Virtue Ethics: The Good and the Bad About Virtue Ethics
The philosophy of virtue ethics holds that being a 'good person' or what one might call 'character' is the most important determinant of moral action. Virtue ethics is considered to be one of the major philosophical orientations in the field of normative ethics, along with consequentialism and deontology (Hursthouse 2010). Many consider it to be the oldest form of ethics, harkening back to Plato and Aristotle's attempts to define what constituted a good and moral person. Virtue ethics fell out of favor for many years, but there has been a revitalization of interest in the concept, in the wake of controversies over the flaws of consequentialism and deontology. To understand the strengths (and also some of the weaknesses) of virtue ethics, it is essential to understand the ethical systems to which the modern incarnation of virtue ethics was responding. The…… [Read More]
Virtue-based vs. duty-based ethics: arguments and examples from Victor Hugo, Aristotle, Bernard Mayo, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and William Frankena
In the study of ethics and morality, there have been theoretical foundations in which it was argued that morality comes with being rather than doing, or that a true moral life is one that is a product of doing instead of being. Or, oftentimes, theoreticians and philosophers contend that morality must bear an existence of both concepts -- that is, that morality entails both doing and being.
In the study of the works of the philosophers and writers Victor Hugo, Aristotle, Bernard Mayo, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and William Frankena, it becomes evident that they have various opinions about the issue at hand: is morality simply a matter of doing good works, or one must have the right principles in order to become moral? Through their writings, each had contented their stance…… [Read More]
This will allow someone to move beyond the different emotions, so that they can be able to see how the different actions will affect the world around them. Despite some of the obvious weaknesses, you can be able to determine the most appropriate course of action, by asking questions and gaining more information. Once this achieved, you will have a greater sense of enlightenment, because you were able to see other views that could affect a situation. This is significant because it underscores how you can apply virtue ethics, to determine the most appropriate course of action. At which point, a person will have a sense of superiority by understanding the overall big picture. In this aspect, Aristotle is saying that to effectively apply virtue ethics requires that you must have a thirst for continuous knowledge and always use flexibility. When you put these two factors together, you will have…… [Read More]
The question here arises, why did we have to return to ancient philosophy of virtue ethics? But interestingly while a great deal of credit is given to Aristotle and Plato, the modern moral philosophers such as Anscombe, Foot, Murdoch, Slote had mentioned in very precise terms the problems they found in Aristotelian ethics. They must have absorbed the writings of ancient philosophers since a lot is said about the moral philosophies of these great thinkers in books of modern philosophers, still the father of modern moral philosopher was not blind to the problems of following ancient terms and values. In his famous paper on the subject, Anscombe wrote:
Anyone who has read Aristotle Ethics and has also read modern moral philosophy must have been struck by the great contrasts between them. The concepts which are prominent among the moderns seem to be lacking, or at any rate buried or far…… [Read More]
Deontological ethics are based on other theories that focus on duty and obligation. Immanuel Kant (1785) argued that an individual should "always act in such a way that you can also will that the maxim of your action become universal law" (p. v). It can be argued that Kant's arguments are echoed in a quote often attributed to Ghandi, "Be the change you want to see in the world" (Lewis, 2011). In other words, deontological ethics contend that individuals should lead by example and establish moral precedent through their virtuous actions.
Each of these theories is seen every day through in our actions and decisions. One of the virtue theories that I strive to embody is Eudemonism, which encourages me to be the best that I can be, and put forth the effort necessary to be successful in my endeavors. I believe that by being the best person I can…… [Read More]
virtues the proper starting point for ethical theory?
The debate about virtue ethics
Critical analysis of virtue ethics criticism
Virtues should be the starting point for ethical theory
This paper revolves around the question that whether or not virtues are an appropriate starting point for ethical theory. I have presented the main criticism on virtue ethics theory followed by the defense of this theory by renowned virtue ethicists. There are three main schools of thought that have presented theories regarding ethics. In traditional normative ethical theories, deontologist, etiologist, and virtue ethics are the three perspectives. Virtue ethics has been gaining popularity as an alternative theory to deontologist and etiologist perspective of ethics. Main concerns in the virtue ethics approach are with the character, personality, environment and reasoning of the individual who acts. The main criticism of virtue ethics theory is that it does not provide action guidance. The…… [Read More]
Nurses and the Ethics of Abortion
Abortion and Virtue Ethics
In the Crossfire: Nurses and the Ethics of Abortion
In the Crossfire: Nurses and the Ethics of Abortion
Nebraska's Attorney General, Jon Bruning, announced his efforts to revoke the license of the only nurse working at Dr. Leoy Carhart's abortion clinic in a suburb of Omaha (Funk, 2013). The revocation proceedings are based on allegations of substandard care and the delegation of patient care to unlicensed staff. Should the Attorney General be successful, Carhart would be faced with the task of hiring another nurse at a clinic that has been the focus frequent and aggressive anti-abortion activities. The news article by Funk (2013) highlights Dr. Carhart's past successes in challenging restrictive abortion laws before the U.S. Supreme Court, thereby implying the most recent allegations may be contaminated by motivations other than a concern for patient health and safety.
Such events…… [Read More]
Ethics and morality feature strongly in Twain's Huckleberry Finn. Set against a backdrop of antebellum social stratification, the novel shows how individuals like the title character make their moral choices. Moreover, Huckleberry Finn is a coming-of-age story showing how the title character discovers his own moral voice. His deepening friendship with Jim, and the conflicts that friendship cause him due to race relations in the antebellum south, help Huckleberry Finn distinguish between the artificial morality ensconced in unjust laws and the genuine moral truths of friendship and universal human rights. Huckleberry Finn's decision-making process reflects both virtue ethics and Kantian deontological ethics.
The Fugitive Slave Law is morally unjust from the perspective of Kantian deontological ethics. Requiring that all witnesses of runaway slaves report the transgression to the authorities, the Fugitive Slave Law upholds a morally turbid social and economic system. Yet as a white boy, Huckleberry Finn has never…… [Read More]
Religion, Libertarianism and Virtue Ethics
Religion is a social institution, which grows out of individuals' collective attempt to structure and understand the university (McGonigal, 2012). It is a natural consequence of human behavior and social groups. It endeavors to explain occurrences and social inequalities. In so doing, religion tends to justify inequalities, thus, provides a foundation for religious identification, which often breeds social conflict (McGonigal).
Libertarianism is a political philosophy, which claims that every person is the absolute owner of his own life (New World Encyclopedia, 2008). It believes that a person can do anything with himself or property for as long as he respects the rights of others to their own lives and properties. As an ethical theory, libertarianism asserts that the best political, social, and economic system is one, which governs the least. It confers the greatest personal or individual liberty while minimizing government action, regulation and sanction.…… [Read More]
Generally, virtue ethics emphasizes the motivation, or reason, for any particular act to determine whether or not it is ethical (Hursthouse, 1999). For example, if a person you know with certainty is totally innocent of a crime for which police are seeking to take him into custody, virtue ethics would permit you to lie to the authorities about his whereabouts and to permit that person to decide what he wants to do (including flee the state if that is his choice). As long as your true motivation was morally defensible (such as to protect an innocent person from wrongful arrest or prosecution) as opposed to motivated by a non-virtuous reason (such as for pay), virtue ethics would support your decision (Hursthouse, 1999).
Generally, utilitarian ethics emphasizes the effect of a course of action on the entire community (Beauchamp & Childress, 2009). In the same…… [Read More]
The broadest area of my life that requires certain virtues in order to do well is friendship. To be a good friend demands virtue; the bond of friendship can be easily broken when a person exhibits poor moral character. One reason why friendship depends on virtue is that friendship also requires trust. A friend is called someone who we can lean on, or whose shoulder we can cry on. In order to lean on someone, we need to be vulnerable with that person and vulnerability requires trust. The “telos” of friendship is rooted in the basic human need for intimacy, connection with others, and a healthy social life. Having close friends also leads to what Aristotle called eudaimonia, which means “happiness” or “flourishing,” (Hursthouse, 2016, p. 1). A person does not need to be extraverted, or around people all the time to experience eudaimonia but does at some point need…… [Read More]
Like Aristotle's virtue-based ethics, utilitarians believe that happiness is the ultimate goal of human life and therefore of any ethical system that can be devised. Also like Aristotle, they perceived that to be virtuous required society; being virtuous when completely alone is impossible, as there is no one to be un-virtuous towards. This also means that individual happiness cannot be the only consideration in utilitarian ethics, but that the happiness or pleasure of the society must be measured to determine an act's ethical quality. Those acts which increased pleasure, or utility, were good; those which diminished utility, bad.
In this way, the utilitarian view of achieving happiness departed widely from Aristotle's. For him, happiness was a matter of personal fulfillment through the cultivation of virtues -- internal personal characteristics, not the act itself or its consequences, were the determiners of ethical behavior. In this way, Aristotle's system of virtue ethics…… [Read More]
60). We condemn someone as immoral who refuses to help a motorist by the side of the road, but not someone who refuses to help a child with his or her extraneous cash -- personal 'gut' instinct in virtue ethics is prioritized morally over the end results, which Singer sees as faulty reasoning.
A third objection to virtue ethics is that it is culturally 'bound' to Western concepts of the self. In many societies, moral character is not based upon individual philosophy, but a sense of collective obligation. "Virtue ethics changes the kind of question we ask about ethics. Where deontology and consequentialism concern themselves with the right action, virtue ethics is concerned with the good life and what kinds of persons we should be" (Athanassoulis, 2010). However, philosophers who argue against a principle of moral relativism would state that this is not necessarily a 'bad thing' (Midgley 1981). Merely…… [Read More]
Preference for Virtue Ethics Theory
The virtue Ethics Theory is one of the most pragmatic moral theories as it addresses virtues that mould human character in its attempt to describe the good. The theory suggests that a good life and general well-being results from embracing virtues. It goes further to describe good, holistic life; proposing that it is a life that is lived in harmony with others around. In his view of humans, Aristotle considered people as both social and rational beings. It is evident that humans tend to coexist in groups. Therefore, the theory considers the group as being more important than an individual. The primary virtues encompassed are temperance, justice, courage and practical wisdom. All the virtues work in consonance. Thus, it would not be of much help to have one and not the others. Courage and temperance have a moral inclination. They help us build bravery. Self-control…… [Read More]
The three approaches to ethics today involve whether one does good out of (1) the need to maximize the well-being of the human race, (2) the need to live according to a moral rule ("Do unto others as you would have others do unto you") or (3) the belief that helping people is charitable and benevolent (virtue ethics). The Virtue Ethicists' central concepts are virtue, practical wisdom and eudaimonia.
A virtue, such as honesty, generosity, caring and helping, is not something learned or practiced until it becomes a habit. It is a disposition that comes from a mindset that cannot be observed by others in a single act. A virtuous person has thought about why it is valuable to be honest and caring and has taken it to be part of their disposition. They do not find otherwise in their life and are shocked whenever they do not find it…… [Read More]
Riches and honor are what men desire; but if they arrive at them by improper ways, they should not continue to hold them. Poverty and low estate are what men dislike; but if they arrive at such a condition by improper ways, they should not refuse it."
(The Analects of Confucius -- Book 4)
hen discussing "moral character" in 2016, writers, pundits and commentators are likely referring to a very rare person, who has an outstanding reputation for honesty and candor, and perhaps even altruism. But Confucius took the concept of moral character to deeper levels, even to the point of believing he wasn't moral enough, or that he didn't reflect virtue to the extent that he should have. This is very interesting since modern political and social life in the estern world in 2016 is exploding with greed, corruption, arrogance and indifference to the plight of the less fortunate.…… [Read More]
Virtue Ethics and reasoning for the scenario
Virtue ethics is the ethical strategy preferred. Efficient leaders and true professionals strive at achieving moral excellence which encompasses integrity, justice, valor and good sense. In the present day, virtue ethics constitutes one among the three key normative ethics strategies. Primarily, it can be considered a strategy which stresses moral fiber or virtues, contrary to consequentialism (which focuses on the consequences one’s actions have) or deontology (which stresses rules or duties). The virtue ethics strategy is agent-based in nature, concentrating on a moral agent’s basic motivations and character. Moral conduct isn’t associated with or restricted to a specific set of guidelines or a particular rule; instead, it entails a person rationally practicing moral excellence and making it a personal goal. The Aristotelian approach to virtue ethics describes virtue as a positive trait (e.g., courage which exists between the two extremities of cowardice and…… [Read More]
The responsibilities of parenthood do require character virtues. Simply being a parent does not make one virtuous, but parenting can bring out the best in people. Parenting requires the person to put their child ahead of any selfish desire, which promotes humility, magnanimity, and temperance—three of the essential character virtues (“Traditional Theories of Ethics,” n.d.). Developing character ethics promotes eudaimonia within the family, and each member of the family including the parent who exhibits a virtuous character (Aristotle; Husthouse, 2016). In fact, the more one exhibits virtuous behavior in their role as a parent, the more likely it is for the child to embody the same virtues. In this way, virtuous parenting reverberates through the generations and helps create a more virtuous society overall.
Having personal experiences with a father who did not have a virtuous approach to parenting makes it easier to recognize the importance of strong…… [Read More]
Unlike either deontological or utilitarian ethics, virtue ethics focuses on character. Because virtue ethics are not consequentialist, overall virtue ethical frameworks are more akin to deontological analysis of moral right and wrong. One’s intentions are as important as one’s actions; the consequences of one’s actions are important but not as much as remaining honest, compassionate, and willing to learn. At the same time, Aristotle and other proponents of virtue ethics believed that it is most important to be a good person, and to live a good life, than it is to ascribe to some external moral code.
Two virtues that are important to living a flourishing or successful life, in Aristotle’s sense, include magnanimity and temperance (“Traditional Theories of Ethics,” n.d.). Magnanimity is best understood as understated confidence, evident in behaviors like good sportsmanship whether one wins or loses. Temperance is moderation in all areas of life: not going to…… [Read More]
We may act according to our personal principles, or we can act according to our common sense. I tend to use my common sense rather than personal prejudice when making ethical decisions.
My ethical reasoning entails that I would carefully consider any ethical issue before making a decision about it. One major limitation involved in this is the fact that others may perceive me as morally weak. A morally strong character tends to be one that is immediate in ethical decisions. I would therefore not be able to make immediate decisions such as those required of judges or surgeons.
It is therefore unlikely that I would thrive in a profession that is very clear and immediate with regard to its need for specific ethical decisions. I would be better in a profession that is not as dependent upon immediate decisions.
I do not believe that my ethical viewpoint…… [Read More]
Deontological theory might criticize Guido's choice if the initial assumptions included the rule prohibiting lying. However, deontological analysis is only as useful as the underlying rules with respect to which it is applied. Therefore, the solution to the deontological issues raised by the issue presented by the movie is simply to reformulate a less restrictive rule that is incapable of being applied to every situation. Instead of proposing the rule that prohibits lying, the better rule might be to prohibit only lying for immoral purposes.
In fact, the blind adherence to rules under deontological principles often produces distinctly immoral results: it is difficult to imagine the moral purpose of informing a dying patient that a loved one was also killed in the same accident; nor is there a moral purpose for informing a child who is to young to understand the concept that he was adopted. In Guido's case, the…… [Read More]
Virtue as an Ethical Concept
The objective of this study is to examine virtue as an ethical concept. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy states that virtue ethics is a "broad term for theories that emphasize the role of character and virtue in moral philosophy rather than either doing one's duty or acting in order to bring about good consequences." (2014, p. 1)
The virtue ethics theorist adheres to Aristotle's definition of the virtuous person as being "someone who has ideal character traits. These traits derive from natural internal tendencies, but need to be nurtured; however, once established, they will become stable." (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2014, p. 1)
Examples of Virtue
The virtuous person has behavior that demonstrates such traits as kindness, honesty and fairness. For example, it is reported that the virtuous person is "someone who is kind across many situations over a lifetime because that is…… [Read More]
The nineteenth century German philosopher Immanuel Kant presented an ethical code that assigned a strict "right" or "wrong" to every action. Called the categorical imperative, Kant believed that it does not matter what the consequences or outcome of actions are; there are certain things that are right and certain things that are wrong. These ethical categories of right and wrong are not negotiable. It can never be "sometimes" ok to tell a white lie, or to steal. Instead, Kant created easy to understand categories that apply theoretically to all cultures and all people at all times. Human beings are always morally obliged to do the right thing in any given situation, even if doing so leads to suffering. Therefore, it would be considered right to tell the truth to a murderer and subsequently die rather than to lie to the murderer and survive. Davis (n.d.). uses the example of…… [Read More]
Ethics with Character: Virtues and the Ethical Social orker -- Paul Adams
Professor Paul Adams of the University of Hawaii's Myron B. Thompson School of Social ork in this peer-reviewed article explores those aspects of social work that "…are not primarily about identifying and resolving dilemmas" (Adams, 2009, p. 83). Adams delves into the "ethical tradition" -- and the potential therein -- that had its roots in "the virtues and character" of social work practitioners from Aristotle and Hippocrates to today's social workers. In other words, how can today's social worker -- and the field of social work -- learn from the past to enhance the field ethically? This paper reviews and critiques Adams' research, which is very interesting and enlightening in the context of values, human interaction, and social work.
Review / Critique of Adams' Article
Ethics, in the view of Strom-Gottfried, refers to the "…embodiment of values into…… [Read More]
This ethical philosophy draws back from the thought and work of the ancient and great Greek philosopher Aristotle (rown, 2001; SPI, n.d.; Fahey, 2010). The philosophy centers on persons who are moral agents themselves, rather than from their actions or their consequences. A person lives an ethical or the good life if he possesses a right character, also know as virtues. As such he possesses a moral character, according to the philosophy. These character traits or virtues include courage, temperance, justice, wisdom, patience, generosity and compassion. y observing or living by this philosophy, a person develops good habits that build and make up his character. ecause of such a character, he is naturally disposed to act in a certain moral or virtuous way towards situations and persons. He or she does not possess undesirable or vicious traits of character (rown, SPI. Fahey).
The main objections to this philosophy…… [Read More]
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility
The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes as a result of company business activities. CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act) will be brought up in this assessment in addition to other environmental safeguarding proposals and human social theories in regards to environmental and work ethics.
A new initiative, We CAE about YOU world, was recently initiated by PharmaCAE, declaring its dedication to the environment via modifications in packaging, recycling, and other green programs. This was possible in spite of the fact that the firm's lobbying attempts and PAC have effectively conquered environmental policies, such as the broadening of the Superfund tax that was established by Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act (CECLA). Situated in New Jersey, PharmaCAE sustains a huge production facility in the…… [Read More]
Criticism of Consequentialism:
The deontological criticism of consequentialism would suggest that the very fact that two identical acts can be highly ethical or highly unethical in different circumstances renders consequentialism purely subjective and dependent on opinion instead of objective principles. In that view, the deontological ethical approach may produce unintended negative results on occasion, but at least deontological ethics are predictable and consistent; furthermore, deontological values lead to the better choice of conduct often enough to justify any specific instances where practical injustices could result from adherence to rules.
Adhering to rules is the surest way of ensuring ethical human conduct notwithstanding that isolated societies may establish rules that could be defined objectively as unethical. One of the best examples of the impracticality of consequentialism is the general law of false arrest in most American states. A citizen arrested unlawfully by a duly authorized law enforcement officer may not flee…… [Read More]
Ethics is a branch of philosophy that deals with what areas of human interest?
life after death b-god c-morality
The answer is c. Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with moral questions, or the question of what actions are considered to be right or wrong. Moral rightness and moral wrongness are philosophical areas of inquiry, requiring analysis and debate. The ethics of an action can be debated on the intentions of the actor, the consequences of the actions, or on other factors. There are many different approaches to the study of ethics, which is why there are so many different ethical and moral philosophers.
Ethics depends on the study of religion, or needs to be based on religious knowledge, true or false.
False. Although some philosophers, like Kant, refer to God in their philosophical treatises, there is no need for a philosophy of ethics to be grounded in…… [Read More]
c. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is the right thing to do. Duty-based ethics
d. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is good for one's health. Virtue ethics
e. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they decide they want to, regardless of whether it is someone else's sand. Entitlement-based ethics
f. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves. ights-based ethics
g. I believe I will eat sand because it is the standard meal for my community. elativistic ethics
Q4. Duty-based ethics: It is my duty to follow through with instructions my boss gives me, even if I do not agree with the concept. It is my moral obligation to respect authority figures.
Consequence-based ethics: Even though some employees…… [Read More]
The housing market was already strong, but the elimination of practical reasons for validating lender information opened several doors very wide, each with an unpleasant surprise hidden behind it. First, because realtors earn their commissions based on sales and on the relative value of property, they have little incentive to disqualify bad risks of eventual mortgage default. Second, banks became equally unconcerned with the veracity and accuracy of the financial information provided by prospective home buyers and it was no longer in anybody's interest to curb increasing home values. Third, the reliance on credit on the part of so many Americans fueled a housing and property development boom in many areas. Multiple Ethical Violations Provide the Ignition for Economic Disaster:
Lack of concern for verifying lender qualifications became so rampant in the first part of the 21st century that lenders offered "no-doc" loans that required no formal documentation of income…… [Read More]
Sometimes, it is hard to know what will happen, though, and practitioners need to have good reasons -- based on experience -- for choosing a course of action on the basis of what the consequences will be. We cannot really know for sure what will happen if this couple conceives. it's possible with a baby coming that the father will be inspired to quite cocaine and drinking; however, he has an eleven-year-old at home and apparently isn't worried that his drug habits may be making a negative impact on the older child, so it seems to optimistic to think he will be concerned about an impact on the baby.
Sometimes, it may be necessary to choose a course that is not in the best interests of the patient -- someone else's well being may be a consideration -- in this case, the other patient's (the wife) and the unborn child's…… [Read More]
According to this second view, contemporaneous autonomy trumps precedent autonomy because honoring precedent autonomy imposes preferences and values of a different person, the formerly competent self (Buccafumi, p. 14).
The role that patient's families, doctors, health aides, pastors, chaplains and administrators, health educators and others play is crucial. Few people have executed an advanced directive, much less appointed a healthcare power of attorney by the time they enter a hospital with a debilitating condition. An informed consent form only marks the fact that a conversation has taken place in a health facility. The process that needs to or ought to take place concerning a patient's wishes and ensure one's wishes are empowered are part of the process involved as one fills out the advanced directive for themselves. In California the state has consolidated statutes for advanced directives and added some rights and included the best features of past laws. A…… [Read More]
virtue ethics different from the other theories of ethics that you have studied so far?
Ethical theories which are founded more exclusively in virtue place less emphasis on the rules that people need to be in line with and a higher focus on allowing people to foster a more quality character, such as a character which orbits around empathy and selflessness. These character traits empower the person to make better decisions later on in life, while emphasizing the necessity for people to better understand how to eliminate certain poor traits of character, such as ones founded in greed or anger -- like vices, compulsions and addictions (Cline, 2014).
Aristotle, on the other hand, believed in laying out a clear distinction between intellectual and moral virtues. "Aristotle says that moral virtues are not innate, but that they are acquired by developing the habit of exercising them. An individual becomes truthful by…… [Read More]
Compare the similarities and differences between virtue theory, utilitarianism and deontological ethics
In the study of ethics, there are a number of theories that are designed to influence how someone is reacting to various events that are occurring in their lives. This is designed to create a series of standards that will affect the way they are reacting with the world around them and other people. Depending upon the approach, this will impact their behavior and beliefs. ("Virtue Ethics," 2012)
A description of the differences in how each theory addresses ethics and morality
The virtue theory is when there is a focus on the character of the individual in determining their behavior. This is accomplished by looking at the actions that are taken by the person and how their beliefs are influencing their thinking. There are several key questions that are asked during this process to include:
Who am…… [Read More]
Three Approaches to Ethics
The family life education is a special type of education that is use to strengthen relationship between the family members and encourage positive family development (Duncan and Goddard, 2011). This type of education includes a wide range of topics which can be from married life to parenting skill development. The family life educators face many ethical issues when providing education. The three different ethical approaches mentioned in booklet Tools for Ethical Thinking and Practice in Family Life Education include: The relational ethics approach, the principles approach to ethics and lens of virtues ethics.
In my opinion the most important ethical approach for the child and family life specialists is "virtue ethics." According to this approach of ethics, we should strive to achieve the ideals like excellence and dedication to common good which play a critical role in the development of our humanity (Velasquez et al.,…… [Read More]
The activities of businesses affect different stakeholders within the communities they operate in. They affect customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, financiers, regulatory authorities, and communities. Accordingly, in their pursuit of economic objectives, business organizations have a responsibility to satisfy the concerns of stakeholders affected by their operations. This is the core of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR theory asserts that business organizations exist for not only profit motives, but also social and environmental objectives (Schwartz, 2011). Indeed, CSR has become so that important governments in most countries around the world have enacted laws and regulations that businesses must adhere to so as to foster community wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Inattention to social and environmental concerns may harm an organization's public reputation or have serious legal ramifications on the organization.
WECAREHealth (WCH), a New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company, is facing serious human rights issues and environmental concerns due to its activities in the…… [Read More]
hypothetical firm -- Pharmacare -- and address the issues of corporate responsibility and ethics.
Background Information on Case
New Jersey-based company, Pharmacare (We CARE about YOUR health®) counts among the leading pharmaceutical firms across the globe. It is reputed for being an ethical, well-managed and caring corporation that manufactures superior-quality products aimed at saving the lives of millions and enhancing the QOL (quality of life) of millions of other people. Its offering constitutes discounted and free medicines to people with low income. Furthermore, the company has a charity sponsoring scholarships and health education programs. Pharmacare's Chief Executive is a Phrma (Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America) board member (Background Information). A short while ago, the organization commenced a novel program "We CARE about YOUR world®" in which it vows to adopt green practices such as recycling and packaging changes to demonstrate its responsibility to safeguard the environment. This step has…… [Read More]
It has been characterized as a movement that rivals consequentialism and deontology as it focused on the central role of concepts like character and virtue in moral philosophy. Then later versions developed fuller accounts of virtue ethics theories. Most of these are inspired by Aristotle, although some others are from Plato, Aquinas, and similar philosophers.
More modern philosophers such as Elisabeth Anscombe, Bernard illiams and Alistair MacIntyre have all raised objections to the virtue ethics theory. These three writers have all, in their own way, argued for a radical change in the way we think about morality.
hether they call for a change of emphasis from obligation, a return to a broad understanding of ethics, or a unifying tradition of practices that generate virtues, their dissatisfaction with the state of modern moral philosophy lay the foundation for change.
Virtue ethics is concerned with the good life and what kinds of…… [Read More]
.....personal ethics derive from a combination of established codifications of moral conduct, such as those embedded in political documents or in religious scripture, but also from my personality, my upbringing, and my worldview. I tend towards a utilitarian point-of-view, in that I do believe that the consequences of actions are more important than worrying about whether an action is inherently right or wrong. I also believe that there are situational variables that make true deontological ethics almost impossible to apply universally and without hypocrisy. Although I make some decisions based on the principle of doing the maximum amount to good for the maximum number of people, I also recognize the importance of a strong ethical character when making decisions "Six Ethical Theories Rough Overview," n.d.). This is why I believe that there can be no one ethical theory that encompasses all situations. A person who has a strong ethical character,…… [Read More]
This means that the decision I make in this scenario must be guided by sincere questions concerning the validity of my practice and the importance of alternate ambitions such as my desire to make a foray into the screenwriting profession. It is thus that I have decided the costs are simply too high to maintain the current relationship which I have with my patient.
Therefore, the only appropriate measure is for me to immediately cease my counseling relationship with the patient. In order to ensure that the patient does not lose his access to the treatment which he requires, he will be referred to one of my respected colleagues. It is believed that the necessary cost of breaking from this established doctor/patient relationship will be outweighed by the benefits of removing myself from a situation in which objectivity has been lost.
Upon separating form the patient thusly, I would make…… [Read More]
To ensure the deontological validity of the agreement, the specific requirements of Article VII therefore need to be somewhat modified and restipulated. ather than allowing no other employment, there could for example be some conditions that govern other ventures to supplement the military services income.
Of course it must be understood that the military is a highly confidential entity, and that no information or service should be divulged to other, similar agencies. From the utilitarian viewpoint, the military is served best when the type of service provided by its employees remains exclusive to the company. However, from the deontological viewpoint, it should also be understood that the employee is in a position where his or her finances from exclusive service to the military are insufficient for the rising costs of living.
Hence a provision could be included in Article VII: rather than allowing no other employment, the provision could state…… [Read More]
Ethical Issues and Perspectives of Dealing With Disabled Individuals
The Ethical Principle of Psychologists and Code of Conduct deal with the ethical approach of disability in two methods. First, the code motivates psychologists to become "aware of and respect" disagreements based upon disability and instruct psychologists to attain the admissible expertise while understanding of a disability that is essential for the adequate application of their duties (Behnke 2009).
espect for People's ights and Dignity
Psychologists regard the dignity and value of all community and their rights to privacy, confidentiality, and self-reliance. Psychologists are acquainted with and regard not just cultural but also individual, as well as, character distinction including ethnicity, national origin, gender and gender identity, age, race, culture, sexual awareness, religion, language, socio-economic position and contemplate these aspects while working with such groups' members (Behnke 2009).
Psychologists attain or have the training, experience, consultation, or supervision essential to…… [Read More]
Virtue Ethics and Aristotle
A virtuous person by definition performs virtuous acts -- therefore, if virtuous person A performs acts B, then act B. must be virtuous, and all resulting acts of person A thereof. Hardly true, one might exclaim -- even in theoretical logic as well as practice. Not every action performed by a person labeled virtuous will contain the essence of virtue. Surely, no one is perfect But can one avoid this tautological form of reasoning, and still embrace some of Aristotle's ethical reasoning?
Saying that a virtuous person performs virtuous acts, and therefore all acts performed by the virtuous person are virtuous, and virtuous people perform virtuous acts by definition. Remember that such statements are not the same thing as saying a courageous person performs courageous acts, and that an act performed by a person of courage must be courageous. It is important to remember that Aristotle…… [Read More]
While all ethical theories appeal to me in some way, the one I relate to the most is utilitarianism. Utilitarianism suggests that the ethical decision should enhance as much happiness as possible. I appreciate this idea, which is why I believe I make more decisions using a utilitarian ethic than any other. With Kantian duty ethics, I struggle with the absolutism. I do not believe it is possible to have one principle govern every ethical decision that I make. For example, I do believe that sometimes it is acceptable to tell lies. I have told lies to make my parents or girlfriend feel good, and I do not think it hurt them. In fact, I believe that if they knew now which lies I told and when, they would not even be upset. I would never tell a lie that I could later not admit to, however, I relate…… [Read More]
Virtue Ethics Beats Egoism
One of the reasons that philosophy is such a fascinating topic that has endured virtually throughout the course of human history is because it presents the crux of human existence in the basic forms of what is right and wrong. Moreover, there are a number of different philosophies that present alternative versions of what values encompass what is right and wrong. Two of the most eminent such philosophies include egoism, championed by Ayn Rand, and virtue ethics, supported by Aristotle. Examining those philosophies with inheritance examples proves virtue ethics is better.
Inheritance itself is the basic notion pertaining to the concept of personal property, and is inherently linked to capitalism (Haslett 143). Essentially, inheritance means that after an individual dies, his or her personal property goes to someone else. There are a variety of laws surrounding this particular issue. In certain instances, people must take action…… [Read More]
Ethics and Public Policy
This paper discusses the application of the major ethical theories of consequentialism (utilitarianism), deontology, and virtue ethics to a specific policy question, namely how to improve the nutrition of the nation's poor and to reduce the rise in food insecurity. It also discusses the implications of ethical theories such as determinism and moral relativism. First, the theory is discussed in the abstract, followed by an exposition of how the theory relates to real-world practice. The paper concludes with a more general reflection on the implications of ethical theories for public policy-makers. The specific merits of virtue ethics are stressed vs. The more extreme and polarizing views of deontology and consequentialism.
An ethical dilemma: Food insecurity
One of the dilemmas facing public policy-makers regarding food insecurity and the need to improve the diet of poor Americans is the balance between individual liberties and the need…… [Read More]
Ethics: Client epresentation
Ethics is the study of the rightness or wrongness of human actions, based on what society has identified as its moral values. Individuals are expected to observe ethical standards in their daily interactions as a way of preventing conflict and maintaining peace. For this reason, philosophers have focused on developing ethical theories to guide individuals towards making moral decisions. This text assesses these theories to determine how they inform the decision-making process.
One of your clients is accused of murdering her husband and she, as a result, faces the death penalty. An eyewitness has wrongly identified her as the killer, but she maintains that she was in an out-of-town hotel at the supposed time. However, there is no evidence of the same as she paid the hotel fee in cash, received no official receipt, did not sign the hotel register, and the clerk does…… [Read More]
Ethics and Leadership Failures: The Enron Case
Gibney's 2005 documentary film Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room reveals some of the main ethical weaknesses in an unbridled neoliberal capitalist market system. Barely addressing environmental and social justice issues, the filmmakers instead choose to focus on organizational culture, leadership, and ethical decision making within the corporation. The film illustrates the core concepts of business ethics and shows how executives shape company values and behaviors. Disturbingly, the Enron case also shows how unethical corporate behavior is linked with unethical behavior in government.
Summarize in one paragraph how you would explain Enron's ethical meltdown
Enron's ethical meltdown is a result of two interrelated issues: unethical individuals making unethical decisions, and an organizational culture that enables unethical decisions to proliferate. The unethical decisions and behaviors mainly have to do with stock market manipulation and the falsifying of information related to the actual performance…… [Read More]
Lauren is faced with a choice between letting a substandard product go through, which would require her to lie, and reporting, it above her supervisors' heads, which would damage her relationship with those supervisors. As there is no outcome that does not result in harm, this represents a true ethical dilemma (McConnell, 2014). This is basically the prisoner's dilemma. Yet, there are some subtle differences between this and the prisoner's dilemma that allow this issue to be resolved.
The basic ethical issue here is that the company has a contractual obligation to its customer. Moreover, depending on the nature of the defect, passing this product could put human lives at risk. But more clearly, the two immediate supervisors are asking Lauren to commit fraud. Unlike in the Prisoner's dilemma, she hasn't yet committed a crime, so there is still time to avoid negative consequences entirely. Lauren has to file…… [Read More]
Ethics Leadership Analysis
One of the biggest advantages of globalization is that many different companies are able to receive cheap labor to produce a wide variety of products that are sold at numerous retail stores in the United States. However, an ugly facet to what has been happening, is that there are a number of different sweat shops in a host of regions around the world and in some cases within the U.S. itself. Evidence of this can be seen with an investigation that was conducted by the Department of Labor. They found that over half of the companies they were looking at, were breaking numerous labor laws by operating 10,000 of these kinds of facilities illegally inside the nation. At the same time, they discovered that a variety of governments around the world were encouraging these kinds of factories. (Elliot, 2009)
In the case of Kathie Lee Gifford, her…… [Read More]
William J. Bennett assumes an old school, straightforward approach to ethics in The Book of Virtues: A Treasury of Great Moral Stories. The book contains several chapters on different moral or ethical concepts, like self-discipline, responsibility, courage, honesty, loyalty, and faith. Part of what makes Bennett's book unique is that he uses stories to show what the ethical principles mean. The stories in the book are great, because readers are familiar with many of them including the ones that have been appropriated by Disney such as Pinocchio. This makes the ethical concepts easier to understand, because I can apply the principles to my own life. While readers have heard it all before, Bennett presents the material in a unique and fresh way to show why ethics are important. As the author puts it, it's not about being caught for doing something wrong; it's about doing the right thing.
There…… [Read More]
All ethical approaches can be validly applied to family life education. Defined as "the educational effort to strengthen individual and family life through a family perspective," family life education views family through ethical lens. However, ethics in family life education extends beyond the ultimate goals of promoting high-level family functioning. The ethics of family life education pertains to the practitioner-client relationship. According to the National Council on Family elations (2012), practitioners need to be aware of the power and responsibilities they have when forming relationships with clients. Although all ethical approaches are equally as valid, relational ethics offers special insight into the nature of family life education. elational ethics "a contemporary approach to ethics that situates ethical action explicitly in relationship," (Austin, 2008). Ethics are primarily situational, but only because ethics evolves out of dialogue and cooperation and not out of rigid ascription to ethical rules. This is not…… [Read More]
Consider the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter 1. Which of these would it be easier for utilitarianism to fulfill and which could well be more difficult for that system to fully meet?
Of the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter One, perhaps the easiest purpose for the ethical system of utilitarianism, as developed by the Englishman Jeremy Bentham, to meet would be to create a functional system of social ethics, or the ethical schema that holds a society together by its ethical 'glue.' Utilitarianism suggests that society, when pressed on many sides by the competition of different ethical claims, or even simply by different but equally valid claims for personal happiness, should choose the truth claim that allows for the greatest good for the greatest number of individuals within that particular society. For instance, the happiness of the many in my neighborhood to sleep late at…… [Read More]
Ethics Awareness Inventory
According to the Ethics Inventory, I fell into two categories: those who are obligation-oriented, and those who are results-oriented. In some ways, the ethical beliefs of these two categories are in conflict; for instance, usually people who base ethical decisions on obligation or duty are not as concerned with results as with principles. However, I scored high in the results-oriented category as well. I believe that my ability to span both categories of ethical decision making have proved beneficial for me in the past and will continue to in the future. For example, the ethics awareness inventory analysis indicated that I do not operate in terms of absolutes; I do not feel that there can be any absolute standards of right and wrong because the world is too complex. Therefore, I am more prone to being open-minded and flexible than people who do feel that there should…… [Read More]
Ethics, Morality, Values, And Beliefs
According to "the ethics site," an Internet resource for college instructors regarding the teaching of different ethical systems, ethics may be defined as "the explicit, philosophical reflection on moral beliefs and practices. The difference between ethics and morality is similar to the difference between musicology and music. Ethics is a conscious stepping back and reflecting on morality, just as musicology is a conscious reflection on music." ("Glossary," The Ethics Site, 2005) In other words, ethics is the philosophy of what is right and wrong, while morality is the practice of ethics, or virtue in action.
The analogy between a musician and a musicologist proposed by the positioning of ethics vs. morality is interesting, because one might understand music very well, and be able to explain its theory and teaching as a musicologist. However, a great musicologist might be only a middling musician. In contrast, there…… [Read More]
Ethics Awareness Inventory (EAI) is a way of measuring different people's ethical approaches. It measures ethics in four different dimensions: character, obligation, results, and equity. The combined score for character was 8, the combined score for obligation was 4, the combined score for results was -4, and the combined score for equity was -8. My ethical profile was most closely aligned with character, and least closely aligned with equity. My obligation and results scores were opposites, which was interesting because those two traits are thought be diametrically opposed.
The character perspective is aligned with virtue theory, and looks at what is good to be, rather than what is good to do. In other words, actions are not as critical as character. This means that the character perspective is not overly focused on actions. In fact, character looks more broadly at ethics than a simple determination of right and wrong and…… [Read More]
Utilitarianism is one of the most useful ethical theories. It can frame decisions made in almost every aspect of daily life, and also large-scale decisions made by organizations, enterprises, and governments. The basic principles of utilitarianism, as they were developed first by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill, are all based in the essential notion of utility. Utility means usefulness, but it is also related to net benefit.
Utility is defined in terms of the question, "Is this action beneficial? If so, who is it beneficial for, and how beneficial is it?" Utilitarian theory suggests that an ethical decision should weigh the greatest good for the greatest number of people. If an action is beneficial, it should be beneficial to the greatest number of stakeholders. It should be the decision that most maximizes the target population's happiness, or however success is being measured. This end result can…… [Read More]
While teaching all the students is important, so is identifying whether a child has some kind of learning impediment is also important, and ethically I would have to find the time to do both tasks well, and not rationalize that the educational referral was not necessary.
d. I do not think I would have any problem accepting the responsibility to make ethical decisions and take ethical actions. In the examples used here, I would never use that blackboard punishment for slow work. I would attempt to find out why the child was working slowly. If the problem represents an educational need I would attempt to meet that need. If it did not reflect an educational need, then the natural consequence for the student's choice would be in the grades, not at a circle on the blackboard.
I would also have no problem taking action by reporting child abuse once I…… [Read More]
Ethics in elationship to Power Structures
Ethical obligations allegedly breached by Smith or Halloran while in office
Senator Malcolm Smith and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were accused of attempting to fix the mayoral ballot. They were allegedly reported having exchanged thousands of dollars in cash. This money was intended to pay off the officials of the epublican Party to agree to one of the Democrats, Smith on the GOP line. Halloran demonstrated clear ignorance as he walked into the evil bargain as the confidential witness dangled campaign funds for a personal interest bid. In the context of public ethics, the actions of Smith and Halloran raise questions their principles of justice, democratic society, and common good (Stensota, 2010).
Smith and Halloran must adhere to the principle of ethical policymaking. This principle requires that they hold one another accountable for what they know and value. As such, it draws…… [Read More]
Clearly, his moral standing is highly dubious, if not completely tarnished.
If the Gyges ring were to fall into my possession, I would attempt to do something just to make the world a better place - but what I consider to be just, others might consider to be unjust. For example, I am opposed to many of George W. Bush's actions as President of the United States. I believe that, through his actions, he is personally responsible for many instances of death and destruction, not the least of which has resulted from starting a war that never should have been a war, as there is not a single shred of evidence that affirms this war is being fought for a good reason. Yet more and more people continue to die each day as a result of it.
Thus, if I had the Gyges ring, I would try to figure out…… [Read More]