Volcanoes generally preserved geologic rock record eroded . However, materials erupted volcanoes found preserved rock record. From learned types volcanoes, infer type volcano erupted an area-based type volcanic deposits found layers rock? Give specific examples, briefly discuss materials linked types volcanoes.
Volcanoes are some of the most interesting and at the same time intriguing manifestations of nature. They have been the object of study for decades and all types of technologies were used to either understand the way in which these natural phenomena take place in the sense of eruption or to have a clearer image on the placement in time and geological eras of these structures.
Volcanic mountains or constructions usually are formed as a result of constant eruptions and sedimentation of the lava. However, their height or structure is not necessarily a robust one and most often they erode in time, leaving behind only parts of volcanoes or…… [Read More]
Volcanoes are often associated with fire, earthquakes, victims and damage. The activity of nature often turns peaceful mountains with smoky tops into fire vents with lava and smoke getting out and turning everything into fire and burning it.
Why do volcanoes erupt and where does such an incredible energy get from inside the earth?
After the radioactivity phenomenon was discovered, especially one of uranium and thorium, scientists began to understand that the heat is conserved inside the earth because of the radioactive decay of some chemical elements. The studies made in the field of nuclear energy problems proved this fact again.
Accumulation of heat energy inside the earth makes the earth matter heated. The temperature gets so high that the matter has to melt but under the high pressure of the upper earth layers it stays solid. In the places where the pressure of the upper earth layers is not…… [Read More]
Many people make the assumption that the most severe damage done by volcanoes results from the hot lava that flows from some volcanoes. For example, the lava that flows from Hawaiian volcanoes -- called "Hawaiian volcanism" -- are quite striking and make incredibly beautiful yet dangerous-looking videos and still photos. But that volcanic eruption is not nearly as hazardous as the eruption from a volcano like Mount St. Helens. This paper discusses the most dangerous volcano eruptions, and it also references certain side effects from some volcanoes that most people aren't aware of.
hen Mount St. Helens exploded on May 18, 1980, there was no red hot lava flowing down from the top of the mountain. But there was an enormously powerful blast that permanently altered the landscape. This kind of explosive blast from a volcano is considered to be the most violent. An article in Life…… [Read More]
In the United States this strategy is handled by that United States Geographical Survey. The survey has a color coded plan for handling such threats this includes: Green-No immediate threat, Yellow-Watch; Orange- Warning and ed- Eruption in progress. There are certain measures that are taken at each threat level.
Indeed there are active volcanoes around the world that make many people vulnerable. In most cases scientist can now predict when an eruption may occur with some accuracy. The best protection seems to be early warning. The research also indicates that people should heed such warning if they desire to live.
Dormant Volcano Erupts near Manila; Hundreds Feared Dead under Lava. New York Times September 29, 1965.
Lahars and Their Effects. United States Geological Survey. 4 April 2007 http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/Hazards/What/Lahars/lahars.html
Lava Flows. United States Geological Survey. 4 April 2007 http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/Hazards/What/Lava/lavaflow.html
Pyroclastic Flows and Their Effects. United States Geological Survey.
April…… [Read More]
S., with an estimated magnitude of 8.0 on the ichter scale. They formed new lakes, changed the course of the Mississippi iver, and could be felt at least a little in a 50,000 square mile area. In contract, the San Francisco 1906 earthquake could be felt moderately in a 60,000 square mile area, even though it was a smaller quake.
Kobe earthquake - Occurred in 1995 and measured 7.3 on the ichter scale. Nearly 6,500 people died in the quake. It caused ten trillion yen in damage, which was 2.5% of Japan's GDP at the time, making it the worst earthquake in Japan since the Great Kanto earthquake in 1923. It is the costliest earthquake in recorded history.
Mexico City quake of 1985 - This quake measured 8.1 on the ichter scale, and killed at least 9,000 people, but many Mexico City residents believe the real number was far higher,…… [Read More]
They still feel the pangs of territorial appropriation, the constraints of being a victim of the colonial project: "You are no a de writer," the Chief responds, "you are de espider, and we shoota de espiders in Mejico" (Lowry 371). Thus, the police in the cafe are not merely symbolic of fascism - they are fascists themselves. The logic of state-based nationalism, as depicted by Lowry in this scene and throughout Under the Volcano, thus serves as a metaphor for the postcolonial desire for states to assert their sovereignty while still under colonial pressure.
From a contemporary perspective, one cannot help but consider Under the Volcano from a post-9/11 standpoint. In an era when the borderlands between the United States and Mexico are once again the scene of tremendous controversy, and the American national identity is being asserted in the wake of such threats as terrorism, the threats proffered by…… [Read More]
The area around the volcano has been a hotbed of tectonic activity since it lays near a subduction zone where rock from the Earth's mantle is pushed upward as a reaction to the nearby subduction of the Earth's crust. Since tremendous internal pressures exist due to the displacement of magma below the subduction zone's surface, the Soufriere Hills Volcano sits on top of a giant lava dome that has been holding back high-pressure gasses for years. These gasses, when combined with the rock and magma below the surface, shoot out during an eruption, just as we are currently seeing on the island now and similar to the 1995 eruption.
The depth of the magma, which often extends miles below the surface and which is pooled in a magma chamber, can be directly linked to the volcano's surface activity. The eruption has also produced some very familiar side effects associated with…… [Read More]
Magma and gasses building up just below the surface before an eruption can cause a bulge many miles in diameter. Since they are so large, these swells cannot be seen by the naked eye (Kerr, 2003). Satellite-borne radars alert volcanologists when such bulges appear. The satellites monitor global positioning (GPS) devices on the ground, using triangulation to mark whether the ground is bulging. Yet, again, the lack of a bulge does not mean that there will not be an eruption so this method is only helpful in some cases and where a volcano is well-monitored (Kerr, 2003).
Geochemical monitoring involved watching the changes of gasses associated with volcanic movement. Watching inactive volcanoes for the escape of gasses can be a precursor to eruption (Choi, 2004). Sulfer dioxide, carbon dioxide, and other gasses escaping from the earth signal the movement of magma underground, sometimes meaning that an eruption is imminent (Choi,…… [Read More]
"Historical Notes - Vancouver's Voyage." 7-14 December 1929. Mount ainier Nature Notes. .
"Mount ainier Volcanic Hazards eponse Plan." July 2009. .
Parchman, F. "The Super Flood." 19 October 2005. Seattle Weekly. .
Service, U.S. Forest. "Eruption: May 18, 1980." January 2010. Mount Saint Helen's National Volcanic Monument. .
Signani, L. "The Height of Accuracy." 19 July 2000. Point of Beginning. .
U.S. Geodynamics Committee and the National esearch Council. Mount ainier: Active Cascade Volcano. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 1994.
University, Dept. Of Geological Sciences - San Diego State. "Stratovolcanoes." January 2004. How Volcanoes Work. .
Watson, J. "Principal Types of Volcanoes." 6 Feburary 1997. United States Geological Survey. .
Wood and Kienle, eds. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
"World Top 50 Mountains By Prominance." January 2009. Peakbagger.com. .
Zimbelman, ye and Landis. "Fumeroles in Ice Caves on the Summit of Mount ainier." Journal…… [Read More]
This happens as the magma chamber empties and a ring fracture occurs. This collapse often blocks the flow of magma but the heated interior still produces gasses and steam. Often, that steam and other gasses create a lake in the middle of the caldera similar to Crater Lake in Oregon or Glen Coe in Scotland.
8. WHY DO SOME VOLCANOES EXPLODE, WHILE OTHERS EMIT ONLY GASEOUS CLOUDS?
Some volcanoes explode because the magma that is beneath them is physically forced out of the volcano and into the air. Also, some volcanoes have a core or cap that was formed long ago that holds magma back until it can reach a pressure high enough for it to explode outward. Other volcanoes release only gas because there are pockets of gas and ash trapped above the magma chamber, but below the surface of the volcano. This is released instead of magma and…… [Read More]
Barrier island beaches generally develop where:
a The coast is composed of hard rock b the nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains c the sea floor deepens rapidly offshore d The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore
During storms in winter:
a There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches
b More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands
c Beaches are eroded d Beaches are built up e Offshore sand bars are destroyed
Along the Midocean ridge
a earthquakes occur b sea floor spreading occurs c volcanism occurs d all the above occur
Where would you find examples of barrier island coasts?
c British Columbia and Alaska
d Texas and the Gulf Coast
Which of the following boundaries characterize the San Andreas Fault?
d None of the…… [Read More]
New Madrid Fault
In the wake of recent seismic activity and devastating earthquakes many people tend to speculate as to where the next big earthquake will occur. Most people point to the west coast of the United States as the obvious choice for an earthquake setting. In doing so we ignore a potentially catastrophic area of seismic activity known as the New Madrid Fault, which is Located in New Madrid, Missouri. Despite its potentially dangerous characteristics this area is often overlooked or dismissed due to its mid-western location. It is however, important to note that big earthquakes have occurred in this area and that as time passes the likelihood of a large earthquake occurring in the New Madrid Fault increases. The New Madrid Fault has caused several large earthquakes, the most significant quakes occurred during the years 1811-1812. According to historical accounts which are based on topographic results and effects…… [Read More]
Hawaiian Volcanoes and Relationship to a Deep-Mantle Plume
From the many topics that were given as options by the facilitator of this class, the author of this report has chosen to write about Hawaiian volcanoes and their relationship to the deep-mantle plumes that are nearby and close to them. The area that has come to be known as Hawaii exists within a hotbed of volcanic activity. Of course, this is true both above ground and below it as well. Volcanos play a huge part in how the earth has taken on its current shape as many islands and even many continents have been greatly impacted or formed by the activity of volcanoes. hile the topic of this report makes it very clear that the deep-mantle plume and Hawaiian volcanoes are very heavily linked and this report will explore this in great detail using the suggested resources.
The deep-mantle plume…… [Read More]
On Dec 16, 1999, in the Corre Grande region of Venezuela, there was simultaneous debris discharge in 20 streams over a distance of 50 Kms. The damage was so profound that it destroyed 25,000 houses and damaged more than 65,000 houses. The total loss was estimated at $2billion U.S. dollars. In view of the largescale damage and loss inflicted by this natural calamity the Venezuelan government decided to collaborate with Chinese researchers in designing an appropriate debris hazard control mechanism. Such debris flow events following the sudden eruption of a dormant volcano is an event of common occurrence in many regions across the world. For example the May 27, 1984 debris flow totally destroyed the copper mining fields in the Yunnan province of China. Similarly, the debris flow along with the water from the melted ice (due to sudden volcanic eruption) completely inundated the town of Armero in Colombia killing…… [Read More]
Dress Review: David Tlale
David Tlale's orange chiffon dress with gold coins seems to achieve the impossible: it is form-fitting yet fluid. The top is a charcoal and gold-colored metallic jacquard sheath, while orange, Grecian-style drapery flows organically from the models' shoulders to her ankles. Bright coins adorn the front. According to Tlale, the coins are real and were custom-minted with his name and year on it, exhibiting an attention to detail that is typical of the meticulous, yet passionate designer's fashions. The dress was part of Tlale's Climate Change Couture Collection which launched during Africa Fashion Week at the South African Mint factory in 2011.
The vision for the dress began when Tlale was approached by the South Africa Mint to collaborate on an environmental awareness campaign. The Mint developed the coins and medallions minted with Tlale's name on it in his honor. Tlale is the first fashion designer…… [Read More]
The second thing I would want to know is the details of the additional spending. The spending must fit with our overall brand development strategy. It should support our current endeavors and not conflict with the brand image we are seeking. Moreover, the ads should target our existing target audience -- if not I would need to know that ahead of time. Additionally, the decision of whether to apply the money to customer attraction or retention is a strategic matter (Lewis & Otto, 2005), and therefore this $500K should be considered as a strategic move within the context of the overall marketing strategy.
The third thing I would want to know is what sort of profit we can expect for that additional $2 million in revenue. If the additional revenues do not generate a level of profit above $500K, then the campaign would lose money on a net basis. So…… [Read More]
difficulty with customer retention for Storz & Bickel is that their chief high-end product, the Volcano Vaporizer, lacks "planned obsolescence."
I am using the term that was devised by Alfred P. Sloan for the Ford Motor Company, but this is now basically a strategy implemented by all major manufacturing corporations -- in some sense, the point of an iPhone 5 is that it will eventually be made obsolete by an iPhone 6, and thus customer retention strategies are built around maintaining brand loyalty. As Medeiros (2003) writes about the original planned obsolescence strategy: "Sloan's idea was that automobiles should change each year, and should each year become more expensive (at least to the cost of production)….Each year, the new-model cars would have more improvements added on, different engines, different styling, different comfort features" (287).
The problem is that this strategy -- which works well with Ford automobiles or Apple iPhones…… [Read More]
When such a column falls upon itself, it creates a pyroclastic surge, meaning a boiling, turbulent avalanche of debris that shoots out sideways from the slopes of the volcano. This cloud can travel for many miles (Hall, 2007).
The material in a pyroclastic surge is baked in a subterranean magma chamber to temperatures of up to 1650°F (899°C), making the initial surge instantly lethal. This produces a hot, choking wind that can advance at about 240 miles per hour, reaching temperatures of at least 900°F (482°C). Under 200 degrees Fahrenheit (93°C), a person can survive for several seconds if the wave passes quickly, but the person would then suffocate on the fine powder in the air. The entire countryside surrounding Vesuvius was covered by several feet of this powder, 65 feet deep at a distance of three miles from the crater to about ten inches thick at a distance of…… [Read More]
Kious and Tilling, 1996, This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics: USGS Special Interest Publication in: Ring of Fire, Plate Tectonics, Sea-floor Spreading, Subduction Zones, Hot Spots (nd) USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington. Online available at: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/PlateTectonics/description_plate_tectonics.html
Mian, Z. (1993) Understanding Why the Earth is a Planet with Plate Tectonics. R.A.S. Quarterly Journal Vol.34 No.4 Dec 1993. Online available at Harvard at: http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/1993QJRAS..34..441M/0000443.000.html
Ring of Fire, Plate Tectonics, Sea-floor Spreading, Subduction Zones, Hot Spots (nd) USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington. Online available at: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/PlateTectonics/description_plate_tectonics.html
Scientists Watch Deepest Undersea Volcano for First Time (2009) Fox News, Science & Technology. Planet Earth. 17 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2009/12/17/scientists-watch-deep-sea-volcano-time/
Tilling, Heliker, and Wright, 1987, Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Past, Present, and Future: Department of the Interior/U.S. Geological Survey Publication in: Ring of Fire, Plate Tectonics, Sea-floor Spreading, Subduction Zones, Hot Spots (nd) USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington. Online available at:…… [Read More]
neutralization occurs when acids react with bases. The proposed hypothesis has been proved with the help of an experiment. The steps of scientific method have been followed to collect evidence, perform experiment, accept or reject the hypothesis and draw conclusion. This study also highlights the phenomena of neutralization and some of the qualities of acids and bases.
Does Neutralization Occur When Acids eact With Bases?
Through this research I am to prove that whenever an acid reacts with base a reaction takes place between them and this reaction results in the production of salt water and carbon dioxide. This reaction is known as neutralization and the products formed in this reaction are neither basic nor acidic but they are basic.
My pupose for performing this research and experiment is to answer the question that does neutralization occurs when an acid reacts with a base. And if yes what are resulting…… [Read More]
One of the countries that has the most volcanic and seismic activity is Iceland. This is because the nation is sitting at the edge of a ring of volcanos that are rising out of the Atlantic Ocean. The most notable is Eyjafjallajokull, which has unique features and landscape. To fully understand this volcano there will be a focus on its geological setting and how its eruptions have impacted humans. Together, these elements will highlight the distinguishing characteristics of Eyjafjallajokull and its effect on communities.
Briefly describe the geologic setting of Eyjafjallajokull
Eyjafjallajokull is sitting beneath a glacier and it is a part of string of volcanos. The mountain is fed by a magma chamber that is coming from a tectonic divergence in the Mid Atlantic range. It is a strata-volcano that stands 5,417 ft. And has crater from 1.9 to 2.5 miles in diameter. This sits in the backdrop…… [Read More]
Species within a given population will differentiate due to a sudden and dramatic geological or climatological change. If a volcano erupted on an island like one of those on Vanuatu, the populations of local geckos would start to differentiate depending on where members of that population were before and after the eruption.
Statement/Hypothesis: If a volcanic eruption led to lava flows on one side of the island, but not on the other side, then the gecko population would differentiate based on the availability of food sources and also based on the remaining predators.
Geological Event: A volcano erupts on a small tropical island, part of the Vanuatu group. The types of observations necessary for the evaluation of the impact of the volcano on local lizard (gecko) species include size (length), coloration and visual patterns, and vocalizations. Behavioral observations would include territories occupied, feeding patterns, and mating patterns.
Characteristics of…… [Read More]
Given the natural changes in atmosphere, to determine which problems are created by man and which parts by natural occurrences is problematic (Climate 2).
Greenhouse gas concentrations caused by additional land coverage and land use, pouring into the Earth's atmosphere will certainly continue to create additional warming of the Earth's temperatures, raising the average temperature, changing precipitation and storm patterns, as well as raising seal levels from melting glaciers. However, the U.S. Strategic Plan is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at any atmospheric level, implying that net emissions of greehouse gases will need to slow and eventually stop, hopefully reversing the effect, so that greenhouse gas emision will "approach levels that are low or near zero." (Climate 3).
Meanwhile, making small changes in individual homes and yards can create big reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and save money. Changing the kind of light bulbs used, using energy-saving appliances, maintaining heating…… [Read More]
John in Chorio.
Symi is home to more than 465 chapels and churches. The town of Symi houses 13 churches and dozens of chapels, some of which date back to Symi's Byzantine eraf. One of the most frequented attractions on Symi is the monastery located at Panormitis. This monastery draws thousands of tourists to the island each year. Popular monasteries on Symi include Roukeuniotis, Megalos Sotiris, St. Michael, and the Church of the Virgin. Churches usually remain locked unless there is a name day celebration or other festivity in progress. One of the oldest churches on Symi is the paleo-Christian Church, Aghia Irini.
Nisyros, also part of the Docadanese Islands in Greece, is situated between the islands of Kos and Tilos, is comparatively smaller than Symi and has an approximate population of 1000 inhabitants. The two main villages located on Nisyros are Mandraki and Nikea; these two villages are…… [Read More]
Promoting Storz & Bickel's affordable vaporizer lines to take advantage of an emerging market explosion.
Storz & Bickel is a German-based electrical engineering firm founded by Markus Storz and Jurgen Bickel, who remain in charge of the firm; Storz is director of technology and design, and Bickel is the managing director. Storz & Bickel are basically known for four signature product lines -- the Crafty, Mighty, Plenty, and Volcano model vaporizers. Of these, the Volcano is perhaps the best known, and is Storz & Bickel's best-seller: technology review website Gizmodo refers to the Volcano Vaporizer as "king of all paraphernalia" and notes that "if spending $700 on something to smoke with seems a ludicrous and insane thing to do on your budget…not everyone can afford a Porsche, either" (Frucci 2009). Like Porsche, Storz & Bickel has established its core competency as precision mechanics coupled with attractive design, while both have…… [Read More]
The ole of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and their Involvement in the elief Efforts Following the 2002 Nyirangongo Eruption
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) operates under the remit of the United Nations Secretariat, with 35 global offices and approximately 1,900 staff (OCHA, 2012). The organization has four principle roles which are stated as being a part of its' mission (OCHA, 2012). The first role is as an inter-agency body; involved in the mobilization and coordinating of actors that respond to humanitarian emergencies, which it aims to perform in a principled manner to help alleviate the suffering caused by disasters and emergencies (OCHA, 2012). The actors that are mobilized and coordinated by the OCHA include United Nations (UN) actors and non-governmental organizations (NGO's) at both national and international levels (OCHA, 2012). The second role of the OCHA…… [Read More]
In fact, the entire damage was caused by the tsunami itself along with other factors like the geology and geography of the region. The damage that the tsunami caused to mainland India, a seismically quiescent region, was concentrated mainly on the eastern coastline but some damage due to diffraction also occurred on the southernmost tip of the western coastline. A factor which played a major role in the scale of devastation that occurred in this region is the bathymetry of the Bay of Bengal. The Bay of Bengal is quite shallow with an average depth of 2600 meters. The shallowness can be attributed to the huge amount of sediment that the Ganges iver deposits in it. (Strand; Masek, 40)
After the earthquake, the bay was sealed off by the deep Sunda Trench and the tsunami waves were reflected back towards the Indian Ocean striking the eastern Indian coastline within two…… [Read More]
"Much of Sumatra and Java had already become Islamized (the earliest known Muslim grave on Java dates from 1419) and the local people & #8230;were… sensitive to the strange ways of the European infidels" (inchester 34). Therefore, there is little evidence to dispute the fact that the fundamentalist Islamic beliefs that reared themselves in the form of an organized attack after the explosion of Krakoa was deeply entrenched into Indonesia culture. The volcano's eruption merely served as the impetus to overthrow the colonizers -- especially in light of the fact of how poorly the "infidels" treated their subjects.
Most significantly, however, the author references the fact that the Dutch would inflict harsh treatment upon the colonized Indonesian natives for the duration of their tenure there. The following quotation emphasizes this truth. "…between Dutchmen and Javanese, whose three and a half year relationship would prove to be one of repression, exploitation,…… [Read More]
hat is the difference between primary and secondary succession? This paper delves into the difference between the two and presents good working definitions and examples for the importance of both primary and secondary succession.
Ecological succession is part of natural world changes that keep ecosystems healthy and involve the evolution of ecosystems as well. It may take hundreds and even thousands of years for nature to complete the succession process, which is a "…gradual process of change and replacement" of certain types of species in a community, according to the book Holt Environmental Science Chapter 5, How Ecosystems ork (Holt, et al., 2004, p. 129). Every new community of plants that take hold makes it more difficult for the preceding community to survive, Holt explains.
Primary succession generally occurs in an area where "no ecosystem existed before," Holt explains. New ecosystems for example might grow on sand dunes…… [Read More]
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…… [Read More]
Global Warming and Climate Change
Natural versus anthropogenic forces in climate change are a common topic for discussion. Some people believe that the global warming experienced now is part of a natural cycle while other others believe it is accelerated thanks to human evolution on earth. Although there is a natural cycle on the planet concerning global warming, this is not the case regarding the information provided from scientific data on the effects of human-generated global warming. Natural global warming takes long periods of time to develop.
People that have analyzed previous global warming trends have noted the rise in temperatures occurred over a prolonged period, like thousands of years. However, human-caused global warming has produced a warming trend at a faster rate. Instead of thousands of years, it is decades. Secondly, humans were not around for the previous global warming trends and if they were, they were much smaller…… [Read More]
Slide 9: Technological innovations in emergency management
The starting point in the creation of a plan on how to improve our program from a technological standpoint has been constituted by the review of the it industry. The scope of this research has been that of identifying the innovations in the field and their relevance for our agency and its mission. The results of the research endeavor are briefly presented below:
GIS is an important tool to use in the collection of data necessary and its usage is credited with overall successful emergency operations as it allows the intervention teams to gather data pivotal at all stages of the emergency management process.
emote sensing technology is enhancing the quality of the emergency management act at the stages of mitigation and preparedness and it has proven efficient in the management of both natural hazards as well as man made disasters.
The NOAAPort…… [Read More]
Culturally, Mt. Elbrus represents an immovable beast of a mountain, and the ussians and Soviet Union have taken full advantage of this image when using it in propaganda campaigns (Shklarov, 2010). After the Nazi's captured Priut 11 in 1942, the ussians sent a bomber to destroy the structure, which was a few thousand feet below the summit. The Nazi's that took the Priut had climbed Elbrus and hoisted a giant Nazi flag at the summit, further emboldening the ussians to take back the mountain and the hut as both a propaganda action as well as a way to visibly defeat the Germans. According to official records, the only bomb to have landed near the hut destroyed the fuel tank (Shklarov, 2010). But the Nazi's and later, archaeologists studying the event disagreed that the fuel depot was even significantly damaged during the bombing. The ussian pilot was none the less awarded…… [Read More]
A closer look at a soap bubble basically reveals swirling colors that are usually in motion with the forces that keep these colors swirling being likened to those that create weather. The weather is moved around by very delicate forces which are the variations between cool and warm areas and their slight variations in constituents. Similar to the complexity of these processes, it's difficult to understand the nature of human influenced climate change.
Carbon dioxide and methane which are primarily greenhouse gases are the derivatives of industrial activities. These greenhouse gases basically gather in the atmosphere and bring changes in the way the earth absorbs and discharge heat. One of the major examples of the effect of these gases is Venus than is hotter than Mercury regardless of the fact that it is farther from the sun. While human beings didn't create the greenhouse gases on Venus, the effects of…… [Read More]
Noncoding DNA, also known as "junk DNA" describes portions of the DNA sequence that do not appear to have any presentable use -- they do not encode for proteins, etc. In fact, in a most eukaryote cells, a rather large percentage of the total genome is noncoding DNA, but this varies between species. However, it is now a misnomer to call this material "junk," because the more sophisticated we become at biochemistry, we find that many do have subtle biological functions, including the transcriptional and translational regulation of certain protein-coding sequences. esearchers also belive that other noncoding sequences have a likely, but unconfirmed function, as an inference from high levels of inherited tratis and natural selection processes (Masters, 2005, 163-5).
esearchers know that the amount of genomic DNA varies widely between organisms, as does the proportion of coding and non-coding DNA within these genomes. For instance, 98% of the human…… [Read More]
Some of these factors enhance the ability to detect geothermal activity in an area, while others impede it. he presence of these factors must be taken into consideration as they relate to the specific area being surveyed. A complete study of these factors and their potential affects on the ability to use remote sensing techniques will have to be explored in order to understand how they affect the use of satellite for remote sensing in Malawi.
he use of thermal infrared (IR) data from ASER spaceborne instrumentation was used successfully to detect surface temperature anomalies in the Coso geothermal field in eastern California (Eneva, Coolbaugh, & Bjornstad et al., 2007, pp. 335). One of the key difficulties that was found in the use of IR data from ASER is that thermal inertia from different types of vegetative matter can make true geothermal anomalies difficult to identify using spaceborne data alone…… [Read More]
Hamilton explains that while Continental Lithosphere is as much as 93 miles thick, the "Oceanic Lithosphere" is much thinner - up to perhaps six miles. Indeed, the oceanic crust makes up only 0.099% of earth's mass, according to Hamilton. Oceanic lithosphere is a product of the volcanic magma that pushes up to force tectonic plates aside. As new oceanic lithosphere is actually formed the heat that comes up with the magma "escapes the interior as this new lithosphere emerges from below" in the Red Sea and elsewhere where there are tectonic plates spreading.
As the lithosphere cools, it contracts and then "moves away from the ridge, traveling across the seafloor to subduction zones." This process is technically called "seafloor spreading." After the lithosphere has been on the Red Sea floor for a while, it thickens up, Hamilton writes, and as it becomes even denser than the mantle just below…… [Read More]
Community Health Statistics for Caddo Parish, Louisiana
Description of Caddo Parish, Louisiana
With about a quarter of a million residents, Caddo Parish, Louisiana is a fairly older community with almost two-thirds of its population aged 25 years or older. Most of the residents of Caddo Parish (82.3%) are high school graduate or higher and 22.3% have a bachelor's degree or higher compared to the national averages of 84.6% and 27.5%, respectively. There are slightly more females than males in Caddo Parish, and median family incomes are slightly lower than the national average at $48,522; per capita income is also slightly less than the national average at $22,323. There are also slightly more whites than blacks (50.3% compared to 46.4%, respectively) in Caddo Parish. ecent relevant statistical data for these and other areas of interest are presented below.
Biophysical Considerations: Caddo Parish
12,140…… [Read More]
Comparing the Minoan and Sea People Civilizations, we find that the Minoans were largely successful because of their Island base and ability to use their technology for trading purposes; thus enhancing their own civilization as well as those they encountered. The Sea Peoples were likely an amalgamation of Mediterranean cultures, whose shipbuilding and warfare technologies allowed them to influence much of the coastal areas, just not as proactively or positively as the Minoans. It is likely that the Minoan culture, in fact, was hindered by a large volcanic eruption and subsequent earthquake and tidal wave, disrupting their ability for commerce. However, recent evidence suggests that although these disasters weakened the culture, it was likely the Sea Peoples who landed on the island, burned selected buildings and palaces, and looted the civilization of the best it had to offer. Similarly, the Sea Peoples appear to have assimilated into a number of…… [Read More]
1980 was, like so many years after and before it, a year full of great and small tragedies, of hope deflated and grief overwhelming. Two weeks before the year started, Pink Floyd's "Another Brick in the Wall" topped the charts, and stayed there well into the new year. The Wall would become a sort of sign for the times, and for the almost surreal year that would follow. This would be the year that the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan and after learning that the U.S. Boxing team had been killed in a plane crash, the American President responded by forbidding all American athletes to compete in the summer Olympics. 1980 would be the year that America sent in troops to save our hostages in Teheran -- only to accidentally kill so many of our own soldiers, through sheer ineptitude and poor planning, that we had to retreat without being fired…… [Read More]
2005). The rules for deep-sea life are different than those for terrestrial species. Stratification plays an important role in species classification in vent environments. As the chimney grows in height the environment changes.
Tarasov and associates believe that deep-sea vents have a longer evolutionary history then shallow vents found closer to the surface. This is an important factor in understanding how hydrothermal vents are connected to early life on planet earth. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities represent a different phenomenon than shallow water vents. The chemical processes that take place in the deep-sea vent communities are very different from those in shallow areas. Shallow vent species receive light from the sun and more closely resemble terrestrial life forms. However, this is not so with deep-sea forms. Hydrothermal plumes are a rising column of hot water that can have sharp definitions in microhabitats. Similar species found inside the plume and outside of…… [Read More]
Chile, officially known as epublic of Chile, is a South American country with Peru, Bolivia Argentina as its neighboring countries. The Pacific Ocean borders it on the west and south. Santiago is both its capital and the largest city. The country is primarily urban as 1/3 of the total population inhabits the areas in and around Santiago and Vina Del Mar. Almost ninety percent of the Chileans are oman Catholics whereas Spanish is the official language of the country ("Chile," 2012). This country in South America has a landscape filled with "dry deserts, snow-capped mountains, sandy beaches, and thick temperate rain forests" (au, 2007).
The climate in the country is as varied as its natural features. Aside from the apparently intense climatic conditions in some parts, the country enjoys a comfy and moderate climate ("Chile").
The southern part of the Chilean region was controlled by the Araucanians long before…… [Read More]
Slavery in the Bible
In modern estern countries, many Christians and Jews may wish to portray God as the comfortable deity of a middle-class consumer society like the United States, but the Bible demonstrates that nothing could be further from the truth. In the Bible, the God of history from the story of Cain and Abel, through Abraham, Joseph, Moses and the Prophets and of course the ministry of Jesus Christ in the New Testament. Repeatedly, God intervenes on the side of the poor, the weak, the lowly and the outcast, and against the rich and powerful. He has mercy on Joseph when his brothers sell him into slavery in Egypt and elevates him about all others. God takes the side of a young shepherd boy David against the thuggish giant Goliath and then against the evil and corrupt King Saul. ith Jesus, the constant messages is that God shows…… [Read More]
Oracle Bone and Traditional China
According to ancient writings, the history of China dates back approximately 3,300 years. Studies by modern archaeologists provide evidence of ancient origins in a culture that was flourishing between 2500-2000 B.C. In an area that is now central China and the lower Huang He Valley in northern China. Through centuries of migration, amalgamation and development, a distinctive system of writing, philosophy, art, and political organization came about that is recognized as Chinese civilization, unique to world history because of its continuity of over 4,000 years to today. The Chinese culture has developed a strong sense of their real and mythological origins and from very early times kept voluminous records, resulting in not only knowledge of China's ancient, but of its neighbors as well. As described in mythology, Chinese civilization began with Pangu, the creator of the universe, then according to legend, a succession of sage-emperors…… [Read More]
Man has attempted to explain what the universe is like, and has endeavored explaining change for centuries. In this process there have been several theories formulated. Many of these theories have served as valuable bases for further as time progressed. This is because what is researched and appealed to people has been further developed with the passage of time. Also, several theories may influence the thinking of others, and hence various directions in philosophical thought may be achieved.
The developments that have been witnessed through history exemplify two major arguments. The two sides referred to are: Western thought and Eastern thought. These are quite different from each other in several ways. Western thought is generally focused on understanding the origins of the universe, and holds that while change occurs with the passage of time in this material world permanence is an element of eternal life. This thought follows…… [Read More]
Hawaiian and Sandwich Islands
The history of the Hawaiian and Sandwich Islands during the 18th century is as colorful and unique as the flowers that are grown in the region. On December 23, 1826, a treaty between the United States of America and the King of the Sandwich Islands was signed at Honolulu and entered into force. The people who inhabited the islands, took their livelihood out of the ocean waters, and thrived upon their religion and customs continue to romance and mystify the people of today's hurried society. This paper will discuss the people, region, homes, culture, religion and images that make up the interesting historical account of the Hawaiian and Sandwich Islands.
The Polynesians were the first people to live in what is now Hawaii. These people lived off of the sea, and sailed the Pacific Ocean in giant canoes. They arrived in the Hawaiian chain from…… [Read More]
humor writers Dave Barry and Suzanne Britt, being sloppy is not simply a product of bad habits, discipline, or time management. According to Britt, "Neat people are lazier and meaner than sloppy people," (223). Therefore, for Britt, neatness and laziness are ethical behaviors. Fellow humorist Dave Barry takes a different stance. According to Barry, neatness is a biological, gender-based trait. "The primary difference between men and women is that women can see extremely small quantities of dirt," (229). With sarcasm and satire, Suzanne Britt and Dave Barry both divest neatness and sloppiness from their practical implications, instead describing them in terms of psychology, gender, biology, and morality. While both humor writers explore the underlying causes of neatness or sloppiness, Barry explains the trait in terms of biology and gender, while Britt focuses on ethics and morality.
For Barry, neatness is a female biological trait, based on a "hormonal secretion," (229).…… [Read More]
woking within a goup o team.
A a) Diffeent people have diffeent wok styles and thee will usually be moe than one "ight" way to get something done.
A b) No one peson should dominate. Eveyone' ideas should be given consideation.
A c) When the meeting is done, eveyone needs to be clea about what he o she is supposed to do and by when.
Identify and list 3 of the wok equiement to fulfill you ole as a teache's aide in the wokplace.
A a) Supevise students on the playgound, helping students follow the ules in positive ways to minimize poblems b) Supevise the classoom if the teache has to be gone fo a peiod of time.
A c) Have the ability to manage my time so I can complete duties assigned to me, such as soting student wok o making sue classoom supplies ae maintained.
Give 2 examples…… [Read More]
These tiny particles are poison and damage the green effect. For the reason that they reflect solar energy back into space they have a preservation result on the world.
Ocean current is a problem because it has an effect on the greenhouse. Also, ocean currents are something that has been able to move vast amounts of all heat all over the planet. Also, winds are what push horizontally towards the sea surface and then also drive the ocean current patterns. There are as well interactions among the ocean and atmosphere can likewise create phenomena for instance El Nino which happens every 2 to 6 years.
Graph 4 a low greenhouse gas emissions in the UK
Earth orbital changes have an effect on the greenhouse management. The organization has been able to find out that earth makes one full orbit around the sun every year. The earth is tilted at an…… [Read More]
Oaxaca is a state in southern Mexico, which draws visitors for its food and drink, its strong native cultures, its textiles and its historical monuments. At the heart of the state is the central valley and the eponymous capital city. Here, visitors are attracted to the ruins at Monte Alban as well as those of Mitla and Yagul, all UNESCO World Heritage Sites, along with the Historic Center of Oaxaca. A second tourist area is along the coastal strip, which has a warm climate and many beaches.
Oaxaca has one of the highest populations of indigenous people of all Mexican states, with the largest group being the Zapotec, who predominate around the central valley. The primary language of Oaxaca is Spanish, but for many this is not their native language. Zapotec is widely spoken in the central valley, and other indigenous languages are spoken in their respective regions.…… [Read More]
As for how one company can be part of both the internal and external supply chain networks, this is actually easier than it seems to be. The external supply chain refers to factors such as political, economic, technological and geographical. Internal refers to the departments and machines that go into getting items and supplies to where they go. An easy example of a situation where a company obviously and extensively touches both, one can speak about Fedex or UPS. If the supply chain of those companies is not working well, there will be obvious implications of both an internal and external supply chain nature as the consequences will relate to both getting the job done and to the political factors that come with not getting the job done properly. To use a less obvious example, a volcano erupting would create havoc for both methids since it is a…… [Read More]
The Philippines existed as a loose body of island tribes until the nation was settled by the Spanish in the 16th century following Magellan's arrival. For 300 years the Philippines was part of the Spanish Empire (indeed, its name Philippines is in honor of Spain's Philip II, who reigned during Villalobos's exploration of the islands in the mid-16th century). The U.S. became involved in the Philippines during the Spanish-American War and their presence there prompted the Philippine-American War (Constantino, 1975). The U.S. maintained control of the islands until after WW2 when the Philippines became independent.
The geography of the Philippines consists of a vast archipelago of more than 7000 islands. In all, the islands equate to 115,000 square miles of land, with about a third of that land mass being coastal (CIA, 2009). The islands sit on the famous Ring of Fire, a string of volcanoes in the…… [Read More]
He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.
Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.
Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…… [Read More]
It needs to be well understood because just like knowledge, ingorance cannot be talked about without basing on some individual or group. It should therfore be negotiated soically because it is socially constructed. Ignorance is treated indiscriminately and unitary whereby terms like uncertainity, ambiguity and vagueness are considered synonymous by most writing on disaster.Turner together with several other writers in the fields of disasters and hazards refer to about three ignorance senses consisting of distortion which he also calls misinformation, incompleteness and irrelevance whereby relevant information is discounted and overlooked. In order to prevent disasters, there are various ways in information which would be need is classified. The things which are not known; what is known but not entirely appreciated; something which someone knows but does not present it collectively with other information in a timely manner when there will be realization of its significance and action of its message…… [Read More]
Soft and hard targets and defined and discussed as well as the need for population defense and the idea that with a coordinated, comprehensive response plan and team implementation, the disaster related damage can be minimized. This chapter is devoted to covering the terrorism aspect of disaster, and helps to tie together the previous two chapters.
Chapter 12 deals with mass casualties and evacuation. This chapter also ties in closely to the previous chapters regarding terrorism weapons of mass destruction. Large-scale evacuations have their own set of challenges, as do dealing with huge numbers of casualties. And because this is not a very common scenario, many fire departments and local authorities are not well prepared for these types of emergencies. Kramer discusses the dire necessity of proper planning and execution of disaster relief efforts during these specific times of crisis. The National Disaster Medical System is discussed as well as…… [Read More]
Prisoner's Dilemma situations are more common than some might actually think they are, as most people often come across them in their daily lives. Given the fact that Axelrod has a background in political science, he observed that PD is frequently encountered in the U.S. Senate. Senators are accustomed to helping out their colleagues, as they are perfectly aware that their assistance will materialize in their colleagues repaying them. The help that U.S. senators provide to their colleagues ranges from trading votes to attracting voters for them. One can actually claim that reciprocity is one of the most important factors in the U.S. Senate (Axelrod, p. 5).
However, it appears that matters in the senate were not always like this, and, that just a few decades ago senators seemed more willing to support concepts like deceitfulness and falseness instead of assisting each-other. Surprisingly, people in the U.S. Senate have become…… [Read More]
This is, of course, only one of countless scenarios which are the product of landmine-based negligence and which can have deadly consequences. Unfortunately, today the world's largest military power also remains the most immovable object standing between the global community and a worldwide ban on the use of landmines or comparable explosive devices. In addition to its continued experimentation with landmine technologies, the United States maintains stockpiles of landmines throughout the world and in many cases has detailed wartime strategies that employed landmines significantly in creating lines of defense. Certainly, this describes its situation in Korea. Here, Stohl (2000) reports, "sccording to the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL), the United States has an enormous stockpile of landmines in Korea, including 40,000 Air Force Gator Mines, 10,000 Army Volcano mines, a small number of man-portable Modular Pack Mine Systems (MOPMS), and 1.2 million M16 and M14 dumb mines. The ICBL…… [Read More]
g. volcanoes, etc.), but not on schedule; 3) Just because something is plausible does not make it true. The events on popular television series like Star Trek or Star Wars are not only plausible, but have scientific merit. That does not make them true, only possible (Kraus, 2007; Cavelos, 2000); 4) Conspiracy theories abound in numerous genres and surrounding numerous events. Examination of Marshalls' prose and "science," while seemingly credible does try to sell a product and only hints and speculates at facts without peer-reviewed data sources (Yowcrooks, 2009). While positive in tone, it also appears that if one believes conspiracy theories, most of us have only 133 weeks to live; or simply turn the calendar to a new page?
Cavelos, J. (2000). The Science of Star Wars. New York: St. Martins.
"Exposing the Crooks Behind the Myth" (2009). Yowcrooks.blogspot.com. Cited in:
Gore, Al. (2009). "An Inconvenient Truth."…… [Read More]
In that regard, non-human animals could be farmed and harvested for their biological, thermal and electrical energy much more easily without any need to worry about their subjective perception, leaving the artificial intelligence entities with the option of simply eradicating human life altogether. Finally, it is never explained who is responsible for maintaining the working telephone lines in the real world without human activity and telephone companies.
Naturally, the plight of human beings in Matrix seems horrific from the perspective of autonomy and free will. However, beyond that level, their suspension in a convincing reality may not necessarily be as bad as it is depicted and assumed to be. Philosophers have realized for many centuries that there really is not objective way to prove that our reality is any more real than the reality of the human beings suspended in aqueous solution in Matrix. It could be that…… [Read More]
Moreover, the global neglect of women (in terms of science) is reflected in the fact that women have been excluded as experimental subjects in drug research, Rosser continues. Certainly pregnant women have been excluded from experiments with pesticides and radioactive materials, but beyond that Rosser explains that "…these drugs and materials are then used without ever having been tested on women" (1991, p. 143). And yet notwithstanding their exclusion from testing, women's research has led to a vast resource of knowledge vis-a-vis the natural environment.
To wit, Rachel Carson correctly extrapolated the deadly effects on the environment due to agricultural pesticides (DDT in particular), and in fact changed the way the government approached pesticides (1991, p. 144). Indeed, Carson's books ("Silent Spring," "Under the Sea-Wind," and others) had an enormous impact on the nation's grasp of environmental dangers and led eventually to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency…… [Read More]