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Following the Second orld ar, Europe was basically destructed both structurally and economically. The Eastern part of the continent was under the grip of different governments. This went on to show that the countries were having a hard time dealing with their present, thus the future itself looked very dull and unpromising. Europe basically appeared like the shattered continent that was never going to emerge out of the darkness. Even though the prospect of war had been gone from the nation, there were still on and off bombings and medieval crusades in the region. Despite the conditions that Europe was in, it had recovered to quite an extent. After the Second orld ar, the Soviet Union and the United States got in a cold war, this ultimately led to the destruction of the entire Soviet bloc. hat is interesting to note is that while America and Soviet Union…… [Read More]
He believed that a collusive relationship between government and industry was harmful to the general population. Smith described the principle of the "invisible hand" in which every individual is being led by an invisible force toward his or her own self good and that interference from government is a hindrance to success (Springer).
While many believe that Smith laid the foundation of modern-day practice, most industrialized nations today are not representative of his laissez-faire leaning, rather they favor mercantilist-type practices. Government intervention is common, including minimum wages, corporate welfare, anti-trust regulation, nationalized industries, welfare programs, subsidy programs for businesses and agricultural products, regulation of market competition, and economic trade barriers in the form of protective tariffs, regulation favoring domestic industry, and many other types of policies (Laissez-faire, Wikipedia).
LaHaye L. Mercantilism. http://www.econlib.org/library/enc/Mercantilism.html
Laissez-faire. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laissez-faire
Springer, W. Adam Smith: founder of modern economic theory. http://heritage.scotsman.com/timelines.cfm?cid=1&id=40812005… [Read More]
One very important aspect of their mindset in conquering others was the acceptance of other belief systems. This must have made the transition of the conquered easier than if they acted primarily as brute conformists (adice, 1982).
The omans took time to develop their armies and taught them to use a variety of weaponry as well as gain battle skills usable in various terrains. They organized their military into small units that were very successful in fighting in the mountain areas. They systematically dominated the Etruscans (in the North), the Samnites (central Italy) and then they began to conquer the Greek cities (south of the Bay of Naples). ome's control by 266 BC included the lands of Italy from the North to the most Southern tip. ome's citizens were composed of a highly adaptable society. Their government was both well structured and excellent at negotiations (adice, 1982).
adice., B.…… [Read More]
he world has always progressed through those adventurous in spirit that were not afraid to brake barriers, to confront established rules and to keep seeking new territories, be it in the fields of science, religion, law, or the physical world. he period of Renaissance that started and flourished in Italy and then spread throughout the rest of the continent changed world views and challenged the traditional at every level. Although the Middle Ages are not considered as a period of complete regress compared to the Classic times in Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire, it still remains as a period when religion played the major role in the conduct of people's lives. he study of classics entered a period of hibernation until scholars revived them and thus gave a jump start to Renaissance.
Economic and political reasons contributed to the success of the first artists and scholars who…… [Read More]
The propaganda succeeded in "turning black into white," for instance when depicting Trotsky, a revolutionary hero, as a traitor to his country.
The dogs (Jessie and luebells' pups) are Orwell's Animal Farm correspondent of the secret Russian police, the NKVD (later to become KG) led by People's Commissar Lavrenty Pavlovich eria. Same as the dogs in the book, the NKVD had the role of oppressing the people, summarily dealing with so called traitors (in fact rivals or inconvenient persons) and protecting Stalin.
Moses represents Orwell's opinion on religion. The religion is used keep people hopeful and productive, and is as a consequence a tool. After the revolution the communists tried to banish religion from people lives, as Moses leaves after the rebellion, but they where never completely successful. In the book, the pigs end up using religion (Moses) as a tool themselves.
oxer the horse represents the loyal if not…… [Read More]
As compared to polytheism, monotheism which is practiced by Christians, Muslims, Jews and other monotheistic religious denominations, has virtually taken over as the primary religious belief system in today's modern world. For Muslims who practice Islam, the only god is Allah which is comparable with the biblical Jehovah, but for all those who practice some form of monotheism, there is only one true God which forms the foundation and creates the inspiration of all monotheistic world religions.
For most of western civilization, the Holy ible serves as the foundation for modern monotheistic Christianity and for some portions of Islam. iblically speaking, God/Jehovah is the source of all life and is pure spirit, meaning that He is without physical form or presence. Thus, the biblical God is transcendent or unlimited related to time and space; he is eternal, timeless, ever-present, all-knowing and all-powerful, similar in some ways to the ancient Greek…… [Read More]
However, despite this revival of intellect, many European towns use lead pipes in the early fifteenth century. Centuries beforehand, this lesson was learned the hard way by the Romans who stayed away from the poisonous metal. As the nasty affects of lead poisoning slowly became associated with the lead pipes, many European towns turned to using iron pipes to irrigate their water. This was actual one of the most obvious staples of the Renaissance -- the re-assimilation of Greek and Latin knowledge and roots. Classical ideas of art, philosophy, and science re-entered the European mind frame.
With this came many scientific improvements to the accessing and controlling of water supplies throughout the European countryside. As the Black Plague swept through the cities and towns of Europe, many began to understand such diseases were associated with the general sanitation and cleanliness of local water supplies. In fact, Europe's main sources of…… [Read More]
9. The conflict between Gregory VII and Henry IV is referred to as the Investiture Controversy. The 11th century dispute between the Pope and the Holy oman Emperor was centered on who would have the right to appoint church officials i.e. investiture. The stake of this conflict was of course, money in the form of simony i.e. The sale of Church offices, as well as the amount of money that was associated with a high rank within the church. Moreover, secular rulers were interested in appointing a loyal bishop or abbot because the latter were part of the secular governments. The consequences were disastrous for Germany which was dragged into a civil war that lasted almost half a century. The triumph belonged to the great dukes and abbots and was followed by the disintegration of the Holy oman Empire. Furthermore, a consensus was reached in the sense that investiture was…… [Read More]
As a result of the Glorious evolution of 1688, James II was deposed, and William of Orange was invited to become king on condition that he agreed to a new Bill of ights and a Constitutional Agreement with Parliament. By contrast, France's political absolutism was centered on strengthening the power of the French kings, and weakening that of the nobles. It was established and consolidated during the reign of Louis XIV who weakened the General Assembly of France and proclaimed himself head of the government.
10. Between the 15th and the 18th century, witchcraft was treated as heresy, and the ones found guilty of it were sentenced to death by the Inquisition. Pope John XXII formalized the persecution of witchcraft in 1320 when he authorized the Inquisition to prosecute sorcery. There were no trials, and the Church was not concerned whether the accusations were alleged or real. King James I…… [Read More]
Between the Reformation and Scientific Revolution, it is evident that the latter had greater impact in destabilizing the strong hold of the Church over 16th-17th century Western society. Prior to the emergence of the Reformation, the Church was the dominant religious and political authority in the West. The clergy assumed the roles of both political and religious leaders, influencing the way society conduct their everyday lives. The Church may have dominated society socially and politically, but there are certain mandatory practices that other people in the society may consider unjustifiable. Martin Luther was one of those people who have contended against a specific Christian practice, which is the sale of papal indulgences. His protest against this 'latent form of corruption' spurred the early beginnings of the Reformation. The Reformation as a religious revolution led to the independence of Western society politically and socially from the leaders of the…… [Read More]
The decision to intervene in Latin American revolutions however brought internal conflict to the Concert, with Britain refusing to take part. The premise was that Britain's trade and profit from the panish would be lost with the end of the rebellion.
6. The Revolutions of 1848 took place throughout Europe as a result of cumulative political and economic issues. The economy was experiencing a downturn in concomitance with the historical and current abuse of political power by leaderships. As such, the general issues behind the Revolutions were basically uniform for all the countries involved, although they may have taken different forms in the individual countries. The response to the revolutions was suppression and elimination. They therefore did not last long. The main reason for this failure was the internal conflict experienced by revolutionaries. This disunity weakened the revolutionary force and led to its ultimate demise.
7. In the unification process,…… [Read More]
From Prehistory to the Renaissance
What do historians mean by "pre-history?" What was life like for early humans during these years?
There are many things that we as citizens of the modern world take for granted. First among these is probably the enormous amount of recorded information that we have at our fingertips. Everything from our purchases, to our places of employment, to the times and places of our births and deaths are stored either on paper or on computer. And there is much more too - countless novels, and films, and compact discs preserve, each in its own way, a bit of our thoughts and dreams, our expectations and aspirations. But there was once a time when this was not so; a time in the remote past before human beings had any way of recording events and thoughts and memories for future generations or even…… [Read More]
Prosperity in England during the 12th and 13th centuries was illustrated by the success of feudalism and continuous proliferation of barons, members of the commercial bourgeoisie, as they aspired to not only hold economic, but political power as well. Under the leadership of Henry III, the barons achieved both economic and political privileges. However, the bourgeoisie's attempts to usurp power from the reigning king led to the development of measures that secures the king's leadership and limit the economic and political powers of the barons. Thus, when Edward I became king, he restored and strengthened monarchial power, while at the same time creating the Parliament, giving the king control of the country's taxation system and the formulation of laws.
Under Edward I's leadership, the Parliament was created in order to give monarchial control over taxation and formulation of statutes. The formulation of the Parliament is largely a measure…… [Read More]
Clergy swore loyalty to the state. The Constitution also vowed to improve education (Halsall, 1998).
The Constitution was favorable to Napoleon because it gave him the legal authority to control the central government and authority over the French provinces. But the freedoms given to the common people proved tenuous, as in 1800 Napoleon prohibited unrestricted speech and freedom of the press as well as free elections when he declared himself emperor. In 1804, Napoleon instituted his most famous piece of legislation, the Napoleonic Code, which gave all Frenchmen equality under the law and property rights, abolished privileges given by birth, and created the civil service system. This Code replaced the earlier Constitution as Napoleon was now emperor. However, although the Constitution and the subsequent Code set the legally egalitarian, socially bourgeois, and administratively bureaucratic tone of all later French life subsequently, Napoleon mainly used French law to garner popular good…… [Read More]
British politics were filled with the "Irish Question" in the early 20th century. First, several home rule bills were introduced by Liberals in parliament, and the question dominated the political field for literally decades. The Irish and English could not agree, and Ireland continued under British dominance for so long, the people became increasingly angry and violent about their lack of freedom and self-government. It seemed as if nothing else took up as much time in the political arena, and caused as much contention. The situation was put on hold during World War I, but uprisings like the Easter Uprising in 1916 indicated the situation would not wait. Ireland went through a Civil War in 1921. Northern Ireland, the Protestant area, is still under British rule, so the problem still exists in some form. Gladstone could not solve the problem, although he tried, and it lasted longer than many politicians…… [Read More]
he old Persian road ran from Sardis to Susa. What was the approximate distance from Sardis to Susa? In Miles?
It was approximately 1,500 miles from Sardis to Susa.
In what 20th century countries did the Greeks have the most colonies?
he Greeks possessed the largest number of colonies in the modern countries of Italy and Spain, with some in France and North Africa.
In what 20th century countries were the following cities located?
Byzantium b. Pergamum c. Ephesus d. Delphi e. Corinth
In what present-day countries were Roman Narbonensis? Dalmatia? Bithynia and Pontus? Mesopotamia? Baetica? Carthage? Locate the approximate longitude and latitude of Valentia.
Bithnya and Pontus: urkey
Valentia was the Ancient Roman name for the modern French city of Valence: Lat. 44 23' N
Long. 004 58' E
If a Roman Legion could march…… [Read More]
Still one of the crucial elements in this sense was the spread of Christianity. Constantine was the one who believed in a revelation that determined him to raise his children in the Christian faith and acknowledged Christianity as a religion (Potter, 2004). The main point for this decision was the desire to unite the empire under a common belief. The Christian belief was in total opposition to the pagan on the Romans were adherents of. However, it was believed that a belief in a higher good which promotes values related to the human being and a common religion would represents a connecting point for the maintenance of the unity of the empire.
Throughout the conversion process, there were heretics such as the Arians which questioned the legitimacy of the Christian faith. Nonetheless, the Christianization process spread throughout the empire and created a sense of unity inside of it. The most…… [Read More]
Not only was France the seat of the Treaty of Versailles that ended the First World War, but also it became an important actor in the international relations that would shape the international community with the end of the war. Destroyed by the German offensive and fearing another invasion, the Treaty of Versailles stipulated the demilitarization of the hineland between the two countries in addition to monetary war reparations on the part of Germany. These methods, intended to secure French security, allowed France to eventually take advantage of Germany, according to some historians. Once Germany began failing to make its war reparation payments, France invaded the demilitarized hineland, to which Germany responded with pacifism. Germany's military was not called upon to act, and citizens were urged to practice "passive resistance" by order of the German government. Even as French troops pushed further into Germany, the state did not…… [Read More]
This is why Aristotle finds the other two forms of government unacceptable. They are easily open to perversion and private interest, which leaves the interests of the state behind. This is a selfish form of government, and one that will eventually lead to the state's downfall, in Aristotle's opinion.
In addition to the state's best interests, Aristotle also believes that government has a certain responsibility to the people. It must find ways to educate them effectively, utilize their labors that most suit them and their age, and supply arts and culture, as well. He recognizes that a well-rounded populace will lead to a happier and more content populace, which brings peace and goodwill to the state. Thus, leaders must be able to govern effectively, but they must also be able to recognize the needs of the people, and meet those needs. Music, art, and culture are all responsibilities of the…… [Read More]
The investment friction theory is that monetary contractions increase frictions in capital markets that produce investment-driven downturns in output (McGrattan)."
Getting Rich Quickly
The crash on all Street can be attributed to too much speculation in stocks. This was a "symptom of the feverish 'get rich quick' mentality that had accompanied almost a decade of growth following post-war reconversion.
The over-valued commodity markets suddenly lost confidence, and prices tumbled, setting in motion a sequence of disasters that became an economic catastrophe for the richest nation in the world (Unknown)."
Another cause of the Great Depression was under-consumption. It was not noticed that the "distribution of national income was not only inequitable but was failing to generate sufficient demand at the broadest level of society to meet the rising levels of supply made possibly by new production technologies, thus under-consumption was both a cause and a symptom of the Great…… [Read More]
The Medicis were able to gain power by their wealth and influence rather than military might. As they ruled Italy, they were not always popular, but their rule helps show the shift in Italy from medieval, feudal times to the Renaissance and beyond. Learning and the arts became much more important and stressed, but the entire world was changing. Merchants were no longer the most powerful class, the capitalists were, and the Medicis certainly belonged to this class. The Medicis learned to control government not by actually serving, but only by their power and influence over others. As the arts and learning flourished, so did the economy, and Florence became a leading cultural and economic center. The world shifted from a mainly agrarian, feudal world, to a world based in the cities and on trade, wealth, power, and prestige. The world changed, and the Medici family was right in the…… [Read More]
or the first time, the opportunity to travel to distant cities by rail allowed even those of modest means to venture more than a few miles from their homes.
Likewise, the first underground transportation systems like the New York City
and Boston subway systems connected communities in the greater New York and Boston areas as never before. In fact, the increasing wages and consumer goods attributable to industrialization gave rise to en entirely new concept to the non-wealthy classes for the first time: leisure time and disposable income. To a certain extent, this also disturbed members of the traditional leisure class who, for the first time, had to share beaches and other recreational advantages with the masses of the lower class, which also prompted the former to look for other social outlets, such as the country drive in the new automobiles manufactured by Henry ord. Toward the end of the…… [Read More]
This highlights a change that is occurring in the world power structure. As the mercantilist system of the 19th century would begin to slowly be replaced by a new one. The way that the Sadler Commission would fit in with this trend is: they would highlight a change in ritish policy towards their colonies. This would involve investing more time and money in attempting to educate as well as train the local population. After, India's independence this educational system would continue to remain in place. This can be tied to the favorable investing climate that many businesses see in India, with the workforce known as for being highly educated. As a result, this is one reason why so many companies seek to outsource many operations to India because of low labor cost and the highly educated workforce. This is the legacy of the Sadler Commission to India. (Speilvogel,…… [Read More]
Expansion in Literary Eras
There are a number of poignant similarities and inherent differences found between the Age of Reason and the Age of Discovery. Moreover, these dissimilarities and parallels exist in the literature which typified each of these historical epochs. A close examination of the writings endemic to these time periods reveals that there was a definite focus on expansion. Mankind was attempting to progress, propelling civilization forward in the process. The key distinction between the writings of these ages is that in the Age of Discovery that progress was based on physical expansion, whereas in the Age of Reason that progress was based on intellectual expansion.
Numerous pieces of literature abound in the Age of Discovery attesting to the fact that the common motif of this era was physical expansion. In fact, the most noted works of this time period were those of explorers. These explorers were attempting…… [Read More]
Many say he was the ultimate realist, who would declare war only after every other option failed, but who unified Germany with a series of wars that ultimately led to the fall of Paris and a unified and extremely powerful German state. He was a shrewd negotiator who realized that he could gain power over other countries by allying with them and then isolating them. He was adept at pitting one country against another for his own political gain, and he would promise territory and expansion to get what he wanted.
Germany definitely had more potential for leadership after the unifications took place. Germany had industry, a strong military, and a perceptive leader who would wage war when necessary and negotiate when necessary. Germany was the most powerful nation on the European continent after it unified.
Spielvogel. Jackson J. Western Civilization. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing…… [Read More]
People accepted science, and so they also accepted the idea that humans were not unique, but were descendents of animals, and products of the natural world. Thus, some people felt the theories of evolution actually eliminated meaning and purpose from the universe, and that man's contribution to the universe was slight at best. It was clear man enjoyed superior intellect to other life forms on Earth, but in the universe, that might not be true, and so humanity's place in the universe seemed to mean less than it did before, which was distressing to many people. People still had faith and beliefs, but scientific reasoning brought much of this into question, and many felt humanity was losing ground to science and scientific thought. It was a time of great change and innovation, and humanity became less important and yet vital at the same time.
Spielvogel. Jackson J. Western Civilization.…… [Read More]
The 1956 Suez Canal Crisis caused an indirect confrontation when America's allies France, Britain, and Israel made an unsuccessful military attempt to take over the Suez Canal from the Soviet Union's ally Egypt. After the U.S.S.. threatened to become militarily involved in the crisis, the U.S. forced its allies to concede defeat.
The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis occurred after the U.S. discovered that the U.S.S.. had secretly supplied Cuba with nuclear-armed missiles. This discovery was especially alarming because now the U.S.S.. could militarily subdue its rival by easily launching missiles against it. After a naval blockade around Cuba and intense negotiations the U.S.S.. was finally made to remove the missiles in exchange for the U.S. pledge not to overthrow Cuba's Communist regime.
The Cold War." (N.D) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.… [Read More]
They felt that they Church was getting richer and the poor were getting poorer. And as a result, there were no great protests when the King broke away from the Church, because many felt that Henry would ease up on taking money from them. Henry knew of the Catholic Church's unpopularity and used this to his advantage (Truman, 2009).
Christian Humanism played a large role in the development of the English Reformation as it also did with Calvinism, which emphasized the rule of God over all things (Belief system within Christianity: Calvinism, 2004). Both of these were very similar to the ideas Lutheranism, in which each individual was seen as responsible for their own fate. There were several other heretic groups that were persecuted by the Roman Catholic Church for their beliefs; these were the aldenses and the Albigenses. These were a couple of groups of Christians who would not…… [Read More]
The papacy of Pope John Paul II is indicative of this inevitable clash occurring. During his reign the pope refused to change the Catholic Church's conservative stance towards various social issues despite facing increasing dissent from within. When he allied himself with conservative Muslim leaders in an attempt to influence the outcome of the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo he was regarded by the secular world as having caused a major controversy ("John Paul II," 2005). This example reveals how due to lack of compromise church and state will continue to experience conflict so long as issues such as the practice of homosexuality, abortion, "artificial" methods of human reproduction and birth control, and euthanasia remain up for debate within secular societies.
John Paul II" (N.D.) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard…… [Read More]
Change was happing all over Europe, and Luther's change just seemed to fit in at the right time.
Luther's revolt really affected many facets of life, because it freed people to make choices in their religion, and their lives, and showed them there was more than one way to believe and to live. It gave them the ability to question, to seek new answers, and to look to other answers besides religion. It also showed them the Catholic Church was not all-powerful. His revolt ultimately helped other dissidents revolt. His was only the first branch of many new Protestant religions, and other people found the courage to stand up and demand change because of Luther's eventual success. It was a politically charged time in Germany, and politicians learned they had to please the people, rather than simply the Pope and the Church.… [Read More]
They must occupy themselves with inventing new ways to legally persecute people as they cannot be involved in any real pursuit of knowledge.
Things changed drastically with the Renaissance, though not with the speed that many men would have appreciated. Galileo Galilei butted heads with the Catholic Church many times in his life, eventually recanting much of what he had provocatively (and rightly) claimed to be true and ending his life under house arrest. He at times tried to couch his more controversial discoveries in language more pleasing to the Church, but apparently he was not proficient enough at disguising it. His "Letter to Castelli" is a prime example of the shift that Western thought was taking during the Renaissance: "the Holy Scriptures in many places not only admit but actually require a different explanation for what seems to be the literal one, it seems to me that they ought…… [Read More]
This is perhaps most evident in the case of Mark Rothko.
The romantics," wrote Rothko early in his career, were prompted to seek exotic subjects and to travel to far off places. They failed to realise that, though the transcendental must involve the strange and unfamiliar, not everything strange or unfamiliar is transcendental (Rothko 84).
The key then, for Rothko, was to develop a form of "transcendentalism" involved locating the strange and unfamiliar in every day life. Eventually, this led Rothko into his signature style - that of the "multiforms," two to three blocks of contrasting colors set on a large canvas. The overall effect is one that enraptures the viewer, thus giving rise to a spiritual experience. hat was important for Rothko and his followers was to create a form of art that would transcend the aesthetic realm that had limited art for centuries. They wanted art to extend…… [Read More]
The identity of a Geisha, and the origins of the profession has a great deal more to do with performance and skills in such than in any other aspect of the trade.
(1) Okada, Mariko. "Prolegomenon to Geisha as a Cultural Performer: Miyako Odori, The
Gion School and epresentation of a Traditional" Japan." 2003.
http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2065/26765/1/034.pdf (accessed July 10,
2010) p. 223.
(2) Ibid. p. 224.
(3) Ibid. p. 223.
(5) Graham-Diaz, Naomi. Immortal Geisha History of the Geisha, Part One: 1100 AD
1750 AD. October 2001. http://www.immortalgeisha.com/history_01.php (accessed July
(7) Okada, Mariko. "Prolegomenon to Geisha as a Cultural Performer: Miyako Odori, The
Gion School and epresentation of a Traditional" Japan." 2003.
http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2065/26765/1/034.pdf (accessed July 10,
2010) p. 223.
(8) Ibid. p. 222.
(9) Ibid. p. 221.
(10) Chen, Li-Yu, and Lai On-Kwok. "Creativity and Hybridism of Cultures in a Globalizing
World The e-Production-cum-Consumption of…… [Read More]
This was partly because there was wealth enough to patronize the arts, and partly because the Medicis made it fashionable to commission public and private works from local artists. For example, the architect Brunelleschi created buildings that were testaments to the ancient buildings of Rome and Greece, which he studied. He designed the dome of the cathedral in Florence with these classic buildings in mind, and changed architecture from the gaudy medieval cathedrals to a more stately and dignified portrayal of religious belief and utility. Michelangelo rose to prominence under patronage by the Medicis, and his classic statue "The Pieta" was commissioned by a French cardinal, who originally planned to use the piece as a memorial on his own tomb. This is quite common of art at the time; it was commissioned by the powerful and the wealthy for their own enjoyment, but began to be shared with everyone. Thus,…… [Read More]
Western Civilization proposal, I would like to research Golda Meir. Meir's life is interesting not only in and of itself, but is also remarkable altogether for its astonishing symbolic associations. Meir shows us (as we perhaps already knew) that the historical bias within Western Civilization that stereotypes women as "the weaker sex" has never really been accurate. There is a long history both mythographically and historically which does permit women a role in both warcraft and statecraft: the Classical tradition offers warrior goddesses such as the Greek Athene and the Roman Bellona, while the Old Testament includes enough vignettes of tough and bloodthirsty women, such as Jael, who assassinates the enemy general Sisera by hammering a tent-peg through his skull. Historically there have been a number of female war leaders as well: Boadicea in Roman-era Britain and Zenobia in the Roman-era Middle East both led successful military uprisings against a…… [Read More]
estern Civilization latest edition / internet Emmanuel Kant,"The idea a Universal History Cosmopolitan Intent" 1. Describe Kant's conception history? According " motor" history 2. According Kant, end ( goal highest point) history? 3.
Immanuel Kant believed that nature plays an important role in history and that it is largely responsible for providing people with the abilities required for them to make and record history. Nature apparently has a secret plan to create a social order that functions perfectly and it is only in this society that people can make full use of their capabilities, as they have struggled across time to accumulate the information they need in order to improve their condition. Kant emphasized that nature holds great power over people and that even though it is difficult for society to understand this, people are actually working in agreement with a greater plan -- one that they are not directly…… [Read More]
What is usually unconcealed is that much of the machinery and social prototypes which make up what is distinct as modernization were urbanized in the Western worlds. Whether these technical and social prototypes are essentially part of Western civilization is more complicated to respond. Many would dispute that the query cannot be responded by a reply from science and as an alternative is a worth question which should be answered from a respect scheme. However, much of anthropology these days has shown the close connection between the physical surroundings and daily actions and the configuration of a civilization such as the findings of society's ecology with others. In contrast to many other civilizations in the world, western civilizations lean to highlight the individuals. On the other hand, western societies have usually been more communally cooperative by giving a foremost significance to social preponderance civilization or propensities such as mores, procedures,…… [Read More]
history western civilization a book called THE MAKING OF THE WEST.
Joan of Arc
Prior to becoming made into a saint in the early part of the 20th century, Joan of Arc was one of the primary causes of France's many victories in the Hundred Years War. The woman, who only lived to be 19 before she was eventually burned to death after being captured by the British, helped liberate many parts of France from British occupation during a relatively brief period of time, all of which took place during the 1420's prior to her death. Joan told several members of the French population that she was divinely inspired by visions from God to help her defeat the British and reclaim France's territory. With some dissent from France's military leaders, she was able to play an influential role in the Siege at Orleans, which was largely proceeded by several months'…… [Read More]
Alexander the Great
Western civilization has wide range of historical aspects and it encompasses civilization of ancient Rome, ancient Greece and a Judaic civilization. A civilization is said to exist from Stone Age until today, ranging from China to Egypt, Mesoamerica and Africa.
Alexandros III (356-323 B.C.), Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, was one of the greatest military geniuses in history. e conquered and governed civilizations of that time, ruled by his great desire to conquer the world and thus laid the foundation of universal world monarchy.
Arrian describes Alexander, as a great leader, always leading his army in enthusiastic way. e was first leader and conqueror who reached Greece, Egypt and Asia. e always led best military formation of the time, the Macedonian Phalanx, which was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. Alexander created ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered populations,…… [Read More]
Triumph of estern Civilization
In the book Guns, Germs, and Steel, the historian and New Guinea anthropologist Jared Diamond argues that the geography and the environment of the est played the major role in determining the dominance of estern civilization of the modern world. According to Diamond, although geography and the environment do not automatically lead to dominance over other civilizations, these two factors do make major contributions to the four factors that are responsible for all historical developments. The first of these factors is the widespread availability of potential crops and domestic animals as a sustainable food source. This first factor's importance is followed by the need for a nation's location near the a continental axis in a way that facilitates the sustenance of year-round agriculture and yields the seasonal and climatic advantages for a variety of foodstuffs. Third in importance to holding sway over other nations is an…… [Read More]
perceived superiority of modern Western civilization is unfounded. There is little evidence to suggest that our cultures are any more advanced than the ancient cultures of the Fertile Crescent, Greece, or Rome. The argument for a linear progression or an evolution of civilization can be countered by evidence to the contrary in areas as diverse as science, politics, philosophy, art, and architecture. Although definite improvements have been made in women's rights, forced labor, and governmental systems, for instance, the accomplishments of ancient cultures rival our own. They may not have possessed microchips or jet engines in ancient Athens, but they did create the structures upon which we base our society today. We are still reaping the rewards that ancient civilizations sowed millennia ago. In fact, Mesopotamia, Sumeria, Babylon, Egypt, Assyria, Israel, Greece, and Rome comprise the beginnings of Western civilization.
Ancient civilizations possessed a remarkable understanding of nature and the…… [Read More]
For example, rather than directly disputing the belief that ancient Egyptians were black, the author prefers to emphasize the underlying fallacy of racial categorizations in the first place. Anthropologists have long rejected the traditional racial classifications familiar to us all, and continually remind us that all Homo Sapiens are identical, from an evolutionary perspective, as they are all members one species.
The author cautions that disputing the belief directly without addressing the underlying fallacy of racial categorization by anatomical features within a given species invites accusations of racism and "Eurocentrism." Instead, she reminds us of the importance of recognizing that racial categorization is not capable of scientific meaning, and represents nothing more than social conventions and cultural beliefs about various physical features contained within the genetic material of all of us.
Likewise, oth points to the exaggerated claims about the extent of Egyptian scientific and mathematical knowledge and, in general,…… [Read More]
We noticed besides four figures of Marsyas, one at each corner of the tray, spouting out peppered fish-sauce over the fishes swimming in the Channel of the dish..."
Cooks, servers, musicians, acrobats, butlers, maids, young men, and young women - all of whom he had complete control over their fate. For example, the readings mention the extent of Trimalchio's power when a slave makes careless mistakes in his work. Trimalchio tells him to "strip" and go and "take his own life." At which point the slave begs for mercy.
Towards the end of the feast, a guest recaps everything served. "For the first course we had a pig topped with a black-pudding and garnished with fritters and giblets, capitally dressed, and beetroot of course, and whole-meal brown bread. The next course was cold tarts, and to drink, excellent Spanish wine poured over warm honey. As accessories, were chick-peas and lupines,…… [Read More]
Homer was a legendary Greek poet who is traditionally credited as the author of the major Greek epics the "Iliad and the Odyssey," as well as the comic mini-epic "Batracholmyomachia" (The Frog-Mouse ar), the corpus of Homeric Hymns, and various other lost or fragmentary workd such as "Margites" (Homer pp). Some ancient authors credited him with the entire Epic Cycle, which included other poems about the Trojan ar as well as the Theban poems concerning Oedipus and his sons (Homer pp). According to legend, Homer was blind, and aside from several Ionian cities claiming to be his birthplace, there is nothing else known about him (Homer pp). Aristotle and Pindar believed that Homer was born in Smyrna, on the coast of modern-day Turkey, and enjoyed years of fame on the Aegean island of Chios (Tolson pp). Although the great scholar-librarians of Alexandria scrutinized the epics for historical and geographic errors,…… [Read More]
The fact that the Ottoman Empire had experienced significant losses until that time meant that other European powers needed to intervene and attempt to gain control over areas that the Ottomans lost. The Allies eventually won the conflict but it was difficult to determine the exact effects that their victory would have on their relationship with the Ottoman Empire, as its leaders seemed determined to maintain most of their attitudes with regard to non-Muslims within their borders, thus meaning that one of the primary reasons for which the French, the English, and the Sardinians entered the war was believed to be unimportant by the Ottomans.
6. Crisis in the Ottoman Empire
People across Greece saw the Crimean War as an opportunity to concentrate their powers into removing Ottoman control from within their borders. Individuals in the Epirus region started to publicly express revolutionary attitudes in an attempt to influence others…… [Read More]
Asian, African and other non-white cultures were to be subjected to military, governmental, economic and missionary domination in order to help raise the world's positive reflection of the implied benefits of Western Civilization.
The absence of truly formal correlation between Western Culture and any one culture has become more apparent in the last century especially. During the Cold War struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union, the idea of West vs. East became inextricably linked to a new conception of nation-building. Here, imperialist models were adapted which saw the two forms of government and lifestyle (i.e. capitalism and communism) engage in an effort at global domination of ideology and economic framework. The premise which drove forward the United States and its allies was this adopted notion of Western Civilization as reflecting modernity, moral progressivism and an inherent dispensation of Enlightenment principles.
Naturally, as memory of such Cold War…… [Read More]
In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…… [Read More]
Huns, nomadic people and barbarians (from the Roman point-of-view) coming from the East, may have given the final blow to an empire that was already crumbling. They conquered semi-nomadic nomadic peoples they found on their way moving westwards, settling in territories north and south of Danube, and incorporated them in a new empire.
Attila, the Hun leader, had the merit to unite his people who used to be scattered in different clans and tribes, giving them to opportunity to unite under the same flag and fight like a nation. He was born at the dawn of the fifth century AD, at a ripe time, suitable to question and greatly endanger the Roman supremacy in the Mediterranean world and beyond.
Like other barbarians, the Huns were parasitic people, living off the possessions of those they pillaged and of the tributes the latter agreed to pay in exchange for peace. What the…… [Read More]
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…… [Read More]
Race for Colonies in the Late 19th Century
Although European imperialism had started in the 15th century when a number of European powers such as Spain, Portugal and Great Britain began to look for new settlements around the world, another great race for colonies occurred in the late 19th century. This time around, other countries such as the United States and Japan also joined Europe in the race. Some of the major reasons for the establishment of colonies in the late 19th century and specific examples of such colonies are outlined below.
The industrial revolution in Europe and the United States had greatly increased their technological and military power by the second half of the 19th century. Japan, too, had embarked on a path of rapid modernization in the mid-nineteenth century. As a result, several countries in Europe (including England, France, Germany and Italy), the U.S. And Japan…… [Read More]
) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.
c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?
There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…… [Read More]
hich historians Yahia Zoubir and Daniel Volman describe this way:
At the same time, they [the Judges] are in accord in providing indications of a legal tie of allegiance between the Sultan and some, though only some, of the tribes of the territory, and in providing indications of some display of the Sultan's authority or influence with respect to those tribes."
For the court to have found in the favor of Morocco based on "historic" claims, would have opened the door of a Pandora's box, and there was simply no way to legally deal with that situation. A finding in Morocco's favor would undo the modern world. Then, strangely enough, and because if he wanted to remain in the dynamics of the argument and struggle for control over estern Sahara, Morocco's King Hussan III interpreted the court's findings in favor of Morocco, and in accordance with Moroccan law. If the…… [Read More]
Moreover, the empire was politically as well as geographically fragmented. Macedonian rule was tolerated only as long as Alexander remained alive.
3. The reasons civilizations developed with particular robustness in the Near East can be narrowed down to geography and the migratory patterns of early humans. Known as the Fertile Crescent, the Eastern Mediterranean offered arable land complete with a plethora of indigenous flora and fauna for domestication and cultivation. Moreover, animal domestication flourished in the Near East. Agriculture and animal husbandry necessitated the rise of early cities, whereas in less fertile regions hunting and gathering remained more productive means to procure food. Early humans, traveling from the African subcontinent, naturally found the Fertile Crescent a suitable place for developing permanent settlements. As disparate groups settled throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, geography also permitted the ready trade of goods, people, and ideas. The sea and a location close to East Asia…… [Read More]
The Church also viewed exploration and territorial expansion as a means to spread the doctrine and power of the Church.
3.) Describe the difference between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot.
The differences between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot are largely superficial. Both legitimate their power through hereditary lineage and both rule without political opposition or a balance of powers. both are autocrats. No constitution or set of laws are in place to keep the powers of either ruler in check. Both rely on some external sources of support, and it is primarily in those external sources that the absolute monarch and the enlightened despot differ. The enlightened despot is less closely connected to the Church. His political philosophy is heavily influenced by Enlightenment values. Thus, the enlightened monarch supports basic tenets like scientific exploration and a greater degree of social and religious tolerance than the absolute…… [Read More]
Jews worship in synagogues, which rarely share common architectural elements in common with one another. ather, the presence of the Arc within a synagogue remains one of the only features present in synagogues around the world. Some of the ultra-liberal synagogues from the eform tradition may not even have an Arc.
Christian churches vary widely, too. Catholic Churches constructed in Europe during the height of the Church's power from the late Middle Ages through the Enlightenment often share some elements in common including cross-shaped floor plan and altar. Mosques may differ widely but most have minarets topped with the symbol of the crescent moon. Unlike Christianity, neither Judaism nor Islam tolerates the presence of any anthropomorphic representations within their holy places. Thus, the interiors of synagogues and mosques contain only geometric and abstract designs in contrast to the prolific imagery of Christ, the apostles, and the saints in Catholic churches.…… [Read More]
Imperialism also became a key source of power for European nations. Colonial landholdings by the British, French, Spanish, and Dutch strengthened those nations politically and economically. Power could be substantiated by nationalistic propaganda. After 1870, the balance of power in Europe changed to accommodate for the emergence of two newly unified nations: Germany and Italy. The strategic alliances forged between various nation-states in Europe and the corruption that ensued led to the First and Second World Wars. Those wars in turn altered the balance of power throughout the world, allowing the United States to emerge as a superpower. Thus, nation-states in power, which are headed by elite and powerful social groups, help determine the course of history. Power is influence over a specific geographic region and can possibly translate to power globally.
4. Known as the Iron Chancellor, Otto von Bismark helped unified Germany and effectively consolidated power in a…… [Read More]
Louis XIV and Napoleon Bonaparte are the most important personalities of French history; their political achievements impressed people of all generations who admitted the fact that unified strong and highly developed modern France is the main result of their activities. Both Louis XIV and Napoleon were politicians of a new type and had very progressive political views which helped them strengthen their country and defeat political opponents. Period of French history since 1643 till 1812 is full of great changes in social, economical, political and cultural aspects of French life and the outcome of this process was unified French nation, strong state ruled by able bureaucracy and French cultural predominance for many centuries.
To begin with we have to remember, that French nation didn't have strong and unified state before Louis XIV: French kings tried fighting for dominant position in the political system but failed as they were directed in…… [Read More]
Greek History World Civilizations
What made the Greek civilization so great? What made the Greeks so great?
Greeks are the most famous and advance people around the world. There are so many areas and variety of things that makes this country and nation so rich and lively. The Greeks has a great history due to having great philosophers, socialist, wars, kings, food, outfits, culture, and great thinkers.
The history of Greek civilization is very rich and deep, it can be dated back to 300 B.C. The nation is entirely long and vast.
It was the first civilization in Europe. This part of the world was developed near the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It is also considered as the birthplace of democracy as per several popular scholars, nations and authors of the world in the history.
The Greek is the first democratic country over the earth. The idea of…… [Read More]
history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.
Studies and…… [Read More]
Huntington's Clash Of Civilization
confirm or refute Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis
Huntington's clash of civilization
Scholars, journalists, and policy makers have adopted and popularized the ideas of Samuel P. Huntington, who was a professor of government at Harvard University, to explain the emerging post-cold war world. According to Huntington, the world is divided into a number of distinct civilizations that are irreconcilable because they hold to entirely different value systems (Huntington, 1993, 22-49).
This essay in tends to refute the Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis by first of all looking at the summation of this thesis, before the researcher gives his own perspective of Huntington's theory. In the third section of this study, supporting evidence that draws from the readings from this essay and other accredited outside sources are discussed before the essay concludes.
Summation of Huntington's clash of civilization thesis
Born Samuel P. Huntington in 1927; a political…… [Read More]