn.edu/documents/report/report.html
Worrell, Judith (nd) Encyclopedia of Women and Gender - Sex Similarities and Differences and the Impact of Society on Gender. Academic Press. Google Books online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=7SXhBdqejgYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=women+and+childhood+sexual+abuse:+self-esteem,+intimacy,+friendship+in+adulthood&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0#PPP1,M1
Advocacy Strategy: Anti-Violence ork
Anti-violence work is really about helping a lot of women discover their strong areas and their they consider the truth for their lives. Most women contemplate should they stay, should they go or even if they need to go, whatever it maybe the movement is to make sure that women are safe. The author makes the point that it is so much easier doing the work over the years because it has given her the confidence needed with the gained experience. This essay discusses the issue of how the anti-violence work needs some support and help in aiding violence against women. Also finding solutions to violence and abuse on a level that is broader and societal.
Critique of an Advocacy Strategy
Domestic Violence denotes to the use of emotional or physical force or danger of physical force, which does comprise of sexual violence in close…
Arvay, M.J. (2001). Secondary Traumatic Stress and Trauma Counselors: What Does the Research Say?." International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 15-17.
Brzozowski, J.A. (2004). Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile. Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics.
Figley, C.L. (2002). Treating Compassion Fatigue. New York: Brunner-Routledge,.
Martin, S. (2006). Bearing Witness: Experiences of Frontline Anti-Violence Responders. Canadian Woman Studies, 11-15.
Gender and Domestic Violence
Discussions of domestic violence almost always implicate modern gender norms because of the assumption that gender norms overtly and subtly promote the idea of violence against women. First, social roles about masculinity mean that, almost across cultures, it is the male role to protect and provide for the family, which includes an element of control over female family members. Next, there is the notion that some societies or social subgroups may normalize domestic violence, which does not appear to be true. Instead, gender norms suggesting that women have less relative worth than men promote domestic violence, and exist across most modern cultures. Therefore, addressing areas of basic gender inequality should help reduce the rate of intimate partner violence. Increasing access to education, not only for females but also for their male partners, has been linked with a reduction in domestic violence. educing the age gap between…
Abramsky, T, Watts, C, Garcia-Moreno, C, Devries, K, Kiss, L, Ellsberg, M, Jansen, H, & Heise,
L 2011, 'What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence', BMC Public Health, Vol. 11, no. 109. Available from biomedcentral.com [7 October 2013].
Aizer, A 2010, 'The gender wage gap and domestic violence', The American Economic Review, vol. 100, no.4, pp.1847-1859.
Anderson, K 2013, 'Why do we fail to ask "why" about gender and intimate partner violence?',
By examining violence and women in both Sin City and the Tekken series, one is able to see how seemingly similar representations of gender and violence actually create wildly different meanings depending on the particular medium. While Sin City and Tekken participate in the visual language of gender, when it comes to the relationship between gender and violence, Sin City focuses on the victimization of women's bodies at the hands of men while Tekken disavows any connection between the violence committed and the gender of those committing it. This analysis reveals an important distinction between violence committed by or against gendered individuals and violence committed because of gender, because as Tekken demonstrates, the former situation actually offers the possibility for a more expansive representation of gender.
Bryce, J.O., & utter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 1-15.
Bryce, J.O., & Rutter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 1-15.
Funk, J.B., Baldacci, H.B., Pasold, T., & Baumgardner, J. (2004). Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: is there desensitization? Journal
of adolescence, 27(1), 23-39.
Namco Bandai (2009). Tekken 6 [videogame]. Tokyo: Katsuhiro Harada.
Employers responsibility in regards to the VAA
Violence against women can be defined as any act of sexually or non-sexually oriented violence that results or is possible to result in physical, sexual and psychological trauma, irrespective of the environment it occurs. Every act of violence diminishes and destroys women's basic human rights and freedoms. Her nature is that of a caring nurturer, while men's character typically includes the desire to go into the marketplace and compete to win at his career. The differences between men and women create the opportunity for women to be taken advantage of and/or suffer violence.
The reauthorization of the Violence Against omen Act (VAA) is a needed step toward protecting women in the workplace, and in society as a whole. Complete with over $3.3 billion over the next five years for VAA programs, the VAA authorizes:
875 million for shelter services for battered women;
Nassar, Salwa. 2000. National center for policy research for women and families. Accessed 3 Sept 2003. Website: http://www.cpr4womenandfamilies.org/violencel.html .
Thomspon, Ericka P. 2003. New laws may help decrease domestic violence., Indianapolis Recorder, 6 June. A1.
Violence againse Women Act Passes. 2000. Now legal defense and education fund. Accessed 3 Sept 2003. Website: http://www.nowldef.org/html/issues/vio/vawapassed.shtml
If not inherently in the acts of sexuality themselves, often in the exhibited sense of entitlement and dominance, male sexuality is prone toward the undermining of femininity in favor of the satisfaction of male desire. In a great many of its incarnations, Jensen argues, pornography facilitates this orientation. Jensen asserts that as a consequence of the "patriarchal system in which we live, a key site of men's oppression of women -- a key method of control and domination -- is sexuality." (Jensen, p. 48) in other words, because our society is so notably tilted to favor the empowerment of men and the sublimation of female desires, sexual intercourse will frequently function as an extension of this imbalance of power. And as Jensen ultimately argues, the act of using pornography to arouse one's self is tantamount to reducing femininity and women to mere objects for the satisfaction of male sexual desires.…
Jensen, R. (2007). Getting Off: Pornography and the End of Masculinity. South End Press.
Renzetti, C.M.; Curran, D.J. & Maier, S.L. (2012). Women, Men & Society. Allyn & Bacon.
Representation of Women Through Media Has Changed From 1960s
How representation of women through media has changed from the 1960s
Susan Douglas suggests that fifty years ago, mass media existed in the form of music, television, and magazines. However, she suggest that the journey has been tough owing to the manner in, which the media represents women. The media used a sexist imagery to represent women, especially women who took part in music. Although researchers suggest that the media is a powerful tool, she suggests that the public had an option to resist the media by turning off their television, or ignoring advertisements in the magazines (Douglas 1995). Mass media had substantial influence on the social, cultural, economic, spiritual, political, and religious phases of the society as well as personal level thinking, feeling, and acting. Notably, mass media has both a good side and a bad side; it is insidious…
Adams, Carol J. 2004. The Pornography of Meat. Continuum. New York/Continuum.
Ames, Jonathan. 2011. "I Guest Directed a Porn Shoot." New York Press. 27 Nov. http://nypress.com/i-guest-directed-a-porn-shoot/
Belkin, Lisa. 2008. "The opt-out revolution." New York Times Magazine. 26, 42 -- 47, 58, 85 -- 86.
Brewer, Chad. 2005. "The Stereotypic Portrayal of Women in Slasher Films: Then vs. Now." Master Thesis, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College.
Domestic Violence Legislation
Federal and State Governments Fight Domestic Violence
Although numerous federal and state laws sanctioning domestic violence exist in the United States, the incidences of domestic violence remain substantial. The federal government has undoubtedly taken significant steps over the years to protect the victims of domestic violence through legislation. One such Act is the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA). The Act, at the time of its enactment in 1994, focused on providing funding to victims, services to victims, and training to judges and law enforcement officers. Still, as the number of domestic violence cases remained constant, the Act was re-enacted in 2000 and once again in 2006. The latest re-enactment extends services to domestic violence victims by addressing the issue of domestic violence related homelessness. The 2006 re-enactment guarantees that victims will not be evicted from government funded housing. Still, the VAWA has drawn criticism due to its…
Barton, A and Bartol, C. (2007). Criminal Behavior and Psychosocial Approach. Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
California Penal Code, section 273.5. Retrieved from: leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-
Among the negative effects of living in a violent relationship include increased depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress (Bogat, et. al, 2004). There is some evidence that suggests that social support may influence a woman's reactions to domestic violence, and may in fact influence whether or not a woman decides to stay or leave a relationship (Bogat, et. al, 2004). When support exists it is related to a positive outcome more often than not for women (Bogat, et. al, 2004). There are some studies that find that women who are in violent relationships often lack positive support role models and even when they do they are reluctant to ask for help (Bogat, et. al, 2004).
There is adequate empirical evidence which suggests that most battered women tend to be socially isolated and thus do not have a readily available network of people they can rely on for support and encouragement when…
Bachman, R., Coker, a.L. (1995). "Police involvement in domestic violence: The interactive effects of victim injury, offender's history of violence and race." Violence and Victims, 10:91-106
Bogat, a., Davidson, W.S., Levendosky, a.A., Theran, S.A., Trotter, J.S. & Von Eye, a.
2004). "The social networks of women experiencing domestic violence" American Journal of Community Psychology, 34(1-2): 95
Davis, R.L. (1998). Domestic violence: Facts and fallacies. Westport: Praeger.
Moreover, most of the police officers believed that criminalization was not an appropriate or effective method to deal with batterers because it "leads to the break-up of the family" (Ganapathy).
According to a 2004 study of 1,200 women in Bangladesh, some 67% reported having experience domestic violence, and 35% during the past year (Islam). Domestic violence was higher among women with a dowry agreement, and was also higher among women with a registered marriage and women who cover at least some of their expenses (Islam). Khairul Islam reports, "The proportion experiencing domestic violence was non-significantly lower among women with more than five years of education than among less educated or non-educated women" (Islam).
However, in the United States, much progress has occurred during the past thirty years regarding the recognition of domestic violence as a major problem, resulting in the development of numerous services by different professional disciplines to address…
Forgey, Mary Ann. "Evaluation study of an interdisciplinary social work and law curriculum for domestic violence." Journal of Social Work Education. March 22, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Ganapathy, Narayanan. "Between the devil and the deep-blue sea: conceptualising victims' experiences of policing in domestic violence in the Singaporean context." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology. April 1, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Hart, Sandra J. "Domestic violence: legal, practice, and educational issues."
MedSurg Nursing. June 1, 1998. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research
Parental influence on domestic violence: An analysis of "Domestic violence across generations: findings from Northern India" by Sandra Martin et. al.
Martin et. al.'s (2001) report on the study of domestic violence in India provided insightful facts about the nature of the issue when applied in the context of collective societies such as India wherein cultural and social norms play a vital role in determining the behavior and attitude of individuals. Of particular interest of the study are the attitude and behavior of Indian males, in order to ascertain the role that parental influence play in perpetuating violent behavior against women, especially to their wives, whether this violent behavior be physical, sexual, or both.
The researchers offer the thesis, in the article, that apart from Indian culture, males have the greater propensity to abuse their wives if they have been exposed to previous episodes of domestic violence from…
Martin, S., K. Moracco, J. Garro, A. Tsui, L. Kupper, J. Chase, and J. Campbell. (2001). Domestic violence across generations: findings from northern India. International Journal of Epidemiology.
Pornification of Women in Western Media
The Pornification of Women in Mainstream Western Media
Sexuality is a normal part of life for every male and female. egardless of where he or she lives, or even what age a person is, sex will be a need. It is a known biological fact. However, the Western media has been blamed to play a large role in exacerbating the need. Back in 1811, a novel published by Jane Austin known as Sense and Sensibility mentioned the word chaperon. It was stated that back then a young woman and young man were never left alone. Even if they were left alone, they were left in the presence of a chaperone. (Poisoned by Porn; It's" 2010, 14) why was this the case? The answer to that lies in that sex is a need for every man or woman born into this world. It was back…
8 July, 2009 "Bad boob jobs," The Times of India.
2012, "Christina Aguilera's 'Your Body' Dress Doesn't Leave Much To The Imagination," The Huffington Post.
American Society of Plastic Surgeons (2012) 2011 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report. [report].
Baudrillard, Jean 1979. "Seduction." Translated by Brian Singer. New York: St. Martin's Press
Third, the absence of tension phase, sometimes referred to as the "honeymoon phase," is characterized by a lowering of violence and perhaps some type of reconciliation between the abuser and the battered person. However, under normal conditions, this phase does not endure very long and soon leads to repetition and an increased in tension (Burnett & Adler, 2006, Internet).
Without a doubt, the most dangerous time for women who are being abused by their husbands, boyfriends and male relatives is when they attempt to leave a relationship or separate themselves from the abuser. As Burnett and Adler point out, women "who are separated from their husbands have a risk of violence three times more than that of divorced women" and about twenty-five times more than that of women who are married. Not surprisingly, more than 75% of domestic assaults "occur after separation... with women most likely to be murdered when…
Berrios, Daniel C. And Deborah Grady. (August 1991). Domestic Violence: Risk Factors and Outcomes. Western Journal of Medicine. 155. 133-35.
Burnett, Lynn B. And Jonathan Adler. (2006). "Domestic Violence." eMedicine. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic153.htm#section~introduction .(in Journal of Domestic Violence, Vol. 2 no. 1 (2001): 145-55).
Helplessness (Domestic Violence)
Domestic violence is a social problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. This is evident by the fact that it is estimated that anywhere between two to four million women are battered each year. Often, the battering results in severe physical injury requiring hospitalization and emergency care (NOW, para 2). The magnitude of the problem has led to societal help and interventional measures being made available to help women who are victimized by domestic violence. Yet, there are many women who choose to stay in abusive relationships primarily due to a psychological condition, which is termed as the "battered woman syndrome." Viewed as a subcategory of post traumatic stress disorder (PSTD), the "battered woman syndrome" hypothesizes that the ongoing trauma suffered by battered women leads to development of coping mechanisms, which make her unable to predict the results of her actions, and so, she acts in…
Dewdney, P., & Harris, R.M. Barriers to Information: How Formal Help Systems Fail
Battered Women. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
NOW. Violence Against Women in the United States. National Organization for Women
Web site. Retrieved July 9, 2004: http://www.now.org /issues/violence/stats.html
Immigrant Chinese omen in Canada
Immigrant Histories: Chinese omen in Canada
Nothing is as difficult and as painful as uprooting oneself or one's family for a new life in a strange land. However, many have had to do so throughout history, to not only survive, but also to prosper. The New orld, fabled for its freedoms and its promises of riches, has appealed to many people across this vast world. This appeal has reached as far as China, parts of whose population started their voyage to North America almost 150 years ago (Multicultural History Society of Ontario [MHSO], 2001). This research will examine a brief history of the Chinese population in Canada, starting at the turn of the century, and will continue by describing this population's lifestyle, complete with its problems, its disappointments and its successes, in detail.
According to the Multicultural History Society of Ontario (2001), the Guangdong province,…
Anonymous. (2001). But Women did Come: 150 Years of Chinese Women in North America. Multicultural History Society of Ontario. Panel 1-5. http://www.mhso.ca/ggp/Exhibits/Chinese_Women/panel1.html
Anonymous. (2011). About Us. Chinese Professional Women of Canada. 1. http://www.cpaasv.org/hannie/cpwc/
Li, S. & Gillett, M. (1995). Chinese-Canadian women in Montreal: case studies in the importance of education. 15-23. http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=23226&local_base=GEN01-MCG02
Poy, V. (2005). The Equality Deficit -- Chinese Immigrant Women in Canada. Women's Legal Education and Action Fund -- LEAF. 1. http://sen.parl.gc.ca/vpoy/english/Special_Interests/speeches/Speech%20-%20LEAF_021105.htm
Victims of Intimate Violence: Laci Peterson and Minh Dang
Domestic violence is prevalent in the modern world. In the United States, one out of four women, suffer emotional or physical violence in the arms of a close partner. There are scores of causes of domestic violence among them frustration, poverty, social and environmental aspects. Women and girls are predominate victims of domestic violence which leads to murder, emotional pain, psychological trauma and physical suffering. In this regard, this paper assesses the Laci Peterson's case that involved her, her unborn child and her husband, Scott Peterson. The paper also evaluates the Ming Dang's case that entails her and her family who sexually, emotionally, psychological and physically abused her since when she was three-years old and eventually sold her as a sex slave when she was barely ten-years old. The paper links the two cases, though different, into intimate domestic violence defined…
Chuang, S., & Meak. L. (2012, December 31). From Child Sex Slave to Activist: Berkeley
Woman Breaks Chains of Human Trafficking .nbcbayarea.com. Retrieved February 11,
2013 from http://www.nbcbayarea.com/investigations/From-Sex-Slave-to-Activist-How-a-Berkeley-Woman-is-Using-Her-Past-to-Help-Others -- 184471481.html.
Crier, C. (2005). A Deadly Game (The Untold Story of the Scott Peterson Investigation. New York: HarperCollins.
Domestic Violence Against Men
Domestic violence, domestic abuse, dating abuse, intimate partner violence (IPV) or battering refers to a behavioral pattern in which one partner abuses another in an intimate relationship such as marriage, dating, cohabitation or within a family setup. Domestic violence takes different forms, the most common being physical assault i.e. hitting, shoving, kicking, biting, slapping, shoving objects and general physical violence. It can also take the form of threats including sexual and emotional abuse, intimidation, controlling or domineering, stalking, covert abuses as well as economic deprivation (Siemineiuk et al. 2010). It can be inflicted on or by both men and women (Adebayo, 2014).
Male domestic violence targets men inflicted by their partners. Though rare and hardly vocalized like its counterpart, violence against women, domestic violence against men is real. It occurs in every society though at varied degrees. The challenges faced when trying to collect statistics is…
Adebayo Anthony A. 2014. "Domestic Violence against Men: Balancing the Gender Issues in Nigeria." American Journal of Sociological Research, 4(1): 14-19
Chan, Ko Ling. 2011. "Gender Differences in Self-Reports of Intimate Partner Violence: A Review." Aggression and Violent Behavior (Elsevier) 16 (2): 167 -- 175.
Cook, P.W. 2009. Abused Men -- The Hidden Side of Domestic Violence (Preager second edition 2009).
Kevin Smith (Ed.), Kathryn Coleman, Simon Eder and Philip Hall 2011. "Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2009/10." Home Office.
At the same time that movement activists were pushing for the enactment of new legal measures, they were also working to develop a grass-roots community-based approach to providing direct services to victims of domestic violence. In 1979, the first domestic violence shelter in the United States was opened in an apartment in St. Paul, Minnesota, staffed entirely by volunteers. Today more than 2,000 shelters and crisis centers dot the North American landscape. Some are funded through private donations and staffed by volunteers but most are sustained by a combination of public and private monies and are run by a mix of professional and nonprofessional, paid and unpaid staffs. Thus we see that contemporary efforts to address domestic violence are characterized by a pattern of service provision and problem definition that from the outset has involved a reliance on state and community measures.
The dual focus on the development of both…
Ellsberg, Mary, et al. "Researching Domestic Violence against Women: Methodological and Ethical Considerations." Studies in Family Planning 32.1 (2001): 1. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001004940 .
Feather, N.T. "Domestic Violence, Gender and Perceptions of Justice." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 35.7-8 (1996): 507+. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000451409 .
Kelly, Kristin A. "Working Together to Stop Domestic Violence: State-Community Partnerships and the Changing Meaning of Public and Private." Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 31.1 (2004): 27+. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005970923 .
Kurz, Demie. "Women, Welfare and Domestic Violence." Social Justice 25.1 (1998): 105+. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001359170 .
Criminalization occurs when women are treated like offenders rather than victims when they defend themselves against abusive males. Criminalized women are made to feel like they are the ones responsible for situations such as damage to property, child exposure to violence, immigration status issues, reputational damage, homelessness, and poverty occurring as a direct result of male violence. We have heard of numerous cases -- for instance, where women living with abusive partners are accused of failing to protect their children, and are held responsible in the unfortunate event that the children fall victim to, or witness disturbing episodes of domestic violence. The situation is no different in the prison system, where these women are incarcerated upon conviction. ather than strive to address the social injustices such as poverty, sexual and domestic abuse, and psychological issues that drive such women to commit crime, we dedicate our attention to making their lives…
Balfour, G. (2006). Introduction to Part III. In E. Comack & G. Balfour (Eds.), Criminalizing Women: Gender and (In)Justice in Neo-Liberal Times (pp. 157-76). Black Point, NS: Fernwood Publishing
Canadian Prostitution Related Laws as of December, 2014 ( URL Link XXX)
Casavant, L. & Valiquet, D. (2014). Bill C-36: An Act to Amend the Criminal Code in Response to the Supreme Court of Canada Decision in Attorney General of Canada vs. Benford and to make Consequential Amendments to Other Acts. Library of Parliament. (URL Link XXX)
Dell, C.A., Gardipy, J., Kirlin, N., Naytowhow, V. & Nicol, J.J. (2006). Enhancing the Well-Being of Criminalized, Indigenous Women. In E. Comack & G. Balfour (Eds.), Criminalizing Women: Gender and (In)Justice in Neo-Liberal Times (pp. 314 -329). Black Point, NS: Fernwood Publishing
Although many women seeking Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
report domestic violence, few receive mandated services through the Family Violence Option (FVO). A study was made of interview transcripts to determine whether the breakdown in the system occurred because of lack of social worker engagement or because details of reports were vague or unsubstantiated. Review of interviews at eleven different sites and by dozens of welfare workers revealed that workers' interpersonal communication skills were lacking. orkers were noted to have preconceived notions of what constituted abuse. The study recommends that welfare workers receive additional training to respond more appropriately to victims of domestic violence.
McLeod, a., Hayes, D.G., & Chang, C.Y. (2010). Female intimate partner violence survivors experiences with accessing resources. Journal of Counseling and Development 88 (3),
Five survivors of domestic violence, three African-American and two Caucasian women, reported on survival strategies and exiting the abusive relationships.…
Wuest, J., Ford-Gilboe, M., Merrit-Gray, M., Wil, P., Campbell, J., Lent, B., Varcoe, C., & Smye, V. (2010). Pathways of chronic pain in survivors of intimate partner violence.
Journal of Women's Health 19 (9), 1665-1674.
Researchers found a correlation between severe chronic pain in women and lifetime abuse-related injuries, post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity, and depression severity. The findings are important to clinical care workers, who should assess for history of child abuse, IPV, IPV-related injuries and/or depression when working with women who report chronic pain.
My perspective on domestic violence has certainly been influenced by some of the information I have learned while taking this course. I was fortunate enough to grow up in surroundings in which I was never exposed to this phenomenon. As such, I was relatively ignorant about the many realities regarding what has been and continues to be one of the most prevalent social issues affecting women in this country. After having taken this course, I now understand that domestic violence is a reality for many women much more than most people are aware of, and that there are a number of systematic aspects of this phenomenon which greatly influences its propagation.
One of the most eminent factors related to domestic violence that I am now cognizant of is its rate of incidence. Because I had never experienced it nor personally knew anyone who had personally experienced domestic violence,…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey." www.cdc.gov. 2010. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/nisvs/index.html
Bradshaw, Camille. Domestic Violence and Self-Esteem. BK Nation. 2013. Web. http://bknation.org/2013/10/domestic-violence-self-esteem/
Felperin, Leslie. "Review: Bordertown." www.variety.com. 2007. Web. http://variety.com/2007/film/reviews/bordertown-2-1200510251/
Haun, Marjorie. "Debunking Feminist Myths about Domestic Violence." www.beforeit'snews.com 2014. Web. http://beforeitsnews.com/opinion-conservative/2014/07/debunking-feminist-myths-about-domestic-violence-2888054.html
Communities are silent as well; people are still reluctant to intervene in domestic violence situations, assuming that adult victims have the ability to leave abusive scenarios and that parents should have the right to parent their children without intervention. In addition, neighbors and other potential interveners oftentimes fear the possible consequences of intervening in a violent situation. Finally, American society refuses to publicly condemn domestic violence; Michael Vick received more negative press for dog fighting than did Warren Moon, an even more famous football player, for his domestic violence behavior. With this permissive atmosphere, it is no wonder that women and children still suffer from domestic violence in fear and silence.
Question One: What individual changes can you make to create a society that is more condemning of domestic violence?
Question Two: Can you think of four reasons that a domestic violence victim would be reluctant to leave his or…
Giovanni Boccaccio wrote The Decameron in the century before Geoffrey Chaucer undertook a similar project in Britain, with both The Decameron and The Canterbury Tales involving a number of stories told by members of the group, with the group in each case gathered with a common purpose, and with the stories connected by links which describe the actions of the company (Root 1). Chaucer also took some of the stories for his travelers from versions told by Boccaccio. The two writers come from similar literary traditions, and they also tended to treat women in much the same way. For Boccaccio, social traditions and his own individual view of social conventions interact to cause him to tell his stories in the manner he chooses.
One of the dominant views of the time was of courtly love. The essence of courtly love is detailed in the twelfth-century work by Andreas Capellanus,…
Capellanus, Andreas, The Art of Courtly Love. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.
Edwards, Robert. Chaucer and Boccaccio: Antiquity and Modernity. New York: Palgrave, 2002.
Roberts, Anna. Violence against Women in Medieval Texts. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 1998.
For centuries women have entered into political struggle in order to secure the livelihoods of their families and communities." What is new is the advent of women in leadership positions and political office who have incorporated women issues into their programs which offers new hope and presents new possibilities. Just as British women felt their country was full of freedom even though they did not have the right to vote there are cultures in the world that freedom within that specific society would be prison within another in the view of women.
In order for feminism to become transnational the elite women in the richer countries must be able to consider and conceive the plight of the rural women in a third world country and as well all within the feminist movement must be able within their own consciousness to cross a deep chasm in order to comprehend women of…
Brenner, Johanna (2003) Transnational Feminism and The Struggle for Global Justice [from New Politics, vol.9 no.2 whole 34, winter 2003) Online available at http://www.wpunj.edu/~newpol/issue34/brenne34.htm .
Grewal, Inderpal & Kaplan, Caren (2000) Postcolonial Studies and Transnational Feminist Practices San Franciso State University and University of California Berkley Online available at http://social.chass.ncsu.edu/jouvert/v5i1/grewal.htm.
Moghadam, Val (2005) Transnational Feminism and Afghan Women's Rights Rubrique: Femmes & Mondalisation Online available at http://www.peuplesmonde.com/article.php3?id_article=269 .
Moghadam, Val (2004) From International to Transnational Organization: A Century's Feminist Journey- Against the Current Online available at http://www.solidarity-us.org/atc/109moghadam.html .
Domestic violence is a major problem in today's society that has significant effects in the well-being and proper functioning of the family and society. Generally, domestic violence and threat of violence contributes to the emergence of fear that basically destroys the normal functioning of the family and eventually affects the society. omen, children, and young people are the most commonly targeted and affected by violence or the threat of violence at home. The effect of domestic violence on individuals is attributed to the fact that exposure to violence in the immediate social environment generates considerable challenges and difficulties for the individual. The home or family environment acts as the immediate social environment for the growth and development of a person.
Brief Description of Domestic Violence:
Domestic violence has traditionally been regarded as a personal problem rather than a social problem. However, violence or the threat of violence has increased significantly…
Ooms, Theodora. "A Sociologist's Perspective on Domestic Violence: A Conversation with Michael Johnson, Ph.D." CLASP - Center for Law and Social Policy. Center for Law and Social Policy, 2006. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. .
"Sociological Effects on Women - Violence Against Women." Violence Against Women. Weebly.com, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. .
easons to hear victim experiences.
The victims of rape have a right to be heard, and it is not only healthy for their psychological composure, but also for the community to know what menace this is and face it. There are several reasons why the rape victims should be heard, here are some:
A. May inspire others to speak out; this way more of the victims will get the confidence to speak out make the society to embrace the cruelties of the crime and act upon it.
B. Educational purposes- the experiences that the society has had can be used to educate the entire community on the ills of the heinous act and it is an education that cannot be given better than the victims themselves, for a safer future society.
C. Public awareness- the victims should be allowed to speak so as to help heighten the public awareness on…
AFROL (2011). Sierra Leone: Gender Profile. Retrieved March22, 2011 from http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/sierraleone_women.htm
Asencio, M., (1999). Machos and Sluts: Gender, Sexuality, and Violence among a Cohort of Puerto Rican Adolescents. Blackwell Publishing.
Dothaneagle.com, (2011). Apologies issued for unprosecuted rape of black woman in 1944.
Retrieved March22, 2011 from http://www2.dothaneagle.com/news/2011/mar/21/apologies-issued-unprosecuted-rape-black-woman-194-ar-1607570/
Women tend not to disclose their partner's violent behavior out of fear of retaliation, embarrassment or economic dependence on the abusing partner. Pregnant women, in particular, require comprehensive healthcare and special services. Postpartum violence is a serious issue as it not only affects the mother but also poses serious danger for the life of the child. Policy makers should focus not only on providing funds for prenatal and post natal medical care but also ensure that domestic violence services and other support services are integrated with the healthcare services. A collaborative approach involving a collocation of interdisciplinary services is critical for providing optimal care for victims of intimate partner abuse. Nurses, as primary caregivers in the emergency department are ideally placed not only to provide medical care but also to co ordinate and to lead multidisciplinary interventions that are in place to address domestic violence against women.
1) The Clark County, ' Fast Facts on Domestic Violence', retrieved Apr 13th 2010, from, http://www.clarkprosecutor.org/html/domviol/facts.htm
2) Brian J. Biroscak. MA, MS, BS, Patricia K. Smith MS, BS & Helen Rosnowski MSN, BSN RN et.al (2006), 'Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Findings from one State's ED Surveillance System', Journal of Emergency Nursing, 32-12: 6
3) Christine Rubertsson, PhD, Ingegerd Hildingsson PhD & Ingela Radestad PhD, (2010), 'Disclosure and Police reporting of Intimate Partner Violence Postpartum: A pilot Study', Midwifery, 26 e1-e5
4) Rebecca J. Macy, PhD, Sandra L. Martin PhD & Lawrence L. Cupper PhD et.al (2007), ' Partner Violence among women Before, During and After Pregnancy: Multiple Opportunities for intervention', Women's Health Issues 17: 290-299
By doing so right now, we are not only making a societal and human investment in today's citizens and today's crime rate, but we are improving the quality of life of entire families as well as working toward the reduction of future perpetrators of violence against women since the sons will see appropriate models of behavior and wil not be apt to become violent in the future.
A programme for action. (2008). etrieved May 5, 2010, from Care Against Domestic Violence, http://www.cadv.org.uk/points.html.
Coy, M., Kelly, L., & Foord, J. (2009). Map of gaps: The postcode lottery of Violence Against Women support services in Britain (United Kingdom, End Violence Against Women and Equality and Human ights, London, England). London: End VIolence Against Women.
Giles-Sims, J. (1985) a Longitudinal Study of Battered Children of Battered Wives. Family elations, 34 (2), 205- 210.
Great Britain., Home Office., Crime in England and Wales…
A programme for action. (2008). Retrieved May 5, 2010, from Care Against Domestic Violence, http://www.cadv.org.uk/points.html .
Coy, M., Kelly, L., & Foord, J. (2009). Map of gaps: The postcode lottery of Violence Against Women support services in Britain (United Kingdom, End Violence Against Women and Equality and Human Rights, London, England). London: End VIolence Against Women.
Giles-Sims, J. (1985) a Longitudinal Study of Battered Children of Battered Wives. Family Relations, 34 (2), 205- 210.
Great Britain., Home Office., Crime in England and Wales 2008/2009. (2009). The Home Office departmental report 2009. London: TSO.
Alcohol, Drugs, And Domestic Violence
Family violence - or male aggression against women in a relationship setting - also known as domestic violence (DV) is most certainly a devastating social and moral problem in our society; but it is also a serious police problem, and an expensive health problem. In fact, the annual health care cost associated with the manifestations of DV is estimated to run as high as $857 million in the United States (odiguez, et al., 2001). But moreover, DV takes a toll on American families that is much greater than any dollar amount could ever reflect - and, in addition, DV is a social blemish on the face of America that seems to be getting worse, not better. The "causes" of violence in the family - why men act aggressively against their wives and girlfriends and even their children - are varied and complicated; but in too…
Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly (2003). Alcohol use may increase the likelihood of domestic violence. 15 p7.
Brain, Paul F. (1986). Alcohol and Aggression. London: Croom Helm.
Brookoff, Daniel, M.D., Ph.D. (1997). Drugs, Alcohol, and Domestic Violence
In Memphis: Research in Progress Seminar Series. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.