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This work by the Harvard School of public health states that while small trails have indicated that the amount of vitamin C contained in a typical multivitamin and taken in the beginning of the development of a cold "might ease symptoms" however, for the "average person, there's no evidence that megadoses make a difference or that they prevent colds." (2009) It is related as well that studies examining Vitamin C supplements and "heart disease, cancer, and eye diseases such as cataract and macular degeneration also show no clear patterns." (Harvard School of Public Health, 2009)
III. lock, et al. (2008)
The work of lock et al. (2008) entitled: "Vitamin C in Plasma is Inversely Related to lood Pressure and Change in lood Pressure During the Previous Year in Young lack and White Women" states "The prevalence of hypertension and its contribution to cardiovascular disease risk makes it imperative to identify…
Block, Gladys, et al. (2008) Vitamin C in Plasma is Inversely Related to Blood Pressure and Change in Blood Pressure During the Previous Year in Young Black and White Women. Nutrition Journal. 7:35 2008.
Naidu, K. Akhilender (2003) Vitamin C in Human Health and Disease is Still a Mystery: An Overview. Nutrition Journal 2003 2:7.
The Nutrition Source: Vitamin C (2008) Harvard School of Public Health. Online available at: http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/what-should-you-eat/vitamin-c/index.html
Vitamin C is a vitamin found in many of the fruits/vegetables we eat including citrus fruits, broccoli, sweet peppers and potatoes. Vitamin C has an important role in many processes in our bodies. Research has proved that Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant and a necessary cofactor for the production of collagen. Early indicators show that Vitamin C may play an even large role in the treatment of the common cold and possibly disease prevention.
Vitamin C offers the benefit of being an Antioxidant. Antioxidants are responsible for protecting our body's cells from free radicals. Free radicals can oxidize various nutrients and cells. If allowed to reach large amounts, the free radicals can be extremely harmful, that's where Vitamin C is helpful. By donating electrons, Vitamin C serves as an antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals and protects other substances from their damage. Vitamin C protects other nutrients from being oxidized…
Vitamin C is not endogenously created in the human body, which is why it is essential that human beings receive enough Vitamin C in their diet. Diseases like scurvy can result from inadequate intake of Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid. Vitamin C performs a plethora of functions in the human body. It is an antioxidant, it is involved in protein metabolism, and is "required for the biosynthesis of collagen, L-carnitine, and certain neurotransmitters," (National Institutes of Health, 2016). Because of the role of collagen in wound healing, it can be said that Vitamin C facilitates wound healing (NIH, 2016). Because of its antioxidant functions, Vitamin C is also critical for optimal immune system functioning (NIH, 2016). Vitamin C also improves the absorption of plant-based iron, or nonheme iron (NIH, 2016). Vitamin C is water soluble and is excreted in the urine.
Absorption rates are optimal at moderate levels…
Vitamin C for Common Cold
What is Vitamin C?
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble ingredient that is essential for the health of human beings. It is essential for normal growth and development and it has consumed regularly. Since Vitamin C dissolves in water, the excess amounts leave the human body through urine and this means the body needs a constant supply of this vitamin everyday. The body cannot store vitamin C in any form.
One of the primary role of vitamin C is to repair the body cells and tissues and to prevent free radicals and toxins from getting accumulated in the body. It repairs wounds and makes them heal faster. The free radicals are known to play a role in cancer and heart diseases and good amount of vitamin C everyday helps to prevent any damage.
Sources of vitamin C
Most fruits and vegetables…
Frances Sienkiewicz Sizer, Leonard A. Piche, Eleanor Noss Whitney. Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies. Kentucky: Cengage Learning. 2011.
Weber, Olaf; Eccles, Ronald. Common Cold. New York: Springer. 2007.
For example, serum beta-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol levels rose in autumn months. Vitamin C serum concentrations were higher in the winter and spring.
Male participants revealed higher serum retinol concentrations than females, although male and female respondents already differed in terms of age. Younger respondents did have higher levels of beta carotene. Smoking had a stronger effect on lowering serum levels of vitamin C and beta-carotene than on retinol. In some cases, smoking tobacco had a strong effect on lowering serum levels of vitamins. In short, the current research suggests connections between lifestyle habits, age, and diet on blood concentrations of vitamins and can be used for health care workers to advise patients on their diet and lifestyle choices.
Faure, H., Preziosi, P., Roussel, a.M., Bertrais, S., Galan, P., Hercberg, S., Favier, a. "Factors influencing blood concentration of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and beta-carotene in the French participants…
Faure, H., Preziosi, P., Roussel, a.M., Bertrais, S., Galan, P., Hercberg, S., Favier, a. "Factors influencing blood concentration of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and beta-carotene in the French participants of the SU.VI.MAX trial." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006 Jun; 60(6):706-17. Retrieved Feb 17, 2007 from PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=16391586
On the other hand, too much of a good thing can sometimes be even more harmful than too little. In that regard, it is very important to understand the role of vitamin D, both because of its role in maintaining our health, as well as because of the potential for harm associated with excessive supplementation.
Unlike other vitamins and minerals, vitamin D is not readily available through diet because its primary source is natural sunlight. The U.S. FDA recommends a daily dose of 200 IU, which according to medical authorities, is sufficient to protect against osteomalacia, a medical condition characterized by softening of the bones. However, because vitamin D requirements fluctuate depending on how much sunlight a person receives and are difficult to satisfy through diet alone, 200 IU is considered the RDA in the absence of regular exposure to natural sunlight.
Vitamin D is necessary for the proper absorption…
Vitamin D Supplementation increases Voluntary Physical Activity Levels in Nursing Home Patients
Over the course of a semester does vitamin D3 supplementation, and the resultant increase in muscle strength and bone density, lead to increased physical activity in nursing home residents in the absence of added encouragement?
The elderly often suffer from low serum levels of vitamin D, reduced muscle strength, and decreased bone density (reviewed in: Hamilton, 2010). Muscle biopsies have revealed that the muscle fibers most affected in the elderly are type II, the 'fast twitch' fibers. When a person begins to fall they instinctively attempt to prevent or break their fall and this reaction depends heavily on fast twitch muscle fibers. The elderly therefore suffer from an increased risk of falling down and bone fractures. Although conclusive evidence has yet to be found that low serum levels of vitamin D cause this condition, there is a large…
Hamilton, B. (2010). Vitamin D and human skeletal muscle. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20, 182-190.
Williamson, J.D., Espeland, M., Kritchevsky, S.B., Newman, A.B., King, A.C., Pahor, M., et al. (2009). Changes in cognitive function in a randomized trial of physical activity: Results of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders pilot study. Journal of Gerontology, 64A, 688-694.
Semba, R.D., Houston, D.K., Ferrucci, L., Cappola, A.R., Sun, K., Guralnik, J.M., et al. (2009). Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with greater all-cause mortality in older community-dwelling women. Nutrition Research, 29, 525-530.
European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (2010). QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Retrieved from http://groups.eortc.be/qol/downloads/modules/specimen_20qlq_c30.pdf
Calcifediol Supplementation Toxicity
Vitamin D Supplementation: Concerns about Toxicity
Vitamin D (calciferol) is so essential to health that all vertebrates can produce this nutrient endogenously when the skin is exposed to ultraviolet light (Hoffmann, Senior, Mager 2015; Standing Committee et al. 1997). Vitamin D can also be obtained from fish and modern-day fortified food products. When exposed to sunlight, 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin is converted to previtamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and then vitamin D3, which is then hydroxylated by liver enzymes to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3; calcifediol). The biologically active form is finally created when calcifediol is hydroxylated once more by a mitochondrial enzyme in the kidneys to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D; calcitriol).
The two most common forms of dietary vitamin D supplementation are cholecalciferol and calcifediol, but the biological activity of the latter is 5 times that of the former (Standing Committee et al. 1997). The downstream effect of 1,25(OH)2D…
Deluca, HF, Prahl, JM & Plum, LA 2011, '1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is not responsible for toxicity caused by vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamine D', Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 505, no. 2, pp. 226-230.
Hoffmann, MR, Senior, PA & Mager, DR 2015, 'Vitamin D supplementation and health-related quality of life: A systematic review of the literature', Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, published online ahead of print 6 Jan. 2015, pp. S2212-S2672.
Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board & Institute of Medicine 1997, DRI Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Available from U.S. Department of Agriculture. [18 January 2015].
, 2010). egardless of the cause, infant SV is linked to "significantly more symptoms of wheezing disorder and clinical allergy than controls and were more likely to be sensitized to common inhaled allergens" (Todd et al., 2010). The number of studies and the number of subjects is still small, but the correlations have been consistently large enough to suggest that a serious bout of SV-bronchiolitis in infancy is linked to later lung problems such as asthma, wheezing, and atopy. Therefore, M.C.'s parents should be educated about the possibility that M.C. may experience breathing problems in later life, and told to advise her primary care physician of her SV diagnosis and hospitalization.
Caiulo, V.A., Gargani, L., Caiulo, S., Fisicaro, A., Moramarco, F., Latini, G., & Picano, E.
(2011). Lung ultrasound in bronchiolitis: Comparison with chest x-ray. Eur J. Pediatr, 170, 1427-1433.
Healthwise. (2012). Bronchiolitis- topic overview. etrieved March 9, 2013…
Caiulo, V.A., Gargani, L., Caiulo, S., Fisicaro, A., Moramarco, F., Latini, G., & Picano, E.
(2011). Lung ultrasound in bronchiolitis: Comparison with chest x-ray. Eur J. Pediatr, 170, 1427-1433.
Healthwise. (2012). Bronchiolitis- topic overview. Retrieved March 9, 2013 from WebMD
Vitamin deficiency in food can cause different health deficiencies like Pellagra, Scurvy, ickets among others. Most of these negative health outcomes are evidenced in the staple diet of those in the developing and poor countries. We shall understand some diets that cause these deficiencies in this essay.
The characteristics of Pellagra are mental afflictions, diarrhea, and dermatitis. Inadequate quantity of nicotinic acid in the diet that causes niacin deficiency in the body causes Pellagra. Over dependence on maize is an observed cause of Pellagra. Though Maize contains Niacin, it cannot be absorbed in the body in the raw form. It has to be passed through alkaline hydrolysis to be absorbed by the body. Jowar also contains adequate quantities of Niacin. However, the presence of leucine in jowar inhibits the process of absorption of niacin. Additionally, chronic alcoholism is one known cause of lack of ability to absorb of niacin…
Allgrove, J., & Mughal, M.Z. (2014). Calcium deficiency rickets: extending the spectrum of almost forgotten. International Journal Of Dermatology, 45(8), 909-913. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2006.02844.x
Karthikeyan, K., & Thappa, D.M. (2002).Pellagra and skin. International Journal Of 'nutritional' rickets. Archives Of Disease In Childhood, 99(9), 794-795. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2014-306465
Obadina, S. (2014).An overview of anorexia nervosa, bulimia and binge eating disorder. British Journal Of School Nursing, 9(9), 441-446.
Olmedo, J.M., Yiannias, J.A., Windgassen, E.B., & Gornet, M.K. (2006). Scurvy: a disease. Dermatology, 41(8), 476-481. doi:10.1046/j.1365-4362.2002.01551.x
Breakfast: banana, apple, coffee (black)
Lunch: low fat yogurt (vanilla)
Snack: Quaker Chewy granola bar (chocolate chip)
Dinner: two slices thin crust pepperoni pizza
Breakfast: banana, apple, coffee (black)
Lunch: low fat yogurt (black cherry)
Snack: low fat yogurt (mango)
Dinner: pepperoni pizza (one slice), garden salad, cherry popsicle
Breakfast: low fat yogurt (blueberry)
Lunch: McDonald's hamburger, small fries, large diet Coke
Dinner: Hot dog with bun, 2 light beers, 1 bag potato chips, 1 cup potato salad, 1.5 cups garden salad (no dressing), 2 s'mores (2 graham crackers, 2 large marshmallows, 1/2 Hershey bar)
Breakfast: black coffee
Lunch: apple, diet Coke
Dinner: cheeseburger, ear of corn, 2 beers, 2 chocolate chip cookies
banana: 200 calories, 2 protein (grams), 1 total fats (grams), 0 saturated fats (grams), 6 dietary fiber (grams), 11.3 mg calcium, 0.6 mg…
Self nutrition data. (2012). Conde Nast. Retrieved from http://nutritiondata.self.com/
vitamin and mineral supplement products which are presently used, and compare and analyze its' amount of nutrients with the generally established nutrient guidelines per day, specifically by considering the DA or AI and UL of the nutrients in question as related to women from 19 to 30 years of age, together with evaluating the daily use of those two products of choice.
The first supplement brought into question is Caltrate 600+D3, whose quantity of nutrients in a single tablet amounts to 800 IU of vitamin D3 and 600 mg of calcium. According to a 2010 re-evaluation of dietary reference intake, the Council for esponsible Nutrition agreed that the adequate value of calcium nutrient for women aged 19 to 50 falls between the AI of 1000 mg and the UL of 2500 mg (Dickinson, 2012). Thus, the recommended dose of one tablet of Caltrate 600+D3 per day would provide 60% of…
Dickinson, A. (2012). The Benefits of Nutritional Supplements. Washington, DC: Council for Responsible Nutrition. [Online]. Available: http://www.crnusa.org/benefits/files/CRN-BenefitsofNutritionalSupplements-2012.pdf . [2013, July 9]
A.D.A.M.. (2012, August). Vitamin C In The New York Times. [Online]. Available: http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/nutrition/vitamin-c [2013, July 9]
Controlled experiments are those in which groups are separated into control and experimental. Neither group knows what they are receiving, so they may or may not be receiving a sugar pill or something else. The control group is essential for comparisons -- what happens in the control group often determines how the experimental data is interpreted (Scientific Control Group, 2008).
A double blind experiment is one in which some of the participants are prevented from knowing certain information about the study that might lead to bias (conscious or subconscious) thus skewing the results. Blinding can also be imposed on researchers, subjects, funders, or any combination in which one wishes to protect the data integrity. In the use of new drugs, blinded experiments are necessary because a patient might feel better if they think they are receiving a powerful new medicine -- the placebo effect. It is impossible, however, to double…
Double Blind Experiment. (2008). Experiment-Resources.com. Retrieved from:
Scientific Control Group. (2008). Experment-Resources.com. Retrieved from:
Too much fat, on the other hand, leads to problems like high blood pressure, fatigue, joint problems, heart issues -- the list goes on. My recommended daily intake of calories from fat is 662.02 out of a total of 2364.36, or 28%. On Day Three, my total intake of calories from fat was 433.9 out of a total caloric intake of 1237.2, or 35%. This suggests that I need to watch the amount of fat I am including in my diet, even while it appears as though need to increase my basic caloric consumption.
The type of fat consumed is also important; 35.6% of the fat I consumed on Day Three was saturated, compared to the 32.1% recommended daily allowance. Though fats are essential, saturated fats really aren't, and taking in even less than the recommended daily allowance of saturated fats would be advisable. The fact that I am eating…
The latter two can be enjoyed cooked or cut up fresh, in a salad. If she uses spinach instead of lettuce in the salad, the subject can boost fiber even further and add a little more iron to her diet. Current consumption of iron is just under recommended amounts. High fiber fruits, including apples, oranges and pears, will not add significant calories if consumed in moderation (How Do I Get More Fiber).
The subject's intake of saturated fat and cholesterol were both under acceptable limits. ith respect to other nutrients, the subject's levels of Vitamin C, thiamin, phosphorus, iron, zinc, and selenium were all near acceptable levels. Potassium consumption was a bit lower than recommended; this could be remedied with consumption of oranges, already recommended to boost fiber, or bananas. Vitamin C consumption was more than double recommended amounts, but since this is a water-soluble vitamin, there is no harm…
"How do I get more fiber in my diet?" eHealth MD. 2011. Web. 10 Apr. 2011.
"Lactose intolerance." National Digestive Diseases Information Clearing House (NDDIC).
Web. 10 Apr. 2011.
However, fruit juices, consumed in moderation, can be a healthy addition to a diet, as long as they are not consumed in lieu of actually eating any whole fruits.
My nutritional analysis revealed that I am not eating a balanced diet. I am consuming too much protein and too little fiber, issues that plague the diets of many Americans. To remedy these problems, I need to increase my intake of fruits, vegetables, and grain products, while reducing my intake of meat products. In addition, because my intake of milk products was also low, I need to look at how to increase my milk intake without increasing protein intake.
Here is the food displayed for jjohn90 on 9/10/2008
Select your serving sizes and specify how many servings you consumed for each. When you are done, click Save & Analyze to save your food entry information and to analyze your food…
Diet Plan (Anemia)
The following iron rich diet plan is designed to help my 18-year-old sister address her iron deficiency anemia. Health needs include a more balanced diet and healthier eating habits with more consistency. This includes 18 milligrams of iron per day (based on age, condition and gender). This nutritional recommendation will decrease anemia effects such as general fatigue and body chills.
Three meals (with 2-3 snacks) per day are recommended for a balanced diet. This includes the appropriate intake of iron and other basic nutrients. Limits should be placed on white sugar, soda and sweets; they should be consumed in moderation or eliminated from her diet due to their low nutritional value. Iron rich foods are recommended -- lean poultry and fish are more easily absorbed sources of iron and foods high in Vitamin C aid in absorption. Choices include citrus juice and fruits,…
Pynaert, Delanghe, Temmerman, & De, H. (2007). Iron Intake in Relation to Diet and Iron Status of Young Adult Women. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 51(2), 172-181. doi:10.1159/000103278
Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…
Attfield, Harlan H.D. Raising Chickens and Ducks. Arlington, Virginia: Volunteers in Technical
Bailey, JS, Roberts, T, Harvey, RB, Anderson, RC, et al. "Food Safety: Alternatives to Antibiotic Use." Poultry Science (2004).
Burrington, David. "Can-do' proteins - enzymes - Ingredient Technology." Dairy Foods, April,
In short, I am eating too much of what is not beneficial, and not enough of what is. In order to address this problem, which could develop into a full-blown health crisis in a few years if I do nothing, I must make drastic changes to the way I eat. For example, one of my first goals must be to increase the amount of fruits and vegetables that I eat each day. According to Canada's Food Guide, my intake of fruits and vegetables should be roughly around 875 ML. I can achieve this goal by drinking 100% juices and eating more salads and leafy vegetables. Similarly, I must increase my amount of milk alternatives by drinking more milk and eating more cheese. Perhaps I can limit my intake of diet soda, replacing it with milk. By changing these eating habits, I will achieve to meet more of the recommendations of…
"Canada's Food Guide." Health Canada. (2007). The Canadian Government. 9 July 2008. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide-aliment/order-commander/eating_well_bien_manger-eng.php#2 .
Hidgon, Jane. "Vitamin C Deficiency." Micronutrient Information Center. (2006).
Oregon State University. 9 July, 2008. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminC/
Enker, Warren. "Bowel Function and Dietary Fiber." Continuum Health Partners. (n.d.).
Food Menu and Nutrition
Food Menu Overview
The objective of this study is to create two food menus as follows: (1) one healthy food menu; and (2) one unhealthy food menu, from a local fast food restaurant. Following the creation of these menus, this work will write a nutritional analysis of the meal created, discuss the reaction of the writer to this information and describe how this will affect the food choices of the writer in the future in terms of food choices from fast food restaurants.
The food choices that one makes when dining at fast food restaurants make a great difference in the amount of nutrition received from dining at fast food restaurants as well as the total calories that are consumed and the other factors that make foods either healthy or unhealthy for consumption. One might assume that dining at a fast food restaurant is in general…
McDonald's USA Nutrition Facts for Popular Menu Items (nd) Nutrition McDonalds. Retrieved from: http://nutrition.mcdonalds.com/getnutrition/nutritionfacts.pdf
Nutrition Calculator (nd) McDonalds. Retrieved from: http://www.mcdonalds.ca/ca/en/food/nutrition_calculator.html
Diet and Nutrition Analysis
Diet & Nutrition Analysis - FITDAY
Using the FITDAY nutritional, diet, and lifestyle program, I tracked my daily intake of food for five days. All of the food logs and the nutrition charts for each day are included as an appendix.
The Estimated Average Requirements for Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for my life stage group, gender, and age were obtained from a table published by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academies. The table includes DRIs for the following: Calcium, CHO, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, molybdenum, phosphorous, selenium, and zinc.
According to the reports on my food intake over a five day period, I need to increase consumption of foods that will contribute higher levels of the following to my diet: Fiber, vitamin A,…
healthy Nutrition: A Chemistry View Point
Chemistry is a branch of sciences that deals with the compositions of matter and helps in identifying the substances that form matter. Living as well as non-living bodies are formed with substances. These substances differ in their composition, nature, properties, and reactions with other substances. There is a vital role of chemicals and chemistry in everyday life of human beings. The impacts of chemical substances on living beings can also be divided into direct and indirect categories. The impact of environmental substances is indirect in nature whereas direct impacts are chemical composition of food, nutrition, vitamins, and physical activity.
The following sections are focused on detailed review of relevance for chemistry and chemicals on healthy eating habits, nutrition, and vitamins. The significant role of physical activity and exercising is also elaborated in the sections below. There are significant benefits of healthy diet and exercise.…
Papadopolus, K. (2008). Food Chemistry Research Developments. USA: Nova Science Publishers Inc.
Sladyk, K., & O'Sullivan, B. (2010). Occupation, activity, Skills, patterns, Demands, context, and Balance. Occupational Therapy Essentials for Clinical Competence, 33.
Willett, W. (2012). Nutritional epidemiology (Vol. 40). USA: OUP.
Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).
Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…
Discovery Kids. Skeletal system. Discovery Communications, Inc., 2000. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000124.html
Family Shock. Diseases and Disorders. The Shock Family, December 21, 2001. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://www.shockfamily.net/sksleton/DISEASE.htmL
Michael's. Skeleton Factors. Michael's Naturapathic Programs: Inner Health Group, Inc., 1996 Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://www.michaelshealth.com/pdf/skeletalfactors.pdf
ThinkQuest. Skeletal System. Think Quest USA: Oracle Education Foundation, 1999. Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/5777/sked.htm
Digestion and diabetes: Overview of the process
The digestive process begins even before food is consumed. Looking at or anticipating food causes salivation. Saliva aids digestion, along with chewing. For example, when Jane Doe looks at a plate consisting of a whole wheat turkey sandwich (garnished by vegetables and mayonnaise), potato chips, and apple juice, her body will begin to anticipate eating by secreting digestive juices. The first major involuntary muscular movement for Jane Doe will not occur until she consciously decides to swallow the food in front of her. "Although you are able to start swallowing by choice, once the swallow begins, it becomes involuntary and proceeds under the control of the nerves" (Your digestive system, 2010, NIH). The swallowed food is pushed into the esophagus, the organ that connects the teeth, mouth, and tongue through the throat to the stomach. "At the junction of the esophagus and…
Type 1 diabetes. (2010). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved December 30, 2010 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/type-1-diabetes/DS00329
Your digestive system and how it works. (2010). National Institute of Health (NIH).
Retrieved December 30, 2010 at
New Suppliers of Health Supplements
A promising new addition to the company's current line of health supplements was identified during a recent trip to Bangkok, Thailand, to meet suppliers of a promising antioxidant, coenzyme Q10. A growing body of research suggests this antioxidant is effective in improving cardiovascular function and may also be useful in alleviating the symptoms of angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, high blood pressure, moderate gingival disease, congestive heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy and severely impaired immune systems. Based on the documented efficacy, high quality and low costs of the health supplement offered by this vendor, this report provides the background and an overview of the supplier, a description of the health supplement, and current applications for coenzyme Q10. A summary of the business trip and meeting with the company's president is followed by recommendations and a brochure illustrating various aspects of the product.
esults of Business Trip to…
Cerrato, P.L. (1999, June). Coenzyme Q. And heart disease. RN, 62(6), 61 -- 62.
Chalmers, A.H., Blake-Mortimer, J.S. & Winefield, A.H. (2003). The prooxidant state and psychologic stress. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(1), 16.
Complete-Pharma Co., Ltd. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.alibaba.com/member / th107560976.html.
Freeman, M.S. & June, C. (2005). The Harvard Medical School guide to lowering your cholesterol. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Alzheimer's Disease currently affects more than four million Americans. Alzheimer's is a disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of areas within the brain, resulting in cognitive and physical decline that will eventually lead to death. It is important to emphasize that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not a normal part of aging. Although AD typically appears in those over sixty-five, it is a neurodegenerative disease, quite distinct from any aging-related cognitive decline. ecause Alzheimer's is eventually fatal, and because the decline typical of an Alzheimer's patient is so devastating, much research is currently being done to investigate potential treatments. With the elderly population the fastest growing segment of North American society, Alzheimer's threatens to be an even greater health concern in the future decades.
For patients exhibiting mild cognitive impairment, research is being done on ways to slow the disease's progression. The two main thrusts of Alzheimer's research are biological, which…
Cohen-Mansfield J. (2001). "Nonpharmacologic interventions for inappropriate behaviors in dementia: a review, summary, and critique." American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,
Cummings, J. (2004). "Alzheimer's Disease." New England Journal of Medicine, 351(1),
Gerdner L.A., & Swanson E.A. (1993). Effects of individualized music on confused and agitated elderly patients. Archive of Psychiatric Nursing, 7, 284-291.
Klunk, W. E et al. (2004). "Imaging brain amyloid in Alzheimer's disease using the novel positron emission tomography tracer, Pittsburgh Compound-B." Annals of Neurology,
Patient, Mr. D., is a 74-year-old male Caucasian, married and retired. Mr. D. complains of dizziness and weakness. Type-2 diabetes was diagnosed in 1994, hypertension in 2002, and arthritis in 2007. Mr. D. is currently taking 20mg Lipitor/daily; 81 mg Aspirin/daily; 333mg Calcium/daily; 5mg zinc/daily, and 500mg Vitamin C/3X day. He denies any drug or herbal use, and uses 650 mg of Tylenol for pain as needed. He has no known food allergies, does not use tobacco or illicit drugs, but has a family history of diabetes and heart disease with both mother and father. His general health acuity is strong (bowels, urinary, etc.), but has occasional slurred speech, weakness in right lower limb, syncope, vertigo, and vision fluctuations. Mr. D. reports that his wife complains he asks the same question repeatedly within a short time period.
Areas for Focused Assessment- The combination of syncope, vertigo, vision, and memory issues…
Hypoglycemia. (2012). Web MD. Retrieved from: http://symptoms.webmd.com/#./conditionView
Ezzo, J., et.al. (2001). Is Massage useful in the Management of Diabetes? Diabetes Spectrum -- The American Diabetes Association. 14 (4): Retrieved from: http://spectrum.diabetesjournals.org/content/14/4/218.full
Madden, S., Loeb, S. (2009). An integrative literature review of lifestyle interventions for the prevention of diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(2), 2243-56.
Polin, B. (2011). Why Water Aerobics is Good Exercise. Diabetic Lifestyle. Retrieved from: http://www.diabeticlifestyle.com/exercise/why-water-aerobics-good-exercise
A strictly vegetarian diet is best suited to the human body's needs, mankind's ability of survival on earth, and our inherent compassion. Switching to such a diet is fairly simple and creates the opportunity to lead a healthier, happier, and gentler life (Marcus, xi).
For numerous reasons, humanity has been increasingly taking to veganism since the last few years. Some vegan supporters assert their participation in a dietary regimen wherein consuming or utilizing animal products is unethical, according to their religious beliefs or values. Meanwhile, others put forward the argument of animal consciousness's ethicality and the industrial farming process. Those who claim to be vegans most probably do so owing to environmental, animal rights, or personal health concerns, which can alter with time. Several vegans begin as vegetarians, gradually ceasing consumption of milk, eggs and other animal by-products. Meanwhile, others turn purely vegan right from the outset. In…
Jacqui. Beyond Factory Farming: Sustainable Solutions for Animals, People and the Planet. A Report by Compassion in World Farming. 2009. Web. 15 July 2016. http://www.compassioninfoodbusiness.com/media/3817096/beyond-factory-farming-report.pdf
Phillips, Frankie. "Vegetarian Nutrition." British Nutrition Foundation. Nutrition Bulletin, 30, 2005, pp. 132-167.
Rauma, Anna-Liisa. Vegetarianism and Vegan Diet. Physiology and Maintenance, vol. II. 2011. Web. 15 July 2016. http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c03/E6-54-03-06.pdf
When processed by a transglutaminase enzyme, it can interact with immunological cells and produce cytotoxic inflammation. In autism, it is believed that peptides from gluten and casein cross the intestinal microvillus barrier and enter the blood stream. They also cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, certain amino acid sequences of these peptides compete with natural peptides, which bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are G-protein receptors in cell membrane surfaces of neurons. inding to these receptors disturbs the neuronal function and ultimately leads to or contributes to autism (Department of Pediatrics Staff).
Limited Reliable Scientific Evidence
UK researchers investigated more than 30 scientific articles on the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet on autistic children (astian, 2004). They found one, which provided reliable scientific evidence that the diet works. The particular study, however, was conducted on only 20 children aged 5-10 who had high levels of protein in their…
Atwood, K.C. (2003). Naturopathy: a critical appraisal. 5 (4) Medscape General
Medicine. Retrieved on June 23, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/465994
Bastian, H. (2010). Can a diet avoiding gluten and milk proteins reduce autism?
Medicine News Today: MediLexicon International Ltd. Retrieved on June 23,
Nutritional Approach to Sun Protection by Niva Shapria
This article titled "Nutritional approach to sun protection: A suggested complement to external strategies' by Niva Shapria, is an extensive review of recent research evidence on the efficacy of a simple, natural, dietary model in protecting against harmful UVR exposure and related skin cancers. Through this article, the author clearly points out that a dietary or internal method of sun protection is a very effective complementary approach to preventing skin cancer due to solar radiation for the more susceptible light skinned population living in very sunny regions.
At the outset the author highlights that there is a growing incidence of melanoma around the globe with a significant number of new cases diagnosed among U.S. women. Projections indicate that the rates of melanoma will literally double over the next 2 decades with the increase in UVR exposure due to global warming as well…
1) Niva Shapria, (2010), 'Nutritional Approach to Sun Protection: a suggested complement to external strategies', Nutrition reviews, Vol 68(2) 75-86
Any weight loss, say doctors, is good weight loss. If there is some minor contribution the medication gives to the whole process, then that's positive. If taken strictly according to instructions, at worst, diet pills are harmless for the most part.
Effects of Dietary Supplements
The FDA regulates dietary supplements only in that it is required to ensure their safety. A manufacturer is not required to register a supplement or have it approved prior to going to market with it. They must only make certain the product is safe. It is the FDA's post-sales responsibility to keep them safe. Manufacturers must ensure that the label on the product is accurate and not misleading in any way.
There are definite benefits in taking dietary supplements per directions. They can assist anyone in obtaining nutrients not consumed through a balanced diet. And some can reduce the risk of certain diseases even though,…
Bibliography faqs.org. "Dietary Supplements." 2008. Internet FAQ Archives. 19 July 2009 .
Foodanddiet.com. "pills." n/d. Foodanddiet.com. 19 July 2009 .
Saper, R.B., D.M. Eisenberg and R.S. Phillips. "Common Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss." 1 November 2004. American Academy of Family Physicians. 19 July 2009 .
Tank, C. "Should I use over-the-counter diet aids?" 14 May 2008. WebMD.com. 19 July 2009 .
Zeratsky, K. "Nutrition and Healthy Eating." 14 February 2008. Mayo Clinic. 19 July 2009 .
Computer Vision Syndrome
According to the Computer Desktop Encyclopedia, Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is "A variety of problems related to prolonged viewing of a computer screen. Short-term effects include dry eyes, blurred vision, eye fatigue and excessive tearing. Long-term effects include migraines, cataracts and visual epilepsy. Some solutions are to keep reflections and glare to a minimum and to provide a non-fluorescent, uniform light source. Special lamps are available that maintain the proper light around the monitor and generate light at much higher frequencies than regular light bulbs"
With the ever increasing amount of time consumers are spending in front of their computer screens, this disability is considered on of the fastest growing work related health problems in the country today. For many Americans, the problem cannot be left behind at the office. Individuals come home, to spend time surfing the web, corresponding via email, and pursuing various computer-based entertainment…
Anshel, J. 1997, July 1. Computer vision syndrome: causes and cures.
Managing Office Technology.
Chambers, Anne. 1999, Oct. 1. Computer Vision Syndrome: Relief Is in Sight.
My nutrient report reveals a number of different things. The first thing that is interesting is that the three day period for which I tracked my diet was perhaps not indicative of my normal consumption levels. I was traveling to hang out with friends and as a result, I ate more junk food, exercised less and drank more than I usually would. I was actually surprised when entering the results that I ate burritos on each of the three days. While I do enjoy a nice burrito every now and again, I do not normally eat one every single day. But, the thing about having a nutrition plan is that people often stick to it, and then blow it up for special occasions like travel or holidays, leading to weight gain that can be hard to remove later. So it is important to track one's consumption even while…
Contract production will allow favorable pricing of both ingredients and finished product. Sampling will allow for marketing controls and for targeting national and export markets. The product will meet the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), European Union, and other specific certification requirements, so may be exported. The Internet will be considered as a target for purchases, but will mainly be used for advertising the product. Mapco stores will be the exclusive client of this product, and will be the outlet to other organic health food agencies that may elect to sponsor sales of this product, as well.
The increased product range will depend upon acceptance by Mapco clientele and consumers, with sampling in other areas and acceptance in the health food market.
Success in product marketing starts by finding the point of difference - the cluster of strengths and selling points that are unique to this product alone.…
Born, subject=Marketing%20Organic%20Grains" Holly, 2005, Marketing organic grains, subject=Blueberries:%20Organic%20Production" NCAT Agriculture, ATTRA Publication #CT154
FAO, 2006, Essential Nutrients - Vitamins, [Online] Available at www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/AB470E/AB470E05.htm
FDA, October 29, 2004, Pasteurized Juice Warning by FDA, FDA Talk Paper, [Online] Available at http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ANSWERS/2004/ANS01321.html
In a jam and out of juice (2000) [Online] Available at http://www.ncbe.reading.ac.uk/ncbe/protocols/inajam/pdf/jam01.pdf.
Car repair is the process of diagnosing the car problem to identify the fault within the car. While the cars manufactured before 2000 requires special tools to be repaired, however, the computer technology has been increasingly used to diagnose and repair many newly manufactured cars. Before mechanics start the repairing of cars, they often quote the prices for customers before starting the repairing work. To repair the car, mechanic uses both electronic methods to gather data in order to replace the faulty materials in the vehicle. A mechanic diagnoses the car and identifies the problem within the car before starting the repairing work. There are two approaches used to diagnose a faulty car:
Use of a repair manual
elying on one's analysis
Use of computer technology
A repair manual is a book that assists an auto mechanic to identify the problems within a car. The repair manual consists…
Alberta Canada (2012). General Practitioners and Family Physicians. Government of Alberta. Canada.
Armenia Development Agency (2010). Jewelry and Gemstone Overview. Armenia.
Hoover's (2012). Jewelry Stores Industry Description. Hoover's Inc.
MedicineNet (2012).Optometrist vs. Ophthalmologist, Do You Know The Difference. USA.
Dietary Nutrition Analysis
I am fairly consistent with my breakfast. I eat breakfast every morning. I usually have 1/2 to 1 cup of cottage cheese every morning. I also usually have 2-3 cups of crystal lite with breakfast. I do drink orange juice 1-2 times a week. I am not very consistent with lunch. When I am at home, I don't always have very much to eat. When I am at school, I usually have 2/3 of a 6" sub-from Subway and a soda. I have a small potato when I am at home. I usually have a descent dinner. I have ribs, cottage cheese, spaghetti o's, Subway, fish, grilled chicken from McDonald's, or some chicken wings. One of the problems I have with dinner is that it is usually after 9 pm when I eat it. I usually drink 64-100 ounces of water every day. Overall, I eat breakfast…
Many people hate to go to the doctor's office -- especially when they know that they will be receiving an injection. However, I, along with millions of people the world over, consider ourselves very lucky to do just that, each and every month of our lives. You see, for people like me with a disorder known as "pernicious anemia," the doctor and her needle are the important link between a healthy life and a life of absolute misery. This is because, unlike classic anemia, the common form of the blood disorder that usually results in little more than fatigue, pernicious anemia can result in catastrophic changes in the body, chief among them severe neurological impairment that, in its severe form, can result in absolute madness. For those of us who suffer from this disease caused by an inherited deficiency, or caused from some disruption or disorder in the…
Intelihealth. "Pernicious Anemia." Web site. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on April 10, 2004 www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/9339/20862.html
Medline Plus. "Pernicious Anemia." Medline Plus Medical Enclyclopedia. 2003 Retrieved from Web site on April 10, 2004 http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000569.htm
Nutritional Analysis Project
The nutrition of the body is essential for the balanced growth of the body and efficient functioning of the mind and organs. However, most people seldom scrutinize what they take on regular basis as a routine diet and often presume that their diets are fine and balanced, which is not the case in many incidences. This paper is essentially a simple analysis of the nutritional intake of a sample individual and the discussion on the value of those foods taken and whether the quantities are sufficient.
According to the analysis of the food intakes of the individual, there are four categories of the daily food groups, and apparently none of the requirements of the daily food group targets was met. In the grains category, the target is 10 oz and yet the individual takes 3 1/2 oz, the vegetables required are 4 cups and yet the subject…
Reader's Digest, (2016). 25 Vitamin Rich Foods you Should be Eating. Retrieved May 22, 2016 from http://www.rd.com/health/diet-weight-loss/25-vitaminrich-foods-you-should-be-eating/
United States Department of Agriculture, (2016). Super Tracker. Retrieved May 22, 2016 from http://www.choosemyplate.gov/
These programs include the service of a registered dietician. (Monti, 2006) These and other programs and research adds to the insight and knowledge about prenatal nutrition that offer a valuable resource and knowledge base for the professional nurse.
Brody, N. (1995). Beyond Family Influences. Psychological Inquiry, 6(2), 142-145. etrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875
Dolby V. (1998) Practice good prenatal nutrition, for baby's sake. Better Nutrition,
Eriksson J.G., Forsen T., Tuomilehto J, Winter P.D., Osmond C. And Barker D.
J.P. (1999) Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ, 318, 427-431.
McCollister, B. (2001) the Social Necessity of Nurturance. Humanist, 61 (1).
Mead, M.N. (2007). You Are What Your Mother Ate. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(10), 492+. etrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023613182
Monti, Davorka (2003) Not so Common Nutrition Exercises for Your Childhood
Education Classes. International Journal…
Calcium in Bones
Different hormones regulate calcium level in the bone matrix, which hormones and specify the one that is more important if any. Do they work together or antagonist toward each other?
Indeed, most calcium in one's body is located in one thing…bones. About 99% of all calcium in one's body is in the bones. There are three main hormones that are involved in the regulation of calcium in the body. Those hormones are parathyroid, vitamin D and calcitonin. Calcium movement in the blood is regulated by to main organs, one's gut and one's kidneys. Vitamin D comes from food and lack of it can lead to weakening of bones. Calcitonin is produced by the thyroid is used to lower blood calcium levels. By contrast, parathyroid is produced by the thyroid as well and does the opposite. So to answer the question, the latter two of those two hormones…
Hormones playing off each other and offsetting the effects of the other is definitely not limited to calcium regulation. Antagonists can be harnessed to help prevent bone loss but they can also be used to combat and affect other things. Just as vitamin D can be taken as a means to support healthy bone health (among other things), people often take angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta-blockers to help prevent hormones from doing something that is less than desirable for certain patients. It would be like blocking the calcium-reducing hormones so that the bone-building calcium hormones can do what they do without having to compete and offset what the blockers are doing.
However, it has to be kept in mind that while the body might need a nudge here and there to help with things like heart health and calcium regulation, tinkering with the body's hormones structure and pathways can lead to side effects and other issues. Further, deficiencies in hormones and vitamins can cause issues but a glut of them can hurt as well. Too little vitamin C, for example, can cause scurvy while too much can cause other issues. Even calcium regulation can have effect on the heart as some drugs are called calcium channel blockers and they serve as a means to relax blood vessels and reduce workload on the heart. Everything is a tradeoff and something (like broken bones) tend to wane in comparison to some other things (heart attacks, strokes, etc.). Any treatment or drug regimen needs be done only after considering the current state of affairs and what is likely to change if a drug or supplement is taken by a patient.
http://www.livestrong.com/article/110719-hormones-regulate-blood-calcium-levels / http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/heart-failure/aldosterone-receptor-antagonists-diuretics-for-heart-failure http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/guide/heart-disease-calcium-channel-blocker-drugs
These were categorized into three aspects, which the care provider could control for the benefit of the patients. These were satisfaction with the punctuality of the caregiver; the quality of interaction between the patient and the caregiver; and the overall dependability of health care. Promptness or punctuality with care or service was rated most highly by both groups. eing on time affected their functioning and comfort throughout the day, specifically with dressing, bathing and daily activities. Promptness was considered the easiest and most controllable aspect for the provider. The quality of interaction made the patients feel safe, respected and valued. And satisfaction with the overall dependability of health care mostly involved the caregiver's following through with the patient's suggestions, especially those by the more frail patients. This last aspect was also well within the control of the health care provider (Kolodonsky, et al.).#
Champlin, L., (2004), surprising number of…
Champlin, L., (2004), surprising number of U.S. elders do not have health insurance coverage -- not even Medicare (Online). American Academy of Family Physicians.
http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/media/releases/2004/uninsured-elders-4-1-04 (Accessed 18 August 2009).
Cummings, S.M.; Neff, J.A.; and Husaine, B.A. (2003), functional impairment as a predictor of depressive symptomatology: the role of race, religiosity and social support (Online). Health and Social Work, National Association of Social Workers. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb138/is_1_28/ai_n28983552 (Accessed 18 August 2009)
Kolodinsky, J.; Junghun, N.; Lee, J.K.; and Dorzewiczewski, M. (2001). Degree of frailty and elderly satisfaction with personal care services in a community setting (Online). Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, ProQuest Information and Learning Company. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5516/is_200101/ai_n21465985 . Accessed 18 August 2009).
According to the National Institute of Health (NIH) "Brazil nuts may contain as much as 544 micrograms of selenium per ounce. They also may contain far less selenium. It is wise to eat Brazil nuts only occasionally because of their unusually high intake of selenium."
The reasons that selenium is so effective in cancer prevention are uncertain, although it has been speculated that it possesses anti-oxidant properties, "especially when used in conjunction with vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene" and "works to block chemical reactions that create free radicals in the body (which can damage DNA and cause degenerative change in cells, leading to cancer)" (Black 2006). Selenium has also been found to prevent damaged DNA molecules from reproducing, thus preventing the development of tumors as well (Black 2006). This is supported by a University of Arizona-Cornell research team which linked low selenium levels in the blood to increased risk…
Black, Alexis. "The mineral selenium." Natural News. January 4, 2001. October 18, 2010.
"Dietary supplement fact sheet: Selenium." National Institutes of Health. NIH. October 18, 2010.
One of the most common mental disorders linked to Alzheimer's is depression which according to Elwood Cohen manifests itself in three important ways. First, "There are higher rates of depression among Alzheimer's patients than among non-demented adults;" second, "Having a depressive episode is associated with an increased risk for developing Alzheimer's," and third, Depressive symptoms can be confused with dementia in older adults" (1999, 214).
In a recent study conducted by the Cardiovascular Health Initiative, based in Washington, D.C., more than one-third of 400 dementia patients and more than one-fifth of 300 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) had experienced symptoms of depression during a one-month period prior to the study. Similar results were reported by the Multi-Institutional esearch in Alzheimer's Genetic Epidemiology (MIAGE) which discovered that "In the year prior to a patient being diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, the same patient was almost five times more likely than their…
Cohen, Elwood. (1999). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Coughlin, Patricia B. (1993). Facing Alzheimer's. New York: Ballantine Books.
Powell, Lenore S. (1993). Alzheimer's Disease: A Guide for Families. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers, Inc.
A and Katie Courtice. (1993). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers, Inc.
Cognitive Aspects of the Aging Process
The purpose of this work is to define cognition and to explain the effects of aging on the brain in relation to memory, attention, metacognition, effects on languaging and the effects of aging on the executive function and finally cognitive function in very old age. This will be inclusive of primary cognitive diseases found in aging adults such as dementia and Alzheimer's.
Medical science continues to discover more about aging with each passing year. Cognitive effects of aging are one element that the aging individual must face as well as something that family and friends of the individual will cope with at some point. Cognition is defined as "the mental process of knowing, thinking, learning, and judging." (Online Medical Dictionary, 2005) Therefore the elderly experienced "cognitive dysfunction" is defined as "disturbance to the mental processes of knowing, thinking, learning and judging." Disturbances or dysfunctions…
Is there anything special about the aging of source memory?
Psychol Aging. 2005 Mar;20(1):19-32.
PMID: 15769211 [PubMed - in process]
[Donaldson S, 2004] A diet rich in refined sugar creates a high glycemic load. The present culture of eating packaged and fast foods on a regular basis implies the consumption of high levels of refined sugar in our diet. This results in induced dysregulation of glucose metabolism, which is reported as a high risk factor for cancer. [Donaldson S, 2004] A recent European study by Dr. Par Stattin et.al (2007) has confirmed abnormal glucose metabolism as a high risk factor for cancer. Red meat is associated with cancer. Many recent studies such as Bingham SA (2002) and Norat T. et.al (2002) have attested this correlation between red meat consumption and cancer.
In conclusion we can say that the chemopreventive effects of a diet comprising of vegetables and fruits is due to the synergestic effects of many plant-based nutrients. While most of the phytochemicals act as effective antioxidants, some nutrients such…
9. Padayatty SJ, Sun H & Wang Y et.al (2004), 'Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use', Ann Intern Med 2004, 140:533-537
10. Butt M.S & Sultan MT, (2009), 'Green tea: nature's defense against malignancies', Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009 49(5): 463-73
11. OSU, 'Cruciferous Vegetables', Accessed Apr 27th 2009, Available at, http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/foods/cruciferous/
Product Life Cycle
When we talk about the strongest multinational companies of the world then Nestle is definitely one of the names that triggers in everyone's mind. Nestle is the world's No.1 food manufacturing company. Nestle is a Swiss multinational company whose product are available almost in every part of the world. Most of the Nestle products are in a market leading position. Nestle company was established in 1866 and since that day, it has proved itself as one the leading companies of the world with its improved quality, innovative ideas of marketing and attractive packaging (Nestle, 2007).
Nestle launched its first juice in 1996 and since then it has spread its product largely. The consumers' response to the flavored juices of the Nestle Company was upbeat. This further strengthened the position of the Nestle Company in the market as the unbeatable leader. Later on, the company innovate the…
Franzen, G., & Moriarty, S. (2009). The Science and Art of Branding. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
Jennings, M.M. (2012). Business: Its Legal, Ethical, and Global Environment. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Morschett, D., Schramm-Klein, H., & Zentes, J. (2009). Strategic International Management. Wiesbaden: Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Gabler.
Nestle, M. (2007). Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. Berkeley, Calif. [u.a.]: Univ. Of California Press.
Alcoholic effects are more pronounced in adolescents and prenatal alcohol intake may create serious cognitive problems for the unborn child.
Other effects of Alcohol upon the Body.
It is noted that Alcoholics generally suffer from malnutrition since the changes in metabolism brought about by alcohol consumption, prevent proper digestion and absorption of food. Thus alcoholics are often found deficient in proteins and vitamins, particularly vitamin A, accounting to susceptibility for liver disease and other serious alcohol-related disorders in the body. Alcohol breakdown in the liver generates toxins such as acetaldehyde and some highly reactive molecules containing oxygen that can cause serious damages to the liver. These toxins interfere with the metabolism of lipids resulting in the damage of liver cells. Moreover Alcohol interferes with the formation and activity of lysosomes that contain specific enzymes which break down proteins and thus may contribute to protein accumulation in the liver, which can…
Kathryn Magruder-Habib, A. Mark Durand and Keith A. Frey, April 1991, Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in primary healthcare settings, Journal of family practice.
Nutrition Health Review, Winter 2003.
Dean F. Wong, Atul Maini, Olivier G. Rousset, James Robert Brasic, Spring 2003 Positron emission tomography: a tool for identifying the effects of alcohol dependence on the brain, Alcohol Research and Health.
Charles S. Leiber, Fall 2003, Relationship between nutrition, alcohol use, and liver disease, Alcohol Research and Health.
Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient
Management OF OSTEOMYELITIS IN THE DIABETIC PATIENT
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3
1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.
2. Butalia S, Palda V, Sargeant R, Detsky A, Mourad O. Does This Patient With Diabetes Have Osteomyelitis of the Lower Extremity?. JAMA: Journal of The American Medical Association [serial online]. February 20, 2008; 299(7):806-813. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
3. Lavery L, Peters E, Armstrong D, Wendel C, Murdoch D, Lipsky B. Risk factors for developing osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice [serial online]. March 2009; 83(3):347-352. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
4. Turns M. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications. British Journal of Nursing [serial online]. August 12, 2011;:S19-S25. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
Chronic Liver Disease
With a number of functions -- including detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of chemicals that are necessary for digestion -- the human liver is vital.
It is reddish brown and has four unequal sized lobes; usually weighs about 3.5 pounds and is the largest gland in the human body. It is located just below the diaphragm in the body's right upper abdominal quadrant.
The liver plays a major role in the body's metabolic processes as well -- glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, some hormone production.
The liver produces bile -- which is an alkaline compound that helps in digestion by changing fat (lipid) molecules to a more digestible format.
The liver's detoxification and synthesis of micronutrients are vital -- short-term liver dialysis is possible, but a person cannot exist without a functioning liver (Virtual Liver, 2008).
Cirrhosis of the Liver
Cirrhosis is the result…
Nutrition and Cirrhosis. (2010). HepCNet. Retrieved from:
Greenlee, H., et.al. (2007). "Clinical Applications of Silybum Marianum." Integrative
Cancer Therapies. 6(1): 158-65.
Huseini, H., et.al. (2006). "The Effects of Sulybum Marianum in the Treatment of Type II Diabetes." Phytotherapeutic Research. 20(1): 1036-39.
One complete performance task with an appropriate scoring tool
Children will create an 'honest' advertising campaign for a food-related product they select. Then they will explain why they chose the product and the advertising approach to the class. For example, they could select an orange, and advertise its value of vitamin C or they could select a whole grain children's breakfast cereal and advertise that it is "not really healthy, but not as unhealthy as some other cereals." The advertising campaign must be based on the nutritional information they research on their own.
After all of the students have made their presentations, the class will discuss what they have learned, in terms of how and why they make decisions about what they eat. They will discuss if the way they eat has changed as a result of the unit.
Rubric and analytic scoring matrix
The final presentation will be judged…
Pollan stresses the need to cook our own food and reassert the historical and cultural importance of food in our lives. Again this strengthens Pollan's rhetoric and continues the line of reasoning he began in Omnivore's Dilemma.
So it's good to be encouraged by Pollan, who eulogises the pleasures of cooking, and to be reminded of some basic truths."hen you cook at home, you seldom find yourself reaching for the ethoxylated dyglycerides or high-fructose corn syrup," he says. "The cook in the kitchen preparing a meal from plants and animals has a great many worries, but 'health' is simply not one of them because it is a given."The final advice given by Pollan encapsulates it all: "Don't eat anything your greatgrandmother wouldn't recognise as food." ("Food Really Does Grow" 12)
The rhetoric of his work is demonstratively evident as his lines of reasoning attempt to make consumers more responsible for…
Crumbpacker, Bunny, "You Are What You Eat." The Washington Post April 9, 2006; BW09.
Dinovella, Elizabeth. "Think Globally, Eat Locally." The Progressive Nov. 2006: 41.
Flannery, Maura C. "Plants in Production." The American Biology Teacher 70.1 (2008): 51.
"Food for Thought; What We Eat, from Source to Table." The Washington Times 30 July 2006: B08.
Maslow gave them that self-meaning and appreciation and became one of the pioneers of a movement that brought the focus of individual feeling, yearning and wholeness into psychology. He sort of read them out and spoke their thoughts, feelings and aspirations for them. He devoted much energy to humanistic psychology and the human potential and inaugurated the "fourth force" in psychology towards the end of his life. The first force consisted of Freud and other depth psychologists; the second force, the behaviorists; his own humanism and European existentialism, the third. This fourth force was made up of transpersonal psychologies that derived from European philosophies, which examined meditation, higher consciousness levels and para-psychological phenomena and which reacted against the then dominant psychoanalysis and behaviorism schools of the 20th century. Among the most prominent European philosophers were Kierkegaard, Husserl and Heidegger and the most prominent in the humanist/existential group were Carl Rogers,…
Beneckson, Robert E Personality Theory. Florida International University. http://vorlon1.com/PersonalityTheory2b.htm
Boeree, George C. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow. Understanding Human Motivation. Personality Theory, 1970
Dickinson, Dee. Revisiting Maslow. Transforming Education: New Horizons for Learning, 2002. http://www.newhorizons.org/trans/dickinsonmaslow.htm
The pancreas is an important source of digestive enzymes and fluids, and plays a critical role in regulating blood sugar levels through the production of insulin and glucagon (NDDIC, 2012). Should the pancreas become inflamed there is the risk that the digestive enzymes will become activated within the pancreas, resulting in self-digestion. This disease is known as pancreatitis and even mild cases require hospitalization. This essay will review what is known about pancreatitis in the United States and the clinical guidelines for diagnosis and treatment.
Pancreatitis Pathophysiology, Epidemiology, and Etiology
The digestive enzymes produced by a healthy pancreas are secreted into the small intestine as zymogens, which are enzymes that have their catalytic domain blocked by a peptide group (Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer, 2002). The intestinal brush border cells secrete enteropeptidase, which removes the peptide blocking the catalytic domain of trypsin. Trypsin then activates the digestive enzymes secreted by…
Amerine, Emmie. (2007). Get optimum outcomes for acute pancreatitis patients. Nurse Practitioner, 32(6), 44-48.
Andris, Abby. (2010). Pancreatitis: Understanding the disease and implications for care. AACN Advanced Critical Care, 21(2), 195-204.
Banks, Peter A. And Freeman, Martin L. (2006). Practice guidelines in acute pancreatitis. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 101, 2379-2400.
Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L., and Stryer, L. (2002). Biochemistry, 5th Edition. New York, NY W.H. Freeman. Retrieved 18 Feb. 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books / NBK22589/.
A general plan for a person who is seeking to maintain a 2000 calorie/day diet must ensure that the proper nutrients are being consumed form optimum health. The following is a useful template that can be uses to help provide the necessary guidance for such a plan.
One cup of a whole grain cereal with 1 cup of low fat milk with one slice of whole wheat toast with peanut butter, can provide a nutritious breakfast that provides enough calories and vitamins to help begin the day. A 6 oz glass of orange juice or other fruit drink can also be added to help provide the Vitamin C that is necessary as well. Calorie count: 450
To help keep the metabolism moving at a quick pace, a mid morning snack is required. This should include, 1 cup of low fat yogurt and an apple. Calorie…
Deurenberg, P., Weststrate, J.A., & Seidell, J.C. (1991). Body mass index as a measure of body fatness: age -- and sex-specific prediction formulas. British journal of nutrition, 65(02), 105-114.
Prentice, A.M., & Jebb, S.A. (2001). Beyond body mass index. Obesity reviews, 2(3), 141-147.
Where, the traditional foods of the Middle East (such as: honey, dates and the black seed) have became a part of Islamic culture and traditional practices. As a result, the positive effects of taking these different foods and supplements; have been shown to be effective at natural dealing with a variety of conditions. Evidence of this, can be seen by looking at how each of the different remedies can cure a number of ailments, with limited side effects. (Fealy, G. 2008)
When looking at the different traditional Islamic foods of: honey, dates and black seeds; it is clear that each food can address specific ailments / conditions that affect the underlying levels of health. Honey contains: amino acid, B complex vitamins, as well as vitamins C, D and E. Where, it is used to promote energy and healing. The only side effects of using honey, is that it can cause…
Since the 9th century A.D. Islamic traditions have provided a natural way for people to be able to have a safe and effective procedure, in controlling / maintaining general levels of health. This is because; traditional Islamic medicine is often based on the using herbal remedies, to deal with a variety of ailments. Over the centuries these different practices, became a common part of the culture of tradition (Sunnah). Where, the traditional foods of the Middle East (such as: honey, dates and the black seed) have became a part of Islamic culture and traditional practices. As a result, the positive effects of taking these different foods and supplements; have been shown to be effective at natural dealing with a variety of conditions. Evidence of this, can be seen by looking at how each of the different remedies can cure a number of ailments, with limited side effects. (Fealy, G. 2008)
When looking at the different traditional Islamic foods of: honey, dates and black seeds; it is clear that each food can address specific ailments / conditions that affect the underlying levels of health. Honey contains: amino acid, B complex vitamins, as well as vitamins C, D and E. Where, it is used to promote energy and healing. The only side effects of using honey, is that it can cause the blood sugar level in diabetics to increase. This is because the large amounts of natural sugars can cause blood sugar levels to spike, if the honey is not taken in balance. Beyond, this side effect, the use of honey on a daily basis can help to promote a healthy lifestyle. (Zamzam, W. n.d.)
Dates are often used to: increase sexual desire, promote testosterone production and help to battle the effects of the cold. The reason why; is because dates have been known to turn into a liquid once they are in the stomach, which causes the temperature of the blood to increase. When this occurs, it will help to cleanse the body of different toxins. The negative side effect is: that those who are not use to eating dates; can feel dizzy
Still, others claim that the physical resemblance of Lotus Root to the lungs holds the clue to understanding its healing properties ("Health enefits of Lotus Root"). Lotus Root is said to treat various respiratory problems. Small doses of the juice extracted from raw, finely grated Lotus Root is recommended for lung-related ailments such as tuberculosis, asthma, and coughing, for heart disease, and to neutralize toxins. Also, macrobiotic remedy combining Lotus Root and akuzu is often recommended to treat colds accompanied by fever and/or troubled stomach and intestines. Lotus Root is also said to be helpful for treating colds because it melts mucus accumulation in the respiratory system. When a Lotus Root plaster is applied to the face, it is believed to relieve sinus congestion and inflammation.
Still, there's no concrete medical authority that backs up the claims that practitioners of Alternative Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine make regarding the benefits…
Health Benefits of Lotus Root." http://www.naturalimport.com/health_benefits_of_lotus_root
Lotus Root. http://www.foodsnherbs.com/new_page_29.htm
Nutrition Facts. http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-C00001-01c20dz.html
Ultimately, these issues results in hunger and famine, where these inhabitants become deprived of the basic facilities that they are entitled to, as being a citizen of the country (World Hunger Education Service, 2012).
3. Impacts of Hunger and Famine in U.S.
The standard of living means to have a healthy, vigorous and active life. Keeping in mind, the standard of living, the hunger crisis in the U.S. is calculated and determined when its residents are not able to meet the nutritional needs to live a dynamic life. This indicates the fact that the people have lack of access to the nutritious, healthy and safe food. As a consequence, the inhabitants (especially of the low-income groups) tend to opt for foods that are less expensive with usually low nutrients, so that they can meet up to the financial components. Moreover, it has also been observed that meals are also dropped…
Anonymous. "Hunger in the U.S. -- Families in Crisis." The Hunger Site, 2012. Web. 29 Dec 2012
This website has discussed how hunger has become one of the harsh realities of the United States, even though it is a land of abundant resources. The impact of hunger upon the individuals, society and eventually on the nation has been argued by the author. Solving the hunger problem has also been articulated in the study. I have used this website with the prime motive to surface the impact of this enormity upon various bodies.
Austin, Michael. Reading the World Ideas That Matter. 2nd Edition. New York, USA: W.W. Norton & Company, 2012. Print.
This book is about the contemporary readings and classic texts that are particularly based on the diversity of views on ideas. This diversity helps an individual in exploring the development of ideas in different cultures and at various occasions.
Personal Health History
Yes (Please list medications and reasons for usage below)
eason for usage
Are you taking any vitamins or dietary supplements?
Yes (If yes then please list supplements and reasons for usage below)
I am taking Vitamin C through consuming multitude of fruits in order to fight muscle spasms, fatigue, and joint pain.
Do you now, or have you had in the past: Yes No
History of heart problems, chest pain or stroke?
Increased blood pressure?
Any chronic illness or condition?
Do you ever get dizzy, lose your balance or lose consciousness?
Difficulty with physical exercise?
Advice from physician not to exercise?
ecent surgery (last 12 months)?
History of breathing or lung problems? No
Swollen, stiff, or painful joints? Yes
Foot problems? No
Back problems? Yes
Any significant vision or hearing problems? No
National comprehensive cancer network (NCCN). NCN clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Myeloid growth factors. Version 1. 2006
Master in Quality & Safety in Healthcare Management
Year Two, 2010-2011
Oxygen Use Monitoring in Hospitals: Literature Review
Oxygen Use Monitoring in Hospitals: Literature Review
search strategy methods and methodologies application of findings to the writer's organization
Oxygen is vital element in people life.. It is a fact that, in a normal room, the percentage of oxygen is only 21% and this amount is sufficient for healthy people. However, most patients need higher levels of oxygen to circulate blood and allow body tissues to function normally (Thannickal, 2009). Oxygen is frequently used as a form of medication in community and hospital settings by the nurses and doctors employed. Use of oxygen as a medicine is not chosen for specified situations nor it is normally prescribed by doctors as part of a medical treatment (Wilkinson, Wright and Goble, 2005). Use of high percentage of oxygen in cases of acute illnesses can…