Western Civilization Essays (Examples)

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Western Civ the Concept of

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66266289

Asian, African and other non-white cultures were to be subjected to military, governmental, economic and missionary domination in order to help raise the world's positive reflection of the implied benefits of Western Civilization.

The absence of truly formal correlation between Western Culture and any one culture has become more apparent in the last century especially. During the Cold War struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union, the idea of West vs. East became inextricably linked to a new conception of nation-building. Here, imperialist models were adapted which saw the two forms of government and lifestyle (i.e. capitalism and communism) engage in an effort at global domination of ideology and economic framework. The premise which drove forward the United States and its allies was this adopted notion of Western Civilization as reflecting modernity, moral progressivism and an inherent dispensation of Enlightenment principles.

Naturally, as memory of such Cold War…… [Read More]

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Western Religion

Words: 6937 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99571749

Western Religion

In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…… [Read More]


Kessler, Gary E. Western Ways of Being Religious. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub., 1999.pp.

Edwards, Rem Blanchard. Reason and Religion; an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.pp. 386

Paden, William E. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.pp. 192

Proudfoot, Wayne. Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.pp. 263
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Western Civ V The Philosophes

Words: 1913 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57432668

) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.

c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?

There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Primary Source

Documents, History 100.

Hitler, a. Mein Kampf. Primary Source Documents, History 100.

Marx, Karl and F. Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Primary Source
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Western Sahara Conflict in the

Words: 8710 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67127972

hich historians Yahia Zoubir and Daniel Volman describe this way:

At the same time, they [the Judges] are in accord in providing indications of a legal tie of allegiance between the Sultan and some, though only some, of the tribes of the territory, and in providing indications of some display of the Sultan's authority or influence with respect to those tribes."

For the court to have found in the favor of Morocco based on "historic" claims, would have opened the door of a Pandora's box, and there was simply no way to legally deal with that situation. A finding in Morocco's favor would undo the modern world. Then, strangely enough, and because if he wanted to remain in the dynamics of the argument and struggle for control over estern Sahara, Morocco's King Hussan III interpreted the court's findings in favor of Morocco, and in accordance with Moroccan law. If the…… [Read More]

Works Cited


Borowiec, Andrew. 2003. Taming the Sahara: Tunisia Shows a Way While Others Falter. Westport, CT: Praeger. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107024757.Internet. Accessed 14 August 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002077928

Dela Rosa, Darrell. 2003. The UN Role in Western Sahara. UN Chronicle, September-November, 22+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002077928.Internet. Accessed 14 August 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026946743

Dodds, Klaus. 2008. Western Sahara. Geographical, May, 12. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026946743.Internet. Accessed 14 August 2008.
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Western Civ Athens and Sparta

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81078631

Moreover, the empire was politically as well as geographically fragmented. Macedonian rule was tolerated only as long as Alexander remained alive.

3. The reasons civilizations developed with particular robustness in the Near East can be narrowed down to geography and the migratory patterns of early humans. Known as the Fertile Crescent, the Eastern Mediterranean offered arable land complete with a plethora of indigenous flora and fauna for domestication and cultivation. Moreover, animal domestication flourished in the Near East. Agriculture and animal husbandry necessitated the rise of early cities, whereas in less fertile regions hunting and gathering remained more productive means to procure food. Early humans, traveling from the African subcontinent, naturally found the Fertile Crescent a suitable place for developing permanent settlements. As disparate groups settled throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, geography also permitted the ready trade of goods, people, and ideas. The sea and a location close to East Asia…… [Read More]


Ancient History Timeline." Thinkquest. Retrieved Feb 11, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/10805/timeline.html

Hooker, R. (1996). "Sparta." Retrieved Feb 11, 2007 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/SPARTA.htm

Hooker, R. (1996). "Athens." Retrieved Feb 11, 2007 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/ATHENS.htm

Kings Rulers Emperors Dictators Tyrants and Military Leaders" About.com http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/rulersleaderskings/Kings_Rulers_Emperors_Dictators_Tyrants_and_Military_Leaders.htm
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Western Civ Explain the Theory

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61809215

The Church also viewed exploration and territorial expansion as a means to spread the doctrine and power of the Church.

3.) Describe the difference between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot.

The differences between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot are largely superficial. Both legitimate their power through hereditary lineage and both rule without political opposition or a balance of powers. both are autocrats. No constitution or set of laws are in place to keep the powers of either ruler in check. Both rely on some external sources of support, and it is primarily in those external sources that the absolute monarch and the enlightened despot differ. The enlightened despot is less closely connected to the Church. His political philosophy is heavily influenced by Enlightenment values. Thus, the enlightened monarch supports basic tenets like scientific exploration and a greater degree of social and religious tolerance than the absolute…… [Read More]


Enlightened Despots." Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook11.html

Gilbert, W. "Renaissance and Reformation." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at  http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/gilbert/ 

Rempel, G. "Mercantilism." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc2/lectures/mercantilism.html

Steingrad, E. "Louis XIV." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.louis-xiv.de/index.php?t=start&a=start#2
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Western Religions Given the Remarkable

Words: 2540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86307427

Jews worship in synagogues, which rarely share common architectural elements in common with one another. ather, the presence of the Arc within a synagogue remains one of the only features present in synagogues around the world. Some of the ultra-liberal synagogues from the eform tradition may not even have an Arc.

Christian churches vary widely, too. Catholic Churches constructed in Europe during the height of the Church's power from the late Middle Ages through the Enlightenment often share some elements in common including cross-shaped floor plan and altar. Mosques may differ widely but most have minarets topped with the symbol of the crescent moon. Unlike Christianity, neither Judaism nor Islam tolerates the presence of any anthropomorphic representations within their holy places. Thus, the interiors of synagogues and mosques contain only geometric and abstract designs in contrast to the prolific imagery of Christ, the apostles, and the saints in Catholic churches.…… [Read More]


Rich, T. (2002). "Halakhah: Jewish Law." Judaism 101. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at  http://www.jewfaq.org/halakhah.htm 

Hein, A. (2006) "A History of Women's Ordination as Rabbis." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/femalerabbi.html 

The Islamic Calendar." Calendars through the Ages. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-islamic.html

Kennedy, D.J. (1912; 2003). Sacraments. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13295a.htm
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Western Civ the Congress of

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7145273

Imperialism also became a key source of power for European nations. Colonial landholdings by the British, French, Spanish, and Dutch strengthened those nations politically and economically. Power could be substantiated by nationalistic propaganda. After 1870, the balance of power in Europe changed to accommodate for the emergence of two newly unified nations: Germany and Italy. The strategic alliances forged between various nation-states in Europe and the corruption that ensued led to the First and Second World Wars. Those wars in turn altered the balance of power throughout the world, allowing the United States to emerge as a superpower. Thus, nation-states in power, which are headed by elite and powerful social groups, help determine the course of history. Power is influence over a specific geographic region and can possibly translate to power globally.

4. Known as the Iron Chancellor, Otto von Bismark helped unified Germany and effectively consolidated power in a…… [Read More]


Donohue, L. (nd) "Congress of Vienna." Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://www.cusd.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/congress/vienessy.html

Kishlansky, M., Geary, P., & O'Brien, P. (2007). Civilization in the West. 5th edition. Pearson-Longman. Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://wps.ablongman.com/long_kishlansky_cw_5/0,6472,270050-,00.html

Kreis, S. (2000). "Origins of the French Revolution." The History Guide. Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture11a.html

Otto von Bismark: The Iron Chancellor of germany." Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://www.germanculture.com.ua/library/weekly/aa092000a.htm
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Greek History World Civilizations

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92648679

Greek History World Civilizations

What made the Greek civilization so great? What made the Greeks so great?

Greeks are the most famous and advance people around the world. There are so many areas and variety of things that makes this country and nation so rich and lively. The Greeks has a great history due to having great philosophers, socialist, wars, kings, food, outfits, culture, and great thinkers.

The history of Greek civilization is very rich and deep, it can be dated back to 300 B.C. The nation is entirely long and vast.

It was the first civilization in Europe. This part of the world was developed near the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It is also considered as the birthplace of democracy as per several popular scholars, nations and authors of the world in the history.

The Greek is the first democratic country over the earth. The idea of…… [Read More]

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History of Human Civilization the Scientific Revolution

Words: 2161 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52464720

history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.

Studies and…… [Read More]


Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.usask.ca/crc/profiles/baber.php.

History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.lewrockwell.com.
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Huntington's Clash of Civilization Confirm or Refute

Words: 2005 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35623839

Huntington's Clash Of Civilization

confirm or refute Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis

Huntington's clash of civilization

Scholars, journalists, and policy makers have adopted and popularized the ideas of Samuel P. Huntington, who was a professor of government at Harvard University, to explain the emerging post-cold war world. According to Huntington, the world is divided into a number of distinct civilizations that are irreconcilable because they hold to entirely different value systems (Huntington, 1993, 22-49).

This essay in tends to refute the Huntington's clash of civilizations thesis by first of all looking at the summation of this thesis, before the researcher gives his own perspective of Huntington's theory. In the third section of this study, supporting evidence that draws from the readings from this essay and other accredited outside sources are discussed before the essay concludes.

Summation of Huntington's clash of civilization thesis

Born Samuel P. Huntington in 1927; a political…… [Read More]

Work cited

Ankerl, Guy. (2008) Global communication without universal civilization Coexisting contemporary civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. pp 74-89

Blankley, Tony, (2005) The West's Last Chance: Will We Win the Clash of Civilizations?, Washington, D.C., Regnery Publishing, Inc., p 56-88

Djilas, Aleksa: (2006) "Democracy, Destiny, and the Clash of Civilizations": Transitions, the journal on post-communist society's pp 49

Fox, Jonathon, (1994) Ethnic minorities and the clash of civilizations: A quantitative analysis of Huntington's thesis. British Journal of Political Science, pp 415-435.
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Clash of Civilizations and the

Words: 3266 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38750801

The second case of cultural reaffirmation that Huntington discusses is that of Muslim societies which have followed a different path towards the reassertion of their cultural identity. In these societies, religion has been the main factor of cultural distinctiveness and influence. Huntington argues that religion is the main factor which distinguishes Muslim societies from the others, and that the resurgence of Islam "embodies the acceptance of modernity, rejection of Western culture, and the recommitment to Islam as the guide to life in the modern world" (Huntington 1998: 110). As far as the causes behind this resurgence, Huntington talks about the failure of state economies, the large and oftentimes rather young population of these countries, as well as the authoritarian political regimes of these nation states.

In light of these arguments, Huntington predicts great clashes will occur among civilizations. However he also identifies a possible cooperation between Islamic and inic cultures…… [Read More]

Simon & Schuster, 1998.

Huntington, Samuel. "The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs 72.3 (1993): 22-49.

Kamrava, Mehran. "Political Culture." In Democracy in the Balance: Culture and Society in the Middle East. New York: Chatham House Publishers, 1998: 201-223.
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Clash of Civilizations and the

Words: 1525 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42095630

Samuel P. Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations." Foreign Affairs (Summer 1993): 22.

Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 22.

Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 22.

Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 23.

Anatol Lieven, "Analysis: roots of the conflict between Georgia, South Ossetia and Russia." The UK Times Online. (August 11, 2008). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article4498709.ece (accessed September 2, 2009).

Samuel P. Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations," 23-24.

Anatole Lieven, "Analysis."

Anatole Lieven, "Analysis."

Natalia Antelava. "U.S. military will stay in Georgia." C (January 12, 2004). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3406941.stm (accessed September 2, 2009).

Robyn Dixon, "Putin acks U.S. Involvement in Georgia." The LA Times (March 2, 2002). http://articles.latimes.com/2002/mar/02/news/mn-30748 (accessed September 2, 2009).


Antelava, Natalia. "U.S. military will stay in Georgia." C, January 12, 2004,


Dixon, Robyn. "Putin acks U.S. Involvement in Georgia." The LA Times, March 2,

2002, http://articles.latimes.com/2002/mar/02/news/mn-30748 (accessed September 2, 2009).

Lieven, Anatol. "Analysis: roots of the conflict between Georgia, South Ossetia and…… [Read More]


Antelava, Natalia. "U.S. military will stay in Georgia." BBC, January 12, 2004,


Dixon, Robyn. "Putin Backs U.S. Involvement in Georgia." The LA Times, March 2,

2002,     http://articles.latimes.com/2002/mar/02/news/mn-30748     (accessed September 2, 2009).
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Globalization the Culture of Western

Words: 1094 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62817705

Behrman holds that it was weak political institutionalization rather than a weak civil society that shackled Weimar Germany.

Unfortunately, many scholars of democracy theory and proponents of democratic culture have approached the Weimar Republic already holding the assumption that a democratic culture is necessary for a functioning democracy. With this assumption in place, they then debate whether Weimar Germany really possessed a "democratic culture." A democratic culture is often taken to entail Toqueville's "associationism," a vibrant public sphere, formal outlets for political dissent, and informed political debate. Such inquiries have provided little insight into the nature of healthy democracies because they are based on a faulty assumption, that culture is a condition or even a determinant in the formation of a society's political structure.

As Berman observed, passionate civic engagement among a nation's citizens, without an adequate institutional foundation to channel such passion, can actually be averse to functional democracy.…… [Read More]

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Clash of Civilizations Samuel P

Words: 2233 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23271805

Any of these conflicts might seem limited when they start, but given the cultural differences involved, at any time they could turn into a broader cultural war involving not a small part of the Middle East but all of it, and that sort of war would be a major threat to world civilization, a Huntington shows in his book.

Khater (2004) offers a look at many documents of Middle Eastern history, documents written by participants and observers of events and trends from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. A survey of these documents helps show how the West has gotten the issues wrong numerous times an how the Islamic countries fail to understand the nature of the West at the same time. Of particular note are the many diplomatic cables and other correspondence addressing the situation in Iran before the revolution and the return of Ayatollah Khomeini in the 1970s,…… [Read More]


Cleveland, W.L. (1999). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Gelvin, J.L. (2008). The Modern Middle East: A History. New York, (2nd Edition) Oxford University Press.

Gumley, F. & Redhead, B. (1992). The Pillars of Islam. London: BBC Books.

Huntington, S.P. (1993, Summer). The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign Affairs, 22-49.
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Non-Western Societies Tempest and of Cannibals the

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80819187

Non-Western Societies

Tempest and of Cannibals

The idea that Europeans brought enlightenment to the savage colonies has always fascinated modern writers so much so that many of them employed their imagination to create pictures of 'barbaric' individuals who inhabited these colonies. Shakespeare and Montaigne in their attempts to recreate those savage communities gave us the powerful characters of Caliban and Cannibal. Focusing on this obsession of writers with the image of a savage non-western man, Bartra (1994) writes: "The identity of the "civilized" has always been flanked by the image of the Other, yet the common image of the Other as a wild and barbaric figure, as opposed to Western man, has been considered a reflection - albeit distorted - of non-Western peoples, a eurocentric expression of colonial expansion from which evolved an exotic and racist version of those whom the conquistadors and colonizers had discovered and subdued." [p. 3]…… [Read More]


Bartra, Roger (1994) Wild Men in the Looking Glass: The Mythic Origins of European Otherness Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Michael O'Toole, Shakespeare's Natives: Ariel and Caliban in The Tempest

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Globalization Western Imperialism

Words: 4372 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49235186

Globalization=Western Imperialism

Modern science and all the various process that are involved with the modernization process evolved because of the progress made by the western countries and the progress made in the field of science, medicine and the notions held in respect of human rights and liberty. There are several sections of individuals who state that dissatisfaction that people seem to have is that they are troubled with their daily life. But when analyzing we can realize that the actual dissatisfaction of individuals arises forms the modern life that they need and in comparison to that the others around the world lead. The term globalization is used to describe the various changes that have taken place in the social, economical and political scenarios that has brought about change in the current situation.

To explain, globalization is the termed used to describe the technique in which the various far away parts…… [Read More]


Barlow, Maude and Clake, Tony. Global Showdown. Toronto: Stoddart, 2001.p.66-68

Clarkson, Stephen. Uncle Sam and Us: Globalization, Neoconservatism, and the Canadian State, Univ of Toronto Pr; September 2002, p.21

Ellwood, Wayne. The No-Nonsense Guide to Globalization. New Internationalist Publications Ltd., 2001, p. 14

Escobar, Arturo. Encountering Development (Princeton 1995), Chapter 5, pp. 192-211.
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Greek Artifacts the Civilization of

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27467730

Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).

Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…… [Read More]


New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.

Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/special/greek_roman/images.asp.

Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.

New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
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Evolution of Civilizations as a

Words: 4219 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37397855

, lands useful to man, but according to technical and conspicuous for purposes that each civilization.

When business needs and adds prestige to urban heritage, religions, however, that mark their territories of pagodas, churches, monasteries, mosques and other places of worship, this singularity is affirmed more, while the forms of urban and rural habitat are specified, they are luxuries or miserable. And civilization, always customary in everyday life acquires additional visibility monumental materializing the skills of craftsmen-artists who enrich the work of the builders.

Added to this are, of course, the wealth and prestige that comes from adding additional, oral traditions of all time, written tradition gradually spread to shops and palaces, and the ideological apparatuses of all kinds, from which they eventually win the depths of peoples. o, the graphics become, like languages, distinctive marks of the various civilizations.

Maturation profoundly affects trade flows of civilization. On the one…… [Read More]

Stocking, George, Victorian Anthropology, Free Press, 1991, ISBN 0-02-931551-4

Trigger, Bruce, Sociocultural Evolution: Calculation and Contingency (New Perspectives on the Past), Blackwell Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1-55786-977-4

Reade, Julian 2001 Assyrian King-Lists, the Royal Tombs of Ur, and Indus Origins. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60(1):1-29
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The Clash of Civilizations Article Review

Words: 1090 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29069425

fall of the former Soviet Union in the early 1990s spurred debate among policymakers and intellectuals about the shape of future of world politics, and the role that the U.S. would play in it. One of the greatest early voices in this debate was Samuel Huntington, who through his article, 'The Clash of Civilizations', took difference in civilization as the greatest source of conflict in the international political system in the post Cold-War period. According to Huntington, conflicts between civilizations seeking to gain and maintain influence in a new world order are the leading source of interstate instability in the post-Cold War era. Events such as the 9/11 terrorist attack in New York, as well as the bombings in London, Madrid, and Bali have been interpreted by many scholars as evidence for this particular paradigm. However, other scholars have come out strongly in critique of Huntington's viewpoint. One such scholar…… [Read More]


Ashraf, M. M. (2012). The Clash of Civilizations: A Critique: Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 32(2), 521-527.

Dunn, M. (2006). The Clash of Civilizations and the War on Terror. 49th Parallel, 20(1),1-12.

Huntington, S. P. (1993). The Clash of Civilizations. Foreign Affairs, 72(3), 22-49.
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History of Economic of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization

Words: 5166 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16341967

Economics in Ancient Civilization

It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.

Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.

Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.

Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
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Eastern Influences on Western Philosophy Culture Literature Art Film

Words: 3310 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47749173


An Analysis of Eastern Influence in Western Art

The American/English poet T.S. Eliot references the Upanishad in his most famous poem "The Wasteland," a work that essentially chronicles the break-up of Western civilization and looks to Eastern philosophy for a kind of crutch in the wake of the abandonment of Western philosophy. Since then, Westerners, whether in literature or in film, have continued to look to the East for inspiration and representation of virtuous or right living. Hollywood, for example, has for decades been borrowing themes and narratives from Hong Kong cinema, whether in the works of artin Scorsese, Quentin Tarantino, or the Wachowski Brothers. This paper will look at the ways Eastern philosophy has influenced the West in terms of culture -- primarily through the medium of literature and film and the avenue of spirituality.

The Spirit of the East: Karma

Karma may be defined as the cycle…… [Read More]

Morris, M. (2004). Transnational imagination in action cinema: Hong Kong and the making of a global popular culture. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 5(2), 181-199.

Pollard, M. (2004). 'Kung Fu Hustle', Kung Fu Cinema. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20070502050543/http://www.kungfucinema.com/reviews/kungfuhustle_082205.htm

Sikora, J. (2002). Religions of India. Lincoln, NE: Writer's Club Press.
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Athens Greek Civilization Takes a

Words: 582 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27545272

Mortgaged lands were marked by special debt-stones, named pillars and debtors had to pay 1/6 of their harvest or income to the creditor. The success of Athens can be explained by the fact that it was the first city to abolish practice of enslaving for debts. It raised city's prestige and authority in the region and in many respects stimulated economical and political stability. Since 6th century BC most of Athenian tyrants were making shifts towards democratic rule, balancing interests of elite and poor. The most important reforms in government were made by Solon, who was elected in 594 BC. Solon's reforms were directed on the consolidation of alienated Athenian society: he abolished pillar practices, proclaiming that all Greeks are free citizens. Solon liberalized political structure of Athens, expanding influence of ecclesia, giving it the right to participate in elections of archons. He reformed membership of Areopagus, which was no…… [Read More]

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Universality of the Western Interpretation

Words: 5955 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61470439

Schwartz (2006), many arguments are presented, most of which generally criticize the Western treatment of First Nations people or address women's rights issues. As an example, "Aboriginal Australia: Current Criminological Themes" by ick Sarre (2006) focuses on the affect of British colonialism in Australia on the Aborigines, connecting it to a vast overrepresentation of Aborigines in the Australian penal system. "The Left ealist Perspective on ace, Class, and Gender" by Walter S. DeKeseredy (2006) illustrates the fact that, in the United States, it cannot be said that there is 'justice for all;' "First Nations people and African-Americans are much more likely to be arrested, convicted and incarcerated than members of the dominant culture who commit the same crimes" (p. 49). Throughout most of the articles, different approaches to solving such attitudes are explored, such as the left realist theory and the postmodern perspective.

The Female Circumcision Controversy: an Anthropological Perspective…… [Read More]


Abu-Lughod, Lila (ed.). (1998). Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East.

Princeton: Princeton University Press.

An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed (ed.). (1992). Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A

Quest for Consensus. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
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Slavery in the Bible in Modern Western

Words: 3008 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54622671

Slavery in the Bible

In modern estern countries, many Christians and Jews may wish to portray God as the comfortable deity of a middle-class consumer society like the United States, but the Bible demonstrates that nothing could be further from the truth. In the Bible, the God of history from the story of Cain and Abel, through Abraham, Joseph, Moses and the Prophets and of course the ministry of Jesus Christ in the New Testament. Repeatedly, God intervenes on the side of the poor, the weak, the lowly and the outcast, and against the rich and powerful. He has mercy on Joseph when his brothers sell him into slavery in Egypt and elevates him about all others. God takes the side of a young shepherd boy David against the thuggish giant Goliath and then against the evil and corrupt King Saul. ith Jesus, the constant messages is that God shows…… [Read More]


Anderson, Bernard W. The Unfolding Drama of the Bible, 4th Edition. Augsburg Fortress Publishing, 2006.

Cahill, Thomas. The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the Way Everyone Thinks and Feels. Anchor Books, 1998.