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The purpose of the Voting Rights Act
President Lyndon Johnson appended her signature to the Voting Rights Act on the 6th of August, 1965, with the aim of doing away with racial prejudice in voting. (Mickey et.al 2017)
Prior to the signing of the VRA into law, African Americans were robbed of the right to vote in majority of the Southern states. It is a wonder how this happened and the 15th Amendment had already stipulated that the government will allow all citizens to vote, regardless of their color, race or whether they were slaves before. (Coffee et.al 2015)
The VRA changed the overseers of elections in those areas known for racial discrimination. It also scraped the administration of literacy tests, as this was one obvious tactic of preventing the African Americans from voting. In addition, the law made it legally possible to fight for justice in the event of…… [Read More]
In the gender category the most likely to vote is the female voter that has a mild advantage over the male type of voter. This assumption should be analyzed carefully, as often in survey as well as in collected votes some mistakes may appear. The difference between the female and the male voter is very small which indicates that both genders have more or less equal vote intentions and, therefore, reasons for such a small gap cannot be traced to any significant difference in the two elements of the analysis.
In the race category, it is not difficult to asses which of the mentioned races are more likely to vote, as the segment White race is higher than the next identified ones: lack and Hispanic. Nevertheless, in any voting behavior analysis is it important to also identify which of the "all races" element is predominant, as it might turn out…… [Read More]
Role of Diminishing Marginal Return on Voter Turnout
This paper looks at the effects of diminishing marginal returns on voter turnout by comparing voter turnout in various countries. The paper will look at countries with both high and low voter turnout and attempt to explain the differences in the importance of the vote in explaining the differences.
Voter Turnout in Established and Less-Established Democracies
While the leaders in turnout during the past few decades have been mainly new democracies, when one looks at broader figures there does appear to be a difference in turnout between "established democracies" and "less-established democracies.
Political scientist Arend Lijphart, categorized established democracies as all countries that are democratic now, and have been democratic for the last 20 years, and which have a population of at least a quarter of a million people (International IDEA, 2000).
A. Discussion of Data from Established Democracies vs. Less-Established…… [Read More]
Voting is one of the most important rights in a democratic society. In the United States, this right has been intermittently fought for by minority groups such as black people, women and others. It is a right that has been earned by pioneers and fighters, and one that is being taken for granted all too easily in today's society. According to a column by Hillary Clinton (2001) for example, young people between the ages of 18 and 24 are losing interest in voting. A survey conducted by the National Association of Secretaries of State concludes that this generation may become the first class of non-voters. This does not bode well for the United States of the future. The country's past is riddled with struggle in order to reach the state of democracy that everybody enjoys today. The right to vote is one of the most important privileges granted by this…… [Read More]
S. House of Representatives from that state. hy set up a presidential election in which voters do not directly elect the president? elch (32) explains that the founders devised this system "…because of their view that the people could not be trusted. The people were seen as an unruly mob threatening stable, orderly government," she continued. Even after Gore successfully petitioned the Florida Supreme Court to have election officials count 9,000 previously uncounted ballots by hand, that may well have given him the victory in Florida, the U.S. Supreme Court trumped the Florida High Court and ultimately gave Florida's 25 electoral votes -- and the presidency -- to Republican candidate Bush (the High Court vote was 5-4: 5 Republican justices to 4 Democrat justices).
Meanwhile, according to professor Mary C. Segers (Rutgers University), the U.S. system of government actually "enhances citizen impact on government" (Segers, 2002, p. 182). The Founders…… [Read More]
Considering how firmly McCain expresses his support for continuing the war in Iraq although under different command, it is clear that he represents a solution for the current situation. Our nation needs a leader with experience and that has the courage to make the toughest decisions in order to achieve victory. Although McCain has shown his support for the war against terrorism, he has also criticized the ability of President ush of conducting our troops. McCain comes with a different view of the war, with a different solution that will lead us to victory.
Senator John McCain is the most suitable political actor to become president in 2008 because he has shown commitment to his believes, he constantly fought against governmental spending and corporate interest even since the early 80s, and because he backs his believes all the way. He is a supporter of traditional moral values and he believes…… [Read More]
American Civil ight Movement
Compare and contrast the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) on the basis of their leadership, philosophy, and tactics.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was a civil rights organization that was initiated by African-Americans in 1957 (Fairclough, 2001). The movement was primarily aimed at ending the segregation and discrimination against the black African population in the U.S. The core philosophy of SCLC revolved around to seek civil rights and economic justice for the people of Southern States having majority of African-Americans.
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) actually aimed achieving same objectives as those of SCLC but through non-violent sit-in and defiance of segregated dining and lunch services. The core philosophy of SNCC was also eliminating segregation but the mission statement was narrower compared to SCLC.
The most prominent leader of SCLC was Martin Luther King, Jr. Other prominent…… [Read More]
S. Constitution, and Susan B. Anthony was very upset at that.
For one thing, the women's suffrage movement had vigorously supported the abolition of slavery well prior to (and, of course, during the Civil War); and now that blacks were free, and were given the right to vote (although many blacks in America didn't really get to vote until the Voting ights Act of 1965 guaranteed their right to cast votes) prior to the women in American having the right to vote.
For another thing, many women were already stretched to the maximum in terms of the patience over their lack of voting rights.
According to an article in www.About.com (Women's History: Susan B. Anthony), "Some of Susan B. Anthony's writings were...quite racist by today's standards." She made the point that "educated white women would be better voters than 'ignorant' black men or immigrant men." In the late 1860s, she…… [Read More]
Because of the fact that they ae Negos, they have been oppessed and intimidated on seveal occasions. Malcolm X also makes some histoical claims when demanding the civil ights. He states that Nego evolt has been going on since 1945 in the whole wold and in 1964 will see that it then emeges to be a black evolution. He claims that this evolution has been happening in Asia, Afica and Latin Ameica fo the not white individuals. The blacks who wee colonized by the Euopeans I Asia have been involved in the stuggle fo since 1945. Fo the Mexican-Ameican stuggle fo equality also involves some histoical statement especially in 1965 when efeing to Cesa Chavez who has had majo contibution fo the La Raza Unida quest fo the ights though non-violent means.
Reason fo the timing of the civil ights demands
In the Montgomey bus boycott, the people ae demanding…… [Read More]
Popular Film Cultures Have Propelled Civil and Social Rights
Culture is referred as shared interaction, patterns, cognitive constructs, behaviors as well as effective understanding learned through socialization and transferred from one generation to the other. In the United States and outside the United States, films have become a powerful tool to transmit cultures. In 2009, there were more than 6.8 billion films released compared to the world population that was roughly the same number. Moreover, films have produced revenue of more than $30 billion annually, and its impact on films on people's behaviors is staggering. For example, many people across the world are imitating American culture by watching their movies. Moreover, films have become a powerful tool for propelling civil and social rights.[footnoteRef:1] The social civil rights are the class of rights and freedoms people demand from the government, private individuals or social organizations. Civil rights movements protect people from…… [Read More]
During the nineteenth century, many accomplishments in women's rights occurred. As a result of these early efforts, women today enjoy many privileges. They are able to vote and become candidates for political elections, as well as own property and enjoy leadership positions.
During the early nineteenth century, the women's rights movement came into effect. omen like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony created many organizations for equality and independence. However, even with these activist groups, victory would not be fast or easy.
Changing social conditions for women during the early nineteenth century, combined with the idea of equality, led to the birth of the woman suffrage movement. For example, women started to receive more education and to take part in reform movements, which involved them in politics. As a result, women started to ask why they were not also allowed to vote.
The Start of the Revolution…… [Read More]
hen then Governor George allace ordered state troopers to disband the marchers, using tear gas, clubs and whips, President Lyndon Johnson federalized the National Guard and the march continued (Modern 157). The national media coverage of these events led Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which outlawed discriminatory voter-registration tests, and authorized federal registration of persons and federally administered voting procedures in any political subdivision or state that discriminated electorally against a particular group (Modern 157).
Nine days after the assassination of King on April 4, 1968, Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which banned discrimination in most housing and provided penalties for those attempting to interfere with individual civil rights, thus adding protection for civil rights workers and others (Modern 157). Additional legislation added enforcement provisions to the federal government's rules concerning discriminatory mortgage-lending practices, which means that all lenders must report to the…… [Read More]
By the late 1970s, the Cold War had wound down, and the Soviets posed less of a threat than they had over the past three decades. Many civil rights for blacks, women, and minorities in America had been won during the Cold War. Many other hard fights were still to come, but ultimately, the Cold War marked the height of American fear of aggression, and American gains in civil rights.
In conclusion, the Cold War was a major contributor to civil rights for a number of reasons. Civil rights were hard won, and many people gave their lives in the ultimate sacrifice to obtain freedom and equality. Civil rights came about for a number of reasons, but pressure from world forces on American democracy was one reason that civil rights became so important to many political leaders. Without pressure from much of the world, civil rights may have been even…… [Read More]
Furthermore, this brief introduction details the different types of legislation regarding men and women that Wollstonecraft supported. Next, this chapter moves onto Wollstonecraft's own life and actions, as well as a brief description of the time period in which she lived. These descriptions allow the reader to understand how Wollstonecraft was both revolutionary and conventional, in addition to how society encouraged and discouraged her various roles. Furthermore, I introduce these ideas to personify the struggle in which Wollstonecraft operated every day. It is this struggle that I emphasize during this chapter, giving the reader an idea of the challenging nature of Wollstonecraft's life because of it, in addition to its contribution to her struggle on paper. This chapter also introduces the reactions that others had to her work, as well as a tribute to its lasting contributions. I remark that Wollstonecraft is a strong voice among other female writers and…… [Read More]
Minority Rights Revolution
The Civil Rights movement of the 1960s brought about several concordant social changes in the United States. What began as primarily an attempt to liberate African-Americans from continued systematic oppression in the form of school segregation Jim Crow laws turned out to be as much of a boon to American women and minority groups other than blacks, especially Latinos. Among the issues shared in common by all oppressed groups include voting rights, equal access to education, and equal employment opportunities. Creating social programs and institutions to provide especially for the needs of all minority groups was a logical extension of the Civil Rights movement, which appealed to women and Latinos as well as to African-Americans. The design of blanket-institutions and legislation was definitely a step in the right direction, as oppressed groups do suffer from similar forms and consequences of discrimination. However as John D. Skrentny points…… [Read More]
Women Activists Dilemma to support or Oppose the 15th Amendment as evidenced by the split in the Women’s suffrage Movement
After the Civil war, three amendments were passed which massively transformed the women’s rights movement. These were the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments. The thirteenth amendment approved in the year 1865 declared slavery illegal (Parker, 1849). Thus, all the women who were previously enslaved became free and acquired protection by human rights. The fourteenth amendment declared that everyone born in the U.S was a legal U.S citizen and should not be deprived off their rights including all slaves. Moreover, the law added that all male American citizens had the right to vote (Anderson, 590).
Finally, there was the controversial Fifteenth Amendment, passed in 1870. The amendment granted black American men the right to vote by stating that the rights of U.S citizens to participate in elections must not be…… [Read More]
Much like African-American leaders and reformers that brought about the end of racial discrimination and segregation via the Civil Rights Movement, in 1866, Stanton created the American Equal Rights Association, aimed at organizing women in the long fight for equal rights. In 1868, the U.S. Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution which "defined citizenship and voters as male" and excluded women; in 1870, Congress ratified the Fifteenth Amendment which also excluded women in favor of African-American males ("The History of Women's Suffrage," Internet).
At this point, the women's movement split into two factions, the National Woman
Suffrage Association, headed by Stanton and Susan . Anthony, and the American Woman Suffrage Association, a more conservative organization headed by Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone. y 1890, these two opposing factions joined forces to create the National American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Gurko, 145).…… [Read More]
It shows that Bush did not ensure the carrying out of exactly accurate procedures detailed in the 'Help America Vote Act of 2002', and this had the inevitable result of the lack of appropriate funds for the purpose of election reform until it was a mite too late. The Act that ensures the equality of education for all the children of the United States of America was also not implemented appropriately. The 'No Child Left Behind' act was supposed to make sure that all children would enjoy equal opportunities in the field of education irrespective of their social background and status and race and color. This was however not carried out in the fullest sense of the term during the Bush Administration, and this meant that children were in fact left behind, and their civil rights were thus being violated. Another facet of the negative aspects of the Bush administration…… [Read More]
The 1960s was a period that Americans remember as being a period bursting with activities and movements. There was a lot that these years brought out. Some of the things that the period is remembered for are the many movements, including the civil rights and hippies movements, evolution of art and music and a promotion of love and peace with activism against the war in Vietnam. There were many uprisings in the society, especially in terms of culture, with regard to politics and socially as well. As a result of this, a lot of change was experienced in society. The movements for the rights of African-Americans became very strong during this period and forced the then president Lyndon Johnston to push for a Civil Rights Act, which was enacted in 1964 by Congress.
Although the enactment of this Act was welcomed, it was not sufficient and thus, more…… [Read More]
human rights, social rights, and civil or political rights. For each, provide a brief description of an issue from the news that exemplifies each type of right.
Current human rights issues
One supposed danger of an expansive definition of human rights is so-called 'rights inflation,' whereby an increasingly broad definition of human rights dilutes the original meaning of the word. Those who fear such 'rights inflation' stress how definitions of human rights "deal with extremely important goods, protections, and freedoms" (Nickel 2010). Examples of these include freedom from slavery, a fair trial, education, and freedom from genocide. However, arriving at a fixed definition of human rights has proven to be extremely challenging. Human rights tend to be based on international norms, and thus vary over time. But there is controversy even between nations as to what is a 'human right' -- hence the controversy when leaked documents revealed that "U.S.…… [Read More]
Under the new policy, the United States was committed to keep all commitments to treaties, provide a shield if nuclear power threatens the freedom of an ally or a nation that is important to U.S. security, and, in cases of other aggression, supply military economic assistance in accordance with treaty commitments, but should look to the nation threatened to assume primary responsibility to provide its own manpower for its defense. The goal was to reduce U.S. aid as the other country strengthens its own military for protection against attack.
Each of these movements created feelings that action was needed to force the government to enforce the laws they had created. Some of them took actions in protests, some in advocating for certain rights, and some took actions using violence. Where women took actions to advocate for women's rights, youth took actions of rebellion against traditions and voicing discontent and disagreement…… [Read More]
omen's Rights Movement In The 1970s
In A People's History of the United States, Zinn begins his narrative of the liberation of women with the women's suffrage movement of the early twentieth century. However, according to Zinn, even after women were granted their vote, their identity was still largely measured by their success in living up to the idealized role models of wife and mother till the overt feminist movement of the late 1960s. Till then, the only time that women were allowed to break the traditional stereotype mold of femininity and domesticity was during periods such as war, civil strife or extreme economic conditions (Zinn, 503-6).
Zinn, in his account, gives a detailed description of the events that occurred in the 1960s. omen of all ages took active part in the civil rights movement of the sixties, which in a sense laid the ground for women collectively voicing their…… [Read More]
Nonetheless, Lu sees some hope for transgressive representations of Asian women in media, particularly in those films which actively seek to explode stereotypes regarding Asian women not simply by fulfilling the desires of a white, patriarchal society but rather by demonstrating full-fledged, unique characters whose Asian and female identity is only one constituent part of their personality and whose expression is not limited to the roles prescribed for Asian women in American media (24-26).
Lu, Lynn. "Critical Visions: The Representation and Resistance of Asian omen." Dragon
Ladies: Asian-American Feminists Breathe Fire. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End
Press, 1999. 184-189. Print.
Mihesuah, David Abbot. "Feminists, Tribalists, or Activists?" Indigenous American omen:
Decolonization, Empowerment, Activism. 1st ed. Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska
Press, 2003. 115-123. Print.
Smith, Andrea. "Sexual Violence as a Tool of Genocide." Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End Press,…… [Read More]
U.S. AFTER 1865
DYNAMICS OF GENDER POLITICS IN THE 1910S AND 1920S
In the period during World War 1, the place of the women was in chemical plants, steel foundries, and munitions factories as a way of serving their country. After the creation of the Army Corps of Nurses, many women went abroad as nurses, and this gave them strong moral arguments for their voting rights. Women tactics and immoral way of treatment forced the Congress to act on the issue, and it was on August 26, 1920, that President Wilson declares his favor on women suffrage. From this day on, the style of women changed and between 1910 and 1920, many women were present in the labor force. Moreover, a notable difference was also evident in the kind of works the women engaged in, and this led to the decrease in the number of female household servants, dressmakers, farmhands,…… [Read More]
Women Voting Rights
The author of this report has been asked to offer a brief essay that centers on a few particular topics as it relates to women and their place and function within the suffrage movement as well as other pushes for equal rights including in the military, the workforce and so forth. The particular events and topics that will be touched upon will include women and work, women's new deal, working for victory: women and war, women in the military and working women in war time. While women are still facing equality-related struggles now, it was much worse for them in the 1800's and beyond and even into some of the 1900's.
When it comes to women and work, the reasons for their slow progress over the duration of the existence of the United States as well as beyond that is not hard to figure out. Indeed, women…… [Read More]
Things Fall Apart" Achebe before referencing
Electronic Voting Machines: Technology's failure to rehabilitate American's confidence in the voting process
Theoretically, counting votes should be easy. After all, surely it is simply the accumulation and the verifying of data? However, when America attempted to adopt touch-screen, electronic voting on a wide scale, the result was a fiasco. "There was a wonderful confluence of events. There was a vague product requirement coming from an agency that doesn't really understand technology (the U.S. Congress), foisting a system on other government agencies that may not have asked for it. There was a relatively small time frame for development and a lot of money. Finally, the government did not allow for even the notion of failure. By 2004, darn it, we'd all have touch screen voting" (Cringely, 2003). Congress expected to adopt touch-screen voting on a widespread basis in the next election, after the controversy…… [Read More]
Freedom and Equality in the 20th century
AN UN-ENDING FIGHT
Two Primary Methods against Segregation Policies
The Civil Rights Movement of African-Americans in the United States, also called the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, consisted of mass actions, aimed at ending racial discrimination and segregation against them (Tavaana, 2015). At the same time, it aimed at acquiring legal recognition and federal protection of their rights as citizens, as enshrined in the Constitution and federal law. The Movement was particularly active in the South between 1954 and 1968 (Tavaana).
The two primary methods used by the Movement in pursuing its ends were non-violent protests and civil disobedience (Tavaana, 2015). These and other campaigns were forms of civil resistance. They triggered crises and induced the holding of meaningful talks between them and government authorities. These initiatives were effective in the federal, state, and local levels of government as well as businesses and communities.…… [Read More]
High turnouts also helped to determine several key local and state elections. The large numbers of Latino voters in California also helped secure the passage of Proposition 8, therefore revoking gay married couples of their rights. A majority of 53% of Latino voters supported Proposition 8 (Ferriss & Reese 1). This is also thought to be due to the higher association with religious institutions over white liberal voters in California
Young voters also flocked to the polls this election in record numbers. These voters represented a large liberal majority who voted primarily Democratic in most election decisions. Many sources have been labeling this 2008 election as the second largest youth turnout in the whole of American history, (Morgenstern 1). Unprecedented numbers of young voters showed up to the polls to make the voice of a young America heard. Somewhere within the ranges of 22 and 24 million young adults between…… [Read More]
Voter Through Congressional District esearch
The bipartisan structure which defines the American system of democratic governance is premised on the notion that informed voters, when provided with an opportunity to select their own leadership, will invariably alternate between candidates with whom they identify closely, and members of the opposing party who offer meaningful reform. This maxim of American politics has resulted in a pattern of Presidential ascendency whereby neither party has captured the White House in three consecutive elections since the four consecutive campaign victories notched by Franklin Delano oosevelt more than a half-century ago. Nonetheless, there are still pockets of provincial loyalty which still exist throughout the national electorate, with family histories and cultural touchstones serving to elevate one party above its competition in the hearts and minds of voters. In the second congressional district of Tennessee -- an area which spans the metropolitan borders of Knoxville, as well…… [Read More]
Death Penalty in Michigan
There are, at present, 38 states with the death penalty and 12 without (deathpenaltyinfo.org 2004). Michigan is one of the 12. From 1976, there have been 906 executions in the U.S.: 517 were white, 310 blacks; 57 hispanic; and 22, other races. More than 80% of these cases involved white victims, although only 50% of murder victims were white. Case studies on race showed that 96% had racial undertones, whereby 98% of the chief district attorneys were white and only 1% were black. Another study conducted in Philadelphia revealed that more blacks were given the death penalty than white and other races at 38%. Still another study conducted in North Carolina said that the death sentence went up by 3.5 times when the victims were white (deathpenaltyinfo.org). Records show that 37 states with the death penalty used lethal injection method in 739 executions, 151 by electrocution,…… [Read More]
Wave -- Business Entity Type Discussion
Read the scenario set out below and discuss the questions that follow it:
rt Fleming is a design engineer with a proven track record in the field of electronic musical instruments. He recently designed a new VLSI (very large scale integrated) chip. This chip is meant to be the heart and soul of a digital sampling keyboard to be called WVE. Fleming believes the WVE will set a new industry standard. He wishes to organize a business enterprise to build and market it. He has a meeting with his lawyer and conveys to her the following bits of information:
It will take approximately 2 years to turn the VLSI chip into a marketable product
Given that is true he will have to live on something….whether it be the savings or something else. There obviously wouldn't be any WVE revenue coming in. He's have to…… [Read More]
ights of the employees and employers in the UAE
This paper is divided into two parts: art one highlights the responsibilities and rights of the employers working within the UAE; the second part highlights the rights of the employees, including expatriates, working within the UAE.
Employer ights and Duties
Prevalence of Arabic
In all sorts of records, contracts, files, statements and documents Arabic language will be used and its use will also be compulsory for the instructions and the circulars used in the organization by the employer to the employees and if in any case there is any sort of foreign language prevailing then Arabic shall prevail over all the other texts (Labor Law, 2001).
ATICLE (4) - Amounts payable
The amount paid to the employees or any of hidden beneficiaries under the law shall be based on the value of the movable and immovable property and items of the…… [Read More]
This made the United States the only estern nation to criminalize contraception at that time (Time). hile women (and men) continued to illegally access birth control, often using devices labeled differently for contraceptive purposes, it would be decades before birth control could be openly used within the United States. In 1916, Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in the United States, but it is shut down in 10 days (Time). It was not until 1938 that the federal ban against birth control was lifted by a federal judge (Time).
hile women did not enjoy an abrupt increase in civil rights following the Civil ar, it is important to realize that there was a gradual increase in attention towards civil rights and support for women's rights after the Civil ar. In 1868, the National Labor Union supported equal pay for equal work, which was the first real call for…… [Read More]
Should Australia Have a Bill of ights?
Back between 1992 and 1994 in Australia, the Human ights and Equal Opportunity Commission together with the Australian National University (ANU) which was a center for Public Law made a publication that contained volumes of essays explaining the desirability for a Bill of ights. The survey conducted by ANU reported that over 70% of the Australians where for a Bill of rights. 8% of the citizens were against a Bill of ights, and 22% could not decide on the issue. On asking whether they wanted a referendum to assist in the determination of the adoption of a Bill of ights, over 85% of Australians supported necessity for a referendum. Their argument was that integrating a Bill of ights and implementing it to the latter, could ensure a strong national identity for Australians. The statistics explain how much the citizens of Australia…… [Read More]
Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Fichte's Philosophy of ight and Ethics
Why does Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Moral and political anxieties animate Fichte's entire philosophy and his perceptions to these issues that are innovative and at times tied together. His responses to Kant's vital philosophy in 1790 was a retaliation to the Kantian moral perception and its outset of human self-esteem as embedded in freedom and the moral outlook of human beings as normal agents. Fichte's perception on Wissenschaftslehre principle was a far from the conceptions developed in 1974 by the philosophers of Foundations of the entire Wissenschaftslehre. Fichte's major works in the principle of right and morality are extensively covered in these two areas; Fichte's Foundation of Natural ight (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy) And the…… [Read More]
Australian Bill of Rights
Maintaining a feasible balance between free will and government control is a constant and historic ideal that has driven the evolution of society for thousands of years. Law has been self imposed on mankind in order to regulate unwanted behavior and streamline acceptable and appropriate lines of acceptable living. Morals, ethics and personal preferences from all segments of society should be accurately represented to design a comprehensive and ultimately fair and balanced code of conduct. hile the struggle to make sense of this seemingly perpetual argument seems to evade modern civilization, Australia's current constitutional debate is worthy of discussion.
The purpose of this essay is to evaluate both the arguments for and against Australia adopting a Bill of Rights to be included in their national constitution. I will present several arguments profiling the possible outcomes of following the status quo or implementing a new federal policy…… [Read More]
PESIDENT EAGAN'S HUMAN IGHTS ECOD
Was onald eagan a Good President?
President eagan's International Human ights ecord
President eagan's International Human ights ecord
The Cold War and Apartheid
On September 26, 1986, President onald eagan (1986) sent a message to the House of epresentatives that he would not sign into law H.. 4868 because it imposed punitive economic sanctions against South Africa as a whole. His stated rationale was that the people most affected by the sanctions would be the Black workers, not the ruling White elite. eagan agreed that apartheid needed to end, but not at the expense of those already suffering the most under White rule. On the surface this logic seems admirable, even honorable, but others have questioned eagan's motives. Although eagan did not use the exact phrase "constructive engagement," this term would come to represent his policy stance towards apartheid. eagan's message to the House followed…… [Read More]
Voting is a privilege and a right. A right that was denied for millions of people. Only until the passing of the Voting ights Act did minorities have a chance to not only vote, but change the face of the government. Before 1965, minorities, especially blacks, faced violent opposition in an attempt to stifle their voices and control the way the government nominates its officials.
Now that President Obama has shown what can happen when minorities are given a voice in politics, there have come some major setbacks. The nation in the next presidential election will adopt one of two sides, a far left or a far right. With the recent death of Head Justice Scalia and the refusal of Congress to allow the nomination of Merrick Garland, it is safe to say the nation is in turmoil in several ways. To understand how things became so unstable it is…… [Read More]
new convention on the rights of domestic workers be enforced?
This paper is a treatise on the topic of the new Convention on Decent Work for Domestic Workers, established by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in Geneva, Switzerland on June 16, 2011 as ILO Convention 189. The convention may alternately be referred to in literature as the Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189). The convention will hereafter be referred to in this document as C189. We will outline and discuss salient issues and challenges surrounding the acceptance and enforcement of C189, a landmark convention in the eyes of many. Although indisputably necessary and essential, C189 has nevertheless been controversial in its content and interpretation, and will continue to be so in upcoming years. C189 will require not only international cooperation for its success, but also the development and ratification of new and advanced provisions in international law. The challenges inherent…… [Read More]
Board of Education of Topeka. This case represented a watershed for Civil ights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in this instance, the legislative system that ran the country.
By doing so, African-Americans helped to end the…… [Read More]
The United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Illinois and argued that the Fourteenth Amendment was designed to protect against race discrimination only…" Gibson, 2007, Background to Muller v. Oregon section ¶ 1). The Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not include the protection of women's rights.
The following depicts Justice Bradley's concurring opinion regarding Bradwell's
Man is, or should be, woman's protector and defender. The natural and proper timidity and delicacy which belongs to the female sex evidently unfits it for many of the occupations of civil life. The constitution of the family organization, which is founded in the divine ordinance, as well in the nature of things, indicates the domestic sphere as that which properly belongs to the domain and functions of womanhood.... The paramount destiny and mission of woman are to fulfill the noble and benign offices of wife and mother. This is the law…… [Read More]
Women winning the right to vote, far too long after the founding of America, was of course an important 'first step' in ensuring that women become full participants in the American experiment. But understanding the subtle cultural discrimination, as manifest in John Adams' treatment of his wife, and the subsidiary complaints of Stanton, Wollstonecraft, and Woolf also demonstrate that simply passing a law is not enough to change the rights of women. Women have been treated as children, and also viewed as incapable of truly realizing their dreams because of their capacity to be mothers. This has remained unchanged in the cultural discourse and memory in a way that affects all of our perceptions, male and female, and unless we remember this, we may be too easily seduced by the achievements, however remarkable, of a few talented women who have been able to chip away at the 'glass ceiling.'
Part…… [Read More]
The churches provided open opposition to Hitler, particularly as he had declared a form of war on them as he wanted the state to take over the churches and to direct them in ways compatible with National Socialism. Various religious leaders were arrested, hundreds of them, eventually resulting in a diminishing of the resistance from that front. Shirer notes that this persecution of religion did not arouse the German people as it should have: "A people who had so lightly given up their political and cultural and economic freedoms were not, except for a relatively few, going to die or even risk imprisonment to preserve freedom of worship" (Shirer 240).
hile a large proportion of the intellectual class has rightly been blamed for failing in its responsibility to criticize the rise of National Socialism, there were also leading men in philosophy and education, history, jurisprudence, economics, physics, and other disciplines…… [Read More]
Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Amelia Bloomer were all instrumental in shifting the status of women in American society. Their writings reveal the personalities, assumptions, and values of the authors. Each of these women took incredible personal risks by challenging the underlying assumptions in the society that women were not valid, valuable members of society. The place of women in American society prior to suffrage was no better than domestic servitude. Anthony forever aligns herself with the likes of Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., by using the technique civil disobedience to achieve social justice. Each of these women recognized the connection between slavery of African-Americans and slavery of women. They each fought for abolition as well as suffrage, and therefore understood that women's rights were human rights.
When Anthony, Stanton, and Bloomer fought for equality, they did so in a time when more than fifty percent…… [Read More]
Australia Have a Bill of ights?
Australia is the last remaining Common Law country without a Bill or ights or Human ights Bill. It is important to note that the Australian variant of liberalism differs from the Anglo-American model in two important ways. First, the establishment of Australia as a series of British colonies under authoritarian governors and the absence of any political revolution has meant a lesser stress on the idea of individual rights vs. The state. There has been no one in Australian history to shout 'Give me liberty or give me death', no real pressure to incorporate a Bill of ights into our Constitution (owse, 1978).
Second, these factors combined with the problems of economic development in Australia and the generally inhospitable nature of the land, a staple theme of Australian literature, has meant an absence of any real laissez-faire tradition. 'Socialism' may be abhorred in the…… [Read More]
new covenant on the rights of domestic workers be enforced?
This paper outlines a brief proposal for a detailed treatise on the topic of the new Convention on Decent Work for Domestic Workers, which was established on June 16, 2011 by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in Geneva, Switzerland. The forthcoming treatise will discuss the issues and challenges surrounding the acceptance and enforcement of this essential but controversial covenant, which will require international cooperation for its success as well as the development and ratification of new and advanced provisions in this emerging area of international law. The challenges inherent in this covenant include not only the creation of accepted cross-border reporting and enforcement measures, but may also involve fundamental changes to cultures and values in certain problematic regions such as Saudi Arabia. In such countries, centuries-old traditions and views will be required to shift, evolve and adapt to conform to…… [Read More]
Every step of the African-American journey was a small one but it took a great of steps to make any headway. Mama knew this and wanted alter to realize it and be proud of his past so he could be proud of his future.
Dreams help us define people. e can see how the pre-civil rights mindset affected alter's mother as she understands the difficulties of her people and when she sees an opportunity to improve her family's situation, she takes it. She fights with alter because she watched her husband work long days. She knows what alter cannot and when he begins to whine she tells him, "e was going backward 'stead of forwards -- talking about killing babies and wishing each other was dead . . . hen it gets like that in life -- you just got to do something different, push on out and do something…… [Read More]
Carter had to deal with these powers and stand for what was right, for the future and the dignity of the common man. His stand on human rights is looked to as an example today.
In spite of all the controversy, Carter maintained a surprisingly successful foreign policy for someone who had so little experience. He had made a campaign pledge to make human rights a high priority, even though he found it difficult to put into practice. He accelerated the process of ending white colonial rule in Africa. He actually improved relations with Latin America by ending the treaty with Panama and handing over control of the Panama Canal. But his crowning achievement was at Camp David, September 1978, when he personally brought together the leaders of Israel and Egypt and signed a peace treaty between them, attempting to bring stability to the Middle East. He followed up by…… [Read More]
European Convention Human ights African Charter Human Peoples' ights. Critically review analyse similarities differences instruments. *Assessment criteria: Students adopt analytical approach questions a descriptive .
Human rights have become one of the most important issues under discussion at the moment, largely due to the constant fighting that is taking place especially in African countries doubled by the ongoing abuses in terms of human rights, not only in Africa but also throughout the world.
From this point-of-view, there was a clear necessity of transforming the need to have basic human rights comprised in a legally binding document into a transnational document. Such documents are now created at the level of regions and even continents. The present paper analyses two important legal documents for this area, the European Charter for Human ights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' ights. There are essential documents for Europe and Africa as they tried…… [Read More]
Declarations of Human ights
In 1776, the American Declaration of Independence, the document that started it all, became the first official written document to suggest that human beings had inalienable rights. The Founding Fathers stated, "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable ights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" (Declaration of Independence, 1776). Of course, this document was a great start in the pursuit of human rights, but one must understand it in its historical context. The document literally meant that men were created equal; women were not considered to have those same rights, and would not even get the right to vote for almost 150 years after the document. Moreover, the document did not mean that all men were created equal; the United States would have legalized slavery…… [Read More]
prisoners do have some rights, it is worth noting that their rights are extremely circumscribed, particularly when contrasted with that of the average citizen who is not incarcerated. The most salient right that prisoners have is afforded by the Eighth Amendment of the United States Constitution, which strictly forbids cruel and unusual punishment (Dolovich, 2009, p. 881). As such, prisoners are entitled to a minimum standard of living. However, in several prisons it is extremely difficult to enforce this particular amendment, largely due to the fact that much of what takes place in a prison setting is well beyond the reach of the public's discernment.
Another highly important right that prisoners have is their right to due process, which is directly related to their ability to appeal decisions and to access less restrictive forms of punishment, such as parole. Due process means that prisoners are entitled to the same rights…… [Read More]
civil rights since Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated. There are three references used for this paper.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis in 1968 as he was fighting for civil rights in America. Since that time, the country has seen changes in how minorities are treated.
Some of these changes have been positive, while others have had a negative effect on the progression of the civil rights movement.
The Civil Rights movement has seen some positive changes since the death of Martin Luther King, Jr. There are no longer segregated drinking fountains or waiting rooms in public areas. The Black community no longer fears being evicted from their homes because they chose to vote (unknown 1997).
Congressman John Lewis stated on the 40th Anniversary of the Civil Rights movement that "because of the work and sacrifices of many, we are a better people (unknown 1997)."…… [Read More]
Anti-Federalist & ill of Rights
The Anti-federalist vs. Federalist argument is one of the most heated political debates the United States has ever seen. Though the length of the actual debate was relatively short, lasting from October of 1787, when the final version of the constitution was approved by the first congressional convention to June of 1788 when Virginia was the first to ratify the constitution of the United States. The concepts ideas and standards that were set forth by both the anti-federalists and the federalists as well as other more moderate politicians are expressed throughout the foundational documentation of the United States.
Most notably the ill of Rights, or the first ten amendments of the United States Constitution are a reflective example of the compromises and victories of both sides but this can be seen elsewhere in the foundational documentation as well. Knowing this and being able to demonstrate…… [Read More]
victims and defendants rights extended by the Criminal Justice System. Followed by introduction is the comparison of both sides detailing the rights of victims and defendants by the Criminal Justice System. Conclusion given at the end shows that the Criminal Justice System has more rights to the defendants; however, rights for victims are also increasing in several states.
It has been during the last two decades that the rights of crime victims started to be known in the law. Earlier, none of the crime victims had rights during the criminal justice process. For example, they did not have any right that could notify them of court trial or the arrest or release of the defendant. Further to that they had no right to be presented during the trial or other hearings, or to make a statement to the court at sentencing or at other proceedings (Emmet County).
But now, nations…… [Read More]
In 2001, the trial court judge stated that clear and convincing confirmation demonstrated that Ms. Schiavo would have selected not to be given life-prolonging action beneath the conditions that were present. This decision was also confirmed by the Florida appeals court and the family was deprived of a hearing by the Florida Supreme Court. When Terri Schiavo's feeding tube was taken out for the second time, in 2003, the Florida legislature fashioned Terri's Law to supersede the court decision, and the tube was for a second time put back. This law was consequently stated an illegal breach of the separation of powers (Quill, 2005).
Terri Schiavo's case fascinated the nation for quite a bit of time during March of 2005 as the dying woman laid in Florida hospice. Mrs. Schiavo had been in a vegetative condition for many years, and her husband Michael Schiavo effectively asked the Florida state courts…… [Read More]
Civil ights Historical Journal Entry
Tonight I awoke to the unmistakable sounds of long restrained rage being freed from its cage. My neighbors are in the street below the grocery store I've owned for nearly two decades, decent folks who are simply trying to earn a living and raise their families the right way. While most of them are Black, and have been since the bigoted practice of "blockbusting" drove most of the Whites to migrate en masse from the neighborhood of Watts (Simpson, 2012), these people are my neighbors, and in most cases, my dear friends. Tonight though, they have become an angry mob growing larger by the minute, a constellation of fierce eyes flashing amidst the darkness, orbiting slowly around a police car, the White cop driving it, and the young Black man he is trying to arrest. As the screams and shouts become more pitched, and the…… [Read More]
Scholarship notes that these five groups are critical in managing the electoral politics of the U.N., and in the manner resolutions are adopted by group. Complications arise, for instance, because the Arab world is split between Africa and Asia, and the former Soviet Republics are split between Asia and Eastern Europe, which also includes Russia. [12: Ibid.]
The importance of understanding these groupings is that they play a strategic role in controlling issues surrounding leadership, membership, responsibilities, and structure. The success or failure of a number of campaigns and issues follows the ability to find consensus with the groups, and the individual group's ability to exercise negotiation techniques to sway other blocs. Ironically, analysis of voting records over the past few decades show that despite the importance of electoral groups, 10% of written commitments between groups and 20% of oral commitments are discounted based on misleading information or intention. [13:…… [Read More]
Success: Susan B. Anthony's Speech
The 1870s went down in history as the decade when women's movements stood strongly against oppression, demanding that women be given the same rights as men. In 1873, Susan Anthony was arrested and later released on a $100 dollar fine, all because she had voted in the presidential election the previous year. This, in her mind, amounted to oppression, and was an injustice not only to her, but to all American women. She took her stand, stating that if African-Americans, who prior to 1865 were not considered U.S. citizens, could vote, then women who were citizens by every technical definition, had every right to vote. Antony's speech, 'omen's Right to Vote' successfully combines pathos, logos, and ethos, using both facts and personal testimony to create emotional resonance in her audience. Although this speech alone was not sufficient to grant women the right to vote, it…… [Read More]
Voting isn't just important to Democracy. Voting is Democracy." I have long been proud of our country, and honored to participate in its electoral process, even if that process sometimes seems complicated and flawed. As a 38-year-old, I have voted in several different elections, all in the same voting precinct of Meigs, Georgia. My values, attitudes, and beliefs have been strongly shaped by my community. I am a person with strong and immutable values, dedication to faith and family, and to my country. hen I first registered to vote at the age of 18, I did not yet realize the power I had as an individual citizen. I still felt like a teenager, not quite a child anymore, but poised to be a fully functioning citizen of the United States. Yet it would be several more election cycles for me to recognize the potency of our democracy.
Registering to vote…… [Read More]
Brexit: The Causes of the British Vote to Leave the European Union
Brexit was the referendum vote that saw the United Kingdom pull out of the European Union. The European Union (EU) is a 29-member state egional Trade Agreement bringing together various European nations. The formation of the union saw the elimination of most barriers to the movement of labor, capital and goods between the member states. It harmonized the laws, rules and standards regarding trade amongst member nations. Most of the member states use the Euro as their currency except for Britain (ies, 2016).
The Brexit referendum had been organized on 23rd June 2016, and the issue in question was whether or not the UK ought to leave the EU. 17.41 of the voters voted for Leave while 16.41 voted for emain. There was a political design to the referendum where the then Prime Minister, David Cameron, hoped that…… [Read More]