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It would make tasks unbearable and laborious and would not be a positive thing for the individual.
Furthermore, and more importantly, a solid work ethic translates into a great output by the individual. A solid work ethic means that work that is produced will be great and top notch compared to people who do not. It is all those different attributes that have been mentioned previously that facilitate an individual doing a great job and therefore, are absolutely essential. It allows for people to complete their work in a manner that is highly productive to the company or firm or agency that the individual is working for and for the individual themselves.
Having a solid work ethic is something that is absolutely essential in this ever changing workplace. In law enforcement in particular where the community looks for guidance and for a role model, a solid work ethic reflects well…
Work Ethic: Meaning and Application in the American Context
The Meaning of "Work Ethic" and How This Phrase Applies to Americans
From the onset, it is important to note that the phrase "work ethic" does not have an assigned definition. This is to say that many definitions of the phrase have been offered in the past. For this discussion, I will make use of the dictionary meaning of the phrase. Work ethic according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary is in basic terms "a belief in work as a moral good" (Merriam-Webster, 2013). For this reason, work ethic should be seen as a belief in not only the importance but also the moral benefit of work. On this front, work is seen as having a certain intrinsic value and hence is deemed good for the overall development of a person and the society at large. As per the definition above, work ethic…
New Work Ethic
Describe how typical the attitudes that Sheehy reports appear to be in work environments you have experienced.
During my work as a bartender and waiter in the food service industry I have certainly experienced a great many of the same attitudes that Sheehy encountered in his experimental job. There was certainly a significant amount of contempt for customers and a strong get-away-with-what-you-can approach to job roles. There was always very little regard for the company or ownership of the various restaurants I have worked in, though attendants did seemingly go out of their way in many cases to provide commendable service since the primary mode of income came in the form of tips (which also kind of falls in line with Sheehy's reporting of extreme egotism in his workplace). Nevertheless, like Sheehy's working environment, theft was very common. That is, bartenders would continuously steal alcohol for themselves…
Management of Employee Effort
The aspect of employee performance that I am convinced is the most difficult to measure is effort. Quite simply, it is difficult to ascertain whether or not an employee is putting forth genuine effort, enthusiasm, and verve in attaining goals related to business objectives. Still, it is critical to be able to measure employee effort because doing so can greatly inform those aforementioned processes. For instance, if an organization were able to ascertain that its employees were considerably exerting themselves to reach goals and were still not able to do so, it could consider possible solutions related to technology or its processes that needed refinement or replacement. Consequently, it seems fairly obvious that organizations should deploy various measures of strategic control or controlling to gauge employee effort and proceed accordingly.
One of the initial steps for any sort of controlling efforts is to set standards in…
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility
The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes as a result of company business activities. CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act) will be brought up in this assessment in addition to other environmental safeguarding proposals and human social theories in regards to environmental and work ethics.
A new initiative, We CAE about YOU world, was recently initiated by PharmaCAE, declaring its dedication to the environment via modifications in packaging, recycling, and other green programs. This was possible in spite of the fact that the firm's lobbying attempts and PAC have effectively conquered environmental policies, such as the broadening of the Superfund tax that was established by Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act (CECLA). Situated in New Jersey, PharmaCAE sustains a huge production facility in the…
Animal Ethics. Virtue ethics and care ethics - Animal Ethics. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.animal-ethics.org/virtue-ethics-care-ethics/
Berger, J. (2010, December 25). Fox News - Breaking News Updates | Latest News Headlines | Photos & News Videos. Obama's Reversal on 'Indigenous Peoples' Rights Stirs Concern Over Legal Claims | Fox News. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/12/24/obama-reversal-indigenous-peoples-stirs-concern-legal-claims/
Calman. (2004). Teaching and learning ethics Evolutionary ethics: can values change. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30, 366-370. Retrieved, from http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/366.full
Difference Between Similar Terms and Things. Difference Between Utilitarianism and Deontology | Difference Between | Utilitarianism vs. Deontology. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-utilitarianism-and-deontology/
The employee is faced with ethical requirements throughout their workday that must be met with knowledge and a trained attitude. Workplace ethics is one of the most crucial elements whether the person involved in an ethical dilemma is a high-level manager or an entry-level employee. An ethical stance is important because it is what guides the interactions that the employees will have with each other, their management, and the customers that patronize their products. It is also important that the business leaders follow an internal and external ethical stance so that the culture generated within the company is one that promotes positive ethical practices. This paper begins by talking about the way that the business leaders view the external world of ethics through accounting practices and how they deal with other companies. The discussion then moves inside the company and how the management treats its employees. Employee to employee…
Brandt-Rauf, S.I., Brabdt-Rauf, E., Gershon, R., Li, Y., & Brandt-Rauf, P.W. (2011). Genes, jobs, and justice: Occupational medicine physicians and the ethical, legal, and social issues of genetic testing in the workplace. Ethics & Medicine, 27(1), 51-55.
Dinkins, C.S. (2011). Ethics: Beyond patient care practicing empathy in the workplace. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 16(2), 1-8.
Embse, T.J.V.D., Desai, M.S., & Ofori-Brobbey, K. (2010). A new perspective on ethics safeguards: Where is the clout? SAM Advanced Management Journal, 75(3), 4-13.
Klimek, J., & Wenell, K. (2011). Ethics in accounting: An indispensable course? Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 15(4), 107-113.
Coaching management styles work best for Generation Xers, complete with prompt feedback and rewards for results (Eisner, 2005). They use a team of people to support their own personal individual efforts and bring a talent for problem-solving to the workplace (Smola & Sutton, 2002).
Generation Y looks for management that will further their professional development. This young generation performs best when working for and with those who hold the same values. As they often were involved in decisions in the home, from an early age, they often expect to have decision making capabilities in their professional lives as well. For this reason, an inclusive management style works best for this generation, with feedback on their performance. When treated professionally and given challenging work that fits their skills, Generation Y performs best (Eisner, 2005). Armour (2007) notes that like Generation X, Generation Y have high expectations of their employer and their…
Adams, S. Jan 2000, "Generation X: How understanding this population leads to better safety programs," Professional Safety vol. 45, no. 1, p. 26.
Armour, S. 7 June 2007, "Generation Y: They've arrived at work with a new attitude," USA Today, [Online], Available:http://usatoday.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&title=USATODAY.com+-+Gen... [27/10/09].
Chen, P. & Choi, Y. 2008, "Geneartional differences in work values: A study of hospitality management," International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 595-615.
Eisner, S. Autumn 2005, "Managing Generation Y," S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal vol. 70, no. 4, p. 4.
Ethics and Social Responsibility
Companies, like people, are bound by ethical requirements -- a responsibility to consumers and customers. Companies are expected to do follow up on the promises of their advertisers. All companies make ethical declarations as part of their vision and operational philosophy, but quite a few to do little to live up these declarations. Recently, Enron's bankruptcy has brought to light some actions that appear to be at least unethical, if not actually illegal. The effect of the Enron fallout has affected not only the employees of Enron but also the shareholders and many of its offshore plants around the world (India).
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) was enacted in 1977. An investigation by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the mid-1970's showed that over 400 U.S. companies admitted to making questionable or illegal payments in excess of $300 million to foreign government officials, politicians, and…
1. "Understanding and Complying With The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act"
1999.) Extracted from Website: http://www.coudert.com/practice/fcpa2.htm
2. "The Yakuza influence on Lockheed Martin" (2001). Extracted from Website: http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters3/yakuza/3.htm
3. Booth, M. (2000). "The Dragon Syndicates: History of the Chinese Triads," Carol & Graff Publishers, New York.
Rule breaking, innovation or ethical dilemma?
People often think that in order to run a business, or be a leader, one must adhere to all the rules. But the old saying "Some rules are made to be broken" rings true. Many successful entrepreneurs have had to make decisions that would ultimately be seen as rule breaking, even at times, illegal. That is just how the world works. People must make tough decisions in order to make it in the tough worlds of business, politics, and even medicine.
This paper focuses on several articles along with an annotated bibliography to demonstrate the effectiveness of rule breaking in reaching one's goals in business and entrepreneurial endeavors. So many greats like Bill Gates, Bill Clinton, etc., have broken rules in order to get to where they are now. In fact, wise leaders often take risks to get things accomplished. Any entrepreneur…
habits of earlier generations and those of our current generation. Just as music and slang change from generation to generation, so do work habits. The work habits of earlier generations differ greatly from the work habits of the current generation, and the current generation will need to catch up in work attitude and social skills if American products and services are to remain at the top of the world market.
The older generations of workers today have a work ethic that is rooted in responsibility and dedication (for the most part). Many of these workers expected to be at their jobs until they retired. They give the company their loyalty because they expect the company to be loyal to them. Today, these work habits seem old-fashioned to many, but they are the ethics of generations who were raised at a slower pace, and when there were distinct guidelines about the…
Jamrog, Jay J. "The Coming Decade of the Employee." Human Resource Planning 25.3 (2002): 5+.
Sago, Brad. "Uncommon Threads: Mending the Generation Gap at Work." CenterOnline.org. 2000. 6 Aug. 2004. http://www.centeronline.org/knowledge/article.cfm?ID=841&ContentProfileID=122864&Action=searching
Cross-cultural comparison on work value between U.S. And China
A value is "what a person consciously or subconsciously desires, wants, or seeks to attain" (Locke, 1983). Peterson and Gonzalez (2005) say values "are motivational forces," and "influence the role work plays in people's lives." Dawis (2005) asserts that each person (P) has requirements that need to be met, most through their environments (E). In fact, Dawis claims that "Many of P's needs in adulthood can be met at work." The ones that matter most to P. are E's ability to deliver rein forcers (e.g., pay, prestige, and working conditions) that satisfy P's needs. Similarly, E has parallel and complementary requirements that can be met by P. And make P. A satisfactory worker. Thus, understanding work values has a benefit for both individuals (as they look for work environments that support their values), and also for organizations (if they…
Bernstein, Paul. (1997). American Work Values: Their Origin and Development. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Cappelli, P., Bassi, L., Katz, H., Knoke, D., Osterman, P. And Useem, M. (1997). Change at Work. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dawis, R.V. (2005). The Minnesota theory of work adjustment. In Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. (Eds.) Career development and counselling: putting theory and research to work. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Farber, Henry S. (1997). "Changing Face of Job Loss in the United States, 1981-1995." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1: Microeconomics: 55-128.
In the midst of an economic downturn that has been compared to the 1929 Great Depression, the United States' unemployment figures are far too high. "The unemployment rate rose from 9.8 to 10.2% in October, and nonfarm payroll employment continued to decline (-190,000), the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The largest job losses over the month were in construction, manufacturing, and retail trade." (Bureau of Labor Statistics) The ten percent mark seems high but it has not matched the Great Depression high at over twenty five percent, yet. Obviously, getting and maintaining a job is very important objective right now. Some management teams around the nation have successfully implemented various solutions to the problem of high levels of layoffs and job elimination during this current financial meltdown. The underlying goal is to try new approaches that will keep workers employed and companies operating in a fiscally…
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). "Employment Situation Summary." Retrieved on December 1, 2009, from United States Department of Labor at http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm .
Kirrane, Diane E. (1994). "Wanted: Flexible Work Arrangements." Association Management. November.
Leveen-Sher, Margery. (1996) "Flexibility Is the Key to Small Business Benefits." Washington Business Journal. February 16.
Research. (2009). Edited by Susan Albin., Joseph Hartman. Industrial Engineer: IE; Dec., Vol. 41, Issue 12, p48-50, 3p, 3 color
Priority of values should be identified so as to aid the organization avoid breaking laws by following the stipulated requirements of operation.
The top three of four values should be reviewed to help the organization determine which values currently help it fulfill its mandate. For example, in the accounting department, the organization should identify accuracy and confidentiality as the key values to the success of the department. Values needed to identify current issues should be brought to fore. This should be done by selecting a few people to interview the members of the organization in identifying key areas that require attention in the organization. Out of the issues identified, determine which ones are ethical and device ways in which the organization can solve them.
It should be noted that not all remedies can be obtained for any ethical dilemma that might arise. Emphasis should be made on dilemmas that don't…
Therefore, the best way to help employees act ethically is to view the workplace and daily operations as a training ground.
In your estimation why is there a growing need for organizational ethics programs? What are the factors contributing to ethical problems in the global corporate world? What are possible solutions?
The need for organizational ethics program is growing for several reasons. First, organizational ethics have become crucial for companies to avoid legal and financial distress. Second, ethics help businesses run smoothly and well, attracting the best caliber of employee. Ethics programs are important especially in large organizations with a diverse staff. Global and multinational companies will be working with people from around the world, who operate in unique ethical environments. Ethics programs help multinational companies create standards for employees that will help avoid conundrums and miscommunication. Ethics programs bring all employees together on the same page and therefore become…
Education on ethics must be wider compared to "moral development" in that it must tackle the broader consideration of a wide-ranging vocation, and constricted in that it must tackle problems particularly to the accounting vocation. (esearch on Accounting Ethics)
Definite duties of the accounting profession are put forth in the different code of ethics circulated by important establishments like the AICPA. The AICPA's foremost rule of professional conduct declares: In discharging their duties as professionals, associates must implement responsive professional and moral views in all their works. (Business and Accounting Ethics) the failure of auditor sovereignty infringing ule 101 of the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct was the topic of a research project using 2,000 arbitrarily chosen AICPA members in public accounting profession as a staff auditor, senior, or manager. These executives were offered with 15 roles that are an infringement of ule 101 and were directed to give their…
Accounting and Accountability: A Challenge for corporate culture. The 13th International Symposium on Ethics, Business and Society. IESE Business School, University of Navarra. Barcelona, Spain. May 7-8, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.iese.edu/en/files/6_6343.pdf . Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
Schachter, Joseph. Research on Accounting Ethics. CPA Journal. April 1999. Retrieved at http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/1999/0499/News_Views/NV12.HTM . Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
Smith, Katherine T; Smith, Murphy. L. Business and Accounting Ethics. 21 June, 2003.
Retrieved at http://acct.tamu.edu/smith/ethics/ethics.htm. Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
All ethical approaches can be validly applied to family life education. Defined as "the educational effort to strengthen individual and family life through a family perspective," family life education views family through ethical lens. However, ethics in family life education extends beyond the ultimate goals of promoting high-level family functioning. The ethics of family life education pertains to the practitioner-client relationship. According to the National Council on Family elations (2012), practitioners need to be aware of the power and responsibilities they have when forming relationships with clients. Although all ethical approaches are equally as valid, relational ethics offers special insight into the nature of family life education. elational ethics "a contemporary approach to ethics that situates ethical action explicitly in relationship," (Austin, 2008). Ethics are primarily situational, but only because ethics evolves out of dialogue and cooperation and not out of rigid ascription to ethical rules. This is not…
Austin, W.J. (2008). Relational ethics. SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods.
Dahlberg, G. & Moss, P. (2004). Ethics and Politics in Early Childhood Education. Routledge.
Elliott, M. (1999). Classifying family life education on the World Wide Web. Family Relations 48(1): Jan 1999.
National Council on Family Relations (2012). Family life educators code of ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.ncfr.org/sites/default/files/downloads/news/cfle_code__of_ethics_2012.pdf
So it has been suggested that social context of care must be examined and to establish limits to the ethics of care. In contrast, constructive evaluation of care ethic indicates that sensitivity as well as emotional response to particular state of affairs such as family discussions with doctor provide significant guides to morally satisfactory actions plus care ethic also seem to favor accepting procedures from Conflict Resolution as well as Dispute Mediation as optional way to approach evident ethical disagreement (Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy, 1996).
So on the whole, if we think regarding repair as something that should involve tools at least the type of tools found in hardware as well as plumbing supply stores and at construction sites, our cast of fixing characters is frequently going to involve men not for the reason that all men have them or apply them even if they have them…
Virginia Held. The Ethics of Care. New York: Oxford University Press, Feb 2007.
Gilligan, Carol, et al. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Devolpment. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Ethics of Care." Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosphy 1996. April 4, 2008 http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/Cavalier/80130/part2/II_7.html .
Spelman, Elizabeth V. "2 the Household as Repair Shop." Setting the Moral Compass: Essays by Women Philosophers. Ed. Cheshire Calhoun. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
The ethics of the design research demands that 'the research is valid and that threats to validity have been taken into account', and reporting has been accurate and sufficient details have been listed and supplemented for the clarity and appropriate interpretation of the research content, furthermore 'in qualitative research, it is important to be particularly careful about how to choose direct quotations from the data in the research, and ensure that they are representative' (Ian, 2003).
Many professional associations, government agencies, and universities have developed, adopted and practiced specific codes, rules, and policies relating to research ethics i.e. East Carolina University, National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Food and Drug Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture have developed their own ethical rules related to the design research. Some of the influential ethical policies on design research includes, 'the Uniform equirements (International Committee…
David B. Resnik. What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. 2006. Referred from www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources
Deni Elliott, Judy E. Stern. Research Ethics: A Reader. 1997. UPNE Publication. pp. 216
Ian Gregory. Ethics in Research. Continuum International Publishing Group. 2003. pp. 93
Helen Simons, Robin Usher. Situated Ethics in Educational Research. Routledge. 2000. pp. 84
Ethics are "an individual's personal beliefs about whether a behavior, action, or decision is right or wrong" (Griffin, 2010). Is everyone considered a manager? Why, or why not?
The traditional functions of management include planning, organizing, staffing, and directing. All of these involve certain ethical considerations which will reflect both the individual's personal beliefs as well as the belief systems of the organization. Ethics is more than a gut instinct or a general sense of morality While moral inclinations arise as a result of custom and general, personal upbringing, ethical decisions involve making a decision in accordance with a belief system that assumes a certain degree of consistency.
In this sense, being a 'manager' is a very specific 'hat' to wear. No one is a manger all of the time. When at home, all of us make decisions that are inconsistent on occasion. We may insist that our dog does…
Alexander, Larry and Moore, Michael. (20080). Deontological ethics. The Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved:
Dowie, Mark. (1977). Pinto madness. Mother Jones Magazine. Retrieved at:
Pharmaceutical drugs are among the most expensive products to produce globally and as a result have a major impact on the profitability of these firms. Without accurate financial reporting of these costs many investors have no idea of whether the companies are doing as well as they report they are.
The second most troubling issue that is impacting the community and the pharmaceutical industry is the lack of credibility of scientific research and its implications on the new drug development and marketing strategies of pharmaceutical firms (Verschoor, 2006). This continues to be a major concern specifically for government regulators who have seen pharmaceutical industry spend up to $5.5B a year to promote drugs to physicians, often citing inaccurate or falsified research (Verschoor, 2006). Not only does this impact the physician's credibility if the drugs do not perform, it also harms the patient.
The third major issue is the lack of…
Curtis C. Verschoor. (2006). Pharma Industry Has Many Ethics Issues. Strategic Finance, 87(8), 16, 18, 61.
Ethics and the Internet
As the computer has evolved in the modern world, so the potential for communication has also increased. The computer, and the development of the Internet, has meant that human society has become more connected than ever before and the barriers between nations and people around the globe have been broken down. While this is a positive development in many ways, the growth of the Internet has also meant that there has been an increase in a wide range of new problems. One of these is the issue of ethics. "Just as ethics evolve as human societies grow and change, so similar ethical questions are raised during the evolution of this global electronic community." (Ethics on the Web)
The more that technology for communication and open publication of information advances, the more questions are raised about issues relating to moral codes of behavior and problems about what…
Ethics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March 11, 2005. http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/e/ethics.htm
Ethics on the Web. 1995, Accessed March 11, 2005, http://www.echonyc.com/~ysue/ethics.html
INTERNET ETHICS: OXYMORON OR ORTHODOXY? March 12, 2005.
Ethics in Decision-Making
Clegg, Stewart Martin Kornberger & Carl Rhodes. (2007). Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making. he Sociological Review, 55:2.
According to Stewart Clegg, Martin Kornberger and Carl Rhodes' article, "Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making" from the Sociological Review, ethical decision-making is not optimized with either an outcome-driven consequentialist approach nor a rule-bound deontological approach. "We suggest that rules for ethical decision making, rather than ensuring ethical outcomes, can work to insulate organizations from moral responsibility" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 393). Because of recent ethical scandals, there has been a drive to seek a heavily prescriptive and rule-bound approach to ethics, but the authors believe that "ethics is best considered in terms of the way that organizations are sites for ethical difficulties, dilemmas and deliberations (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 394). heorizing ambivalence in ethical decision-making is the ambitious goal of the article. he article uses the…
The solution of 'going by the rules' is often offered because of the difficulties and complexities of managerial decision-making in large organizations. Managers cannot perfectly calculate the 'correct' decision. In contrast to the ideal of perfect rationality, contemporary organizational theorists tend to see organizations as 'garbage cans' or mixes of personal and organizational ethical orientations. It is often uncertain what will 'tumble out' decision-wise, even when there are efforts to have policies in words. In the face of such randomness, a personal ethical orientation and sense of justice is required. "In Derrida sees decision-making as irretrievably implicated with issues of personal responsibility and ethics" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 398).
For Derrida, rules are not useful and future-oriented utilitarian calculus is impossible. To simply follow the rules enters into the 'madness' of rationality, and echoes the protests of Nazi war criminals that they were just following orders and therefore their crimes were excused. A sense of personal responsibility and investment in every decision that has potential ethical consequences is required, and no human being, regardless of his or her level of the organizational hierarchy, can abdicate responsibility. Organizational acts that use authority, routine, and above all bureaucracy are usually the least ethical rather than the most (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 403). This statement seems supported by recent history, in which some of the least ethical actions (the accounting fraud at Enron, 'robo-signing' for foreclosures after the housing crisis) were done as a matter of routine, according to the set procedures of the organization.
What is called for in the article is more humane but also more difficult -- the sharpening of the ethical faculty of all corporate decision-makers. Responsibility cannot merely be technical, and ethics strives to affirm the humanity of the person whose fate is being decided, rather than to distance the decision-maker from that person through the affirmation of 'rules.' Instead of forcing workers to learn a corporate manual by rote, managers should strive to create virtuous beings: "management's task in relation to ethics should be one of enhancing and maintaining structures within which moral agents face, understand and act within the conditions of undecidability (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 405).
There are a couple of reasons for this. One is that outcomes are what the public sees. Therefore, it is the potential outcomes that should be the guiding ethical principles. Ethics are mainly a problem in business when a company is perceived as unethical. Monsanto is a great example - few people have any ethical problems with this company, so their lack of ethics does not impact their business prospects.
The other reason why outcomes should be the guiding principle is because one of the most significant sources of ethical problems for companies is front-line managers. These low-level managers face strong pressure from above, but are generally not the firm's best decision-makers. As a result, they make poor decisions in response to pressure. If these managers were guided by duty as their main ethical principle, they would respond to pressure by doing whatever they feel senior management wants them to…
Ethics in elationship to Power Structures
Ethical obligations allegedly breached by Smith or Halloran while in office
Senator Malcolm Smith and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were accused of attempting to fix the mayoral ballot. They were allegedly reported having exchanged thousands of dollars in cash. This money was intended to pay off the officials of the epublican Party to agree to one of the Democrats, Smith on the GOP line. Halloran demonstrated clear ignorance as he walked into the evil bargain as the confidential witness dangled campaign funds for a personal interest bid. In the context of public ethics, the actions of Smith and Halloran raise questions their principles of justice, democratic society, and common good (Stensota, 2010).
Smith and Halloran must adhere to the principle of ethical policymaking. This principle requires that they hold one another accountable for what they know and value. As such, it draws…
Cody, J. (2012). Chicago called most corrupt city in the nation. CBS Chicago. Retrieved from http://chicago.cbslocal.com/2012/02/14/chicago-called-most-corrupt-city-in-nation/
Politico. (2013). N.Y. state senator arrested in alleged mayor race plot. Retrieved from http://www.politico.com/story/2013/04/nyc-mayor-race-rig-malcolm-smith-89536.html
Stensota, H. (2010). The Conditions of Care: Reframing the Debate about Public Sector Ethics. University of Gothenburg; Blackwell Publishing Limited. Retrieved from http://faculty.cbpp.uaa.alaska.edu/afgjp/PADM601%20Fall%202010/Reframing%20the%20debate%20about%20public%20service%20ethics.
Ventriss, C. (2012). Democratic Citizenship and Public Ethics The Importance of Civic Stewardship in an Era of Public Distrust and Cynicism. Public Integrity, Summer 2012, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 283 -- 297.
According to the dictionary definition, ethics refer to the "set of principles of right conduct, or more specifically, "the rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession." Ethics and morals are closely related, but ethics is the term more commonly used in the professional realm, whereas morals generally refer to guidelines for personal behavior. Both ethics and morals are reflections of beliefs and values, which are held by individuals and collectively, by whole societies. The development of ethics therefore stems from social and cultural factors as well as from personal ones. However, a few ethical codes are nearly universal. Ethics are complex; in the business realm they may vary widely from sector to sector. No organization is completely immune to ethics, even if the organization has no formal ethical code. Professional decisions are made with regard to personal ethics or to the…
Cline, Austin. "Ethics, Morals, and Values: How do They Relate?" About.com. Online at < http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/phil/blfaq_phileth_values.htm >.
'Ethics." Dictionary.com. online at .
Training is part of this process, so that people explicitly understand the ethical culture of the company. Ethical cultures tend to be self-perpetuating because the people within the organization will hold themselves and their co-workers accountable. When you look at a company like Enron, large parts of that company were devoid of ethical standards, so it was much easier for the frauds to occur. Enron also highlights the need for ethical leadership in order to develop a highly-ethical culture. The organization looks to its leaders for ethical guidance and will likely adopt as part of the culture the ethical standards of the leaders. This is the point of the provisions in SOX holding the CEO and CFO accountable for accounting fraud and raises a lot of red flags about companies that would go private to dodge this requirement.
Lastly, there needs to be a compliance mechanism as well. Culture, training,…
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
IBE. (2010). Ethical due diligence in recruitment. Institute of Business Ethics. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from https://www.ibe.org.uk/userassets/briefings/ibe_briefing_17_ethical_due_diligence_in_recruitment.pdf
McConnell, T. (2010).. Moral dilemmas. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moral-dilemmas/
Morgenstern, M. & Nealis, P. (2004). Going private: A reasoned response to Sarbanes-Oxley? SEC.gov Retrieved April 25, 2014 from https://www.sec.gov/info/smallbus/pnealis.pdf
The utilitarian perspective focuses on the broad impacts of the actions, rather than just how the actions affect specific individuals (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). From the utilitarian perspective, genetic testing has the potential to do great harm to many, and to benefit many. The utilitarian arithmetic points out that the benefits to the companies in utilizing genetic testing is that profits increase. The argument can also be made that wealthier companies provide more jobs and wealthier insurance companies are better able to pay out to those who do receive payments. The counter to the former point is that this employment is theoretical -- not only may it not occur, but it may not occur in the United States. The counter to the latter is that insurance is largely price inelastic, so there is no improvement in coverage likely from handing more profits to insurance companies.
On the harm side, many…
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2010). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v2n1/calculating.html
Cline, a. (2011). Deontology and ethics: What is deontology, deontological ethics? About.com. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://atheism.about.com/od/ethicalsystems/a/Deontological.htm
Miller, P. (2007). Genetic testing and the future of disability insurance: Thinking about discrimination in the genetic age. The Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. Vol. 35 (2) 47-52.
Schafer, S. (2001). Railroad agrees to stop gene-testing workers. Washington Post. In possession of the author.
While teaching all the students is important, so is identifying whether a child has some kind of learning impediment is also important, and ethically I would have to find the time to do both tasks well, and not rationalize that the educational referral was not necessary.
d. I do not think I would have any problem accepting the responsibility to make ethical decisions and take ethical actions. In the examples used here, I would never use that blackboard punishment for slow work. I would attempt to find out why the child was working slowly. If the problem represents an educational need I would attempt to meet that need. If it did not reflect an educational need, then the natural consequence for the student's choice would be in the grades, not at a circle on the blackboard.
I would also have no problem taking action by reporting child abuse once I…
Bologna, Theresa M.; Dorsey, Anne G.; Freeman, Nancy K.; and Ungaretti, Toni. 1997. "A Teacher Education Ethics Initiative: A Collaborative Response to a Professional Need." Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 48.
Luckowski, Jean A. 1997. "A virtue-centered approach to ethics education." Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 48
Ethics Code: Importance of Written Form
A written code of ethics is highly important for the corrections system, for the simple fact that it greatly assists in keeping corrections personnel both honest and forthright in the carrying out of their duties. Additionally, a written code of ethics is fairly significant to the carrying out of various jobs performed within correctional institutions because there are a number of disparate parties that have a vested interest in the fulfillment of the obligations of those working within corrections. Such people of interest within the ethical stewardship of responsibility within correctional institutions not only include inmates, but "the families of such persons, the general public, and…commercial and industrial firms, with whom the Department does business" (State of New Jersey, 1978). To that end, it is highly significant to have a written code of ethical standards to ensure to such different people and organizations that…
Most ethical codes that members of corrections have to adhere to contain information that is not altogether different from ethical standards that can be found within other professions. Common components of such codes include employees not accepting any forms of bribes or gifts which might influence their work, or not undertaking any other sort of employment of formal interest which would conflict with the correct way of carrying out of one's job. The actual significance of having such a written code, of course, lies in its enforcement. According to guidelines approved by the Executive Commission on Ethical Standards and promulgated into effect on September 1, 1978, the violation of the written code was "cause for removal, suspension, demotion or other disciplinary action by the Department" (State of New Jersey, 1978). The value of the code, then, is in the disciplinary measures that may be taken to keep members of the corrections department honest in the performance of their respective jobs.
In terms of leadership from the top of such an organization as a department of corrections, it is fairly integral to have managerial or administrative support of such codes of ethics. One of the primary reasons why the involvement of those in the upper echelons of authority in a department of corrections is so vital is because oftentimes, it is this body which determines whether or not punishments should be disseminated, as well as whether or not there have been any transgressions of the ethical code of conduct. This fact is closely alluded to in the flowing quotation. "No disciplinary action shall be taken, however, except upon the referral of or with the approval of the Executive Commission on Ethical Standards" (State of New Jersey, 1978). In this case, the Executive Commission on Ethical Standards is the governing body which oversees issues of ethics related to a corrections department, and is the basis for any potential violations of ethics that may occur.
Furthermore, there is evidence that indicates that the code of ethics which members of corrections departments must adhere to is merely part
Before resuming my educational endeavors at the University of Phoenix I was fortunate enough to experience life and many of its travails as a business person and employee. During my tenure in those endeavors I observed a number of events that I considered unethical, and a number of actions taken by individuals that I found both reprehensible and repulsive. I was often amazed at the capabilities of mankind to justify their actions, when it was quite evident that such actions would not be considered ethical in any circumstances, no matter what the justification.
Ethics has always been a concern, whether individuals worked in education, business or even the medical field. One early study determined that there were many young managers that had reported being asked implicitly to do things they personally believed were unethical, and sometimes illegal (Badzek, Mitchell, Marra, Bower,1998). Oftentimes these young managers feel the pressure to…
Badzek, L.A., Mitchell, K., Marra, S.E., Bower, M.M., (1998) Administrative Ethics and Confidentiality/Privacy Issues, ANA Periodicals, Vol. 3, No. 3
Chaloner, C.; (2007) An introduction to ethics in nursing, Nursing Standard, Vol. 21, Issue 32, pp. 42 -- 46
Dessoff, A.; (2010) Battling sexual abuse, District Administration, Vol. 46, Issue 3, pp. 50-56
Rosenkoetter, M.M. & Milstead, J.A.; (2010) A code of ethics for nurse educators: Revised, Nursing Ethics, Vol. 17, Issue 1, pp. 137-139
More than replacing a Code of Ethics, solutions to the issue might revolve around simply understanding, adopting, and enforcing codes that are already in place. For instance, the IACP code of ethics for law enforcement has four major themes that would clearly handle most situations: 1) Fairness towards everyone -- the public, clients, the accused, colleagues, etc. Fairness also implies the maxim of not using one's power to take advantage of the public (e.g. bribes for service, etc.); 2) Service -- Public service is a calling -- the community holds law enforcement personnel to a high standard, and expects service to be part of the regular job description; 3) Importance of the law -- Upholding the Constitution or the statues of the law that are mandated by the profession, and; 4) the importance of personal conduct -- law enforcement professionals must hold a standard of behavior that is consistent and…
Banks, J. (2004). The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf
Chery, D. (May 7, 2009). Judges on Wrong Side of the Law. CBS News. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/08/04/national/main566433.shtml
IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology. (2012). Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions. Ethics.itt.edu. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://ethics.iit.edu/
Pollock, J. (2012). Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Chapter 4: Administrative responsibility: The key to administrative ethics
Administrators are responsible for complying with the law -- and also for complying with the administrative responsibilities. Ethics requires a delicate balancing of objective and subjective responsibilities on the part of administrators. All this is easier said than done, of course. The administrator's role is complicated by a network of often conflicting responsibilities -- responsibilities to his or her own ethics, to immediate superiors, to his or her specific agency, to elected officials who speak for the public, and to the public good (which may not always be fully articulated within the desires of public officials) Furthermore, the law is not always clear-cut but it must be an important cornerstone of administrative policies. Of course, when administrative policies are potentially conflict with the law, an immediate red flag should be raised.
If an administrator does not have the authority to resolve…
Ethics Awareness Inventory
According to the Ethics Inventory, I fell into two categories: those who are obligation-oriented, and those who are results-oriented. In some ways, the ethical beliefs of these two categories are in conflict; for instance, usually people who base ethical decisions on obligation or duty are not as concerned with results as with principles. However, I scored high in the results-oriented category as well. I believe that my ability to span both categories of ethical decision making have proved beneficial for me in the past and will continue to in the future. For example, the ethics awareness inventory analysis indicated that I do not operate in terms of absolutes; I do not feel that there can be any absolute standards of right and wrong because the world is too complex. Therefore, I am more prone to being open-minded and flexible than people who do feel that there should…
Ethics, Morality, Values, And Beliefs
According to "the ethics site," an Internet resource for college instructors regarding the teaching of different ethical systems, ethics may be defined as "the explicit, philosophical reflection on moral beliefs and practices. The difference between ethics and morality is similar to the difference between musicology and music. Ethics is a conscious stepping back and reflecting on morality, just as musicology is a conscious reflection on music." ("Glossary," The Ethics Site, 2005) In other words, ethics is the philosophy of what is right and wrong, while morality is the practice of ethics, or virtue in action.
The analogy between a musician and a musicologist proposed by the positioning of ethics vs. morality is interesting, because one might understand music very well, and be able to explain its theory and teaching as a musicologist. However, a great musicologist might be only a middling musician. In contrast, there…
"Glossary." The Ethics Site. 2005. http://ethics.acusd.edu/LMH/E2/Glossary.html. [11 Feb 2005]
Consider the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter 1. Which of these would it be easier for utilitarianism to fulfill and which could well be more difficult for that system to fully meet?
Of the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter One, perhaps the easiest purpose for the ethical system of utilitarianism, as developed by the Englishman Jeremy Bentham, to meet would be to create a functional system of social ethics, or the ethical schema that holds a society together by its ethical 'glue.' Utilitarianism suggests that society, when pressed on many sides by the competition of different ethical claims, or even simply by different but equally valid claims for personal happiness, should choose the truth claim that allows for the greatest good for the greatest number of individuals within that particular society. For instance, the happiness of the many in my neighborhood to sleep late at…
We may act according to our personal principles, or we can act according to our common sense. I tend to use my common sense rather than personal prejudice when making ethical decisions.
My ethical reasoning entails that I would carefully consider any ethical issue before making a decision about it. One major limitation involved in this is the fact that others may perceive me as morally weak. A morally strong character tends to be one that is immediate in ethical decisions. I would therefore not be able to make immediate decisions such as those required of judges or surgeons.
It is therefore unlikely that I would thrive in a profession that is very clear and immediate with regard to its need for specific ethical decisions. I would be better in a profession that is not as dependent upon immediate decisions.
I do not believe that my ethical viewpoint…
Ethics Leadership Analysis
One of the biggest advantages of globalization is that many different companies are able to receive cheap labor to produce a wide variety of products that are sold at numerous retail stores in the United States. However, an ugly facet to what has been happening, is that there are a number of different sweat shops in a host of regions around the world and in some cases within the U.S. itself. Evidence of this can be seen with an investigation that was conducted by the Department of Labor. They found that over half of the companies they were looking at, were breaking numerous labor laws by operating 10,000 of these kinds of facilities illegally inside the nation. At the same time, they discovered that a variety of governments around the world were encouraging these kinds of factories. (Elliot, 2009)
In the case of Kathie Lee Gifford, her…
Youth and Labor. (2011). Department of Labor. Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/youthlabor/
Elliot, J. (2009). Santa's Little Sweat Shop. Albimonitor. Retrieved from: http://www.albionmonitor.com/sweatshop/ss-intro.html
Farrell, O. (2009). Business Ethics. Mason, OH: South Western.
National Labor Committee. (2000). Children Found Sewing Clothes for Wal Mart. Harvard Law School. Retrieved from: http://www.law.harvard.edu/programs/lwp/NLC_childlabor.html
Whistle-blowing can have many adverse effects on the person doing the whistle-blowing and there are definitely feelings of loneliness that can arise when a whistle-blower decides to make some noise. Cooper gives some prime examples of whistle-blowing cases in chapter six, but he insists that there are still many who have "gone away quietly" (202), which may appear to be the safest option for the individual, yet that means that the public will never know the truth about what was going on -- and so, the individual really does have a moral responsibility to the public so that unethical behavior isn't allowed at any level as it will eventually seep into the very core of the organization and back into society.
Whistle-blowing, no matter what way it is looked at is "risky," according to Cooper (203). People who blow the whistle not only face scrutiny and alienation, but they may…
Ethics with Character: Virtues and the Ethical Social orker -- Paul Adams
Professor Paul Adams of the University of Hawaii's Myron B. Thompson School of Social ork in this peer-reviewed article explores those aspects of social work that "…are not primarily about identifying and resolving dilemmas" (Adams, 2009, p. 83). Adams delves into the "ethical tradition" -- and the potential therein -- that had its roots in "the virtues and character" of social work practitioners from Aristotle and Hippocrates to today's social workers. In other words, how can today's social worker -- and the field of social work -- learn from the past to enhance the field ethically? This paper reviews and critiques Adams' research, which is very interesting and enlightening in the context of values, human interaction, and social work.
Review / Critique of Adams' Article
Ethics, in the view of Strom-Gottfried, refers to the "…embodiment of values into…
Adams, Paul. (2009). Ethics with Character: Virtues and the Ethical Social Worker. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 36(3), 83-105.
William J. Bennett assumes an old school, straightforward approach to ethics in The Book of Virtues: A Treasury of Great Moral Stories. The book contains several chapters on different moral or ethical concepts, like self-discipline, responsibility, courage, honesty, loyalty, and faith. Part of what makes Bennett's book unique is that he uses stories to show what the ethical principles mean. The stories in the book are great, because readers are familiar with many of them including the ones that have been appropriated by Disney such as Pinocchio. This makes the ethical concepts easier to understand, because I can apply the principles to my own life. While readers have heard it all before, Bennett presents the material in a unique and fresh way to show why ethics are important. As the author puts it, it's not about being caught for doing something wrong; it's about doing the right thing.
Bennett, William J. The Book of Virtues. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
Clearly, his moral standing is highly dubious, if not completely tarnished.
If the Gyges ring were to fall into my possession, I would attempt to do something just to make the world a better place - but what I consider to be just, others might consider to be unjust. For example, I am opposed to many of George W. Bush's actions as President of the United States. I believe that, through his actions, he is personally responsible for many instances of death and destruction, not the least of which has resulted from starting a war that never should have been a war, as there is not a single shred of evidence that affirms this war is being fought for a good reason. Yet more and more people continue to die each day as a result of it.
Thus, if I had the Gyges ring, I would try to figure out…
Ethics are at the core of human behavior and decision-making. This paper evaluates the results of the Ethics Awareness Inventory, a proprietary software designed to measure a person's ethical stance. The results of the Ethics Awareness Inventory can be applied to that person's psychology, and can help supervisors make human resources decisions related to the individual. Moreover, organizational psychologists especially benefit from ethical inventories. It is important to apply ethical awareness and psychological principles to personal, social, and organizational issues.
The Ethics Awareness Inventory is proprietary software designed to profit off of the need to evaluate and analyze every single human decision. Available for a select group of people, the Ethics Awareness Inventory "is a program that can evaluate one's ethical style," in the same way a quiz can evaluate what food, country, or sexual position is most appropriate (Collack, 2007). As with most quizzes, the Ethics Awareness…
Collak, V. (2007). Ethics awareness inventory. Retrieved online: http://collak.net/index.php?view=article&id=50&tmpl=component&print=1&page&Itemid=60&option=com_content
"Ethical Leadership," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_58.htm
She has two strong motivating reasons to not report the bribery. She could lose her work status in the United States and she would jeopardize her ability to receive her education. She owes herself and her partner a duty of care as well, to place value on her education and her ability to live in Chicago and therefore maintain the relationship. For Valerie, these considerations are powerful, since Waters' actions do not have the same strong impact on her life as reporting him could.
Valerie must determine which duties are most important -- to herself, to her partner, to the company and to her teammates. The teammates would appear to be the least relevant, the company the most relevant. Valerie is acting as in this capacity as a representative of Wisson and should conduct herself on the basis of that position. She is acting in the best interests of the…
The second step is to initiate a supplier code of conduct. The greatest potential for ethical violations falls with suppliers such as agricultural firms or offshored service providers, and these violations can result in negative publicity for the company.
Ultimately, it is not expected that these ethical standards will form a competitive advantage for the company. Having high ethical standards is more of a hygiene factor in that it is something a company needs to have to avoid negative impacts, but few companies get any particular competitive mileage from their ethical policies. There is little impetus to join the fair trade or organic businesses for most of the products we sell. hile many consumers are willing to pay more for said products, it remains a niche category especially in Europe and the UK. This usually means that the volumes are too low to justify the effort. Overall, the best approach…
FAO. (2001). Ethical issues in food and agriculture. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/X9601E/X9601E00.htm
HRW. (2010). Hellish work. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.hrw.org/en/node/91458/section/3
Hussein, M. (2009). Hiring and firing with ethics. Human Resource Management International Digest. Vol. 17 (4) 37-40.
Van Tulder, R. & Kolk, a. (2001). Multinationality and corporate ethics: Codes of conduct in the sporting goods industry. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 32 (2) 267-283.
Ethics and Morals
Quite frequently, people use the terms ethics, values and morals interchangeably. Although doing so is fine in most situations, there actually are subtle differences in the denotations and connotations of each of these terms. Perhaps the biggest point of distinction between these terms pertains to the term values when this word and its meaning are contrasted with those for morals and ethics. Values are generally extrinsic qualities that a person or an organization considers important. On the contrary, morals and ethics are usually different means of determining what acceptable behavior is and what specific principles make such behavior defensible or not. Values, then, are character traits, ideas, or a "fundamental beliefs" (Navran, 2010) that a person or a collective esteems, whereas morals and ethics are principles upon which behavior and even values are based.
Examples of values include general concepts that can apply to people. Typical values…
Harper, S.J. (2009). Ethics vs. morality: a problematic divide. Philosophy Social Criticism. 35(9), 1063-1077.
Navran, F.J. (2010). Defining values, morals and ethics. www.navran.com Retrieved from http://www.navran.com/article-values-morals-ethics.html
.." And "The probability that my peers would undertake the same action is...." It is the difference in the responses given to these two questions, as captured on a seven point Likert scale, that is the measure of the social desirability response bias. (Tyson: 1992; Cohen et al.: 1995, 1996, 2001).
Many studies have been done on the role and correlation between moral development and ethical decision making as it applies to various professionals. A majority of these research studies have found that such things as gender, education, age and taking ethics courses in school have some affect on one's moral reasoning developments (Armstrong: 1993; Elm, Kennedy & Lawton: 2001; Jones & Hiltebeitel: 1995; Ponemon & Glazer: 1990; Shaub: 1994). However, many studies have also found exactly the opposite, in that no significant relationship exists. (Ma & Chan: 1987; Rogers & Smith: 2001; Thorne, Massey & Magnan: 2003).
Weber, J., & Glyptis, S.M. (2000). Measuring the impact of a business ethics course and community service experience on students' values and opinions. Teaching Business Ethics, 4, 341-358.
Weber, J., & Green, S. (1991). Principled Moral Reasoning: Is it a Viable Approach to Promote Ethical Integrity? Journal of Business Ethics, 10(5), 325-333.
Wynd, W.R., & Mager, J. (1989). The business and society course: Does it change student attitudes? Journal of Business Ethics, 8(6), 486-491.
While the initiative is laudable, the results are not palpable and cannot be extrapolated, indicating as such that research on the topic has still to be conducted.
At the level of the individual, the reading of the article confirmed the complexity of the ethics and morals within the business community. Still, aside from this, it also indicated that the organizational entities are primarily focused on their profitability objectives, and they will strive to attain these goals at the expense of either suppliers, either suppliers and employees. The firms strive to make those ethically and morally sound decisions for the satisfaction of their customers.
Finally, the article changed the perception over the topic of ethical and moral decision making by widening the overall comprehension of the issue. Before reading the article, ethics and morality were perceived as something innate, or learned from the home. Still, the article opens a new window…
Tangpong, C., Pesek, J.G., Shareholder value ideology, reciprocity and decision making in moral dilemmas
However, according to Trevino and Nelson, diverting the runaway train to an alternative track will result in the death of one person who is standing unawares on the alternative track (95). hat would be the best course of action in such a case? From a teleological perspective, diverting the train to the alternative track would seem most reasonable as it would save the life of five people. The end in this case - saving the lives of five people, effectively justifies the means, i.e. pulling the lever so as to divert the train to an alternative route where it will kill only one person.
To begin with, this kind of reasoning in my view erroneously assumes that there can only be a single means to a definite end. However, this is not always the case. For instance, in the example I have offered above, the person standing by the lever…
Bradburn, Roger. Understanding Business Ethics. London: Thomson Learning, 2001. Print.
Trevino, Linda, and Katherine A. Nelson. Managing Business Ethics: Straight Talk About How To Do It Right. 5th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. Print.
The author of this report is asked to discuss ethics as it pertains to a topic of the author's choice. The author of this report chooses to discuss the ethics topic of using factories in Asian and surrounding countries like China and Bangladesh with questionable if not outright deplorable labor laws and/or working conditions. The author of this report will now answer five questions surrounding that topic.
Ethics of Using Foreign Countries in Asia to Make United States Goods
The first question asks the author to discuss culture, values, ethics and other such elements that lead to differences in social culture (Hill, 2013). The United States obviously mimicked a lot of Asian countries in terms of working conditions and lack of labor laws and protections until about 1930. Since then, the social safety net and the associated labor and retirement frameworks have been created to help and protect workers…
Hill, C.W. (2013). International business: competing in the global marketplace (9 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Reed, S.M., & Bogardus, A.M. (2012). PHR/SPHR Professional in Human Resources certification study guide (4th ed.). Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Pub.
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…
Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.
Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.
SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm
Interstate -35 West Mississippi River Bridge
The collapse of the Interstate-35 West Mississippi River Bridge, which is also known as Bridge 9340, was one of the most dramatic cases of structural engineering failure in the history of the United States within the past five years. The abrupt collapse of the eight-lane structure in Minneapolis, Minnesota on August 1, 2007, which killed approximately 13 people and injured upwards of over 100 travelers, brought to mind several of the traditional ethical issues of engineering in the workplace as many of the deceased and their loved ones agonized over how such a structural failure could take place. Unfortunately, the bridge had a long history of safety issues dating back to 1990 in which it was determined to be deficient by the federal government. Subsequent reports as recent as 2006 found substantial amounts of cracking and weakening in the girders and approach spans,…
Their primary duty is that of guiding the spiritual and religious aspects of the lives of their community members. They should give the highest priority to their duties towards the community including church service, counseling and other ceremonial functions required by their profession. As part of their professional and ethical duties, pastors are also required to show an interest in community development and increase their participation in community activities. This has become a necessity in modern culture because people expect institutions to take an interest and an active role in the community development efforts. Institutions cannot expect to benefit from the resources of the society and not give back. This is why business organizations, universities and even political parties make community development a part of their organization's commitment to the society and the people they serve. eligious institutions like the church are also expected to follow this example. The pastor,…
Arnold, W.V. (1982). Introduction to Pastoral Care. Westminster John Knox Press.
Bush, J.E. (2006). Gentle Shepherding: Pastoral Ethics and Leadership. Chalice Press.
Gula, R.M. (1996). Ethics in Pastoral Ministry. Paulist Press.
Hewart-Mills, D. (2011). Pastoral Ministry. Xulon Press.
Ethics in Law Enforcement
"Sometimes [police officers] may, and sometimes may not, lie when conducting custodial interrogations. Investigative and interrogatory lying are each justified on utilitarian crime control grounds. Police are never supposed to lie as witnesses in the courtroom, although they may lie for utilitarian reasons similar to those permitting deception & #8230;" (Skolnick, et al., 1992)
Is it ethical for law enforcement officers to use deception during the interrogation process? It appears that when officers are attempting to extract a confession from a suspect, deception is, in many cases, commonly applied strategy. Does a code of ethics conflict with the way in which law enforcement conducts its interviews and interrogations? hat do the courts say about deceptive interrogation tactics? These issues will be reviewed in this paper.
Deception in the Interrogation Room
Is it ethical to lie to obtain the truth? No. Do the ends justify the means?…
Braswell, Michael C. (2011). Justice, Crime, and Ethics. Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier.
Leo, Richard A. (2009). Police Interrogation and American Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
McMullen, Patrick M. (2005). Questioning the Questions: The Impermissibility of Police
Deception in Interrogations of Juveniles. Northwestern University Law Review, 99(2),
The Bureau of Land Management/Department of the Interior videos illustrate a wide variety of issues related to ethics in administrative civil service positions. All of the ethical dilemmas and issues addressed are outlined and codified in publications and handbooks. However, no booklet can cover the nuances and extent of all ethical situations and especially the trickiest conundrums. As the video points out, there is no substitute for actual advice from a skilled professional in the field of ethics counseling. This is why departments like the BLM or the Fish and Wildlife Service have on staff ethics counselors. Ethics counselors are on call to answer questions and solve dilemmas when they arise, thus preventing problems that can lead to severe penalties ranging from fines to probation and/or prison. All employees are responsible for their own ethical conduct, which is why it is not possible to plead ignorance in cases like…
Government of Canada (2015). Panel on research ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.pre.ethics.gc.ca/eng/policy-politique/initiatives/tcps2-eptc2/chapter7-chapitre7/
MLB National Training Center. (2009, September 22). Retrieved from http://www.ntc.blm.gov/krc/uploads/411/EthicsSep2209.html
United States Department of Justice (2015). Do it right. Retrieved online: http://www.justice.gov/jmd/do-it-right
Ethics at Apple
Apple has been for some time now the leading manufacturer of innovative wireless technologies, including the iPhone, the iPad, iPods, and Macintosh computers that do more and set the table for other manufacturers to emulate "Mac" innovations. Following the death of Apple co-founder Steve Jobs -- and the emergence of Tim Cook as the new CEO -- the technology media and happy Apple consumers wait for the next launch of an innovative device that will change the way people communicate and retrieve information.
hat are the Apple values and ethics? The "Apple Values" section of the Apple Employee Handbook (circa 1993) sets the record straight on what is expected of employees. In short, Apple asserts that "…we will not compromise our ethics or integrity in the name of profit" (seanet.com). hat Apple does is "…set aggressive goals and drive ourselves hard to achieve them" and "build products"…
Gurman, Mark. (2011). Revealed: Apple's internal policies on employee social networking, speculating on rumors, leaking, blogging, and more. 9to5Mac. Retrieved May 27, 2012,
from http://9to5mac.com .
Mac Observer. (2011). Revealed: 10 big Apple Store secrets. Retrieved May 27, 2012, from http://theweek.com .
Marshall, Gary. (2011). Inside Apple: Cupertino's secrets revealed. Tech Radar. Retrieved May
Ethics primarily acts as a check to ensure that the corporate strategy is enacted effectively. arely do firms take ethics into account as a key element of strategy, though it does happen once in a while. Generally, the role that ethics plays is tangential to strategy aside from its role as a check. obin and eidenbach (1988) elaborate further on this idea, noting that "without the integration of ethics at the very beginning of the planning process… the organizational culture may not provide the checks and balances needed…" Their argument is that while corporations tend to put the profit motive forward first, a lack of ethics can undermine the objective of maximizing shareholder wealth. Having a strong program of ethics built into the organizational culture reduces the risk of major ethical lapse.
A couple of recent issues highlight the importance of building an ethical culture to maximizing shareholder wealth. Enron…
Dahlsrud, A. (2006). How corporate social responsibility is defined: An analysis of 37 definitions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management. Retrieved November 19, 2013 from http://www.mcxindia.com/csr/newsarticle/pdf/csr_news45.pdf
Davis, S. (2013). Examples of social responsibility strategies. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved November 19, 2013 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-social-responsibility-strategies-10633.html
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits New York Times Magazine. Retrieved November 19, 2013 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Robin, D. & Reidenbach, R. (1988). Integrating social responsibility and ethics into the strategic planning process. Business and Professional Ethics Journal Vol 7 (3-4) 29-46.
Ethics Must Be Global Not Local
Ethics Must Be Global, Not Local
International Business equirements
Global Business Ethics
The large business units expand their operations in global markets through their own presence as well as franchising and distributors. The business operations are expanded on the basis of various standard practices. The business freedom provided by countries and various global practices are utilized as a basis for taking global operational decisions. The business also encounters various legal, operational, and ethical issues related to the local market. However in order to expand business beyond borders and physical boundaries of countries it is required to maintain a degree of uniformity in products and ethical practices followed throughout the manufacturing processes. It is advised to understand various aspects of international business requirements, global operations, ethical practices, and recommendations to assert a standard for global ethical business operations.
International Business equirements:
Beer, L.A. (2010). A Strategic and Tactical Approach to Global Business Ethics. USA: Momentum Press.
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases. USA: South-Western Pub.
George, B. (2008, February 12). Ethics must be global, not local. Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2008-02-12/ethics-must-be-global-not-localbusinessweek-business-news-stock-market-and-financial-advice
Martens, P., Akin, S.-M., Maud, H., & Mohsin, R. (2010). Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health.Globalization and Health, 6(1), 16.
Giving Voice to Values
The class discussion on giving voice to values touched on many different topics of great interest, not the least of which were the many different systems of values that exist. I have always found myself caught between ethical theories that emphasize intentions and those that emphasize effects, and I truly feel that different situations call for different understandings of right and wrong -- some situations might be best determined by a consideration of intentions, while others must be judged on the ultimate effects of a given action or set of actions. Determining which situation deserves which application of ethics is obviously highly subjective, and this was definitely highlighted in the class discussion. A large number of individual and cultural values were brought up that point out different features of specific cases or derive differing interpretations from an agreed upon set of circumstances to a degree that…
c. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is the right thing to do. Duty-based ethics
d. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is good for one's health. Virtue ethics
e. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they decide they want to, regardless of whether it is someone else's sand. Entitlement-based ethics
f. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves. ights-based ethics
g. I believe I will eat sand because it is the standard meal for my community. elativistic ethics
Q4. Duty-based ethics: It is my duty to follow through with instructions my boss gives me, even if I do not agree with the concept. It is my moral obligation to respect authority figures.
Consequence-based ethics: Even though some employees…
Trevino, L.K., & Nelson, K.A. (2007). Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right (4th Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Ethics in Criminal Justice:
The police function has continued to be the most needed elements since the beginning of the existence of human societies because social coordination and harmony have never prospered without some kind of supervisory authority. The supervisory authority or power has usually been shared among several agencies or departments including policing. These various departments have been planned and synchronized to provide the service efficiently and effectively. Since its inception, policing have been mandated with the task of identifying and convicting criminals. However, the police have been expected to have an increasingly wider social role in acting as crisis managers or problem busters. As the police have been faced with numerous moral challenges, there are various theories that have been developed to describe ethics within the field of criminal justice.
Slippery Slope and Gratuities:
One of the long-standing and controversial practices within the police force is police gratuities…
Andrews, W.C. (2004, June). Police Gratuities, Public Perception after September 11, 2001.
Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.clearwaterpolice.org/articles/andrews.asp
Delattre, E.J. (2002). Character and cops: ethics in policing (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.:
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.