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Non-estern orld by estern Powers:
In the period between 1870 and 1914, estern powers took over the main portions of the non-estern world when there was considerable discussion and debate regarding the cause of this takeover. Despite the controversies surrounding this decision, the estern powers were motivated by various factors behind the takeover. The takeover of the non-estern world by estern powers is commonly known as imperialism or European imperialism. The term imperialism is used to refer to the process of expanding one state's control over another through various forms. Some of the major forms that characterize the takeover include direct rule and indirect rule with the former involving annexing territories outright and subjugating people who lived in these territories. In contrast, indirect rule is a process where estern powers reached agreements with local leaders and governed through these agreements. Regardless of the form of imperialism, the takeover by estern…
"ECONOMIC IMPERIALISM." Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press, n.d. Web. 8 May 2013. .
"FC122: European Imperial Expansion in Africa (c.1870-1914)." The Flow of History - A Dynamic and Graphic Approach to Teaching History. The Flow of History, n.d. Web. 08 May 2013. .
Mills, Wallace G. "European Motivations in the Scramble." The Scramble and Motivations. Saint Mary's University, n.d. Web. 08 May 2013. .
Patients With ype 2 Diabetes
I --all-natural, all-organic, locally grown/produced diet plus exercise
C --insulin injections
O --reduction in body's challenge to create/absorb insulin
In patients experiencing ype 2 diabetes (P), is the intervention of a traditional, organic, all-natural diet consisting of locally grown and produced foods plus exercise (I) more effective in curbing the body's challenge to absorb insulin (O) than insulin injections (C)?
here is an educational deficit in the clinic where I previously worked regarding the positive effect that an all-natural, organic diet consisting of locally produced foods can have on a patient with diabetes. Most patients believe that if their pancreas is not producing enough insulin that they need to receive insulin injections. his is the conventional attitude because of the widespread use of this method to treat the disease. Yet there are numerous studies that link obesity to diabetes and even some studies that show…
This study notes the correlation between obesity and diabetes and suggests that it is the new epidemic because so many people suffer from it and have poor diets and do not exercise in the industrialized world. It discusses morbidity and mortality and describes the rate of incidence as matching that of an epidemic. It implicitly supports the proposed changes of this study because of its link between diet and disease.
Wilmot, E., Idris, I. (2014). Early onset type 2 diabetes: risk factors, clinical impact and management. Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease, 5(6): 234-244.
This study like the one by Kaku (2010) addresses management-style treatment but it does discuss the impact of the escalating rate of incidence in economic terms. It views diabetes as an epidemic that is now being seen more and more in children. It does not discuss alternative methods of treatment and does not support the proposed changes.
Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…
Dove, R. (1999). Heroes & Icons: Rosa Parks. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Time:
"Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973." (2007,
May 30). Retrieved August 12, 2009, from the Great Idea Finder: http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/internet.htm
hich historians Yahia Zoubir and Daniel Volman describe this way:
At the same time, they [the Judges] are in accord in providing indications of a legal tie of allegiance between the Sultan and some, though only some, of the tribes of the territory, and in providing indications of some display of the Sultan's authority or influence with respect to those tribes."
For the court to have found in the favor of Morocco based on "historic" claims, would have opened the door of a Pandora's box, and there was simply no way to legally deal with that situation. A finding in Morocco's favor would undo the modern world. Then, strangely enough, and because if he wanted to remain in the dynamics of the argument and struggle for control over estern Sahara, Morocco's King Hussan III interpreted the court's findings in favor of Morocco, and in accordance with Moroccan law. If the…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=107024755' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…
Kessler, Gary E. Western Ways of Being Religious. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub., 1999.pp.
Edwards, Rem Blanchard. Reason and Religion; an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.pp. 386
Paden, William E. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.pp. 192
Proudfoot, Wayne. Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.pp. 263
Western Ethical Theories
The objective of this work is to examine Western Ethical theories including teleological, deontological, natural law, and interest view and virtue ethics.
The work of Bennett-Woods (2005) states that while the words 'ethics' and 'morality' are "often used interchangeably, morality is more precisely used to refer to the customs, principles of conduct and moral codes of an individual, group or society." Ethics, is also stated to be termed "moral philosophy of the science of morals" and is the branch of philosophy that examines "morality through the critical examination of right and wrong in human action." (Bennett-Woods, 2005)
The study of ethics is generally characterized into three specific domains of study include those of: (1) metaethics which is related to the nature of right and wrong insofar as the where and how of the original of ethical judgments and what these judgments mean regarding the human nature and…
Virtue Ethics (2010) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/
Eric Wingrove-Haugland (1999) The Foundations of the Core Values in Western Ethical Theories. Retrieved from: http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE99/Wingrove99.html
Lovin, R.W. (2004) Moral Theories. Blackwell Publishing Company. Retrieved from: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/content/BPL_Images/Content_store/Sample_chapter/0631216340/Schweiker_sample%20chapter_A%20companion%20to%20religious%20ehtics.pdf
Bennett-Woods, D. (2005 ) Ethics at a Glance. 2005 Regis University. Retrieved from: http://rhchp.regis.edu/HCE/EthicsAtAGlance/EthicsAtAGlance.pdf
What is usually unconcealed is that much of the machinery and social prototypes which make up what is distinct as modernization were urbanized in the Western worlds. Whether these technical and social prototypes are essentially part of Western civilization is more complicated to respond. Many would dispute that the query cannot be responded by a reply from science and as an alternative is a worth question which should be answered from a respect scheme. However, much of anthropology these days has shown the close connection between the physical surroundings and daily actions and the configuration of a civilization such as the findings of society's ecology with others. In contrast to many other civilizations in the world, western civilizations lean to highlight the individuals. On the other hand, western societies have usually been more communally cooperative by giving a foremost significance to social preponderance civilization or propensities such as mores, procedures,…
Wikipedia. (December 27, 2007) Western Culture. Retrieved on December 30, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_culture
" (itek, 1989, Ngugi wa Thiongo, 1986, Mazrui, 1986, 2001, Mamdani, 1990, 1993, Copans, 1990, Rwomire, 1992, and van Rinsum, 2001; as cited in: Nyamnjoh, 2004)
According to Nyamnjoh (2004) "...the elite have 'often in unabashed imitativeness' and with little attempt at domestication, sought to reproduce, even without finances to sustain, the Oxfords, Cambridges, Harvards, Stanfords and Sorbonnes of England, the U.S.A. And France." (Nyamnjoh, 2004) Education in Africa is stated to have been and "mostly remains a journey fuelled by an exogenously induced and internalized sense of inadequacy in Africans, and endowed with the mission of devaluation or annihilation of African creativity, agency and value systems." (Nyamnjoh, 2004)
It is related by Nyamnjoh (2004) that the process of cultural uprooting of Africans "has been achieved often through literally uprooting children of the well-off from their communities and nurturing them in boarding schools" and as stated in the work of…
Haileselassie Teklehaimanot Haileselassie, Ph.D. (nd) Ethiopia Center for Educational Information. http://chora.virtualave.net/culturalfoundation.htm
Tessema, Kedir Assefa (2007) Clinging to the Managerial Approach in Implementing Teacher Education 'Reform' Tasks in Ethiopia. International Journal of Progressive Education, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2007.
Mamdani, M. (1990) the Intelligentsia, the State and Social Movements: Some Reflections on Experiences in Africa. Kampala, Centre for Basic Research.
Ngugi wa Thiong'o (1997) Detailed: A Writer's Prison Diary in R.R. Grinker and C.B. Steiner eds., Perspectives on Africa: A Reader in Culture, History, and Representation. Oxford Blackwell Publishers.
estern and Muslim Educational Philosophies
The Foundations of Function: Educational Philosophy and Psychology
Meet the Social Realities of ESL Instruction
Education into English as a Second Language (ESL) has become very important in this country, as many people are coming in from non-English speaking countries because they feel that America has much more to offer them. These children are eager to learn, but they often struggle because they do not understand the English language well. Even those that can speak English reasonable well sometimes have difficulties because there are many subtleties in the English language that these ESL students do not understand or even realize. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ESL education that goes on in the estern world, as well as the ESL education that Muslims deal with.
The similarities and differences will be discussed, and Muslims who come to America will also be discussed.…
Bashir-Ali. K. (2003). Teaching Muslim girls in American schools. Social Education.
Cortes, C. (1986). The Education of Language Minority Students. In Beyond Language: Social & Cultural Factors in Schooling Language Minority Students. Los Angeles, California: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, CSU, Los Angeles.
Designing inset programmes for Muslim schools. (2003). INSET. Retrieved at http://www.iberr.org/inset.htm
O'Malley, M. & Valdez-Pierce, L. (1996). Authentic Assessment for English Language Learners. New York: Addison Wesley.
Food and dietary habits vary from region to region; mostly guided by cultural preferences, access to resources and income levels. It has often found that western countries rarely ever complain of malnutrition problem, while it persists in third world countries. The reason for this is grounded in income levels and access to resources. Most developing countries heavily rely on pulses and beans for calories while most western-nations exhibit a greater taste for meat and poultry. This demonstrates on the one hand, cultural tastes while on the other it also says a great deal about income and poverty. In a report and survey revealed in 1980s, it was found that there existed noticeable differences in per capital supply of calories and protein in different regions of the world (see Table 1). It was observed that developing countries had calories intake 9% lower than the world average. The developed countries on…
1. Food and Agriculture Organization, 1996a The sixth world food survey. Rome: FAO.
2. Food and Agriculture Organization, 1996b. Food balance sheets 1961-1994. Rome: FAO.
3. Grigg, D. 1995 The nutritional transition in Western Europe. Jl Hist. Geogr. 21: 247-61.
4. Grigg, D. 1996 The starchy staples in world food consumption. Ann. Ass. Am. Geogr. 86: 412-31.
There are significantly more trade agreements in the world than I would have predicted. A list of final agreements between the United States and individual countries indicates that the United States alone has trade agreements with nations ranging from Argentina to Zimbabwe, and an impressive number of other countries, including Canada, Brazil, Taiwan, ussia, Mongolia, Korea, Jordan, and Ghana (Foreign Agricultural Service). Other countries have similarly large numbers of agreements (Government of Alberta). Trade agreements in the future are likely to become more prominent, given the increasing pressures of globalization. As such, countries with reciprocal trade agreements are likely to be more economically viable than those that tend to isolate themselves from trade in an increasingly interdependent world.
International politics are linked closely to international trade. Often, it is difficult to distinguish whether politics or trade takes the lead in global affairs. As an example, many Western countries…
Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Trade Agreements. FAS Online. Last modified: Wednesday, May 12, 2004. 04 June 2004. http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/agreements.html
Government of Alberta. Free Trade Agreements: Free Trade Agreements and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development. 04 June 2004. http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/psc8323?opendocument
U.S. Canada Partnership for Growth. The Lumber Tariff Dispute - Let's Work it Out. 04 June 2004. http://www.partnershipforgrowth.org
World War Analysis
WWI analysis examining the significance and impact of WWI on U.S. history
In the early 20th Century, a general fear existed that a huge war would break out due to the circumstances existing at that time and therefore every small incident was considered deadly. However the triggering factor was the assassination of Austrian Archduke Ferdinand in June 1914 resulting in World War I (WWI) or the Great War. WWI took place from 1914 to 1918 and major countries took part in it; war resulting in drastic consequences such as collapse of economies and death of millions of people. The two main groups fighting against each other were Triple Alliance and Triple Entente (also known as the Western Powers). The U.S. did not participate in the war in the beginning and tried its best to remain neutral. However, it was forced to join the Triple Entente when German…
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.
As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…
Allan, T. (2003). The Causes of World War I. Chicago: Reed Elsevier.
Bosco, P., & Bosco, A. (2003). World War I. Infobase.
Heyman, N.M. (1997). World War I. Greenwood.
Marshall, S.L.A. (2001). World War I. New York: First Mariner.
Asian, African and other non-white cultures were to be subjected to military, governmental, economic and missionary domination in order to help raise the world's positive reflection of the implied benefits of Western Civilization.
The absence of truly formal correlation between Western Culture and any one culture has become more apparent in the last century especially. During the Cold War struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union, the idea of West vs. East became inextricably linked to a new conception of nation-building. Here, imperialist models were adapted which saw the two forms of government and lifestyle (i.e. capitalism and communism) engage in an effort at global domination of ideology and economic framework. The premise which drove forward the United States and its allies was this adopted notion of Western Civilization as reflecting modernity, moral progressivism and an inherent dispensation of Enlightenment principles.
Naturally, as memory of such Cold War…
The Prevalence of Homosexuality in Ancient Greek Society and Mythology
In any study of Western Culture, there are certain elements which must be addressed to fully understand the development of said culture over time. Among the early cultures that have had a significant impact on this development is that of Ancient Greece. Western philosophy, science, and art are all infused with ideas and innovations which began in Greek culture. In the world of architecture, for example, the Greeks revolutionized the use of cement and arches, bringing about a new era in building design. Scientifically, the contributions of such great men as Archamedes and Pythagorus are used as the basis for much of our modern mathematics and technology. Great thinkers of the day such as Plato and Socrates are considered to be among the greatest philosophers of all time, and they are used as a reference point for many…
) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.
c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?
There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Primary Source
Documents, History 100.
Hitler, a. Mein Kampf. Primary Source Documents, History 100.
Marx, Karl and F. Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Primary Source
Moreover, the empire was politically as well as geographically fragmented. Macedonian rule was tolerated only as long as Alexander remained alive.
3. The reasons civilizations developed with particular robustness in the Near East can be narrowed down to geography and the migratory patterns of early humans. Known as the Fertile Crescent, the Eastern Mediterranean offered arable land complete with a plethora of indigenous flora and fauna for domestication and cultivation. Moreover, animal domestication flourished in the Near East. Agriculture and animal husbandry necessitated the rise of early cities, whereas in less fertile regions hunting and gathering remained more productive means to procure food. Early humans, traveling from the African subcontinent, naturally found the Fertile Crescent a suitable place for developing permanent settlements. As disparate groups settled throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, geography also permitted the ready trade of goods, people, and ideas. The sea and a location close to East Asia…
Ancient History Timeline." Thinkquest. Retrieved Feb 11, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/10805/timeline.html
Hooker, R. (1996). "Sparta." Retrieved Feb 11, 2007 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/SPARTA.htm
Hooker, R. (1996). "Athens." Retrieved Feb 11, 2007 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/ATHENS.htm
Kings Rulers Emperors Dictators Tyrants and Military Leaders" About.com http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/rulersleaderskings/Kings_Rulers_Emperors_Dictators_Tyrants_and_Military_Leaders.htm
WWII: Battle of Monte Cassino
History has been known to repeat itself. Today in Iraq for example, United States and Allied troops are torn when drawing up plans to win the war in the holy land. The problems stem from their not being able to directly attack certain Muslim holy locations or shrines even though Iraqi insurgents are constantly utilizing these positions as sanctuaries and initiation points for waging battles against the allied forces or the new Iraqi government. During World War II, the Axis powers with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi army also attempted to use similar tactics to fend off attacks by Allied forces.
This report discusses the Battle of Monte Cassino and the pros and cons of the Allied Forces' actions during World War II. A historic shrine was completely destroyed by the events of the Allied forces during the Battle of Monte Cassino in the Italian…
Colvin, David, & Hodges, Richard (1994). Tempting providence: the bombing of Monte Cassino. History Today, Vol. 44.
Eagle19. (n.d.). The Battles for Monte Cassino and the Defense of the Gustav Line. Retrieved October 15, 2004, at http://www.eagle19.freeserve.co.uk/cassino.htm
Griess, Thomas E. (2002). The Second World War Europe and the Mediterranean. The West Point Military History Series.
Hapgood, David, & Richardson, David (1984). Monte Cassino: The Story of the Most Controversial Battle of World War II. Add City: Add Publisher.
The 1956 Suez Canal Crisis caused an indirect confrontation when America's allies France, Britain, and Israel made an unsuccessful military attempt to take over the Suez Canal from the Soviet Union's ally Egypt. After the U.S.S.. threatened to become militarily involved in the crisis, the U.S. forced its allies to concede defeat.
The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis occurred after the U.S. discovered that the U.S.S.. had secretly supplied Cuba with nuclear-armed missiles. This discovery was especially alarming because now the U.S.S.. could militarily subdue its rival by easily launching missiles against it. After a naval blockade around Cuba and intense negotiations the U.S.S.. was finally made to remove the missiles in exchange for the U.S. pledge not to overthrow Cuba's Communist regime.
The Cold War." (N.D) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.
The Cold War." (N.D) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.
The Church also viewed exploration and territorial expansion as a means to spread the doctrine and power of the Church.
3.) Describe the difference between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot.
The differences between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot are largely superficial. Both legitimate their power through hereditary lineage and both rule without political opposition or a balance of powers. both are autocrats. No constitution or set of laws are in place to keep the powers of either ruler in check. Both rely on some external sources of support, and it is primarily in those external sources that the absolute monarch and the enlightened despot differ. The enlightened despot is less closely connected to the Church. His political philosophy is heavily influenced by Enlightenment values. Thus, the enlightened monarch supports basic tenets like scientific exploration and a greater degree of social and religious tolerance than the absolute…
Enlightened Despots." Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook11.html
Gilbert, W. "Renaissance and Reformation." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/gilbert/
Rempel, G. "Mercantilism." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc2/lectures/mercantilism.html
Steingrad, E. "Louis XIV." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.louis-xiv.de/index.php?t=start&a=start#2
Without a doubt, the expansionist policies of Germany, Italy and Japan and a direct attack by Japan on Pearl Harbor necessitated the need for America to enter World War II. However, the real question is not whether America should have entered World War II, but could it have prevented it from happening. As the world's new super power following World War I, America should have done more to restore stability to Western Europe, particularly Germany, a country saddled with huge reparation payments. And, the United States could have taken a more active role in the League of Nations to discourage aggression. Instead, America enjoyed the spoils of World War I and became isolationist in response to the Great Depression. Economic and political instability caused by World War I led the rise of fascism. The Nazi goals of reversing the Versailles Treaty and the establishment of a German Empire by…
'World War II." Wikipedia. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II#Home_front (Accessed 3 May 2005).
"World War II.," Available: http://web.uccs.edu/history/student%20presentations/heidi/world_war_two.htm (Accessed 3 May 2005).
"World War II." Wikipedia. Available:
By attacking from the North, Hitler effectively bypassed France's only real defense against invasion. Within two weeks, Paris was under Nazi control, and still seething from the harsh terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, Hitler demanded that the surrender terms be signed in the very same spot as the armistice that ended that war, and in the very same railroad car, which he had brought out from its museum display for that purpose3. Belgium had surrendered to Germany without firing a shot, effectively dooming France to Nazi occupation, and nearly sealing the fate of more than a quarter million British troops sent to support Britain's ally, France. Only a last-
3. Hayes & Faissler p.444 minute scramble saved the British from capture, at the port city of Dunkirk, where the British used thousands of ships, boats, and dinghies to rescue them all and ferry…
Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)
Hayes, C., Faissler, M. Modern Times: The French Revolution to the Present (1966)
Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)
Lukacs, J. The Last European War (1976)
The growing dominance of the bourgeois class and the growing economic discontent in the society combined to create the atmosphere of dissatisfaction and conflict that eventually led to the development and declaration of the French Revolution.
King Louis XVI's passion for ballet dancing paved the way for ballet to thrive, develop and become rampant during his reign in the late 17th century. Under the leadership of Louis XVI's, ballet was institutionalized not only as an art form, but also as a profession. Moreover, during this period, ballet became a profession and art form no longer dominated by males, but also by females. It was also during this period that the comedie ballet became a popular form of ballet dance, particularly performed in Louis XVI's court ballet.
One of the most distinct characteristics of the Age of Enlightenment from other social and cultural movements that occurred in the history of humanity…
Western Traditional Medicine
Jacme's Pestilence and the Western Traditional Medicine Framework
Jacme's (1949)[footnoteRef:1] description of pestilence is based on the idea that it is caused by a change in the quality or substance of the air that he defines as alteration and putrefaction respectively. The pestilence is caused when the air in a place has changed its quality or substance due to external conditions. The pestilence is caused by a contra-natural change that Jacme illustrates as the wind being less warm than usual in the summers and less cold than usual during winters. As opposed to water, the pestilence of the air is more disastrous for human beings because they breathe the surrounding air all the time. The pestilence affects living things that Jacme classifies into three orders on the basis of the presence of life and growth, feelings and reason. Human beings lie in the third degree and are…
Duran-Reynals, M.L., Translator, Jacme d'Agramont: "Regiment de Preservacio a Epidimia o Pestilencia e Mortaldats," Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 23 (1949) p. 57.
Hergenhahn, B.R. An Introduction to the History of Psychology. Cengage Learning, 2009.
Jones, W.H.S. Breaths 6. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: Heinemann, 1923.
Kohn, George Childs. Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence 3. New York NY: Infobase Publishing, 2008.
Imperialism also became a key source of power for European nations. Colonial landholdings by the British, French, Spanish, and Dutch strengthened those nations politically and economically. Power could be substantiated by nationalistic propaganda. After 1870, the balance of power in Europe changed to accommodate for the emergence of two newly unified nations: Germany and Italy. The strategic alliances forged between various nation-states in Europe and the corruption that ensued led to the First and Second World Wars. Those wars in turn altered the balance of power throughout the world, allowing the United States to emerge as a superpower. Thus, nation-states in power, which are headed by elite and powerful social groups, help determine the course of history. Power is influence over a specific geographic region and can possibly translate to power globally.
4. Known as the Iron Chancellor, Otto von Bismark helped unified Germany and effectively consolidated power in a…
Donohue, L. (nd) "Congress of Vienna." Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://www.cusd.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/congress/vienessy.html
Kishlansky, M., Geary, P., & O'Brien, P. (2007). Civilization in the West. 5th edition. Pearson-Longman. Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://wps.ablongman.com/long_kishlansky_cw_5/0,6472,270050-,00.html
Kreis, S. (2000). "Origins of the French Revolution." The History Guide. Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture11a.html
Otto von Bismark: The Iron Chancellor of germany." Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://www.germanculture.com.ua/library/weekly/aa092000a.htm
The papacy of Pope John Paul II is indicative of this inevitable clash occurring. During his reign the pope refused to change the Catholic Church's conservative stance towards various social issues despite facing increasing dissent from within. When he allied himself with conservative Muslim leaders in an attempt to influence the outcome of the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo he was regarded by the secular world as having caused a major controversy ("John Paul II," 2005). This example reveals how due to lack of compromise church and state will continue to experience conflict so long as issues such as the practice of homosexuality, abortion, "artificial" methods of human reproduction and birth control, and euthanasia remain up for debate within secular societies.
John Paul II" (N.D.) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard…
John Paul II" (N.D.) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.
Friedman considers insourcing to be flattener number eight, because it allows small companies to compete like major supply-chain companies. Insourcing refers to hiring another company to handle a company's supply chain. UPS is the major supplier for insourcing services in the United States. Friedman believes that insourcing flattens in three ways: by letting little companies compete in the global market; by dissolving barriers between companies; and by standardizing business practices across companies.
Finally, Friedman looks at a group of flatteners that he refers to as the steroids. These are small flatteners that have the effect of amplifying the other flatteners. Mobile steroids are those technologies allowing people to work in non-traditional environments and include cellular phones, laptops, and wireless internet access. Personal steroids are those things that give power to the individual, and include personal computers, search engines, and peer-to-peer file sharing. While these flatteners are not powerful enough to…
Friedman, T. (2007). The world is flat: a brief history of the twenty-first century. New York:
Jews worship in synagogues, which rarely share common architectural elements in common with one another. ather, the presence of the Arc within a synagogue remains one of the only features present in synagogues around the world. Some of the ultra-liberal synagogues from the eform tradition may not even have an Arc.
Christian churches vary widely, too. Catholic Churches constructed in Europe during the height of the Church's power from the late Middle Ages through the Enlightenment often share some elements in common including cross-shaped floor plan and altar. Mosques may differ widely but most have minarets topped with the symbol of the crescent moon. Unlike Christianity, neither Judaism nor Islam tolerates the presence of any anthropomorphic representations within their holy places. Thus, the interiors of synagogues and mosques contain only geometric and abstract designs in contrast to the prolific imagery of Christ, the apostles, and the saints in Catholic churches.…
Rich, T. (2002). "Halakhah: Jewish Law." Judaism 101. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewfaq.org/halakhah.htm
Hein, A. (2006) "A History of Women's Ordination as Rabbis." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/femalerabbi.html
The Islamic Calendar." Calendars through the Ages. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-islamic.html
Kennedy, D.J. (1912; 2003). Sacraments. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13295a.htm
The Shiites saw themselves as reformers, eradicating Iran of estern influence and civic corruption as embodied by the Shah, but the U.S. did not understand this worldview, and could only see the violence the overthrow of the Shah had caused.
Since the Iranian hostage crisis, relations between the U.S. And Islamic-affiliated regimes have steadily deteriorated. Most Islamic fundamentalist nations and groups are committed to the destruction of Israel, and the U.S. is one of Israel's most loyal allies in the region. The attacks upon the orld Trade Center are the most obvious, although certainly not the only provoking acts upon U.S. soil by groups who claim to speak in the name of Mohammed. The civil war in Lebanon, which was essentially a terrorist or guerrilla struggle between competing religious and ethnic factions, not all of whom were Muslim, further contributed to the common portrait of Islamic radicalism as inevitably associated…
Iran hostage crisis." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. 1994, 2000-2006, on Infoplease. 2000-2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease.
14 Apr. 2007 http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0825448.html .
People accepted science, and so they also accepted the idea that humans were not unique, but were descendents of animals, and products of the natural world. Thus, some people felt the theories of evolution actually eliminated meaning and purpose from the universe, and that man's contribution to the universe was slight at best. It was clear man enjoyed superior intellect to other life forms on Earth, but in the universe, that might not be true, and so humanity's place in the universe seemed to mean less than it did before, which was distressing to many people. People still had faith and beliefs, but scientific reasoning brought much of this into question, and many felt humanity was losing ground to science and scientific thought. It was a time of great change and innovation, and humanity became less important and yet vital at the same time.
Spielvogel. Jackson J. Western Civilization.…
Spielvogel. Jackson J. Western Civilization. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company, 1997.
Western Experience: Native American Displaced to Oklahoma
The rumors were true, and I feel like a fool that I had not believed them when I first heard them. They had been talking for years about the possibility that the government would come and take our land, but, like many others, I felt that would not occur if we cultivated the land the same way as the white men. The main objection to our people being in the East had been that were barbaric and uncivilized, so that living like white people would spare us from being treated as subhuman. My family and I settled down to farm our land and we were very successful at it, which made us think that there would be no further efforts to rob us from our land. We had heard so many arguments that the government would want to take land from us because…
Edmunds, R.D. (2006, March 14). "Native American displacement amid U.S. expansion."
Prelude to War: Manifest Destiny. Retrieved March 15, 2012 from PBS Website
Sherfly, M. (2003). "Indian removal." Dictionary of American History. Retrieved March 15,
The question of leadership and government has always been a subject that concerned political theorists. ne of the first political theorists to brake up with the Medieval tradition regarding rulers and the ethics of government, Niccolo Machiavelli, presented his theories related to the rules a prince should follow in order to be able to govern a state and stay in power as long as possible. Machiavelli left the question of ethics completely for religious subjects and treated his topic form a rationale point-of-view destined to prescribe the best recipe for a political ruler to follow in order to succeed. Shakespeare's Richard III and George rwell's The Animal Farm present two different political regimes, the former focusing on dynastic battles in England in the fifteenth century and the latter on fictional animal characters that resemble real life characters form the early twentieth century revolutionary Russia. Despite the fact that…
Orwell, G. Baker, R. Animal farm: a fairy story. Signet Classic, 1996
Richard III, film, 1955.
Textbook. Machiavelli, N. The Prince
They felt that they Church was getting richer and the poor were getting poorer. And as a result, there were no great protests when the King broke away from the Church, because many felt that Henry would ease up on taking money from them. Henry knew of the Catholic Church's unpopularity and used this to his advantage (Truman, 2009).
Christian Humanism played a large role in the development of the English Reformation as it also did with Calvinism, which emphasized the rule of God over all things (Belief system within Christianity: Calvinism, 2004). Both of these were very similar to the ideas Lutheranism, in which each individual was seen as responsible for their own fate. There were several other heretic groups that were persecuted by the Roman Catholic Church for their beliefs; these were the aldenses and the Albigenses. These were a couple of groups of Christians who would not…
"About Martin Luther." 2003. PBS. 24 April 2009
"Belief system within Christianity: Calvinism." 2004. Religious Tolerance.org. 24 April 2009
Change was happing all over Europe, and Luther's change just seemed to fit in at the right time.
Luther's revolt really affected many facets of life, because it freed people to make choices in their religion, and their lives, and showed them there was more than one way to believe and to live. It gave them the ability to question, to seek new answers, and to look to other answers besides religion. It also showed them the Catholic Church was not all-powerful. His revolt ultimately helped other dissidents revolt. His was only the first branch of many new Protestant religions, and other people found the courage to stand up and demand change because of Luther's eventual success. It was a politically charged time in Germany, and politicians learned they had to please the people, rather than simply the Pope and the Church.
Define each of the following terms with specific examples of religions: Secularization, Exclusivism, Inclusivism, Pluralism, and interfaith initiatives
Secularization can be seen in the modern, Protestant shift to separating religious, private life from public, profane life. In this view it is fine to make money, and to live one's daily life outside of religious values, given that religion is relegated to a different sphere of human existence. Exclusivism stresses the unique nature of a particular sect, like a cult that believes it stands outside of a corrupt society, or even Judaism's stress upon its unique and seamless connection with its past history, and the difficulty for gentiles to easily covert to the religion. In contrast, sects such as Unitarians are highly inclusive, or desirous of incorporating many persons into the fold. Even non-believers are free to attend ceremonies. Pluralism, in contrast, acknowledges differences between different sects but still attempts to…
Yet Mr. Friedman does not go to this depth of analysis and relies instead of lengthy, conversational passages in the book that could be trimmed and made more potent, relevant and valuable. The concept Mr. Friedman discusses of the Untouchables is altogether too elitist as well, and this chapter of the book is an illusion; there is no job safe in a globalized world. Only those willing to compete at exceptionally high levels and deliver exceptionally high levels of service, value and insight are going to survive. Globalization's safe harbors are exceptional knowledge, talent and intensity of focus. It is not merely due to the fact that someone is from a given nation. This is certainly the case in Saudi Arabia, where the growth of financial services firms from the United Stakes, the United Kingdom and other westernized nations are more dependent than ever on the Saudi economy as the…
They must occupy themselves with inventing new ways to legally persecute people as they cannot be involved in any real pursuit of knowledge.
Things changed drastically with the Renaissance, though not with the speed that many men would have appreciated. Galileo Galilei butted heads with the Catholic Church many times in his life, eventually recanting much of what he had provocatively (and rightly) claimed to be true and ending his life under house arrest. He at times tried to couch his more controversial discoveries in language more pleasing to the Church, but apparently he was not proficient enough at disguising it. His "Letter to Castelli" is a prime example of the shift that Western thought was taking during the Renaissance: "the Holy Scriptures in many places not only admit but actually require a different explanation for what seems to be the literal one, it seems to me that they ought…
Christy Turlington explains to Elle magazine... "Advertising is so manipulative," she says. "There's not one picture in magazines today that's not airbrushed."… "It's funny," Turlington continues. "hen women see pictures of models in fashion magazines and say, 'I can never look like that,' what they don't realize is that no one can look that good without the help of a computer." (Hilary 13)
That's right, the beautiful Turlington, a woman that can be said as fitting the standard ideal of American beauty, admits that it is unachievable even for her. hy? Because even she admits that she has been touched up. In a similar exercise, we can only imagine the remarkable steadfastness this act must have taken, but it shows that there is a realization that this American image is unattainable (Domar 23).
The Trouble with Persisting Ideas
Even if the mechanism behind the spread and adoption of ideas is…
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso Publishing, 1991. Print.
Chernin, Karen. Hungry Self: Women, Eating, & Identity. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2008
Dixon, Violet. "Understanding the Implications of a Global Village." Reason and Respect 4.1 (2008). 1-5. Web. 15 May 2011.
Domar, Allan. (Prof) Harvard Medical School. Parade magazine, October 11, 2003.
This is perhaps most evident in the case of Mark Rothko.
The romantics," wrote Rothko early in his career, were prompted to seek exotic subjects and to travel to far off places. They failed to realise that, though the transcendental must involve the strange and unfamiliar, not everything strange or unfamiliar is transcendental (Rothko 84).
The key then, for Rothko, was to develop a form of "transcendentalism" involved locating the strange and unfamiliar in every day life. Eventually, this led Rothko into his signature style - that of the "multiforms," two to three blocks of contrasting colors set on a large canvas. The overall effect is one that enraptures the viewer, thus giving rise to a spiritual experience. hat was important for Rothko and his followers was to create a form of art that would transcend the aesthetic realm that had limited art for centuries. They wanted art to extend…
Perl, Jed. New Art City. New York: Knopf, 2005.
Rothko, Mark. "The Romantics Were Prompted." Possibilities, Robert Motherwell and Harold
Rosenberg, eds. New York: Wittenborn, Schultz, 1947.
In his theory of evolution, Darwin argued that evolution occurred because of natural selection, wherein the determining principle is, "survival of the fittest." That is, in a given population and a given environment, certain individuals have certain characteristics that would make survive and thrive. As thriving happens, adaptation occurs, wherein the individual ensures that s/he is able to cope with the changes, state, and dynamics of his/her environment. This theory of evolution enforced the idea of competition and the concept of survival, concepts that became more relevant to societies as they became immersed in the industrialized economy and the eventual dominance of the capitalist economy, which is motivated also by the spirit of competition and 'survival of the fittest.'
The Victorian ethos was created and developed in the context of the emerging industrialization of economies in the 19th century. The Victorian ethos held that society is in progress, and that…
" Photography may not, as Susan Sontag has claimed, symbolically reduce its subjects to "corpses,"
It should also be pointed out this is to often not a specifically intentional attempt at disguise, but rather forms part of the cultural views and milieu of the time. This becomes evident if we take an cursory look at some of the photographers of the period.
Frances enjamin Johnston's Hampton Album was possibly one of the first photographic attempts to document and 'explain' in images the concept and reality of the American dream. Her work particularly relates to the above problems: the question of the other or minorities in the nation. Johnson created her images at Virginia's Hampton Institute in November and December 1899. This was an institution which was concerned with the education and training of lack people.
Many of the aspects relating to nations building and the American…
Bird, S. Elizabeth, ed. Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
Blair, Sara. "Cultural Geography and the Place of the Literary." American Literary History 10.3 (1998): 544-567.
Clark, Walter. Photography by Infrared: Its Principles and Applications. 2nd ed. New York: J. Wiley & Sons, inc.;, 1946.
Conner, Jill. "Representation and Photography." Afterimage 29.2 (2001): 16. Questia. 15 May 2005 .
From the beginning of the war, there had been some variation in the Canadian attitude toward the conflict. Canada never questioned the legitimacy of the war and did not question the need for Canadian participation. There were differences of opinion, though, concerning how extensive the Canadian contribution should be. These variations affected the response to calls for enlistment and divided the country as the towns were more willing than the countryside, the prairies more willing than the Atlantic seaboard, and "it was observed that the proportion of enlistments achieved by any social group appeared to vary almost inversely to the length of its connection with Canada. On the one hand, the ritish-born -- the new arrivals with a large proportion of unattached males of military age -- gave the highest percentage of their numbers to the armed services, and, on the other hand, the French Canadians unquestionably gave the…
Ameringer, Charles D. Political Parties of the Americas, 1980s to 1990s: Canada, Latin America, and the West Indie.
Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1992.
Bothwell, Robert. History of Canada since 1867. Washington, D.C.: Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, 1996.
Boudreau, Joseph a. "Canada and the First World War: Essays in Honour of Robert "Canada and Worlod War I," the History of Canada (2007), http://www.linksnorth.com/canada-history/canadaandworldwar1.html .
The identity of a Geisha, and the origins of the profession has a great deal more to do with performance and skills in such than in any other aspect of the trade.
(1) Okada, Mariko. "Prolegomenon to Geisha as a Cultural Performer: Miyako Odori, The
Gion School and epresentation of a Traditional" Japan." 2003.
http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2065/26765/1/034.pdf (accessed July 10,
2010) p. 223.
(2) Ibid. p. 224.
(3) Ibid. p. 223.
(5) Graham-Diaz, Naomi. Immortal Geisha History of the Geisha, Part One: 1100 AD
1750 AD. October 2001. http://www.immortalgeisha.com/history_01.php (accessed July
(7) Okada, Mariko. "Prolegomenon to Geisha as a Cultural Performer: Miyako Odori, The
Gion School and epresentation of a Traditional" Japan." 2003.
http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2065/26765/1/034.pdf (accessed July 10,
2010) p. 223.
(8) Ibid. p. 222.
(9) Ibid. p. 221.
(10) Chen, Li-Yu, and Lai On-Kwok. "Creativity and Hybridism of Cultures in a Globalizing
World The e-Production-cum-Consumption of…
Chen, Li-Yu, and Lai On-Kwok. "Creativity and Hybridism of Cultures in a Globalizing World The Re-Production-cum-Consumption of Asian Local Idiosyncrasies." Journal of Policy Studies 31 (March 2009): 141-154.
Graham-Diaz, Naomi. Immortal Geisha History of the Geisha, Part One: 1100 AD - 1750 AD. October 2001. http://www.immortalgeisha.com/history_01.php (accessed July 10, 2010).
Okada, Mariko. "Prolegomenon to Geisha as a Cultural Performer: Miyako Odori, The Gion School and Representation of a Traditional" Japan." 2003. http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2065/26765/1/034.pdf (accessed July 10, 2010).
Prasso, Sheridan. The Asian Mystique: Dragon Ladies, Geisha Girls and Our Fantasies of the Exotic Orient. Perseus Book Group Cambridge MA. Cambridge MA: Perseus Book Group, 2006.
This was partly because there was wealth enough to patronize the arts, and partly because the Medicis made it fashionable to commission public and private works from local artists. For example, the architect Brunelleschi created buildings that were testaments to the ancient buildings of Rome and Greece, which he studied. He designed the dome of the cathedral in Florence with these classic buildings in mind, and changed architecture from the gaudy medieval cathedrals to a more stately and dignified portrayal of religious belief and utility. Michelangelo rose to prominence under patronage by the Medicis, and his classic statue "The Pieta" was commissioned by a French cardinal, who originally planned to use the piece as a memorial on his own tomb. This is quite common of art at the time; it was commissioned by the powerful and the wealthy for their own enjoyment, but began to be shared with everyone. Thus,…
Second orld ar and how the Allied Powers were able to defeat the Axis Powers, ending Nazism, the Holocaust, and Japan's stranglehold on the Pacific. However, fewer people are truly knowledgeable about the beginning of the war. For the United States, orld ar II officially began on December 7th, 1941 with the bombing of Pearl Harbor. For the rest of the world, the war began much earlier and had already produced massive damage of property and people. The series of events that would lead to a world at war began in the early 1930s with the invasion of Manchuria by Japan and the seizing of power in the nation of Germany by Third Reich leader Adolf Hitler.
After the First orld ar, Germany was suffering from a massive depression. Losing the war left the people destitute; many were jobless and many were homeless. hen things are their bleakest, it can…
Paxton, Robert O. Europe in the Twentieth Century. 5th. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College,
Huns, nomadic people and barbarians (from the Roman point-of-view) coming from the East, may have given the final blow to an empire that was already crumbling. They conquered semi-nomadic nomadic peoples they found on their way moving westwards, settling in territories north and south of Danube, and incorporated them in a new empire.
Attila, the Hun leader, had the merit to unite his people who used to be scattered in different clans and tribes, giving them to opportunity to unite under the same flag and fight like a nation. He was born at the dawn of the fifth century AD, at a ripe time, suitable to question and greatly endanger the Roman supremacy in the Mediterranean world and beyond.
Like other barbarians, the Huns were parasitic people, living off the possessions of those they pillaged and of the tributes the latter agreed to pay in exchange for peace. What the…
Kelly, Christopher. The End of Empire. Attila the Hun & The Fall of Rome. 2009, 2008. W.W. Norton & Company New York London.
Bury, J.B. The Cambridge Medieval History,
452 -- a year after his defeat in Gaul, Attila's army penetrated the Italian Peninsula: "a great many of the inhabitants of the terribly devastated country sought refuge on the unassailable islands of the lagoons along the Adriatic coast. Yet the real foundation of Venice which tradition has connected with the Hunnic invasion can only be traced back to the invasion of the Lombards"(568)(the Cambridge Medieval History, J.B. Bury).
Duiker and peilvogel's book, World History ince 1865, Volume II examines the emergence of imperialism promoted by Europeans and the resulting affects of their determination to expand, far surpassing imperial Rome.
Great Britain, France, Holland, Belgium, Italy, Germany, pain, Portugal and even Russia intruded forcefully into Africa, Asia, the Middle East and the outh Pacific and finally sought out the North and outh Poles. Today, there is common agreement that European overseas expansion was a constant factor of the nineteenth century, with British commercial activities the most obvious.
But the key aspect of this mobile expansion and what dominated world history from 1500 to the present is the gradual integration of the world into a European-dominated global system. One of the more interesting aspects of this "globalization" is to understand that countries outside of Europe were not victims of this movement. Historical, social, economic and political dynamics contributed to European…
World History Since 1865. Volume II. William Dukier. Jackson J. Spielvogel.. Wadsworth Publishing.
Europe in Retrospect. Raymond F. Betts. 2000. www.britannia.com/history/euro. http://mars.wnce.edu/courses/worldlectures/imperialism.
Homer was a legendary Greek poet who is traditionally credited as the author of the major Greek epics the "Iliad and the Odyssey," as well as the comic mini-epic "Batracholmyomachia" (The Frog-Mouse ar), the corpus of Homeric Hymns, and various other lost or fragmentary workd such as "Margites" (Homer pp). Some ancient authors credited him with the entire Epic Cycle, which included other poems about the Trojan ar as well as the Theban poems concerning Oedipus and his sons (Homer pp). According to legend, Homer was blind, and aside from several Ionian cities claiming to be his birthplace, there is nothing else known about him (Homer pp). Aristotle and Pindar believed that Homer was born in Smyrna, on the coast of modern-day Turkey, and enjoyed years of fame on the Aegean island of Chios (Tolson pp). Although the great scholar-librarians of Alexandria scrutinized the epics for historical and geographic errors,…
Tolson, Jay. "Was Homer a solo act or a bevy of bards?"
U.S. News & World Report; 7/24/2000; Tolson, Jay
Boorstin, Daniel J. "The reign of the spoken word; Homer spun epics that survived while marble temples fell to ruin." U.S. News & World Report; 8/31/1992; pp.
Due, Casey. "Homer and the Papyri: Center of Hellenic Studies."
Life in a Godless orld
For as long as mankind has contemplated its own creation philosophers have pondered the meaning of life largely within the context of humanity's relationship to the divine, from Aristotle's metaphysical conception of God as all actuality to Descartes' systematic attempt to develop a proof of God's existence. The dominance of Christianity throughout much the civilized world invariably constrained the ability of great thinkers to challenge many of the religion's most fundamental precepts, from the concept of free will to the nature of good and evil, leaving much of the early philosophical canon regrettably limited by a reliance on unquestioned faith. After the European Renaissance validated the structural foundations of scientific inquiry, the glaring inability to empirically observe God in any conceivable form prompted many to privately question the dogmatic assertions of the Pope and his church. It wasn't until the momentous contribution of the German…
Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1955. Print.
"Nietzche - The Gay Science." Existentialism: Basic Writings. Charles Guignon and Derk Pereboom. 2nd. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2001. 129-171. Print. .
Nietzsche, Friedrich. On the Genealogy of Morals, I, II, III, 9. Translated by Walter Kaufmann and R.J. Hollingdale. New York: Viking, 1969. Print.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. Twilight of the Idols. Translated by Walter Kaufmann and R.J. Hollingdale. New York: Viking, 1969. Print.
The largest difference exists in the basis of the Western holistic treatment and the basis of Ayurveda. Western holistic treatments are based on TCM or 'Traditional Chinese Medicine'. The key components of TCM are as follows:
Qi (pronounced like "chee") - this is the vital energy necessary for life (blood, body fluid)
Zang-Fu - the internal organs; and Jing-Luo: - this governs the meridian and collateral systems of the body. (rown, 2001)
Practitioners of TCM also used a system referred to as "The Eight Principles" which are used to categorize illness or disease. These eight principles are comprised of "four pairs of polarities, including:
deficiency/excess; and Yin/Yang." (rown, 2001)
These principles are stated to determine:
1) Disease location;
2) the nature of imbalance;
3) the presence of a pathological (disease) factors; and 4) the strength of the body's own energies. (rown, 2001)
Summary and Conclusion
Ayurvedic medicine is…
Brown, Liz (2001) East Meets West and Western Medicine Takes a Back Seat: Why Ayurvedic and Chinese Medicines are at the Core of All That's Right with Holistic Healing Today. Better Nutrition Journal. December 2001. Online available at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FKA/is_12_63/ai_83076770/print .
Cooper, Edwin L. (2004) 12th International Congress of Oriental Medicine. Oriental Medicine and Biotechnology in the Post-Genomic Era - WHO's Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002 Date: November 6-9, 2003. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Journal. 2004 1(1):103-106 Oxford University Press.
Healing Choices (2007) Guide to Complementary and Alternative Healthcare. Online available at http://www.healingchoicesonline.com/ .
Herlihy, John a. (2003) the Mystery and the Miracle Ayurveda. 13 April 2003. AuthorsDen.com. Online available at http://www.authorsden.com/visit/viewShortStory.asp?AuthorID=1363&id=7866 .
Modern science and all the various process that are involved with the modernization process evolved because of the progress made by the western countries and the progress made in the field of science, medicine and the notions held in respect of human rights and liberty. There are several sections of individuals who state that dissatisfaction that people seem to have is that they are troubled with their daily life. But when analyzing we can realize that the actual dissatisfaction of individuals arises forms the modern life that they need and in comparison to that the others around the world lead. The term globalization is used to describe the various changes that have taken place in the social, economical and political scenarios that has brought about change in the current situation.
To explain, globalization is the termed used to describe the technique in which the various far away parts…
Barlow, Maude and Clake, Tony. Global Showdown. Toronto: Stoddart, 2001.p.66-68
Clarkson, Stephen. Uncle Sam and Us: Globalization, Neoconservatism, and the Canadian State, Univ of Toronto Pr; September 2002, p.21
Ellwood, Wayne. The No-Nonsense Guide to Globalization. New Internationalist Publications Ltd., 2001, p. 14
Escobar, Arturo. Encountering Development (Princeton 1995), Chapter 5, pp. 192-211.
Instead, countries like Russia are more spiritual and believe in an interpretive form of the Christian text (Cross 2012, 3.1). These populations have formed a new form of Christianity which accepts certain tenets and rejects others.
The period known as the Enlightenment had a much more profound on the western world than the east. Religious principles were given secondary consideration to individual accomplishment and the growing importance of scientific development and logical conclusions. This period led to the importance which was placed on the individual in western culture. Individualism is directly contradictory to the eastern emphasis on community and communal thinking, particularly during the time of Communism (Cross 2012, 3.1).
Nations of the west have embraced immigration, particularly in the United States, but still the majority of the population has a estern European heritage which has determined the majority culture. In the east, there is less immigration within to other…
Cross Cultural Perspectives (2012). Ashford University.
This is the risk countries take by entering the world economy.
China is an emerging economic power in the world. This has come about due to the enormous market there -- almost two billion people -- and their gradual movement into the global economy. China, Malaysia, and Singapore are all entering the last stage of economic development and much of their success has been a result of foreign direct investment. "Foreign direct investment has played an important role in many -- but not all -- of the most successful development stories in countries such as Singapore and Malaysia, and even China," (Stiglitz 67). Advocates of the world economy suggest that the third world nations in sub-Saharan Africa and Central America follow these examples.
However, the relative "success" of the second world nations has come about through cooperation with tyrannical governments and the exploitation of the working class. By making a…
Bush, George W. "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." Speeches delivered September 17 and June 1, 2002.
Downing, David. Capitalism: Political and Economic Systems. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2003.
Friedman, Thomas L. The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
Greenspan, Alan. "Banking in a Global World." Chicago: Delivered to the Conference on Bank Structure and Competition, May 6, 2004.
The world of today is one dominated by relativism, a point Richard eaver illustrates when he details the loss of universals in the estern world (14). As such, the phrase "going with the flow" is adopted as the one philosophical tenet by which to stand: it causes no disruptions, keeps you from getting in the way of others, and does not rock the boat. It is the stabilizing agent on a sinking ship. Yet, the question arises: who is or has been steering the boat, and why be satisfied with keeping the status quo? It is an interesting question that is double-sided. Perhaps no greater author attempted to answer more directly than Herman Melville. Melville made it very clear that Ahab was not sane -- and his guidance of the Pequod was a symbol of what Melville saw happening to our entire nation. The crew "went with the flow"…
New Testament. Brooklyn, NY: Confraternity of the Precious Blood, 1948. Print.
Weaver, Richard. Ideas Have Consequences. IL: University of Chicago Press, 1948.
Marketing Inventory for the World Wildlife Fund
The World Wildlife Fund for Nature, formerly known as the World Wildlife Fund, (WWF) is a global, non-profit making organization. The organization is a foundation, made up of a number of different organizations set up in numerous countries with individual country registrations. For example, when the foundation was formed in 1961 it was set up in Geneva, followed by incorporation in United States as the second national organization to join the foundation, while the Australian office was initially set up in 1963 under the auspices of the London Office, subsequently incorporating in Sydney in 1978 (WWF, 2011). The organization, as a non-profit making foundation, does not have shareholders or owners. The organization is run by a board in each country and the operations are overseen by a board of trustees on behalf of the 5 million global members (WWF, 2012).
The founding of…
Kotler Philip; Keller Kevin, (2008), Marketing Management, (13th Edition), Prentice Hall.
WWF, (2012), retrieved 7th April 2012 from http://www.worldwildlife.org
WWF, (2011), 2011 Annual Report, retrieved 7th April 2012 from
Chinese calligraphy & Western calligraphy
Weather in the East or in the West, calligraphy, the art of writing, is first and foremost an art form, by definition. This art is dedicated to practical purposes, but as any craft, it has taken its own individuality as an expression of the craftsman's abilities, his imagination, creative power and mastering of the specific techniques.
Calligraphy and literature are highly dependent on each other in sia, particularly in China. Technology has brought typewriters and keyboards on writers' desks in most places in the world, yet Chinese writers as well as painters are still paying a great deal of effort and attention to the art of calligraphy. It is only through the lens of the Chinese culture that one might properly understand the value of calligraphy. Most of the western world would consider calligraphy as an art of the past with no particular resonance in…
Avi-Yonah, Michael. 2004. Ancient Scrolls: Introduction to Archaeology. Books&Bagels
Beyerstein, Barry L. 1992. The Write Stuff: Evaluations of Graphology -- the Study of Handwriting Analysis. Prometheus Books
Further, the modern novel also focuses on issues of social and historical change and the use of such points-of-view as stream of consciousness. Other typical characteristics of modernism are open form, free verse, discontinuous narrative, juxtaposition, classical allusions, unconventional metaphors and the bringing in of other cultures and languages.
Clearly, the experiences of the Great War had a lasting effect on its generation of writers. Many of them served in the military during the war, such as Ernest Hemingway, and witnessed the atrocities personally. The disillusionment felt by this generation at the notion of so many deaths for no real reason created a mentality of pessisims and questioning of society as it has been. This sense of disillusionment was expressed in their writing, where the great writers shunned the traditions of the Romantic and Victorian eras and instead created works that focused on human misery, suffering and cruelty. They incorporated…
Hemmingway, Ernest. A Moveable Feast. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996.
Hemmingway, Ernest. The Sun Also Rises. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006.
Kasenon, Michael. The Lost Generation. New York: Xlibris Corporation, 2004.
Women and water in India. In the villages of North Gujarat in India, so much groundwater has been removed that water supplies are now becoming scarce, according to hawana Upadhyay, writing in the journal Agriculture and Human Values. Women in North Gujarat are basically looked upon as "…domestic water users while men are seen as productive water users, despite the fact that women make significant use of water for productive purposes as well"
(Upadhyay, 2005, p. 411). Domestic water usage in India goes well beyond drinking and cooking, Upadhyay writes. Dalit women in Nepal for example grow commercial vegetable crops with the water they draw; they utilize a drip system, which costs just $12 to install, and it results in a profit of around $80 annually. Without a source of safe water, the livelihood of these women would disappear. Still, women's use of water tends to be classified as domestic,…
Buckingham, Susan, 2004, 'Ecofeminism in the Twenty-First Century', the Geographical Journal, Vol. 170, No. 2, 146-154.
Crow, Ben, and Sultana, Farhana, 2002, 'Gender, Class, and Access to Water: Three Cases in a Poor and Crowded Delta', Society and Natural Resources, Vol. 15, 709-724.
Dobscha, Susan, and Ozanne, Julie L. 2001. 'An Ecofeminist Analysis of Environmentally Sensitive Women Using Qualitative Methodology: The Emancipatory Potential of an Ecological Life', Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, Vol. 20, No. 2, 201-214.
Eaton, Heather, 'Ecofeminism and Globalization', Feminist Theology, Vol. 8, No. 41, 41-55.
Consequently, his observations concerning the business climate in Saudi Arabia with respect to the significance of religion in the Kingdom can be considered authentic. According to Indris, with respect to the perception of performance and contractual obligations among Saudis, "It should be noted that the issue is not with the belief itself but rather with people's misguided interpretations of the belief and Islam teachings. While Islam teaches that ultimate control is in the hands of God, it also teaches that people should exert their utmost efforts to better their lives" (p. 38). These issues have special salience for foreign direct investors who may experience disputes based on such misinterpretations that cannot be predicted but must be expected. In this regard, Idris concludes that, "Misguided interpretations have a strong impact on the business environment and the commitment to setting and meeting goals and targets in the kingdom. Accountability in running businesses…
Aleisa, Eisa A. & Dibooglu, S. Sources of Real Exchange Rate Movements in Saudi Arabia.
26 Journal of Economics and Finance 1, 101-103 (2007).
Applications & Procedures, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Ministry of Commerce and Industry,
[online] available: http://mci.gov.sa/english/moci.aspx?PageObjectId=814 (2011).
This development approach, by the European Union, is similar to the Bretton Woods institutions' 'Washington consensus', which was developed in the latter half of the 1980s, following "several severe balance of payments crises of developing countries" (Nienhaus, 2002, p. 55). The European Union does not favor indiscriminate opening of markets, but rather it looks for more liberal trade arrangements with developing countries and the European Union solely. This policy has been repeatedly criticized by the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and World Bank.
The basic philosophy behind this position is that market forces are better able to foster economic development, compared to state intervention. If a developing country has prices which reflect the relative scarcity of goods and services, as well as indicate comparative advantages, these countries will be able to attract foreign investment. This investment will result in a transfer of both capital and technology. As Nienhaus…
Darby., J. (2009). French antipathy to Turkey's EU candidacy. Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development, 30(3). Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Academic Search Compete database.
European Union. (2009). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: http://www.search.eb.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/eb/article-9033265
Hunter, R. & Ryan, L. (2009). Poland, the European Union, and the Euro. Global Economy Journal, 9(2). Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Business Source Complete database.
Maastricht Treaty. (2009). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: http://www.search.eb.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/eb/article-9001460