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In the contemporary, the world is experiencing an oil crisis. For almost three years now, the oil price has declined by more than 40 percent since 2014. At that point in time, the price of a barrel stood at $115, considerably deteriorating as it presently stands at $50. The oil price is comparatively determined by actual supply and demand and relatively by expectation. In particular, demand for oil is closely associated to economic activity whereas supply can be influenced by different aspects such as geo-political issues and also regional weather. Notably, if oil producers have the perception that price is remaining high, they make an investment, subsequent to which a lag increases supply. In the same manner, low prices give rise to a scarcity in investment. Moreover, the decisions by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) fashion expectations. This is in the sense that if the organization…
Many of the people Low interviews cite security as the primary concern for moving to such communities (Low 2003, pp. 111-31). Theft is the most commonly cited specific worry, but general misgivings concerning the perceived higher rates of criminality in the world today (regardless of their basis in actual social facts) are also contributing factors to the growing numbers of people flocking into these communities that are seen as being more protected (Low 2003).
A fear that is somewhat less openly acknowledged is the fear of others, which also receives an entire chapter in the book (Low 2003, pp. 133-52). Some areas have actually seen an increase in the level of voluntary segregation in housing; as the culture grows more and more diverse, people actually seem to be flocking to tighter communities of people perceived as the same in terms of color, language, and culture (Low 2003). The feeling of…
Low, S. (2003). Behind the gates. New York: Routledge.
Sharman, R. (2006). Tenants of East Harlem. Berkeley: University of California press.
West African States to Employ a Single Currency as Demonstated in the Euro Zone
Potential for the West African States to Employ a Single Currency as Demonstrated in the Euro Zone
In ancient era, West Africa was known to conduct business activities and trade amongst them. The trade was among the empires within the region. The system of trade was mainly barter trade. This type of trade was based on exchange of goods for goods. The true value of the exchange was difficult to determine to the extent that some goods were undervalued in the process of exchange. Empires exchanged food crops, animal products, artistic materials, and other trade items. The trade in the region enabled the development of empires that grew even stronger. In the contemporary world, the paper and coin era emerged. States introduced their own currencies that are usually measured in relation to the American dollar. States…
The study required planning for the pre-test process in trying to determine the effectiveness of the designed questionnaire. The interviewers underwent training, which required extra resources to oversee. Implementation of the overall plan of the research required extra amount of money in excess of the estimated $67,000. This was required to help motivate respondents into participating in the study out of good will. Interviews organized in relation to the Chief Executive Officers also required special resources to implement during the study. The initial allocation for interviews was $560. This extra amount caused strains to the existing resources available for the research.
ADEBAJO, A. 2004. West Africa's security challenges: building peace in a troubled region.
Boulder [u.a.], Lynne Rienner.
Faulkner and Literature
The idea of entrepreneurship seems to many of us intrinsically estern, bound up in all those ideas of Adam Smith's about how work redeems people as good (white) Christians and helps them to claim their proper role in the universe. (hich is not exactly what Smith originally said, which we will get to in a moment.) But in fact the spirit of entrepreneurialism is as universal as human society. Across the globe there are those who take on both the responsibility and the risk for starting or running a business - and do so with the belief (or at least the expectation) that they can make a profit by doing so. This paper examines the differences, and the continuities, between two groups of entrepreneurs, those working in west Africa and those working in Harlem.
hile there are some distinct differences between these two subgroups, there are also…
Lee, Jennifer. "Cultural Brokers: Race-Based Hiring in inner-city Neighborhoods." American Behavioral Scientist 41 (7), April 1998: 927-937.
Moss, M.L. "Harlem's Economic Paradox." The New York Times, 1995, Dec. 13.
Portes, Alejandro and Saskia Sassen-Koob. "Making it Underground: Comparative Material on the Informal Sector in Western Market Economies." American Journal of Sociology 93 (1), July 1987: 30-61.
Rauch, J.E. 1996 "Trade and Networks: An Application to Minority Retail Entrepreneuership." New York: Sage, 1996.
est African Kingdoms
Ghana, Mali, Songhay
The discovery of the New orld opened new markets for European colonizers, as well as new sources wealth. In the Americas, the rich and abundant land meant much wealth could be generated through industries such as agriculture. The only missing factor was a cheap source of labor in order to clear and farm the land.
For this purpose, European colonizers turned to Africa. The kingdoms of Mali and Ghana were particular sources of slaves, since those kingdoms already had a system of slavery in place.
This paper examines the cultural and political history of the kingdoms of Ghana, Mali and Songhay. From this study, the paper seeks to shed light on how the system of slavery in these kingdoms differed significantly from the system of slavery in the Americas. Furthermore, the paper looks at how the African slaves sought to preserve their African heritage,…
Davidson, Basil. Africa in History. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1981.
Der, Benedict. The Slave Trade in Northern Ghana. Ghana: Woeli Publishing Services, 1998.
Harris, Joseph E. Africans and Their History.
New York: Penguin, 1998.
lessons learnt thirteenth century Mali (est African) life culture Sundiata? How epic read a manual rule,
The Virtues of Sundiata
D.T. Niane's Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali offers a significant amount of information about life in 13th century est Africa, particular that which pertains to the culture of the Mali people. Since this historical novel details the rise to power and the exploits of Sundiata, who is widely credited with engendering and bringing to prominence the Mali people, it gives readers a candid look at the daily life and customs of these people during the time directly preceding and including that of Sundiata's life. Sundiata himself was an exemplary ruler, and displays many characteristics that are worthy of emulation and demonstrative of an ideal way for rulers to govern.
The reader learns a number of salient aspects of the culture of the Mali people while perusing this novel. One…
Niane, D.T. Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali. Edinburgh Gate, Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. 1965. Web. http://clio.missouristate.edu/jabidogun/niane1965.pdf
Art History: Monuments, Masks
The temple complex at Angkor Wat in Cambodia is an excellent example of non-western monumental architecture. What is interesting about Angkor Wat specifically is that its motivation for being built was religious, but it survived a change in religious regime: it was built as a Hindu temple complex, but then later repurposed for Buddhism. Consequently Angkor Wat's meaning has become national rather than religion: it is depicted on the Cambodian national flag, and probably makes a better tourist attraction than Pol Pot's killing fields. However its centrality in Cambodian national representation suggests the chief reason why it was built: not for the glory of the religious figures worshipped there, but for the glory of its patrons.
ikewise the Aztec Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan is a grand religious monument. Unlike Angkor Wat, the Aztec monument is in serious disrepair, but it was originally built for the purposes…
Likewise the Aztec Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan is a grand religious monument. Unlike Angkor Wat, the Aztec monument is in serious disrepair, but it was originally built for the purposes of large-scale human sacrifice, followed by anthropophagy. None of this is still in evidence today: tourists to present-day Mexico City do not get to see daily re-enactments of still-beating hearts ripped from the chests of sacrificial victims with obsidian knives. The reason for the monument has been posited that the Aztec culture had limited access to protein, with no domesticable livestock save dogs and turkeys: therefore cannibalism seemed the most reasonable option for dietary protein. However, the Templo Mayor demonstrates that sometimes non-western cultures can build monuments to things that any reasonable twenty-first century person (western or non-western) can find repellent. The Aztec temple seems mostly a monument to justify a truly horrific basis of society by calling it the will of bloodthirsty gods.
In some sense, a work like Maya Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial is not entirely unlike the Aztec Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan -- both did have a fondness for reflective black obsidian after all, but more to the point both are in some way intended to justify grotesque acts of state-sponsored bloodshed. There is no need to indulge in the moral casuistry which asks if U.S. atrocities in Vietnam would have been better or worse if the American soldiers had behaved like Aztecs and eaten their victims afterward. The real point is that large-scale state-sanctioned murder of anyone represents a form of societal trauma, and the artwork steps into the breach to explain it. Angkor Wat has no such justification to perform: instead the two religions that were celebrated on its precincts (Hinduism and Buddhism) preach the essential unreality and misery of all human existence, such that Aztec cannibalism or napalming civilians becomes merely one more colorful patch on the veil of Maya, one more misery of the cycle of samsara that will one day be escaped.
The sixteenth-century ivory pendant mask, made by the Benin empire of Nigeria, is in the permanent collection of New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art (Met. 1978.412.323). It is unusual in terms of general African mask-making tradition for a number of reasons. It is made of ivory. It is not a mask to be worn over the face but as a pendant, hanging from around the neck. It is also intended, in the conjectures of historians, to be a specific portrait of a real person, the mother of the Benin emperor. As a depiction of a historical person, and a woman, it is therefore somewhat unusual. The Benin empire was located in present-day Nigeria. Pendant masks are worn today in "annual ceremonies of spiritual renewal and purification" but the actual purpose
Worldwide, the distribution pattern of WNV is mainly found in the northern, eastern and southern regions of Africa, parts of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia. On a global scale, mortality rate of diseases caused by WNV human infection could range from 2.4% to as high as 47% (Bourne, 2011). In the United States, CDC reports its latest (2011) data showing that there have been a total of 432 WNV infections reported as of October 2011. Sixty-seven percent of this reported human infections are neuroinvasive cases (encephalitis / meningitis), while about 5% resulted to death. Across states, California has the most number of cases of WNV human infection at 87 cases (20%), followed by Mississippi as far second (46 cases, or 11% of total reported cases). The prevalence of WNV human infection in these states reflects the virus' characteristic as thriving in tropical / temperate regions. CDC has not…
Bourne, D. (2011). "West Nile Virus Disease." Available at: http://usgs.wildlifeinformation.org/List_Vols/westnile/Disease_WNVInfection/04WNVMortality.html
"Epidemic/Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States: Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention and Control." (2003). Center for Disease Control (CDC) Website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/resources/wnv-guidelines-aug-2003.pdf#page=47
Mostashari, F., Bunning, M. And Kitsutani, P. (1999). "Epidemic West Nile Encephalitis: Results of a household-based seroseroepidemiological survey." In Lancet 2001; 358. Center for Disease Control Website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/surv&controlCaseCount11_detailed.htm
This can be traced to the conservative view that lacks have in fact no real history in comparison to the richness and significance of European history. "As astonishing as it seems most of the prestigious academics and universities in Europe and America have ridiculed the idea that blacks have any substantive history."
This derogatory view has its roots as well in the colonial attitude that tended to see all lack people as inferior in status and 'ignorant' in order to justify the intrusion and invasion of their lands and territories.
In other words, the justification for conquest and what was in reality the theft of African land and wealth was provided to a great extent by the ' rewriting' of iblical texts. lacks were cast as 'heathen' people who had not achieved the enlightenment that the white group had attained through the ible and Christianity and therefore lacks were seen…
"African Heritage: The Original African Heritage Study Bible," http://kenanderson.net/bible/html/african_heritage.html (accessed September 20, 2010).
BibleGateway, Genesis 2:10- 14,
http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+2%3A10-14&version=NIV (accessed September 20, 2010).
"BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES," http://www.angelfire.com/sd/occultic/hebrew.html , (accessed September 20, 2010).
As anyone that knows history understands full well, the history of Africa has been fairly tumultuous over the years. Just looking over the last half a millennium reveals a very turbulent stretch of time that is full of slavery, colonialism, escape from said colonialism, genocide, starvation, anarchy and so forth. However, there have also been some good to great things that have happened in Africa and many of them are recent. This report shall look at the totality of post-colonial Africa. Much like the rest of the world, Africa has had to make a lot of adjustments since the imperialism of the French, British and Spanish has fallen away. Africa is far from being the only corner of the world that can say this about itself but Africa has quite obviously been hit harder than most continents and regions and this is especially true over the last half…
CDC,. (2015). 2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa| Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever | CDC. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 2 August 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/
Democracy in the Rough: Long Awaited Congolese Elections. (2015).
Gilbert, E., & Reynolds, J. (2012). Africa in world history. Boston: Pearson.
Rwanda: A History of Genocide. (2015).
Spread of Islam in Africa and Asia Along Trade Routes
The Islam religion spread in Asia and Africa mainly due to trade of such goods as spices, gold, as also due to slaves. The advantages of proximity with the greatly profitable and powerful traders of the Islam religion triggered the conversions of merchants and rulers' into Muslims. Islam spread slowly; it took centuries, but in most places where the conversion took place, people still hold on to the religion (Debrouse). This paper explores the reasons of spread of Islam religion along Asian and African trade routes, particularly centering on the success of Islam in Middle Asia.
Early Trade Connections
Since the era of Muhammad, it has been believed that trade is closely related to the religion as well as its development. Inmecca, the people of the Qurayshtribe were leaders in business. They extended their connections and influence to Syria and…
In the three regional organizations in Africa discussed here, it is important that these entities reaffirm their commitment in joining the war against crime and the fight against terrorist groups; which are an obstacle to the success of Africa's economies (Fulgence, 2015). There is a lot of work cut out for sub-Saharan African countries which are grappling with abject poverty. They have plenty of work to do to attain middle income status in their economies.
The terms of economic cooperation vision would have been trained on food production to fight hunger among populations that are growing fast, reducing poverty levels through a host of economic interventions aimed at reducing unemployment and boosting production. With respect to political cooperation, the organizations in question have plenty of work to do in areas of the rule of law and reduction of abuses against human rights (Fulgence, 2015). Incidence of civil unrest, wars; both…
Harmony to Holocaust
The Portuguese reached the Gold Coast of Africa in 1439. At first, they were impressed with the culture they found. As they worked their way down the coast "[t]hey found people of varying cultures. Some lived in towns ruled by kings with nobility and courtiers very much like the medieval societies they left behind them." (Obadina). Many years later, a visitor from Holland was equally impressed and records his impressions of Benin City in 1600: "As you enter it, the town appears very great. You go into a great broad street, not paved, which seems to be seven or eight times broader than the Warmoes Street in Amsterdam... The houses in this town stand in good order, one close and even with the other, as the houses in Holland stand..." (qtd. In Obadina). Clearly, at this early stage, the Europeans had a fairly positive view of the…
Beard, Oscar L. "Did We Sell Each Other Into Slavery." Hartford-Hwp.com Web Site.
24 May 1999. 5 May 2003. http://www.hargord-hwp.com/archives/30/145.html.
Hooker, Richard. "The Forest Kingdoms." Washington State University Web Site. 6
June 1999 5 May 2003. http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CIVAFRCA/FOREST.htm
In fact there are signs of turmoil among religious as well as ethnic groups. An internal war between the Hausa and another tribe called the Yoruba resulted in 300 deaths. More recently tribes called the Tiv and the Jukun have executed tribal raids. In fact, between the successful election of a civilian President in May of 1999 and the end of 2001, over 10,000 Nigerians died in regional conflicts based on religious/and/or tribal differences. The Islamic belief in Shari'a, including the idea that religion and state government should be one, contributes to these problems.
In fact the animosity between Christians and Muslims is quite strong in Nigeria. The province adopting Shari'a, Zamfara, uses Islamic courts to try criminals. The Christians who live in the south do not agree that Zamfara should use a religiously-based legal system. This disagreement demonstrates that the country is divided on multiple levels. It is the…
Clark, Andrew F. "Imperialism, Independence, and Islam in Senegal and Mali." Africa Today, June 1999.
Gausset, Quentin. " Islam or Christianity? The Choices of the Wawa and the Kwanja of Cameroon." Africa, Vol. 69, 1999.
Miles, William F.S. "Shari'a as de-Africanization: evidence from Hausaland." Africa Today, March 2003.
Roach, Ronald. "Translating the African past: the Islamic heritage of sub-Saharan Africa - Special report: international education." Black Issues in Higher Education. May 9, 2002.
Christianity and Islam both facilitated the growth of sub-Saharan African kingdoms, both in the East and West. In Aksum, trade was "essential" to the kingdom's development in northwestern Ethiopia, as it was strategically located geographically on a major trade route linking India with the rest of Africa, the Mediterranean, and Arabia (p. 205). Unlike many other kingdoms in Africa, the Aksum fully embraced Christianity within the first few centuries of the religion's dissemination. Aksum was in fact one of the earliest Christian empires, operating fully independently from ome, where Christianity would take root and become the hub of European cultural, economic, and political life. In its heyday, the kingdom of Aksum depended on the Christian mythos and ethos to sustain its centralized power under King Ezana, who declares his power to be God-given in his stele: "he has given me strength and power and favoured me with a great name…
Sources of World Societies. Second Edition. Bedford/St. Martin's.
By the second night, a group of men had mutinied and attempted to kill the officers and destroy the raft, and by the third day, "those whom death had spared in the disastrous night […] fell upon the dead bodies with which the raft was covered, and cut off pieces, which some instantly devoured" (Savigny & Correard 192). Ultimately, the survivors were reduced to throwing the wounded overboard, and only after they had been reduced to fifteen men, "almost naked; their bodies and faces disfigured by the scorching beams of the sun," were they finally rescued by the Argus, which had set sail six days earlier to search for the raft and the wreck of the Medusa (Savigny & Correard 203).
Theodore Gericault's the Raft of the Medusa captures the moment on the 17th of July when the Argus first became visible to the survivors, and his choice to reflect…
Alhadeff, Albert. The raft of the Medusa: Gericault, art, and race. New York: Prestel, 2002.
Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, Nina. "LEtat Et Les Artistes: De La Restauration a La Monarchie De
Juillet (1815-1833) / Salons." The Art Bulletin 85.4 (2003): 811-3.
Blair, J.A. "The Possibility and Actuality of Visual Arguments." Argumentation and Advocacy
it's a style that never actually seems to go out of style. Most of the first private residences that were built as the Keys became more inhabited were built with the Caribbean and West Indian architectural theme in mind (Keith, 2002).
The idea of keeping homes on stilts has changed, as was previously mentioned. However, living right on the ground is still something that most building codes in the Keys will not allow for (Keith, 2002). Most of these places are only a few feet above sea level, so flooding is very common. Changes to recent building codes have allowed for the floor of the home to be closer to the ground, however, resulting in shorter stilts (Keith, 2002). In addition, that stilted area can now be enclosed. It cannot be used for a living space, though, and must only be used as storage. A lot of people use this…
Caemmerer, Alex. (1992). The Houses of Key West. Pineapple Press
Goodwin-Nguyen, Sarah. (2008). Key West (Tourist Town Guides). Channel Lake, Inc.
Hemmel, David L, and Smith, Judi S. (2004). Living in the Key West style anywhere. Duval Publishing
Keith, June. (2002). June Keith's Key West & the Florida Keys: A guide to the Coral Islands. Palm Island Press
The Post-Colonial World Outlook in Africa: From Colonialism to Neocolonialism?
During the colonial era, vast regions of Africa and Asia were taken over and subsequently dominated by the more powerful western nations. In essence, the main agenda of colonialism was exploitative – with economically stronger nations seeking to exert control over weaker and less developed countries so as to exploit both their human and natural resources. Also, colonial powers deemed their colonies as viable markets for their products. The cultural and social aspects of the subjugated countries were affected and adapted in significant ways, with the said countries being forced to embrace the cultural, religious, as well as social ideals of the colonial countries. Most of the dominated countries got their independence back by way of concessions, compromise, or force – giving way to the post-colonial era. During the postcolonial era, former colonies attempted to claim their autonomy back,…
Challenges to Democratic Development in Africa
The political life in Africa has largely been characterized by poor governance and an inherently poor democratic record. This has in most cases led to not only political disillusionment, but also despair – effectively stifling the continent’s economic advancement. In effect, the challenges facing the continent as far as democratic development is concerned stem from political misrule coupled with the adverse effects of imposed westernization, as well as globalization and resource exploitation. As a consequence, the continent continues to suffer demobilization on the political front which has effectively led to economic decapitation. Millions of the continent’s inhabitants continue to be afflicted by disease and poverty, and illiteracy levels continue to be high in most countries. This text assesses and evaluates challenges to democratic development in Africa in the context of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Democracy, as per its dictionary definition, has got…
Race Matters Cornel est (ISBN: 978-0-679-74986-8)
Some fairly prominent similarities exist between Molefe Kete Asante's The Afrocentric Idea, and Cornel est's Race Matters. Both manuscripts were published within a year of each other (est's was published in 1993 while Asante's was published in 1994). Furthermore, both books are largely non-fictional accountings of (what was at the time) contemporary ramifications of race and culture. Both authors have also pursued careers within academia, as est spent some time at the Afro-American studies program at Princeton while Asante has spent a considerable amount of time engaged as a professor within the African-American Studies department at Temple University However, some fairly eminent dissimilarities can also be found within these works, not the least of which is directly related to the scope of the author's respective books. Race Matters is largely about America and the consequences and implications of African-Americans within this country.…
West, Cornel. Race Matters. New York: Vintage. 1993. Print.
Asante, Molefe Kete. The Afrocentric Idea. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 1994. Print.
Of course, the much shorter pleated skirt we now associate with modern Japanese school girls is also a chic look, and the carrying over of this simple design into a popular and often fetish-linked fashion for Western girls of modern times is an important note of timelessness.
Court" Fashion for Japanese Males, Asuka Period (593-710):
Eastern influence is not reserved for Westerners alone, as one can see in Asuka and Nara period clothing designs from Japan. Chinese influence was strong during this time period for clothing styles in Japan between 593 to 794 AD. uddhism and Chinese culture design was popularized by the imperial court members that wore clothing of this kind. The hakama trousers remained intact, but without the binding ties below the knee that earlier periods had emphasized. The upper garment of this period, the "ho" ("Japanese Dress in Former Times...") was less form fitting than previous designs,…
Asian Art Museum of San Francisco. "Orientalism - East Meets West." Galley of Fashion. January 2005. http://gbacg.org/orientalism_fashion.htm
At-Home Dress." Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/orie/hod_1994.302.1.htm
Banyan." Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/orie/hod_1981.208.2.htm
Bhatia, Nandi & Puwar, Nirmal. "Fashion and Orientalism." Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body and Culture. October 2003. v7 n3-4.
(Feldman and Slattery 201)
In this environment, it is likely that the people of Somalia would welcome the devil himself if he was carrying food and water, and these circumstances have not been lost on those who would exploit them for their own political agenda.
Historical Role of NGOs in Somalian Reconstruction.
The experiences of the United Nations and other relief agencies in Somalia are proof positive that even the best intentioned humanitarian efforts cannot succeed if nongovernmental organizations are targeted by political forces that deem their presence counterproductive for their political agendas. According to Boulden (2001), "The UN response to the Somalia crisis ran the gamut from the extreme of total disregard to total involvement then back to total disregard. During the first year of anarchy, the situation within the country became so dangerous that most nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and UN humanitarian agencies left the country" (54). This author…
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Boulden, Jane. Peace Enforcement: The United Nations Experience in Congo, Somalia, and Bosnia. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
De Waal, Alex. (1998). "U.S. War Crimes in Somalia." New Left Review a (230):132.
Doh, Jonathan P., Hildy Teegen and Sushil Vachani. (2004). "The Importance of Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) in Global Governance and Value Creation: An International Business Research Agenda." Journal of International Business Studies 35(6):463.
In addition to these external factors, Thomson (202) notes two colonial and post-colonial economic policies and developmental strategies that proved to be erroneous in the long-term, having an ultimately damaging effect upon the ability of African countries to make sound, profitable investments. The first of these is that African governments focused excessively upon import substitution, while the second is that too much revenue was invested in the expansion of state institutions. This paradigm emerges from the success of European and other Western economic developments. However, such strategies were far from suitable for the African continent, as it resulted in a lack of investment in Africa's richest resources: agricultural and mineral development.
Maponga and Maxwell (97) mention the concentration of national economies as a further factor that may lead a lack of concomitant growth for countries (and in particular African countries) that are rich in natural resources. In addition to the…
Maponga, Oliver & Maxwell, Philip. Are Abundant Mineral and Energy Resources a Catalyst for African Development? (Issue 6). Minerals and Energy, 2001.
Thomson, Alex. An Introduction to African Politics. London & New York: Routledge, 2004.
Cornel est. It book "The Conscious Reader" By Caroline
Affirmative Action has been a highly controversial topic in the United States ever since it initially emerged out of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960's. This issue is explored in depth in Cornell est's essay, "On Affirmative Action," which was initially published in George Currey's The Affirmative Action Debate in 1996. The principle reason why affirmative action has been so widely debated within the U.S. is that there are many within this country who believe that ultimately, this piece of legislation helped to remove qualified candidates for critical jobs and enrollment positions in institutions of higher learning in favor of under qualified minorities. est's article analyzes the various pros and cons of this issue from both sides -- those who are in favor of it and those who have traditionally opposed it. A thorough analysis of this piece…
Bowen, Deirdre. "Meeting Across the River: Why Affirmative Actions Needs Race & Class Diversity." Denver University Law Review. 2011. Web. http://www.law.du.edu/documents/denver-university-law-review/v88-4/Bowen_ToPrinter_92611.pdf
Greenburg, Jan. "New Haven, Ct. Firefighters Claim Reverse Discrimination." ABC News. 2009. Web. http://abcnews.go.com/TheLaw/SCOTUS/story?id=7393908&page=1#.UXV8STWykyc
Jensen, Richard. "No Irish Need Apply." Journal of Social History. 2002. Web. http://tigger.uic.edu/~rjensen/no-irish.htm
West, Cornell. "On Affirmative Action." The Conscious Reader. New York: Longman. 2011. Print.
The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.
The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.
The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…
An Outline of American History. 2002. From Revolution to Reconstruction. http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1954uk/chap4.htm.
This Web site gives a timeline and outline of many of the things that took place throughout the history of the United States and ensures that individuals who are studying history are aware of the good and the bad that occurred.
Foreigners in our own country: Indigenous peoples in Brazil. 2005. Amnesty International. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR190022005.
Brazilians are struggling today because they are still losing land to foreign development. Because of that they are being forced to move into smaller and smaller areas and their resources are diminishing.
ADS in South Africa
Those of us living in the United States became used to the face of ADS a generation ago. We learned to recognize the particular gauntness that characterized those who had been struck by it, and who would soon be taken away by it. And then, after years of people dying from this disease, we learned that people who had this terrible disease could be healed; not cured, for they still contained the viruses within their bodies, but they could live lives that were happy and meaningful - and long. The terror of ADS subsided, becoming one of only many of the perils of modern life rather than one of the predominant ones.
But the trajectory of ADS in South Africa (as well as in other parts of the developing world, has been very different. Even in the first years of the disease the manifestations of it…
In already unstable societies, this cocktail of disasters is a sure recipe for more conflict. And conflict, in turn, provides fertile ground for further infections (http://www.nkosi.iafrica.com/aids_sa/).
AIDS is both the enemy in South Africa and a potential aid to other enemies. One of the reasons that AIDS has been successfully fought in the United States and Europe is the wealth of these nations; this has certainly been their primary advantage. But they have also benefited in the fight against AIDS from a high degree of social stability; public health measures can only be effective when used in a stable society.
One of the terrible ironies of AIDS in South Africa is that the nation does not have strong enough social structures to allow (at least so far) for the necessary public health measures to be taken. And as AIDS takes a greater and greater toll, the necessary social structures will only become weaker and weaker.
Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica
Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.
Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.
In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…
Akan" is an ethnographic and linguistic term used to refer to a cluster of culturally homogenous groups living in central and southern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern Cote d'Ivoire. The Akan constitute two broad subcategories: the inland Asante, Bono, Akyem, Akwapem, and Kwawu, who speak the Twi, and the coastal Fante, who speak a dialect of the same name. The Akan dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Most of these ethnic groups constituted autonomous political systems in the pre-colonial period. www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=55458430" (Adjaye 1994, 57)
Studies of Akan time perceptions and calendrical systems have been limited despite the fact that the existence of institutions and mechanisms for time-reckoning have been noted in the literature on the history and ethnography of the Akan for nearly two centuries. Beyond early sparse references by Rattray (1923) and Danquah (1968), a full-length monograph on the subject did not appear until Deborah Fink "Time and Space Measurements of the Bono of Ghana" (1974); however, the author's primary concern was with the applicability of Bono terminologies for measuring volume, weight, and time to formal education, rather than with time-marking systems P.F. Bartle brief five-page paper, "Forty Days: The Akan Calendar" (1978), was an exploratory essay into a single calendrical framework, the 40-day (adaduanan) cycle. Its treatment is consequently restrictive and limited to the 40-day calendrical structure. Similarly, Tom McCaskie "Time and the Calendar in Nineteenth-Century Asante: An Exploratory Essay" (1980) and Ivor Wilks ' "On Mentally Mapping Greater Asante: A Study of Time and Motion" (1992) are concerned primarily with a specific aspect of time: the scheduling of diplomatic and other governmental business in Asante.
(Adjaye 1994, 57)
Diamond ars in estern Africa
Throughout estern Africa, the quest for diamonds has taken control of many of people and affected the stability of economic and governmental status throughout the nation. The diamond mines have caused civil wars, which have resulted in many casualties over the years.
Possibly the major cause of the diamond wars is human nature, as it is human nature that sparks the desire to own diamonds. Due to the amount of people who are seeking diamonds and the limited resources of the mineral, the diamond market has become a major source of conflict in estern Africa.
Throughout estern Africa, rebel groups have formed in an effort to gain control over diamond mines in Angola, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. The Diamond ars have destroyed these areas, which could potentially become well-developed nations if the conflicts did not exist. hile countries like Botswana and Namibia are using diamonds…
Campbell, Greg. Blood Diamonds: Tracing the Deadly Path of the World's Most Precious Stones. Westview Press, 2002.
Collier, Paul, "Economic Causes of Civil Conflict and Their Implications for Policy," World Bank. 15 June 2000.
Epstein, Edward Jay, "Have You Ever Tried to Sell a Diamond?" The Atlantic Monthly, February 1982. at: www.theatlantic.com/issues/82feb/8202diamond1.htm
Kerlin, Katherine "Diamonds Aren't Forever: Environmental Degradation and Civil War in the Gem Trade," The Environment Magazine. Sept. 2001.
Minoan and omantic movements
Describe the earlier historical art period, characteristics of the style, and social conditions that may have contributed to the advent of this style.
Within the history of the Ancients, the story of Classical Greek art and architecture is prefaced by the earliest epoch of the seafaring Cretan civilization, Minos. The Palace of King Minosis is a magical structure reflective of this early world of classical lyricism. It is in fact, Homer's reference to the island, and its legendary king, in Book XIX of the Odyssey, that has informed us of Aegean cultures, and our fascination with all things Minoan. The central locus of exchange for communique with other civilizations of antiquity such as the nearby lands of Pharonic Ancient Egypt, the Palace of King Minos is our greatest resource for inquiry into the roots of ancient classical civilization.
obust in economy and in cultural…
Art. Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Retrieved from: http://www.oxfordartonline.com de la Croix, H. And Tansey, R.G. (1980). Gardner's: Art Through the Ages. New York: Harcourt and Brace.
Vaughan, W. (2010). Romanticism. Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Retrieved from:
Chabros International's Expansion To North Africa
Chabros International is a company based in Lebanon that sells wood products and veneer that began its operations in the 1960's. The company was started by the current owners father and father's brothers. The company was envisioned, at the beginning, as a small local company that would deal in local wood products and veneer. During the ensuing years the company had very little growth, but it produced a living for the family, and, when his father died in 1987, Chami took over the company (Chabros, 2012).
Chami was more ambitious than his father had been and he wanted to take the company further that his father had ever thought possible. The first issue he faced is that Lebanon was still in the midst of a civil war that had plagued the country since the mid-1970's. It was difficult to find reliable suppliers, and it…
Bilan, V. (2012). Middle East recovering from Arab spring fever? The Arab world: In search of subjectivity. Retrieved from http://therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com/2012/03/12/middle-east-recovering - from-arab-spring-fever/
Chabros. (2012). About us. Retrieved from http://www.chabros.info/DynamicPage.aspx?id=1&PageId=1
Economist. (2012). Asia competition barometer: Petrochemicals and chemicals. Retrieved from http://www.managementthinking.eiu.com/asia-competition- barometer-petrochemicals-and-chemicals.html
EIU. (2012). Morocco business environment. Retrieved from http://store.eiu.com/product.aspx?pubid=160392201&pid=1930000193&gid=160 392201
Questions On World Regional Geography
Generally speaking, African colonies during the colonial period were seen as expensive liabilities by the great European powers, especially in relation to trading concessions. Toward the end of the 19th century, the attitudes of these powers altered as rival industrial nations like Great Britain, Germany, France and Belgium, attempted to locate and develop overseas markets for their goods. In 1885, the Berlin Conference was convened to resolve conflicts of interest in Africa by allotting areas of exploitation to these colonial powers. As a result, the so-called "scramble for Africa" began in which these powers sought to establish their "rightful" claims to vast expanses of land.
When this conference was convened, most of Africa was under colonial control and was subsequently broken up into numerous states, made up of some fifty separate countries with very irregular geographical boundaries. One major problem linked to this break-up…
Testing Materials) -- Sensitive in Nature
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The desired End State of the Allies here is complete control of North Africa from the Atlantic (in the west) to the Red Sea (in the east).
The primary obstacle at present to achieving this End State is fairly easily described: the Axis has control of the Mediterranean Sea with small exceptions on the far east and west of the sea. (The British hold Alexandria and the Suez Canal on the eastern Mediterranean, and hold the island of Malta and the straits of Gibraltar in the western Mediterranean.) Due to Axis control of southern Europe -- including, crucially, the Italian peninsula and Sicily -- the Axis has reliable SLOC and ALOC into the central portion of North Africa, where their troops are presently stationed in the Western Desert. Nobody (neither Allies nor…
Trans-Saharan trade involved the trading across Sahara desert that linked the Mediterranean countries and the sub-Saharan Africa. The type of trade was initiated by omans after the introduction of camels in the regions of North Africa. This gave a room for the residents of central Sahara and the Berbers of North Africa to adopt the use of camels for transportation and as a source of food. Formerly, trading across desert was sporadic, however this became possible when camels were introduced thus making the contact and trading between Mediterranean world as well as, sub-Saharan West Africa to flourish. The commodities which were traded include weapons, textiles, and horses all these came from the Mediterranean while gold, animal products, and slaves came from the West Africa (Wright, 2007). However there were some commodities which came from central Sahara which included salt that was mined from prehistoric lakes that got dried up. The…
McKay, Hill, Buckler, Ebrey, Beck, Crowston, & Wiesner-Hanks, (2008). A History of World
Societies. Eighth Edition, Volume 1
Benanav, M. (2006). Men of salt: crossing the Sahara on the caravan of white gold. London:
" Regan was able to discourage Congress' previous prohibitions for aid to UNITA and instead launched into the covert plan to leverage American weight on the side fighting the Marxist supporters. The Soviet Union reacted quickly; Cuban expeditionary forces were sent to the region in their satellite guerilla's aid and, in the bloody fight between ethnic groups in Angola, the larger Soviet-American conflict played out.
In 1987, the struggle came to a head. The United States assumed its supportive role for UNITA as reason preside over the tripartite negotiation that would end the civil war. At the bargaining table were also Cuban and South African forces, reaffirming the battle as one led by other issues more than directed by the cause of Angolan success. Cuba agreed to leave Angola, ultimately, but South Africa also agreed to relinquish its control over Namibia. Twenty years earlier, Marxist South-West Africa eople's Organization launched…
The Nineteenth Century brought dramatic changes to Africa and its people. The European powers divided up the continent among themselves. France took the lion's share, reserving most of Upper Africa to itself. Yet the French Empire in Africa was a diverse realm - Arab and erber in the Maghreb, and lack African in the lands to the south of the Sahara. Not only ethnic differences, but also differences in cultural and economic development divided the peoples north and south of the great desert. At one stroke, the French found themselves masters of a vast population of lack Africans who knew little of the modern world. Organized primarily into small kingdoms, and tribal units, their societies harkened back to those of the pre-industrial age. They lacked modern technology, transportation, communication, and education. Their social life revolved around the family group and time-honored traditions. Exposure to an alien…
Obadina, Tunde. "The Myth of Neo-Colonialism." Africa Business Information Services: 2000.
Smitha, Frank E. The Twentieth Century. Chapter 15, "Asia, Africa, Central America, and Hawaii: The French in West Africa. http://www.fsmitha.com2001
Wooten, Stephen. "The French in West Africa: Early Contact to Independence." University of Illinois. (No Date)
There are still significant security concerns for the United States in West Africa, and as a potentially strong ally there is a definite interest in seeing stability returned to the Ivory Coast. Having a solid partner in the region that is able to both lead by example and serve as a center for bringing greater stability to nearby oil-rich nations is a definite concern for the United States, and ongoing unrest in the Ivory Coast will only fuel increased violence and instability in countries with more direct relationships with the United States.
There are certain obvious figures and sectors that the intelligence community should focus on in their assessment of the Ivory Coast in both its short- and long-term prospects. Certain military leaders siding with President Gbagbo will likely be given key positions in whatever government ends up becoming the stabilizing force in the country, but this does not mean…
CIA. (2011). Cote d'Ivoire. World Factbook. Accessed 7 February 2011. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/iv.html
INR Report. (2004).
Langford, T. (1999). Things Fall Apart: State Failure and the Politics of Intervention. International Studies Review 1(1): 59-79.
Rotberg, R. (2002). Failed States, Collapsed States, Weak States: Causes and Indicators.
The visits would also include the distribution of basic food items to help alleviate the food shortages and associated hunger in the area. The country is one that has a high reliance on agriculture and subsistence farming, but with the recent civil war the poverty is exacerbated with a need to recover. Recovery is needed for both production and the access to funds that may be realized from the sale of agricultural goods. This is an ongoing issue which one is constantly aware of when handing out food, knowing it is a short-term solution to a long-term problem. However other projects do exist which are seeking to address this issues.
The visits also involve medical checks, with doctors and healthcare workers visiting people in their homes to help with medical issues to carry out checks and to give advice. This was also a learning experience, seeing the range of medical…
Colonialism marked the expansion and power of countries like Britain and France. The British and French had substantial influence and power in places like Cameroon, Chad, Congo, and South Africa. After some time passed, these former colonies gained independence and attempted to stabilize their respective economies. However, most gained no ground and remained dependent on things like foreign aid to survive. Such hardship brought in a new form of power dynamics, neocolonialism. Neocolonialism is a stark reminder of the power developed nations have over former colonies; West Africa's cocoa industry demonstrates how poorer nations remain poor through the limited export of raw resources that maintain dependence and diminish innovation.
Neocolonialism is “a situation of infringed national sovereignty and intrusive influence by external elements” (Langan, 2018, p. 1). While countless scholars may feel ‘squeamish’ if someone invokes the term, it rings true for the various situations African countries face…
African estaurant evival
New York is home to people from all over the world, and it is well-known that they often bring with them cuisine from their homelands. Foodies descend on food courts in subterranean malls in Queens, ussian bakeries in Brooklyn, and ethnic food trucks pretty much anywhere throughout the five boroughs. For being a cosmopolitan city with such cosmopolitan tastes, surprisingly little attention is paid to the diversity of African food. The continent of Africa is rich in food tradition and, increasingly, we are seeing these traditions manifest throughout New York. This trend is occurring in many places, in particular Manhattan and Brooklyn. In fact, several openings over the past few years have dramatically altered the African dining scene, and this development is very much worthy of coverage. This citywide exposure to the African food trend makes it an excellent topic heading into the summer eating season.
Kugel, S. (2007, March 18). Sampling a Continent at Home. Retrieved from nytimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/18/travel/18weekend.1.html?_r=0
Laing, N. (2013, October). New York's First African Restaurant Week Offers New Flavors and a Dash of Culture. Retrieved from fo2w.org: http://fi2w.org/2013/10/14/new-yorks-first-african-restaurant-week-offers-new-flavors-and-a-dash-of-culture/
Pearlman, E. (2014). Ponty Bistro. Retrieved from blacboardeats.com: http://www.blackboardeats.com/sp/ponty-bistro-gramercy-new-york-3
Spiropoulos, R. (2014, June 28). Dining African: 3 Restaurant Biz Success Stories Savor N.Y. African Restaurant Week. Retrieved from blackenterprise.com: http://www.blackenterprise.com/lifestyle/new-york-african-restaurant-week-wraps-in-style/
submitted, the Ivory Coast is set to swear in Alassane Ouattara as the country's new president (CNN, 2011, 1), ending over six months of internal turmoil that threatened to lead the country into outright civil war, and challenged the international community's ability and willingness to respond. Ouattara had been unable to take the presidency despite winning last November because losing incumbent Laurent Gbagbo refused to cede power (Ibid). On April 11th, 2011, pro-Ouattara forces arrested Gbagbo after an assault on his residence in the capital Abidjan with the assistance of French forces (Harding, 2011).
The standoff was challenging for the international community. The issue was domestic in nature, but stability both in the country and the region has been difficult to achieve. The prospect of a prolonged civil war was real, and this would not only have destroyed the Ivory Coast but would also have had a debilitating effect on…
AFP. (2010). Ivory Coast PM urges UN to speak out on poll results. AFP. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iedxpbLd4aBzQjdcFHeD-LdVH2qA?docId=CNG.347958328eebaf1a5122e531750726d6.c81
Africa Speaks. (2011). 2010 elections in Cote d'Ivoire: What most media do not tell you. Africa Speaks. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.africaspeaks.com/reasoning/index.php?topic=7026.0
Aloisi, S. (2003). New hope of Ivory Coast peace as rebels join talks. The Guardian. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/jan/09/westafrica
AP. (2011). Gbagbo nationalizes cocoa in Ivory Coast. Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://finance.yahoo.com/news/Gbagbo-nationalizes-cocoa-in-apf-4254897232.html?x=0&.v=1
Pan-Africanism: Cheikh Anta Diop, Julius K. Nyerere, and Dubois
Similar to the est, Africa proves to be a homeland of writers. Owing to the numerous literatures associated with the Africans, one can confirm that writing was part of the Africans, which is apparent in the dates of different literary works. As part of history, they wrote to preserve and educate the coming generations on what happened then. This was not only through writing, but also through other literary works such as poems, music, and other forms of art. Most of the African writers wrote out of experience, and the urge to let something known. In contrast to the modern way of African writing, which utilizes creativity as the main tool when writing; these legends utilized observation, evaluation, and experiences from others as a main contributor to their literary works.
The subjects, which majored in their writings varied according to the…
Diop, Cheikh Anta. Black Africa. Westport, Connecticut: Lawrence Hill & Company, 1978. Print.
Dubois, W.E.B. The future of Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Print.
Nyerere, Julius K, "A United States of Africa." The journal of modern African studies 1.1 (1963):
" (Pettersson, 2006) Oral and written verbal art languages are both used for the purpose of information communication as well as information presentation with the reader and listener receiving an invitation to consider the information.
The Narrative & the Symbolic
The work of Abiola Irele (2001) entitled: "The African Imagination: Literature in Africa & the lack Diaspora" states that Hampate a "...incorporates the essential feature of the oral narrative at significant points in his work in order to reflect their appropriateness to situations and for special effects. Their conjunction with the narrative procedures sanctioned by the Western model thus enlarges their scope and give them an unusual resonance. At the same time, although he writes with conscious reference to this Western model, he does not feel so constrained by the framework of its conventions that he is unable to go beyond its limitations. His departures from the established codes of…
Aggarwal, Kusum. Amadou Hampate Ba et l'africanisme. De la recherche anthropologique a l'exercice de la fonction auctoriale. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1999.
Dielika Diallo "Hampate Ba: the great conciliator." UNESCO Courier. FindArticles.com. 30 Sep, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1992_Jan/ai_11921818/ . UNESCO 1992. Online available at:
My notable contributions in this capacity include obtaining investment funding and sponsorships, securing a co-production partnership with Storm 360, a leading West African entertainment company, and forging media partnerships with HiTV, Silverbird TV, NN24, and BusinessDay among others. In addition, I established and implemented overall business objectives of becoming a world-class production and broadcast company offering international broadcast content to strengthen the spirit of enterprise and human development throughout Africa and across the globe. Furthermore, I played an integral role in representing company in key business negotiations.
Further, I also played a pivotal leadership role in winning various team-based tasks, including developing and marketing a new fast-food chicken entree for Chicken Republic, planning and executing a hotel redecoration project at Eko Hotel & Suites, presenting a route to market's strategy for West Africa's largest cell phone provider, Celtel, and formulating a marketing strategy for a new energy drink for Nigeria's…
First, discuss your overall thoughts on the controversial lack Athena theory, and discuss the extent to which you think this theory holds weight (be specific: avoid empty answers like "I totally agree" or "this theory is stupid").
The theory itself is reasonable. That is, ernal's critique of earlier historians and their failure to recognize the tremendous cultural influence of North Africa, noted by the ancient Greeks themselves, on Greece in their study of Greek history. However, much of the support that ernal gives, regarding the presence of Greco-African contacts are not directly relevant to his major claim that the Greeks originated in Africa. The revelation of African contact and influence on ancient Greece during the Iron Age, though a valuable contribution to our understanding of the region, is not in itself sufficient to prove the origin of the Greek people.
Overall, ernal's study is interesting and provocative. Also,…
Iliffe, John. Africans: The History of a Continent. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Print.
Levtzion, Nehemia; Hopkins, John F.P. eds. And trans. (2000), Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West Africa, New York, NY: Marcus Weiner.
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…
Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.
Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)
4. Identify effective approaches to bridging the cross-cultural gap that may prevent families from using nursing home facilities when they are in the elders' best interests.
The following strategies will be used to help achieve the above-stated goals:
1. Develop expertise in writing grant applications.
2. Identify nongovernmental organizations that provide funding for these types of social programs.
3. Formulate a community education program to inform the people of Liberia of the need for long-term care facilities for the elderly when immediate family members are unable or unavailable to do so.
4. Develop a training regimen that can be used to help employees become familiar with the day-to-day care needs of the elderly and what part they will play in the process.
Given the current reluctance of the international community to make substantive investments in Liberia, the short-term tactics used to achieve the above-stated goals would require an…
Bray, M. (2009). The Mabel Bray Foundation. [Online]. Available: http://womeninactionfor progress.com/.
Liberia. (2009). U.S. government: CIA world factbook. [Online]. Available: https://www.cia.
Takahashi, K. (2008). Liberia: The impact of civil war. The Chicago Tribune. [Online].
Having been prosecuted in Europe, they were inclined to severe all ties with the continent and considered Africa their homeland. Since most other immigrants in Cape were also Calvinists -- members of the Dutch Reformed Church, the French Haguenots were readily accepted as part of a common community and were soon integrated into settler society by intermarriage. Their emphasis on a 'pure' form of Calvinism and self-sufficiency, however, influenced the development of the Afrikaner culture and way of life.
The Afrikaans Language
Afrikaans is the language of the white South Africans that was largely derived from the 17th century Dutch language. It is estimated that about seven million people in South Africa and Namibia speak some form of Afrikaans, although 'standard' Afrikaans is spoken mainly by the whites. Until the end of the "apartheid" in 1994, Afrikaans was the official language of government and education. It is now one of…
Beck, Roger B. The History of South Africa. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.
Grundlingh, Albert. "The Bitter Legacy of the Boer War." History Today Nov. 1999: 21.
Assia Djebar Alifa Rifaat examine experiences women > Muslim societies postcolonial North Africa/Egypt. Similarly, > Mariama Ba Ama Ata Aidoo concerned gender women > postcolonial est Africa (Senegal Ghana).
Gender and Society in Islamic tradition
Assia Djebar's "omen of Algiers in their apartment," Mariama Ba's "So long a letter," and Ama Ata Aidoo "Changes: a love story" are three novels discussing essential concepts in the lives of Muslim women. These three books address traditional Islamic topics, like polygamy, gender discrimination, and the way Muslims generally perceive women in their society.
Djebar, Ba, and Aidoo apparently wanted to address accounts explaining what numerous Muslim women have to go through. hat is particularly interesting about the women portrayed in these manuscripts is that they acknowledge their underprivileged position but they eventually decide that it is better for them to accept it rather than do anything to change their lives.
"So long a…
Aidoo, Ama Ata. (2004). "Changes: a love story." Heinemann.
Ba, Mariama. (1989). "So long a letter." Heinemann.
Djebar, Assia. (1999). "Women of Algiers in their apartment." University of Virginia Press.
graduate Sociology ( Communauty development ) University Lome, Togo West Africa, french speeking country Now serving a class Aviation Boxwain Equipment Navy My plan crossrate (change rate- change job) corpsman I gain experience school Physician assistant I 38 years .
I am currently serving in the United States Navy. However, my ultimate career goal is to become a physician or a physician's assistant when I leave the service. A desire to help others has been the driving force in my life path and education. My passion for service is one of the reasons I joined the military in the first place, combined with the experiences in leadership it offered me. I will continue to serve the public even after I retire through my professional work in healthcare. My long-term goal is to become a health care Foreign Service specialist, merging my knowledge of foreign cultures and healthcare delivery…
million Africans were abducted forcibly from West Africa alone and enslaved (Centre for lack & African Arts & Civilisation, 2002, 1). This paper endeavours to explore the "impact of the slave trade on West Africa." The historical injustices of the slave trade have undeniably affected West Africa detrimentally in the political, economic and social arenas. The gravity of such a negative impact is what leaders of nations historically involved in the slave trade are discussing as they determine what reparations can be made to the victims of this inhumane practice.
efore embarking on the political, economic and social fallout of the slave trade on West Africa, it is important to give a brief description of this blight in history. From the middle of the 15th century, the Portuguese initiated the slave trade. They were followed by the Spaniards, and at a lengthier period (1562) by the ritish. Then in rapid…
Akinjogbin, (1967) Dahomey and its Neighbours, 1708-1818. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
The Anti-Slavery Society (2002) "West African Slave Trade." www.anti-slaverysociety.addr.com
BBC News (August 6, 1999) "West Africa's Child Slave Trade." www.news.bbc.co.uk
Center for Black & African Arts & Civilization (2002) "Slave Trade in Africa." www.cbaac.org
Indigenous Environmental Studies
For this assignment, we choose the problem of deforestation in Africa and it potential link to the outbreak of the Ebola virus. There have been scientific discussions and debates about whether deforestation was the primary cause of the rise and spread of the Ebola virus which is yet to be conclusively proven but there are enough indications to this end. Hence, for this paper, it is proposed to study the possible link between deforestation in Africa to the spread of the deadly virus that resulted in one of the greatest natural disasters for mankind.
Was deforestation the case of west Africa's Ebola outbreak?
Deforestation in Africa -- especially in sub-Saharan Africa is a major problem and a cause of concern for environmentalists as well as for the local population. However, this problem turned out to be a care for the global population after the rapid…
Chasek, P., Downie, D., & Brown, J. (2014). Global environmental politics. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Clerici, M., Combal, B., Pekel, J., Dubois, G., van't Klooster, J., Skoien, J., & Bartholome, E. (2013). The eStation, an Earth Observation processing service in support to ecological monitoring. Ecological Informatics, 18, 162-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2013.08.004
Davies, C. (2015). Deforestation 'may have started west Africa's Ebola outbreak'. The Guardian, p. 1. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/29/deforestation-might-have-started-west-africas-ebola-outbreak
Ginsberg, J. (2014). How saving West African forests might have prevented the Ebola epidemic. The Guardian, p. 1. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/vital-signs/2014/oct/03/ebola-epidemic-bats-deforestation-west-africa-guinea-sierra-leone-liberia http://news.mongabay.com ,. (2006). Africa's deforestation rate may be underestimated. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…
Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5
Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)
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The problem with European slaves was mainly that they had recourse to legal action for the protection of their rights and redressing their grievances. Like the Native Americans, European slaves were also unfamiliar with the soils and cash crops of the New World. Furthermore, they tended to use their status as slaves only as a vehicle for traveling to the United States, after which they would claim their freedom on the grounds of their Christianity and their race (Gilbert and Reynolds 154).
On the other hand, the main disadvantage of using Africans as slaves was the expense and danger involved in capturing and transporting them from the continent (Gilbert and Reynolds 155). Their knowledge and familiarity with both the tropical environment and the soils of the area however favored them highly over their European and Native American counterparts. This, along with their skill in extracting ores from American soils, as…
Gilbert, Erik & Reynolds, Jonathan T. "Chapter 8: Slavery and the Creation of the Atlantic World." Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Pearson/Prentice Hall: 2nd Edition, 2007.
Gilbert, Erik & Reynolds, Jonathan T. "Chapter 9: West and West-Central Africa: 1500 -- 1880." Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Pearson/Prentice Hall: 2nd Edition, 2007.
Gilbert, Erik & Reynolds, Jonathan T. "Chapter 10: North African and the Sudan: 1500 -- 1880." Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Pearson/Prentice Hall: 2nd Edition, 2007.
Gilbert, Erik & Reynolds, Jonathan T. "Chapter 11: East Africa: 1500 -- 1850." Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Pearson/Prentice Hall: 2nd Edition, 2007.
Slavery has existed since the beginning history, and references can be found throughout the Old Testament and other ancient writings from around the globe. Slaves were often the spoils of wars and battles for the victors, and usually were a different ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race from those who enslaved them (Slavery pp). In the majority of cases, intermarriage, granting of liberty, and the right to buy one's own freedom have caused slave and slave-owning populations to merge throughout the world (Slavery pp). Slavery is almost always practiced for the purpose of securing labor and in the strictest sense, slaves have no rights (Slavery pp). The 1926 Slavery Convention described slavery as "the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised," thus, a slave is someone who cannot leave an owner, master, overseer, controller,…
Niger: IRIN -- Focus on Slavery.
http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=17957& ; SelectRegion=West_Africa
Obadina, Tunde. "Slave trade: a root of contemporary African Crisis."
Monique and the Mango Rains by Kris Holloway
ritical Book Review
Monique and the Mango Rains book focuses on the narration of a friendship story between the local health care worker and the author of the novel in the context of the village of Nampossela in Mali. The book reflects critical views from the gender or feminist point-of-view. Monique and the Mango Rains is a reflection of the participation of the women in the development of the society thus the essence of feminist approach in the illustration of the healthcare issues and services in the context of West Africa.
Monique and the Mango Rains book focuses on the narration of a friendship story between the local health care worker and the author of the novel in the context of the village of Nampossela in Mali. This book is an essential and effective approach towards meeting the needs and preferences of…
The title of the novel is a representation of the small rains between February and March facilitating the growth and maturation of the mangoes. The title of the novel is a reflection of the empowerment of women in the society in West Africa thus an opportunity to enhance their participation and health condition. The novel focuses on the integration and incorporation of female issues in the development of the plot and themes. This is through focusing on role of women, birth processes, challenges, and threats facing the growth and development of women within the society. In the analysis of the book, Monique and the Mango Rains, it is vital to adopt and integrate feminism approach with the aim of identifying and illustrating major themes and plot development. It is ideal to note that Monique and the Mango Rains is a reflection of the participation of the women in the development of the society thus the essence of feminist approach in the illustration of the healthcare issues and services in the context of West Africa.
Holloway, K., & Bidwell, J. (2006).Monique and the mango rains: Two years with a midwife in Mali. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
A "linguist" would bring the slave broker on board the ship that had traveled upriver, and at that point there were negotiations and the broker (owner of the slaves that he had kidnapped) wanted to know of course what merchandise was being offered, what the commission the captain of the vessel was to receive, and he wanted to know what other offers might be out there on the coast from the other slavers. At the end of the day, if the broker liked the deal, and if the trader liked the slaves that the broker brought to the river (or the coast), the company "surgeon" was called in to check the health of the prisoners, and if that passed muster, a deal was struck. The male slaves were put in irons on the main deck; the children and women (not ironed) were placed on the quarterdeck; and the boys were…
Anstey, Roger. (1975). The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition 1760-1810. Atlantic
Highlands, NY: Humanities Press.
Dodson, Howard, Moore, Christopher Paul, and Yancy, Roberta. (2009). Becoming American:
The African-American Journey. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.
Mills (n.d) explains that historians often dichotomize African nationalism into two distinct groups according to their long-term nationalist goals for post-independence Africa. The first type of group was termed as being the primary resistance, which was characterized as consisting of individuals whose goal was to reinstate the traditional African societies that existed prior to the advent of colonialism. The second type of group was termed as the secondary resistance, which consisted largely of Africa's intellectual elites who wished to develop modern civil societies within post-independence Africa. Mills noted that groups tended to often display both types of resistance tendencies, thus making the dichotomy inapplicable to every situation.
African nationalism came about as a strong reaction towards the unjust political, economic, and social domination of Africa by its European colonialist masters. Nationalists were affected by several ideological influences from outside Africa. Foremost among these influences was the ideology of Pan-Africanism. This…
African nationalism." Hutchinson's encyclopedia website. (2005). Retrieved April 18, 2005 at http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0029558.html
Mills, Wallace G. "Nationalist and independence movements in British colonies." (n.d.)
Retrieved April 19, 2005 at http://husky1.stmarys.ca/~wmills/course317/13African_Nationalism.html
Mills, Wallace G. "Origins and development of African nationalism." (n.d.) Retrieved April 19, 2005 at http://husky1.stmarys.ca/~wmills/course322/17African_natm.html
Much of the conventional wisdom around slavery rightly centers around the issue of racism. To many Europeans, the darker skin and different culture of the African peoples indicates the latter's inferiority and lesser level of development. Many Europeans justified colonization based on the idea of bringing civilization to the savage heathens. Others believed that the inferiority of the African races also meant that slavery was a natural social order.
A closer look at the history of colonialism and slavery, however, indicates forces at work other than racism. There were four distinct colonial periods in from the 16th to the late 20th century, and the actions of colonial powers such as Portugal and Spain were not always explained simply by skin color.
This paper reflects on the other forces that underlay the European colonization efforts.
It looks at the role played by patriarchy and religion in the colonial experience.…
Sub-Saharan Africa: Colonial History." Sub-Saharan Africa:. 11 September 2002. PBS Online. 28 October 2003 http://www.harpercollege.edu/mhealy/g101ilec/ssa/afh/afcol/afcolfr.htm .
The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America Narrative. 1999. PBS Online. 28 October 2003 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/narrative.html .
Richard Franke Chapter
why does Franke believe traditional est African cultures have adapted better to their environments than later influences vis-a-vis estern cultures?
First of all, Franke believes that apart from estern influence and outside the influence of ruling power classes, production systems that are environmentally and ecologically sustaining were developed between farmers and herders. They learned from each other, Franke writes on page 259. They were in "intensive contact" and as a result farmers exchanged knowledge about plants that herders needed to know and herders shared knowledge that farmers needed to know. There was no one dictating how things should be developed; it was an evolution of ecology based on communication and interactions. Franke calls this "traditional knowledge," and the fertility of soil was vitally important to sustenance and survival. But when African countries became colonies of European ruling classes, the interlopers introduced "…excessive use of the soils" and…
Franke, Richard W. (1987). Power, Class, and Traditional Knowledge in Sahel Food Production,
In Studies in Power and Class in Africa. New York: Oxford University Press.