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Volcano Essays (Examples)

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Mount Rainier Washington Is One
Words: 1730 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44451390
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"Historical Notes - Vancouver's Voyage." 7-14 December 1929. Mount ainier Nature Notes. .

"Mount ainier Volcanic Hazards eponse Plan." July 2009. .

Parchman, F. "The Super Flood." 19 October 2005. Seattle Weekly. .

Service, U.S. Forest. "Eruption: May 18, 1980." January 2010. Mount Saint Helen's National Volcanic Monument. .

Signani, L. "The Height of Accuracy." 19 July 2000. Point of Beginning. .

U.S. Geodynamics Committee and the National esearch Council. Mount ainier: Active Cascade Volcano. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 1994.

University, Dept. Of Geological Sciences - San Diego State. "Stratovolcanoes." January 2004. How Volcanoes Work. .

Watson, J. "Principal Types of Volcanoes." 6 Feburary 1997. United States Geological Survey. .

Wood and Kienle, eds. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

"World Top 50 Mountains By Prominance." January 2009. .

Zimbelman, ye and Landis. "Fumeroles in Ice Caves on the Summit of Mount ainier." Journal…


"Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan." August 2006. Pierce County Washington. .

Driedger, C. "Glacier Flow - Mount Rainier." January 1993. U.S. Geological Survey. .

Drieger and Scott. "Mount Rainier - Living Safeluy With a Volcano in the Backyard." 2008. Cascades Volcano Observatory - USGS. .

Duncan and Burns. The National Parks: America's Best Idea. New York: Knopf, 2009.

Plate Movements and Past Climatic
Words: 1824 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 59505334
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This happens as the magma chamber empties and a ring fracture occurs. This collapse often blocks the flow of magma but the heated interior still produces gasses and steam. Often, that steam and other gasses create a lake in the middle of the caldera similar to Crater Lake in Oregon or Glen Coe in Scotland.


Some volcanoes explode because the magma that is beneath them is physically forced out of the volcano and into the air. Also, some volcanoes have a core or cap that was formed long ago that holds magma back until it can reach a pressure high enough for it to explode outward. Other volcanoes release only gas because there are pockets of gas and ash trapped above the magma chamber, but below the surface of the volcano. This is released instead of magma and…

Landforms Barrier Island Beaches Generally Develop Where
Words: 2371 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49396003
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Barrier island beaches generally develop where:

a The coast is composed of hard rock b the nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains c the sea floor deepens rapidly offshore d The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore

During storms in winter:

a There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches

b More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands

c Beaches are eroded d Beaches are built up e Offshore sand bars are destroyed

Along the Midocean ridge

a earthquakes occur b sea floor spreading occurs c volcanism occurs d all the above occur

Where would you find examples of barrier island coasts?

a Oregon

b California

c British Columbia and Alaska

d Texas and the Gulf Coast

e Hawaii

Which of the following boundaries characterize the San Andreas Fault?

a Spreading

b Convergent

c Transform

d None of the…

New Madrid Fault in the Wake of
Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83323151
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New Madrid Fault

In the wake of recent seismic activity and devastating earthquakes many people tend to speculate as to where the next big earthquake will occur. Most people point to the west coast of the United States as the obvious choice for an earthquake setting. In doing so we ignore a potentially catastrophic area of seismic activity known as the New Madrid Fault, which is Located in New Madrid, Missouri. Despite its potentially dangerous characteristics this area is often overlooked or dismissed due to its mid-western location. It is however, important to note that big earthquakes have occurred in this area and that as time passes the likelihood of a large earthquake occurring in the New Madrid Fault increases. The New Madrid Fault has caused several large earthquakes, the most significant quakes occurred during the years 1811-1812. According to historical accounts which are based on topographic results and effects…

Works Cited

"Global Volcanism Program | Volcanic Activity Reports | Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report | ." Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program: Worldwide Holocene Volcano and Eruption Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. .

"The Virtual Times: The New Madrid Earthquake." THE VIRTUAL TIMES . N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. .

riverbed., seismically-induced ground motions deforming the. "Historic Earthquakes." U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. .

Generational Differences in Volcanic Activity
Words: 1498 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37150615
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Hawaiian Volcanoes and Relationship to a Deep-Mantle Plume

From the many topics that were given as options by the facilitator of this class, the author of this report has chosen to write about Hawaiian volcanoes and their relationship to the deep-mantle plumes that are nearby and close to them. The area that has come to be known as Hawaii exists within a hotbed of volcanic activity. Of course, this is true both above ground and below it as well. Volcanos play a huge part in how the earth has taken on its current shape as many islands and even many continents have been greatly impacted or formed by the activity of volcanoes. hile the topic of this report makes it very clear that the deep-mantle plume and Hawaiian volcanoes are very heavily linked and this report will explore this in great detail using the suggested resources.


The deep-mantle plume…

Work Cited

Foulger, Gillian R., and Don L. Anderson. "The Emperor and Hawaiian Volconaic Chains." The Emperor and Hawaiian Chains. N.p., 11 Mar. 2006. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

Mastin, Larry G., Robert L. Christiansen, Donald A. Swanson, Peter H. Stauffer, and James W. Hendley, II. "Explosive Eruptions at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i? Fact Sheet 132-98." Explosive Eruptions at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i? Fact Sheet 132-98. N.p., 14 Oct. 2004. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

NPS. "Frequently Asked Questions: Volcano - Yellowstone National Park (U.S. National Park

Service)." N.p., 2016. Web. 20 Apr. 2016.

Volcanic Activity and the Consequent
Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87930224
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On Dec 16, 1999, in the Corre Grande region of Venezuela, there was simultaneous debris discharge in 20 streams over a distance of 50 Kms. The damage was so profound that it destroyed 25,000 houses and damaged more than 65,000 houses. The total loss was estimated at $2billion U.S. dollars. In view of the largescale damage and loss inflicted by this natural calamity the Venezuelan government decided to collaborate with Chinese researchers in designing an appropriate debris hazard control mechanism. Such debris flow events following the sudden eruption of a dormant volcano is an event of common occurrence in many regions across the world. For example the May 27, 1984 debris flow totally destroyed the copper mining fields in the Yunnan province of China. Similarly, the debris flow along with the water from the melted ice (due to sudden volcanic eruption) completely inundated the town of Armero in Colombia killing…


Wang Shige, "Characteristics of Large Low-frequency Debris Flow Hazards and Mitigation Strategies," Journal of Mountain Science Vol 2 No 1 (2005): 50~58,

Available online at,

Ronald W. Perry, John David Godchaux, 'Volcano hazard management strategies',

Journal of Disaster Prevention and Management, Apr 2005 Volume: 14 Issue: 2-Page: 183-195

Designer Dress
Words: 308 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43398048
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Dress Review: David Tlale

David Tlale's orange chiffon dress with gold coins seems to achieve the impossible: it is form-fitting yet fluid. The top is a charcoal and gold-colored metallic jacquard sheath, while orange, Grecian-style drapery flows organically from the models' shoulders to her ankles. Bright coins adorn the front. According to Tlale, the coins are real and were custom-minted with his name and year on it, exhibiting an attention to detail that is typical of the meticulous, yet passionate designer's fashions. The dress was part of Tlale's Climate Change Couture Collection which launched during Africa Fashion Week at the South African Mint factory in 2011.

The vision for the dress began when Tlale was approached by the South Africa Mint to collaborate on an environmental awareness campaign. The Mint developed the coins and medallions minted with Tlale's name on it in his honor. Tlale is the first fashion designer…

Customer Retention Without Planned Obsolescence
Words: 910 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62511019
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difficulty with customer retention for Storz & Bickel is that their chief high-end product, the Volcano Vaporizer, lacks "planned obsolescence."

I am using the term that was devised by Alfred P. Sloan for the Ford Motor Company, but this is now basically a strategy implemented by all major manufacturing corporations -- in some sense, the point of an iPhone 5 is that it will eventually be made obsolete by an iPhone 6, and thus customer retention strategies are built around maintaining brand loyalty. As Medeiros (2003) writes about the original planned obsolescence strategy: "Sloan's idea was that automobiles should change each year, and should each year become more expensive (at least to the cost of production)….Each year, the new-model cars would have more improvements added on, different engines, different styling, different comfort features" (287).

The problem is that this strategy -- which works well with Ford automobiles or Apple iPhones…


Medeiros, CA. (2003) High-wage economy, Sloanism and Fordism. In Wood, JC and Wood, MC. Alfred P. Sloan: Critical evaluations in business and management. New York: Routledge.

Vesuvius the Eruption of Mt
Words: 2357 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35022748
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When such a column falls upon itself, it creates a pyroclastic surge, meaning a boiling, turbulent avalanche of debris that shoots out sideways from the slopes of the volcano. This cloud can travel for many miles (Hall, 2007).

The material in a pyroclastic surge is baked in a subterranean magma chamber to temperatures of up to 1650°F (899°C), making the initial surge instantly lethal. This produces a hot, choking wind that can advance at about 240 miles per hour, reaching temperatures of at least 900°F (482°C). Under 200 degrees Fahrenheit (93°C), a person can survive for several seconds if the wave passes quickly, but the person would then suffocate on the fine powder in the air. The entire countryside surrounding Vesuvius was covered by several feet of this powder, 65 feet deep at a distance of three miles from the crater to about ten inches thick at a distance of…


Acocella, V., Porreca, M., Neri, M., Mattei, M., & Funiciello, R. (2006). Fissure eruptions at Mount Vesuvius (Italy):insights on the shallow propagation of dikes at volcanoes (2006). Geological Society of America. Retrieved November 9, 2007 at .

Del Pezzo, E., Bianco, F., & Saccorotti, G. (2004, May). The Neapolitan Volcanoes: Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Ischia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Volume 133, Issues 1-4, 23-39.

Fisher, R.V. (1995). Decoupling of pyroclastic currents: Hazards assessments. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, no. 66, 257-263.

Hall, S.S. (2007, September). Vesuvius. National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved November 10, 2007 at

Plate Tectonics Evolution & Expansion
Words: 1521 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 64790043
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Kious and Tilling, 1996, This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics: USGS Special Interest Publication in: Ring of Fire, Plate Tectonics, Sea-floor Spreading, Subduction Zones, Hot Spots (nd) USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington. Online available at:

Mian, Z. (1993) Understanding Why the Earth is a Planet with Plate Tectonics. R.A.S. Quarterly Journal Vol.34 No.4 Dec 1993. Online available at Harvard at:

Ring of Fire, Plate Tectonics, Sea-floor Spreading, Subduction Zones, Hot Spots (nd) USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington. Online available at:

Scientists Watch Deepest Undersea Volcano for First Time (2009) Fox News, Science & Technology. Planet Earth. 17 Dec 2009. Online available at:

Tilling, Heliker, and Wright, 1987, Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Past, Present, and Future: Department of the Interior/U.S. Geological Survey Publication in: Ring of Fire, Plate Tectonics, Sea-floor Spreading, Subduction Zones, Hot Spots (nd) USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington. Online available at:…


Kious and Tilling, 1996, This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics: USGS Special Interest Publication in: Ring of Fire, Plate Tectonics, Sea-floor Spreading, Subduction Zones, Hot Spots (nd) USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington. Online available at: 

Mian, Z. (1993) Understanding Why the Earth is a Planet with Plate Tectonics. R.A.S. Quarterly Journal Vol.34 No.4 Dec 1993. Online available at Harvard at: 

Ring of Fire, Plate Tectonics, Sea-floor Spreading, Subduction Zones, Hot Spots (nd) USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington. Online available at:

Neutralization Occurs When Acids React With Bases
Words: 1504 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74397369
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neutralization occurs when acids react with bases. The proposed hypothesis has been proved with the help of an experiment. The steps of scientific method have been followed to collect evidence, perform experiment, accept or reject the hypothesis and draw conclusion. This study also highlights the phenomena of neutralization and some of the qualities of acids and bases.

Does Neutralization Occur When Acids eact With Bases?

Through this research I am to prove that whenever an acid reacts with base a reaction takes place between them and this reaction results in the production of salt water and carbon dioxide. This reaction is known as neutralization and the products formed in this reaction are neither basic nor acidic but they are basic.

My pupose for performing this research and experiment is to answer the question that does neutralization occurs when an acid reacts with a base. And if yes what are resulting…


Helmenstine, A. (n.d.). Baking soda & vinegar chemical volcano. Retrieved from

Briefly Describe the Geologic Setting of Eyjafjallajokull
Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99524551
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One of the countries that has the most volcanic and seismic activity is Iceland. This is because the nation is sitting at the edge of a ring of volcanos that are rising out of the Atlantic Ocean. The most notable is Eyjafjallajokull, which has unique features and landscape. To fully understand this volcano there will be a focus on its geological setting and how its eruptions have impacted humans. Together, these elements will highlight the distinguishing characteristics of Eyjafjallajokull and its effect on communities.

Briefly describe the geologic setting of Eyjafjallajokull

Eyjafjallajokull is sitting beneath a glacier and it is a part of string of volcanos. The mountain is fed by a magma chamber that is coming from a tectonic divergence in the Mid Atlantic range. It is a strata-volcano that stands 5,417 ft. And has crater from 1.9 to 2.5 miles in diameter. This sits in the backdrop…

Works Cited

Feigl, Kurt. "Intrusion Triggering." Nature. 468 (2010): 426 -- 430. Print.

Strukell, Erik. "Recent Unrest and Magma Movements." Journal of Geophysical Research. 108 (2003): 23 -- 69.

Biology Species Within a Given Population Will
Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 42368582
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Species within a given population will differentiate due to a sudden and dramatic geological or climatological change. If a volcano erupted on an island like one of those on Vanuatu, the populations of local geckos would start to differentiate depending on where members of that population were before and after the eruption.

Statement/Hypothesis: If a volcanic eruption led to lava flows on one side of the island, but not on the other side, then the gecko population would differentiate based on the availability of food sources and also based on the remaining predators.

Geological Event: A volcano erupts on a small tropical island, part of the Vanuatu group. The types of observations necessary for the evaluation of the impact of the volcano on local lizard (gecko) species include size (length), coloration and visual patterns, and vocalizations. Behavioral observations would include territories occupied, feeding patterns, and mating patterns.

Characteristics of…


"Tiny Gecko Species Discovered in Vanuatu Rainforest," (2008). Retrieved online: 

Uthicke, S. (1999). Sediment bioturbation and impact of feeding activity of Holothuria (Halodeima) atra and Stichopus chloronotus, two sediment feeding holothurians, at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Bulletin of Marine Science 64(1): 129-141.

Global Warming Is a Crisis
Words: 1586 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26340434
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Given the natural changes in atmosphere, to determine which problems are created by man and which parts by natural occurrences is problematic (Climate 2).

Greenhouse gas concentrations caused by additional land coverage and land use, pouring into the Earth's atmosphere will certainly continue to create additional warming of the Earth's temperatures, raising the average temperature, changing precipitation and storm patterns, as well as raising seal levels from melting glaciers. However, the U.S. Strategic Plan is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at any atmospheric level, implying that net emissions of greehouse gases will need to slow and eventually stop, hopefully reversing the effect, so that greenhouse gas emision will "approach levels that are low or near zero." (Climate 3).

Meanwhile, making small changes in individual homes and yards can create big reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and save money. Changing the kind of light bulbs used, using energy-saving appliances, maintaining heating…

Works Cited

Climate Change -- Science. United States Environmental Protection Agency. December 21st, 2006. .

Correspondents in London "Asia in spotlight over global warming" the Australian. April 25, 2007.

National Research Council (NRC), Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. 2006.

Talhelm, Jennifer. "McCain warns of twin threats of energy dependence, global warming." Associated Press. 11:12 A.M. April 23, 2007.

Symi Virtually Untouched by Modern
Words: 1004 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Web Content Paper #: 60504814
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John in Chorio.

Symi is home to more than 465 chapels and churches. The town of Symi houses 13 churches and dozens of chapels, some of which date back to Symi's Byzantine eraf. One of the most frequented attractions on Symi is the monastery located at Panormitis. This monastery draws thousands of tourists to the island each year. Popular monasteries on Symi include Roukeuniotis, Megalos Sotiris, St. Michael, and the Church of the Virgin. Churches usually remain locked unless there is a name day celebration or other festivity in progress. One of the oldest churches on Symi is the paleo-Christian Church, Aghia Irini.


Nisyros, also part of the Docadanese Islands in Greece, is situated between the islands of Kos and Tilos, is comparatively smaller than Symi and has an approximate population of 1000 inhabitants. The two main villages located on Nisyros are Mandraki and Nikea; these two villages are…

Storz & Bickel Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats and Trends
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46569796
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Promoting Storz & Bickel's affordable vaporizer lines to take advantage of an emerging market explosion.

Storz & Bickel is a German-based electrical engineering firm founded by Markus Storz and Jurgen Bickel, who remain in charge of the firm; Storz is director of technology and design, and Bickel is the managing director. Storz & Bickel are basically known for four signature product lines -- the Crafty, Mighty, Plenty, and Volcano model vaporizers. Of these, the Volcano is perhaps the best known, and is Storz & Bickel's best-seller: technology review website Gizmodo refers to the Volcano Vaporizer as "king of all paraphernalia" and notes that "if spending $700 on something to smoke with seems a ludicrous and insane thing to do on your budget…not everyone can afford a Porsche, either" (Frucci 2009). Like Porsche, Storz & Bickel has established its core competency as precision mechanics coupled with attractive design, while both have…

This is crucial for understanding Storz & Bickel's customer-orientation strategy. Vaping has exploded in popularity in America in the past several years: Wal-Mart, Costco, and Target stores all sell e-cigarettes, while "vape shops" have begun opening everywhere. The difference lies in location: in Denver, CO for example, Storz & Bickel equipment can be sold openly for the purpose that most consumers purchase it, which is recreational consumption of cannabis. In Los Angeles, cannabis requires a medical prescription However, in New York City, Storz & Bickel equipment is legal to sell, but not to promote as a cannabis-consumption device.

The chief difficulty in terms of a SWOT analysis for Storz & Bickel is the current market landscape. Market research firm ArcView issued a 2015 report The State of Legal Marijuana Markets (Third Edition) which explains how rapidly this sector is growing: they estimate the market was 1.5 billion in 2013, and experienced 74% growth to 2.7 billion in 2014 (5). This is for a product that is still not legal in most (but not all) areas where it is consumed. We can therefore imagine the continuing growth trend for this market, and thus inquire what role Storz & Bickel as the sole luxury-goods manufacturer in this emerging market can do to establish their scope and direction as the market gets bigger.

A SWOT analysis for Storz & Bickel thus begins with the last T, for Trends. We have established what the trends for this market are like -- phenomenally good. The question remains as to what the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats are for Storz & Bickel to attempt

Challenges an International Organization Faces
Words: 942 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 5695390
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International elations

The ole of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and their Involvement in the elief Efforts Following the 2002 Nyirangongo Eruption

The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) operates under the remit of the United Nations Secretariat, with 35 global offices and approximately 1,900 staff (OCHA, 2012). The organization has four principle roles which are stated as being a part of its' mission (OCHA, 2012). The first role is as an inter-agency body; involved in the mobilization and coordinating of actors that respond to humanitarian emergencies, which it aims to perform in a principled manner to help alleviate the suffering caused by disasters and emergencies (OCHA, 2012). The actors that are mobilized and coordinated by the OCHA include United Nations (UN) actors and non-governmental organizations (NGO's) at both national and international levels (OCHA, 2012). The second role of the OCHA…


OCHA, (2012), retrieved 12th August 2012 from 

O'Malley, Stephen, (2002, Sept 16), The role of OCHA in the emergency operations following the eruption of the Nyiragongo Volcano in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo, report for the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, retrieved 12th August 2012 from

Physical Geology the 'Indian Ocean
Words: 2629 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 29596606
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In fact, the entire damage was caused by the tsunami itself along with other factors like the geology and geography of the region. The damage that the tsunami caused to mainland India, a seismically quiescent region, was concentrated mainly on the eastern coastline but some damage due to diffraction also occurred on the southernmost tip of the western coastline. A factor which played a major role in the scale of devastation that occurred in this region is the bathymetry of the Bay of Bengal. The Bay of Bengal is quite shallow with an average depth of 2600 meters. The shallowness can be attributed to the huge amount of sediment that the Ganges iver deposits in it. (Strand; Masek, 40)

After the earthquake, the bay was sealed off by the deep Sunda Trench and the tsunami waves were reflected back towards the Indian Ocean striking the eastern Indian coastline within two…


Bernard, Eddie N; Robinson, Allan R. The Sea Tsunamis.

Harvard University Press. 2009.

Bilham, R; Engdahl, E. R; Feldl, N; Satyabala, S.P. Partial and Complete Rupture of the Indo-Andaman plate boundary 1847-2004. University of Colorado, Boulder.

Seism. Res. Lett. 2005.

Krakatoa by Simon Winchester Portent
Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68282087
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"Much of Sumatra and Java had already become Islamized (the earliest known Muslim grave on Java dates from 1419) and the local people & #8230;were… sensitive to the strange ways of the European infidels" (inchester 34). Therefore, there is little evidence to dispute the fact that the fundamentalist Islamic beliefs that reared themselves in the form of an organized attack after the explosion of Krakoa was deeply entrenched into Indonesia culture. The volcano's eruption merely served as the impetus to overthrow the colonizers -- especially in light of the fact of how poorly the "infidels" treated their subjects.

Most significantly, however, the author references the fact that the Dutch would inflict harsh treatment upon the colonized Indonesian natives for the duration of their tenure there. The following quotation emphasizes this truth. "…between Dutchmen and Javanese, whose three and a half year relationship would prove to be one of repression, exploitation,…

Works Cited

Griswold, Deidre. Indonesia: Second Greatest Crime of the Century. New York: WW Pub. 1988. Web. 

Winchester, Simon. Krakoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883. New York: Viking. 2003. Print. 28-34.

Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883 by Simon Winchester

Secondary Succession What Is the Difference Between
Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66003218
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Secondary Succession

hat is the difference between primary and secondary succession? This paper delves into the difference between the two and presents good working definitions and examples for the importance of both primary and secondary succession.

Ecological succession is part of natural world changes that keep ecosystems healthy and involve the evolution of ecosystems as well. It may take hundreds and even thousands of years for nature to complete the succession process, which is a "…gradual process of change and replacement" of certain types of species in a community, according to the book Holt Environmental Science Chapter 5, How Ecosystems ork (Holt, et al., 2004, p. 129). Every new community of plants that take hold makes it more difficult for the preceding community to survive, Holt explains.

Primary succession generally occurs in an area where "no ecosystem existed before," Holt explains. New ecosystems for example might grow on sand dunes…

Works Cited

Holt, Rinehart & Winston. (2004). Holt Environmental Science. Chicago, IL: Hole McDougal.

North Ease Independent School District. (2006). Components of an Ecosystem & How they

Interact. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from

Tompkins, Shannon. (2011). Flames from Bastrop fire will be felt for a long time. My San

International Regulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Words: 19613 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4075753
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International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica

Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.

To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…


Antarctica. Siyabona Africa Web site. Retrieved September 28, 2004 at

Chile Web site. Retrieved September 17, 2004 at 

Australia urges regulation as tourism to Antarctica escalates. (2004, March 24) Agence France Presse English. Retrieved September 14, 2004 at .

Bulgaria in Antarctica. Retrieved September 15, 2004 at

Effects of Climate Change
Words: 1376 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90439067
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Global Warming and Climate Change

Natural versus anthropogenic forces in climate change are a common topic for discussion. Some people believe that the global warming experienced now is part of a natural cycle while other others believe it is accelerated thanks to human evolution on earth. Although there is a natural cycle on the planet concerning global warming, this is not the case regarding the information provided from scientific data on the effects of human-generated global warming. Natural global warming takes long periods of time to develop.

People that have analyzed previous global warming trends have noted the rise in temperatures occurred over a prolonged period, like thousands of years. However, human-caused global warming has produced a warming trend at a faster rate. Instead of thousands of years, it is decades. Secondly, humans were not around for the previous global warming trends and if they were, they were much smaller…

Ing for Emergency Management Emergency
Words: 5324 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26046444
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Slide 9: Technological innovations in emergency management

The starting point in the creation of a plan on how to improve our program from a technological standpoint has been constituted by the review of the it industry. The scope of this research has been that of identifying the innovations in the field and their relevance for our agency and its mission. The results of the research endeavor are briefly presented below:

GIS is an important tool to use in the collection of data necessary and its usage is credited with overall successful emergency operations as it allows the intervention teams to gather data pivotal at all stages of the emergency management process.

emote sensing technology is enhancing the quality of the emergency management act at the stages of mitigation and preparedness and it has proven efficient in the management of both natural hazards as well as man made disasters.

The NOAAPort…


Bea, K., 2006, Federal emergency management policy changes after Hurricane Katrina: a summary of statutory provisions, Federation of American Scientists,  last accessed on December 7, 2010

Durmaz, H., 2007, Understanding and responding to terrorism, IOS Press

Freitag, B., How can emergency managers address our warming climate? University of Washington,  last accessed on December 9, 2010

Goodman, a., 2007, Global warming link to natural disasters, Seattle PI,  last accessed on December 9, 2010

Elbrus Geologic Formation and History
Words: 1417 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90283591
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Culturally, Mt. Elbrus represents an immovable beast of a mountain, and the ussians and Soviet Union have taken full advantage of this image when using it in propaganda campaigns (Shklarov, 2010). After the Nazi's captured Priut 11 in 1942, the ussians sent a bomber to destroy the structure, which was a few thousand feet below the summit. The Nazi's that took the Priut had climbed Elbrus and hoisted a giant Nazi flag at the summit, further emboldening the ussians to take back the mountain and the hut as both a propaganda action as well as a way to visibly defeat the Germans. According to official records, the only bomb to have landed near the hut destroyed the fuel tank (Shklarov, 2010). But the Nazi's and later, archaeologists studying the event disagreed that the fuel depot was even significantly damaged during the bombing. The ussian pilot was none the less awarded…


Helman, Adam. (2005). The Finest Peaks: Prominence and Other Mountain Measures.

Trafford Publishing: Victoria, Canada.

Horton, Patrick; Simon Richmond; Mark Elliott; and Steve Kokker. (2006). Russia and Belarus. Lonely Planet: New York.

Hurley, Michael. (2009). The World's Most Amazing Mountains. Raintree: Chicago.

Human Activities on Global Climate
Words: 3322 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7492424
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A closer look at a soap bubble basically reveals swirling colors that are usually in motion with the forces that keep these colors swirling being likened to those that create weather. The weather is moved around by very delicate forces which are the variations between cool and warm areas and their slight variations in constituents. Similar to the complexity of these processes, it's difficult to understand the nature of human influenced climate change.

Carbon dioxide and methane which are primarily greenhouse gases are the derivatives of industrial activities. These greenhouse gases basically gather in the atmosphere and bring changes in the way the earth absorbs and discharge heat. One of the major examples of the effect of these gases is Venus than is hotter than Mercury regardless of the fact that it is farther from the sun. While human beings didn't create the greenhouse gases on Venus, the effects of…


"Disagreement on Human-caused Climate Change." (n.d.). Climate Change & Global Warming

Fact Sheet. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from

"Global Climate Change: Is it Human Caused?" (n.d.). Sierra County Prospect: 21st Century

News. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from

Organic Evolution Please Discuss the
Words: 4338 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43722112
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Noncoding DNA, also known as "junk DNA" describes portions of the DNA sequence that do not appear to have any presentable use -- they do not encode for proteins, etc. In fact, in a most eukaryote cells, a rather large percentage of the total genome is noncoding DNA, but this varies between species. However, it is now a misnomer to call this material "junk," because the more sophisticated we become at biochemistry, we find that many do have subtle biological functions, including the transcriptional and translational regulation of certain protein-coding sequences. esearchers also belive that other noncoding sequences have a likely, but unconfirmed function, as an inference from high levels of inherited tratis and natural selection processes (Masters, 2005, 163-5).

esearchers know that the amount of genomic DNA varies widely between organisms, as does the proportion of coding and non-coding DNA within these genomes. For instance, 98% of the human…


Barrows, E. (2001). Animal Behavior Desk Reference. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Mueller, Guo and Ayala. (1991). Density Dependent natural Selction and Trade-Offs in Life History Traits. Science, 253(1), 433-35.

Ricklefs and Whiles. (2007). The Economy of Nature: Data Analysis Update. New York: Macmillan.

Satellite Sensing of Geothermal Activity
Words: 4413 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 22261230
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Some of these factors enhance the ability to detect geothermal activity in an area, while others impede it. he presence of these factors must be taken into consideration as they relate to the specific area being surveyed. A complete study of these factors and their potential affects on the ability to use remote sensing techniques will have to be explored in order to understand how they affect the use of satellite for remote sensing in Malawi.

he use of thermal infrared (IR) data from ASER spaceborne instrumentation was used successfully to detect surface temperature anomalies in the Coso geothermal field in eastern California (Eneva, Coolbaugh, & Bjornstad et al., 2007, pp. 335). One of the key difficulties that was found in the use of IR data from ASER is that thermal inertia from different types of vegetative matter can make true geothermal anomalies difficult to identify using spaceborne data alone…

Taylor, M. 2007. The State of Geothermal Technology. Part I: Subsurface Technology. Geothermal Energy Association. November 2007, pp. 1-80. Available from:

Urai, M., Muraoka, H. & Nasution, a. 2002. Satellite remote sensing data and their interpretations for geothermal applications: A case study on the Ngada District, central Flores, Indonesia. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Japan. 53(2/3), pp. 99-108.

Vaughn, R., Calvin, W, & Taranik, J. 2003. SEBASS hyperpsectral thermal infrared data surface emissivity measurement and mineral mapping. Remote Sensing of Environment. 83, pp. 48-63.

Red Sea Spreading Seafloor the
Words: 5399 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1670069
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Hamilton explains that while Continental Lithosphere is as much as 93 miles thick, the "Oceanic Lithosphere" is much thinner - up to perhaps six miles. Indeed, the oceanic crust makes up only 0.099% of earth's mass, according to Hamilton. Oceanic lithosphere is a product of the volcanic magma that pushes up to force tectonic plates aside. As new oceanic lithosphere is actually formed the heat that comes up with the magma "escapes the interior as this new lithosphere emerges from below" in the Red Sea and elsewhere where there are tectonic plates spreading.

As the lithosphere cools, it contracts and then "moves away from the ridge, traveling across the seafloor to subduction zones." This process is technically called "seafloor spreading." After the lithosphere has been on the Red Sea floor for a while, it thickens up, Hamilton writes, and as it becomes even denser than the mantle just below…

Works Cited

Coleman, Robert G. (1993). Geologic Evolution of the Red Sea. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hamilton, Rosanna L. (1997). Earth's Interior & Plate Tectonics. Los Alamos National

Laboratory. Retrieved April 11, 2008, at .

Lovgren, Stefan. (2006). Red Sea Region Parting in Massive Split. National Geographic News.

Community Health Statistics for Caddo Parish Louisiana
Words: 2397 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13049820
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Community Health Statistics for Caddo Parish, Louisiana

Description of Caddo Parish, Louisiana

With about a quarter of a million residents, Caddo Parish, Louisiana is a fairly older community with almost two-thirds of its population aged 25 years or older. Most of the residents of Caddo Parish (82.3%) are high school graduate or higher and 22.3% have a bachelor's degree or higher compared to the national averages of 84.6% and 27.5%, respectively. There are slightly more females than males in Caddo Parish, and median family incomes are slightly lower than the national average at $48,522; per capita income is also slightly less than the national average at $22,323. There are also slightly more whites than blacks (50.3% compared to 46.4%, respectively) in Caddo Parish. ecent relevant statistical data for these and other areas of interest are presented below.


Biophysical Considerations: Caddo Parish

Population Size








About the Parish of Caddo. (2011). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://

Annual report. (2007, 2010). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://www.caddo.


Bronze Age Comparisons the Bronze
Words: 1886 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59506623
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Comparing the Minoan and Sea People Civilizations, we find that the Minoans were largely successful because of their Island base and ability to use their technology for trading purposes; thus enhancing their own civilization as well as those they encountered. The Sea Peoples were likely an amalgamation of Mediterranean cultures, whose shipbuilding and warfare technologies allowed them to influence much of the coastal areas, just not as proactively or positively as the Minoans. It is likely that the Minoan culture, in fact, was hindered by a large volcanic eruption and subsequent earthquake and tidal wave, disrupting their ability for commerce. However, recent evidence suggests that although these disasters weakened the culture, it was likely the Sea Peoples who landed on the island, burned selected buildings and palaces, and looted the civilization of the best it had to offer. Similarly, the Sea Peoples appear to have assimilated into a number of…

Works Cited

Bachhuber, C, Roberts, R (eds.) 2009, Forces of Transformation: The End of the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean, Oxbow Books, London.

Bower, B 2010, Hominids Went Out of Africa on Rafts, viewed March 2012,  / >.

Castleden, R 1990, Minoans: Life in Bronze Age Crete, Routledge, New York.

Chadwick, J 1976, the Mycenaean WOrld, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

1980 Was Like'so Many Years After
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30245318
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1980 was, like so many years after and before it, a year full of great and small tragedies, of hope deflated and grief overwhelming. Two weeks before the year started, Pink Floyd's "Another Brick in the Wall" topped the charts, and stayed there well into the new year. The Wall would become a sort of sign for the times, and for the almost surreal year that would follow. This would be the year that the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan and after learning that the U.S. Boxing team had been killed in a plane crash, the American President responded by forbidding all American athletes to compete in the summer Olympics. 1980 would be the year that America sent in troops to save our hostages in Teheran -- only to accidentally kill so many of our own soldiers, through sheer ineptitude and poor planning, that we had to retreat without being fired…

Hydrothermal Vents A New Way
Words: 2749 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31652738
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2005). The rules for deep-sea life are different than those for terrestrial species. Stratification plays an important role in species classification in vent environments. As the chimney grows in height the environment changes.

Tarasov and associates believe that deep-sea vents have a longer evolutionary history then shallow vents found closer to the surface. This is an important factor in understanding how hydrothermal vents are connected to early life on planet earth. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities represent a different phenomenon than shallow water vents. The chemical processes that take place in the deep-sea vent communities are very different from those in shallow areas. Shallow vent species receive light from the sun and more closely resemble terrestrial life forms. However, this is not so with deep-sea forms. Hydrothermal plumes are a rising column of hot water that can have sharp definitions in microhabitats. Similar species found inside the plume and outside of…

Works Cited

DeChaine, E. And Cavanaugh, C. 2006. Presence of post larval alvinocaridid shrimps over south-west Indian Ocean hydrothermal vents, with comparisons of the pelagic biomass at different vent sites Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 86 (1): 125-128.

Govenar, B., Le Bris, N., and Gollner, S. 2005. Epifaunal community structure associated with Riftia pachyptila aggregations in chemically different hydrothermal vent habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series,. 305: 67-77.

Jeng, M., Ng, K., and Ng, P. 2004. Feeding behaviour: Hydrothermal vent crabs feast on sea 'snow' Nature. December 2004. 432 (7020): 969.

Kelley, D., Karson, J., and Blackman, D. 2001. An off-axis hydrothermal vent field near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30 degree N. Nature. July 12, 2001. 412 (6843): 145-149.

Chile Officially Known as Republic of Chile
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Chile, officially known as epublic of Chile, is a South American country with Peru, Bolivia Argentina as its neighboring countries. The Pacific Ocean borders it on the west and south. Santiago is both its capital and the largest city. The country is primarily urban as 1/3 of the total population inhabits the areas in and around Santiago and Vina Del Mar. Almost ninety percent of the Chileans are oman Catholics whereas Spanish is the official language of the country ("Chile," 2012). This country in South America has a landscape filled with "dry deserts, snow-capped mountains, sandy beaches, and thick temperate rain forests" (au, 2007).

The climate in the country is as varied as its natural features. Aside from the apparently intense climatic conditions in some parts, the country enjoys a comfy and moderate climate ("Chile").


The southern part of the Chilean region was controlled by the Araucanians long before…


Chile. (n.d.). Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved October 10, 2012, from 

Chile. (n.d.). Geographia - World Travel Destinations, Culture and History Guide. Retrieved October 9, 2012, from 

Chile from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (n.d.). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved October 8, 2012, from 

Chile, the Country. (n.d.). In Chile Travel Planner. Retrieved October 9, 2012, from

Slavery in the Bible in Modern Western
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Slavery in the Bible

In modern estern countries, many Christians and Jews may wish to portray God as the comfortable deity of a middle-class consumer society like the United States, but the Bible demonstrates that nothing could be further from the truth. In the Bible, the God of history from the story of Cain and Abel, through Abraham, Joseph, Moses and the Prophets and of course the ministry of Jesus Christ in the New Testament. Repeatedly, God intervenes on the side of the poor, the weak, the lowly and the outcast, and against the rich and powerful. He has mercy on Joseph when his brothers sell him into slavery in Egypt and elevates him about all others. God takes the side of a young shepherd boy David against the thuggish giant Goliath and then against the evil and corrupt King Saul. ith Jesus, the constant messages is that God shows…


Anderson, Bernard W. The Unfolding Drama of the Bible, 4th Edition. Augsburg Fortress Publishing, 2006.

Cahill, Thomas. The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the Way Everyone Thinks and Feels. Anchor Books, 1998.

Buddhist Philosophy
Words: 2017 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77166737
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Buddhist Philosophy

Man has attempted to explain what the universe is like, and has endeavored explaining change for centuries. In this process there have been several theories formulated. Many of these theories have served as valuable bases for further as time progressed. This is because what is researched and appealed to people has been further developed with the passage of time. Also, several theories may influence the thinking of others, and hence various directions in philosophical thought may be achieved.

The developments that have been witnessed through history exemplify two major arguments. The two sides referred to are: Western thought and Eastern thought. These are quite different from each other in several ways. Western thought is generally focused on understanding the origins of the universe, and holds that while change occurs with the passage of time in this material world permanence is an element of eternal life. This thought follows…


Bowker, John, The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, New York, Oxford University Press, pp. 70-71 1997.

Indian Tradition, 2nd ed., vol. I, p. 101

Harvey, Peter. An Introduction to Buddhism. Cambridge University Press. 1990.

Hawaiian Islands Sandwich Islands
Words: 2104 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91453323
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Hawaiian and Sandwich Islands

The history of the Hawaiian and Sandwich Islands during the 18th century is as colorful and unique as the flowers that are grown in the region. On December 23, 1826, a treaty between the United States of America and the King of the Sandwich Islands was signed at Honolulu and entered into force. The people who inhabited the islands, took their livelihood out of the ocean waters, and thrived upon their religion and customs continue to romance and mystify the people of today's hurried society. This paper will discuss the people, region, homes, culture, religion and images that make up the interesting historical account of the Hawaiian and Sandwich Islands.


The Polynesians were the first people to live in what is now Hawaii. These people lived off of the sea, and sailed the Pacific Ocean in giant canoes. They arrived in the Hawaiian chain from…

Works Cited

Campbell, I.C. "Cook, James." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 15 Apr. 2004. .

Goldberg, Jake. Hawaii. New York: Marshall Cavendish. 1998.

Kame'eleihiwa, Lilikala. Hawaiian Mythology. University of Hawaii. 15 Apr 2004. 

Westervelt, William. Hawaiian Historical Legends.

Humor Writers Dave Barry and Suzanne Britt
Words: 1215 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52521739
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humor writers Dave Barry and Suzanne Britt, being sloppy is not simply a product of bad habits, discipline, or time management. According to Britt, "Neat people are lazier and meaner than sloppy people," (223). Therefore, for Britt, neatness and laziness are ethical behaviors. Fellow humorist Dave Barry takes a different stance. According to Barry, neatness is a biological, gender-based trait. "The primary difference between men and women is that women can see extremely small quantities of dirt," (229). With sarcasm and satire, Suzanne Britt and Dave Barry both divest neatness and sloppiness from their practical implications, instead describing them in terms of psychology, gender, biology, and morality. While both humor writers explore the underlying causes of neatness or sloppiness, Barry explains the trait in terms of biology and gender, while Britt focuses on ethics and morality.

For Barry, neatness is a female biological trait, based on a "hormonal secretion," (229).…

Educational Situations
Words: 2770 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57650792
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woking within a goup o team.

A a) Diffeent people have diffeent wok styles and thee will usually be moe than one "ight" way to get something done.

A b) No one peson should dominate. Eveyone' ideas should be given consideation.

A c) When the meeting is done, eveyone needs to be clea about what he o she is supposed to do and by when.

Identify and list 3 of the wok equiement to fulfill you ole as a teache's aide in the wokplace.

A a) Supevise students on the playgound, helping students follow the ules in positive ways to minimize poblems b) Supevise the classoom if the teache has to be gone fo a peiod of time.

A c) Have the ability to manage my time so I can complete duties assigned to me, such as soting student wok o making sue classoom supplies ae maintained.

Give 2 examples…

references. Followed up with phone calls to parents who hadn't responded. Produced a final sheet of appointments the teacher could follow on conference day.

The TA's made an important contribution to the student's education, because if the Ts had had to do this, it would have interfered with time they had to plan, evaluate S. work, etc. Often the TAs were able to work together on the task without taking up T. time.

Supervise bus lines at the end of the day

Be outside five minutes before the bell to supervise S. behavior during bus loading

Helped students find their bus as necessary. Made sure Ss boarded buses without pushing, shoving or other dangerous behavior. Made sure Ss stayed out of traffic.

Managing Sustainability Bt Group in UK
Words: 4637 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52617983
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These tiny particles are poison and damage the green effect. For the reason that they reflect solar energy back into space they have a preservation result on the world.

Ocean current is a problem because it has an effect on the greenhouse. Also, ocean currents are something that has been able to move vast amounts of all heat all over the planet. Also, winds are what push horizontally towards the sea surface and then also drive the ocean current patterns. There are as well interactions among the ocean and atmosphere can likewise create phenomena for instance El Nino which happens every 2 to 6 years.

Graph 4 a low greenhouse gas emissions in the UK

Earth orbital changes have an effect on the greenhouse management. The organization has been able to find out that earth makes one full orbit around the sun every year. The earth is tilted at an…


Baue, B., 2013. Threading the Needle: How BT Integrates Climate Stabilization with Economic Prosperity (Economics). [Online]

Available at:  [Accessed 30 March 2014].

BT, 2014. BT Trace. Supply chains that flow. [Online]

Available at:  [Accessed 30 March 2014].

Travel Guides
Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 60667765
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Traveler Guides

Oaxaca is a state in southern Mexico, which draws visitors for its food and drink, its strong native cultures, its textiles and its historical monuments. At the heart of the state is the central valley and the eponymous capital city. Here, visitors are attracted to the ruins at Monte Alban as well as those of Mitla and Yagul, all UNESCO World Heritage Sites, along with the Historic Center of Oaxaca. A second tourist area is along the coastal strip, which has a warm climate and many beaches.

Oaxaca has one of the highest populations of indigenous people of all Mexican states, with the largest group being the Zapotec, who predominate around the central valley. The primary language of Oaxaca is Spanish, but for many this is not their native language. Zapotec is widely spoken in the central valley, and other indigenous languages are spoken in their respective regions.…

References (2015) Red Centre. Retrieved March 2, 2015 from (2015). Campania. Retrieved March 2, 2015 from (2015). Oaxaca. Retrieved March 2, 2015 from

Supply chain
Words: 1219 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83218242
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Question One

As for how one company can be part of both the internal and external supply chain networks, this is actually easier than it seems to be. The external supply chain refers to factors such as political, economic, technological and geographical. Internal refers to the departments and machines that go into getting items and supplies to where they go. An easy example of a situation where a company obviously and extensively touches both, one can speak about Fedex or UPS. If the supply chain of those companies is not working well, there will be obvious implications of both an internal and external supply chain nature as the consequences will relate to both getting the job done and to the political factors that come with not getting the job done properly. To use a less obvious example, a volcano erupting would create havoc for both methids since it is a…

Traditional Cuisine in the Philippines
Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88643839
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Philippines Culture

The Philippines existed as a loose body of island tribes until the nation was settled by the Spanish in the 16th century following Magellan's arrival. For 300 years the Philippines was part of the Spanish Empire (indeed, its name Philippines is in honor of Spain's Philip II, who reigned during Villalobos's exploration of the islands in the mid-16th century). The U.S. became involved in the Philippines during the Spanish-American War and their presence there prompted the Philippine-American War (Constantino, 1975). The U.S. maintained control of the islands until after WW2 when the Philippines became independent.

The geography of the Philippines consists of a vast archipelago of more than 7000 islands. In all, the islands equate to 115,000 square miles of land, with about a third of that land mass being coastal (CIA, 2009). The islands sit on the famous Ring of Fire, a string of volcanoes in the…

Ruddiman Plows Annotation of W F
Words: 4273 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67526396
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He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.

Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.

Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…

Relevance of Academic Knowledge to
Words: 5016 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63570089
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It needs to be well understood because just like knowledge, ingorance cannot be talked about without basing on some individual or group. It should therfore be negotiated soically because it is socially constructed. Ignorance is treated indiscriminately and unitary whereby terms like uncertainity, ambiguity and vagueness are considered synonymous by most writing on disaster.Turner together with several other writers in the fields of disasters and hazards refer to about three ignorance senses consisting of distortion which he also calls misinformation, incompleteness and irrelevance whereby relevant information is discounted and overlooked. In order to prevent disasters, there are various ways in information which would be need is classified. The things which are not known; what is known but not entirely appreciated; something which someone knows but does not present it collectively with other information in a timely manner when there will be realization of its significance and action of its message…


Auf der Heide, E. (1989). Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation and Coordination. St.

Louis: C.R. Mosely.

Britton, N. (1999). Whither the emergency manager?" International Journal of Mass

Emergencies and Disaster, 17(3), 223-36.

Prisoner's Dilemma and the Fight
Words: 7692 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 85065728
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Prisoner's Dilemma situations are more common than some might actually think they are, as most people often come across them in their daily lives. Given the fact that Axelrod has a background in political science, he observed that PD is frequently encountered in the U.S. Senate. Senators are accustomed to helping out their colleagues, as they are perfectly aware that their assistance will materialize in their colleagues repaying them. The help that U.S. senators provide to their colleagues ranges from trading votes to attracting voters for them. One can actually claim that reciprocity is one of the most important factors in the U.S. Senate (Axelrod, p. 5).

However, it appears that matters in the senate were not always like this, and, that just a few decades ago senators seemed more willing to support concepts like deceitfulness and falseness instead of assisting each-other. Surprisingly, people in the U.S. Senate have become…

Works cited:

1. Axelrod R. (1984). The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.

2. Baert Wiener J. (1999). Global Environmental Regulation: Instrument Choice in Legal Context. Yale Law Journal 108.4

3. Behreandt D. (18 Sept. 2006). "Global Warming Too Hot or Not? The Theory of Global Warming Proposes That Man's Activities Are Causing the Earth to Heat Up, but There Is Compelling Scientific Evidence That Does Not Support This Conclusion," the New American.

4. Clemons E.K. Schimmelbusch H. "The Environmental Prisoners' Dilemma or We're All in This Together: Can I Trust You to Figure it Out?" Retrieved May 6, 2010, from the Warton School of the University in Pennsylvania Web site:

Landmines Toward a Global Ban
Words: 1617 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4538395
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This is, of course, only one of countless scenarios which are the product of landmine-based negligence and which can have deadly consequences. Unfortunately, today the world's largest military power also remains the most immovable object standing between the global community and a worldwide ban on the use of landmines or comparable explosive devices. In addition to its continued experimentation with landmine technologies, the United States maintains stockpiles of landmines throughout the world and in many cases has detailed wartime strategies that employed landmines significantly in creating lines of defense. Certainly, this describes its situation in Korea. Here, Stohl (2000) reports, "sccording to the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL), the United States has an enormous stockpile of landmines in Korea, including 40,000 Air Force Gator Mines, 10,000 Army Volcano mines, a small number of man-portable Modular Pack Mine Systems (MOPMS), and 1.2 million M16 and M14 dumb mines. The ICBL…

Works Cited:

Hartenstein, M. (2010). Dozens of North Korean land mines wash ashore in South Korea, killing one man and injuring another. New York Daily News.

Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2010). U.S.: Now's the Time To Ban Landmines.

International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL). (2010). Introduction.

Rutland Herald (RH). (2010). Banning Land Mines. Rutland

Surviving 2012 and Planet X
Words: 1770 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38101593
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g. volcanoes, etc.), but not on schedule; 3) Just because something is plausible does not make it true. The events on popular television series like Star Trek or Star Wars are not only plausible, but have scientific merit. That does not make them true, only possible (Kraus, 2007; Cavelos, 2000); 4) Conspiracy theories abound in numerous genres and surrounding numerous events. Examination of Marshalls' prose and "science," while seemingly credible does try to sell a product and only hints and speculates at facts without peer-reviewed data sources (Yowcrooks, 2009). While positive in tone, it also appears that if one believes conspiracy theories, most of us have only 133 weeks to live; or simply turn the calendar to a new page?


Cavelos, J. (2000). The Science of Star Wars. New York: St. Martins.

"Exposing the Crooks Behind the Myth" (2009). Cited in:

Gore, Al. (2009). "An Inconvenient Truth."…


Cavelos, J. (2000). The Science of Star Wars. New York: St. Martins.

"Exposing the Crooks Behind the Myth" (2009). Cited in: 

Gore, Al. (2009). "An Inconvenient Truth." Cited in: .

Electronic Collectivism and the Matrix
Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38932991
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In that regard, non-human animals could be farmed and harvested for their biological, thermal and electrical energy much more easily without any need to worry about their subjective perception, leaving the artificial intelligence entities with the option of simply eradicating human life altogether. Finally, it is never explained who is responsible for maintaining the working telephone lines in the real world without human activity and telephone companies.

Philosophical Analysis

Naturally, the plight of human beings in Matrix seems horrific from the perspective of autonomy and free will. However, beyond that level, their suspension in a convincing reality may not necessarily be as bad as it is depicted and assumed to be. Philosophers have realized for many centuries that there really is not objective way to prove that our reality is any more real than the reality of the human beings suspended in aqueous solution in Matrix. It could be that…

Ecofeminism In Search of Universal
Words: 6347 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 96383318
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Moreover, the global neglect of women (in terms of science) is reflected in the fact that women have been excluded as experimental subjects in drug research, Rosser continues. Certainly pregnant women have been excluded from experiments with pesticides and radioactive materials, but beyond that Rosser explains that "…these drugs and materials are then used without ever having been tested on women" (1991, p. 143). And yet notwithstanding their exclusion from testing, women's research has led to a vast resource of knowledge vis-a-vis the natural environment.

To wit, Rachel Carson correctly extrapolated the deadly effects on the environment due to agricultural pesticides (DDT in particular), and in fact changed the way the government approached pesticides (1991, p. 144). Indeed, Carson's books ("Silent Spring," "Under the Sea-Wind," and others) had an enormous impact on the nation's grasp of environmental dangers and led eventually to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency…


Alldred, Pam, and Dennison, Sarah, 2000, 'Eco-Activism and Feminism: Do Eco-Warriors and Goddesses Need it?', Feminist Review, No. 63, 124-127.

Biehl, Janet, 1991, Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics, South End Press, Cambridge MA.

Eaton, Heather, 2005, Introducing Ecofeminist Theologies, Continuum International Publishing Group, New York.

Kheel, Marti, 1993, 'From Heroic to Holistic Ethics: The Ecofeminist Challenge', in Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature, G. Gaard Ed., Temple University Press: New York.

National Planning Dynamics of National
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36). The United States is very much a patchwork of different approaches.

The Netherlands is a much smaller and more homogeneous country, especially in terms of the major factors that have the most immediate impact on urban planning (unhaar, Driessen, & Soer, 2009). The country is indeed -- as the name suggests -- a low-lying nation, a fact that has required central planning over generations to avoid catastrophic flooding and to ensure that the nation has sufficient arable land. Unlike the United States, which includes lands ranging from desert to tundra and densely population urban areas to very sparsely population plains, the Netherlands as a nation is bound together by its shared geography as well as by a population that has until recently been highly homogeneous. This has meant that almost all planning takes place on the national level and reflects shared cultural ideals about what the nation should and…


Garvin, a. (2002). The American City: What Works, What Doesn't. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Runhaar H., Driessen, PJ., Soer, P. (2009). Sustainable urban development and the challenge of policy integration: An assessment of planning tools for integrating spatial and environmental planning in the Netherlands. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 36(3): 417 -- 431.

Violence Socially Constructed The World
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ather than the all-or-nothing strong social constructivist extremes described above, a more balanced view is presented by Kuper and Kuper who suggest that it is the meaning of violence that is social constructed rather than violence itself. According to these authorities, "Public debates, as well as criminal trial defences, revolve around the use, meaning and consequences of violent actions. Often the subjective meanings of violence, and the social and political contexts within which violence arises, are contested and contestable. The meanings of violence are socially constructed" (emphasis added) (Kuper & Kuper 2004, p. 1048).


While these socially constructed explanations are clearly important to understanding violence, including how it can affect those involved and what may cause it, they do not come face-to-face with the issue of whether violence per se would continue to exist in a world without humans around to create the social constructions that strong social constructivists…


Burstyn, J.N., Bender, G. & Casella, R. et al. 2001 Preventing Violence in Schools: A Challenge

to American Democracy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Fish, S. 1995 Professional Correctness: Literary Studies and Political Change. New York:

Goldman, a.I. 2002 Pathways to Knowledge: Private and Public. New York: Oxford

Kinesthetic Intelligence -- and Kinesthetic
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Are more encouraged by praise that is delivered physically rather than verbally -- such as by a handshake or a pat on the back rather than by a verbal "good job."

Kinesthetic learners also tend to absorb information when given a great deal of tactile stimulation. I will explore this in greater detail below.

Kinesthetic learners are generally better at expressing themselves in concrete ways. This includes expressing emotions. When kinesthetic learners interact with people who are primarily visual learners there may be significant gaps between the two in how emotions are expressed and understood. For example a kinesthetic learner might offer to change the spark plugs in her boyfriend's car while he (a visual learner) might well prefer to have gotten a card with a romantic poem in it from her.

It should be easy to see from this brief overview of the traits of a kinesthetic learner why…

Sternberg, R.J. (1996). Successful intelligence. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Trudeau, F. & Shephard, R. (2008) Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 5: 10.

Vyse, Stuart (2005). Where do fads come from? In Jacobson, Foxx & Mulick. Controversial therapies for developmental disabilities. NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.