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Realism in international relations refers to the classical belief that states vie for power using economic and military means. Human nature is, according to the realist, self-serving and unavoidably power-hungry. Thus, the theory is concerned mainly with how states vie for economic and military dominance in the world's political arena and how to navigate through a usually treacherous world. Subsequently, realist international relations are based on power politics. Realism infers that states act selfishly, unilaterally, and largely independently. International rule of law and political norms are virtually nonexistent in the realist perspective.
Liberalism, on the other hand, offers a more nuanced perspective on international relations. Classical liberalism presumes that states do not act solely out of want for economic and military dominance. States are comprised of peoples and cultures, and their corresponding value systems. Moreover, a liberal theory of international relations points to the emergence of globalization in promoting cross-cultural…
IGOs play an important role in modern international relations. Overall, they provide many benefits to the global community, with the ability to act collectively in the interest of human rights, international peace and security, and economic development. However, the IGOs cannot act without the support of individual states, with the need for donations to promote economic growth (Kegley & Blanton, 2010) to the use of nations' militaries to pursue UN peacekeeping operations (Scharf, 2007).
Given the use of nations' resources to further the goals of IGOs and the states' retention of authority to protect self-interest, IGOs are important in world politics, but will remain subservient to the nation. Just as the global climate after WWI spurred the creation of the League of Nations (Scharf, 2007), a massive international event in the future may dictate that states withdraw their participation in IGOs. As long as states retain the authority to cease…
Grigorescu, a. (2010). The spread of bureaucratic oversight mechanisms across intergovernmental organizations. International Studies Quarterly 54(3): 871-886.
Kegley, C. & Blanton, S. (2010). World Politics: Trends and Transformation (13th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth.
Lake, D. (2010). Rightful rules: Authority, order, and the foundations of global governance. International Studies Quarterly 54(3): 587-613.
Roca, S. (1987). Economic sanctions against Cuba. In D. Leyton-Brown (ed.), the Utility of International Economic Sanctions (pp. 87-104). New York: St. Martin's Press.
The Three Biggest Challenges Facing the International Community & How They Affect International Relations
In my opinion, the three biggest challenges facing the international community are:
These challenges have assumed crucial importance in recent times and have significantly affected international relations. If the international community fails to tackle these issues satisfactorily over the next few decades, they may become uncontrollable with overwhelming consequences for the whole world. This essay looks briefly at these three issues in turn and explains how they affect the current and future international relations.
Economic and social inequality has assumed grotesque proportions in recent times and the indications are that it is on the rise. For example, the richest 1% in the world (50 million people) have income equivalent to the poorest 57% (2.6 billion people) and four fifths of the world's population live below what countries in…
Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.
Eland, Ivan. "Bush Administration Bluster Exacerbates Nuclear Proliferation." The Independent Institute. May 2, 2005. May 3, 2005.
Elliott, Larry and Charlotte Denny. "Top 1% earn as much as the poorest 57%." Guardian Unlimited. January 18, 2002. May 3, 2005.
"Inequality." World Revolution.org. 2005. May 3, 2005.
Facilitating a Geographical Corporate Environment of Human ights in Brazil
This company has been retained by The New Global Link (TNGL), a corporation that has recently been awarded a license to do business in the country of Brazil. As such, TNGL, in retaining this company, seeks to understand the Brazil in terms of its socio-economic-political environments. TNGL, an American corporation, has a reporting responsibility and a fiscal responsibility to its shareholders, and is to ensure its success globally, beginning in Brazil, where it will be working towards further global expansion in South America. It therefore essential that TNGL establish itself not just as a corporate business partner with the country of Brazil, but as a social and economic partner that realizes that the social and economic health and well being of the country will reflect itself on TNGL in numerous ways. Therefore, TNGL is seeking a comprehensive briefing that will…
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Balderston, Daniel, Mike Gonzalez, and Ana M.L pez, eds. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Latin American and Caribbean Cultures. London: Routledge, 2000. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108126074 .
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However, she concludes that the effect of PMCs, as a whole, cannot be determined by this one example. Supply in the current PMC market has a tendency to self-perpetuate. As more PMCs enter the market, new threats are developed that the firms provide protection against. "Moreover, demand does not penalize firms that service 'illegitimate;' clients in general. Consequently, the number of actors who can wield control over the use of force is limited mainly by their ability to pay." (605). This results in a draining of current security institutions resources. Their security coverage is worsened. By increasing the availability of military force, more actors are involved in conflict and less reason is needed to contest existing institutions, destabilizing nations.
Herz (1957) was correct in his understanding that the territorial states of yesteryear are forever changed. Sovereignty in today's world is tenuous at best. International law has been created to…
Arquilla, J. & Ronfeldt, D. "Cyberwar is Coming!" Comparative Stategy. 12.2. (Spring 1993): 141-165.
Herz, J. "Rise and Demise of the Territorial State." World Politics 9.4. (Jul 1957): 473-493.
Homer-Dixon, T. "The Rise of Complex Terrorism." Foreign Policy. 128. (Jan-Feb 2002): 52-62.
Leander, a. "The Market for Force and Public Security: The Destabilizing Consequences of Private Military Companies." Journal of Peace Research. 42.5. (2005): 605-622.
yan Dawson (2011) helps illustrate the way ideology shapes foreign policy by digging into Project for a New American Century files and showing how the PNAC reports are basically a lobbying tool for Israel. Dawson refers viewers of his documentary to PNAC many times in his attempt to show how the papers lay out the blueprint for American foreign policy post-9/11: "The policy of 'containment' of Saddam Hussein has been steadily eroding over the past several months. As recent events have demonstrated, we can no longer depend on our partners in the Gulf War coalition to continue to uphold the sanctions or to punish Saddam when he blocks or evades UN inspections." Such reports coupled with the yellow cake uranium story and the WMDs hoax, and of course the "harboring terrorists" myth, and the American public was read to back a war against Iraq -- even though Iraq was no…
1962-Year in Review. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1962/Cuban-Missile-Crisis/12295509437657-6/
BusinessMate. (2009). Max Weber's Theory of Bureaucracy. BusinessMate.org.
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Chayevsky, P. [writer]. (1976). Network. Los Angeles: MGM.
With a profound sense of the solemn and even tragical character of the step I am taking and of the grave responsibilities which it involves, but in unhesitating obedience to what I deem my constitutional duty, I advise that the Congress declare the recent course of the Imperial German Government to be in fact nothing less than war against the Government and people of the United States....America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured. God helping her, she can do no other." (Woodrow Wilson's war message)
United States' entry bolstered the Allied forces and gave them extraordinary power over the German Imperial army. With America's entry into the war, things suddenly changed as we were was no longer spectators. The response from the public was however not overwhelming since it had been…
President Woodrow Wilson's War message" accessed online 14th April 2005:
John Bach McMaster. The United States in the World War: D. Appleton & Company. New York. 1918
World War II -- Eastern Front
While the personality of any dictator may significantly influence the military decisions of his/her dictatorship, perhaps the clearest instance of this phenomenon occurred in World War II's arbarossa, an invasion of Russia in the Eastern Front. Obsessed with his messianic delusions, Hitler's personal flaws resulted in the ultimate failure of the greatest invasion in recorded history. The failure of that invasion, in turn, directly resulted in Germany's loss of World War II.
Hitler's Personal Flaws Caused the Failure of arbarossa
Synthesis of reputable historical sources, some of which stress Adolf Hitler's personal flaws while others minimize or ignore them, reveals that Adolf Hitler's personal shortcomings caused the failure of arbarossa and, therefore, caused Germany's loss of World War II. Hitler's warlike personality was apparently dominated by "the three p's": prejudice, paranoia, and perplexity. Though Hitler was famously prejudiced against Jewish people, his prejudice against…
Citino, Robert Michael. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933-1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York, NY: Stein and Day, 1978.
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…
Dove, R. (1999). Heroes & Icons: Rosa Parks. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Time:
"Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973." (2007,
May 30). Retrieved August 12, 2009, from the Great Idea Finder: http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/internet.htm
During the inter-war years, Nazism strengthened its populist support by emphasizing its nationalist ideology, thus drawing on the German traditions of the 19th century and gaining strength from the disillusion that had set in after the defeat in World War I. Hitler's policies for Germany included the resurgence of a Greater Germany, by instilling the German people with a renewed sense of purpose in order to inspire, "the miracle of Germany's emergence as a nation" (Berwick, 20). This rejuvenated nation would also include Austria and the German-speaking people who had been lost to Poland and Czechoslovakia in 1919. Before 1933, Hitler played on the unjustness of the Versailles Treaty and, between 1933 and 1939 repeatedly claimed that he was reasserting the national rights of Germany, which included the publicly popular issue of territorial claims (Payne, 1995). Therefore, the reoccupation of the hineland in 1936, the occupation of…
Berwick, M. The Third Reich. London: Wayland Publishers, 1971.
Carsten, F.L. The Rise of Fascism. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1970.
Eatwell, Roger. Fascism: A History. New York: The Penguin Group, 1995.
Mosse, George. The Crisis of German Ideology. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964.
Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" (Wilson 235). The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression. Franklin oosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction (Badger). Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing else,…
Badger, A. FDR - The First Hundred Days. New York: Macmillan, 2009.
Cooper, P. Public Law and Public Administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.
Fesler, J. "Public Administration and the Social Sciences: 1946-1969." Mosher, F. American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future. Washington, DC & Birmingham, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1975. 97-142.
Halberstam, D. The Fifties. New York: Ballantine, 1994.
Analysis of Theories
The field of international relations is based on many competing and complementary theories. These include realism, liberalism, constructivism, dependency theory, Marxism, etc. The theories are many; the field is expansive. What international relations seek to do is both formulate and analyze international politics, and work concomitantly with world governments, non-governmental organizations, and multi-national corporations. Due to the nature of work in these global affairs, several of the theories mentioned above are utilized to explain various phenomena. This paper will thus focus on a few questions as they relate to international relations and, specifically, to the theories which it employs.
To begin, one must understand that the field of international politics can be segmented into various categories, or levels of analysis. The most famous of these categories are Kenneth Waltz' groups, which include explanations of politics as being driven by individuals, by psychology, by states,…
ecause the Republic was weak, it was open to failure, and open to a takeover by a powerful group such as Hitler's Nazis. asically, the failure of the Republic allowed Hitler to take control of the government, which ultimately led to World War II, the persecution of the Jews, the Holocaust, and millions of deaths. Thus, the fall of the Weimar Republic was extremely significant to world history, and it was because it was created as a weak Republic that it could fall so quickly and have so many weaknesses that Hitler and his party capitalized on. This shows a very diachronic relationship between the Army, the legislative branches, and the Chancellor, because they could not work together harmoniously, and so, they created friction that led to the failure of the Republic. A more synchronic relationship may have created more strength in the Republic, and led to a much different…
Author not Available. (2005). The French National Assembly. Retrieved from the French National Assembly Web site: www.assemblee-nationale.fr/english/8al.asp22 July 2005.
Mahler, Gregory S. (2003). Comparative Politics: An Institutional and Cross-National Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Rempel, Gerhard. (2000). The Weimar Republic I: Economic and Political Problems. Retrieved from the Western New England College Web site: http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/germany/lectures/23weimar_collapse.html22 July 2005.
This also helps indicate the U.S. is indeed a nation and a nation with conflicting goals and ideals for many.
It is interesting that Heywood notes that in nations, there is a growing trend against nationalism and socialism toward religious fundamentalism. This is very clear in the Middle East, but it also seems to be taking place in the U.S. Just last week the national news reported there are a group of disgruntled Republicans who do not like the way the party is becoming more "liberal," and want to form a third, ultra-conservative, Christian Republican party. This seems to fly in the face of the Constitution, which clearly separates church and state, but it also seems to be a natural progression in nationalism as Heywood sees it.
Thus, the United States is indeed a nation; it fits the definition of several forms of nationalism that Heywood discusses. Just like states,…
The Machiavellian Characteristics of President George . Bush
George . Bush has followed in his fathers' footsteps, becoming the 43rd President of the U.S., holding office between 2001 and 2009. He is a president that held power during a notable period, with the 9/11 attacks occurring only a year into his presidency. Like any U.S. president, there will be a number of controversial issues associated with his presidency, including the way action was taken in Iraq. In hindsight it may be argued that President Bush was acting in a very Machiavellian manner, aligned with Machiavelli's ideal Prince.
The alignment between the prince and Bush may not be surprising when it is realized that both a principle adviser to the president; Karl Rove, as well as Republic strategists and friend, Lee Atwater where both avid fans of Machiavelli (Phillips 147). However, to argue the likeness requires an examination of examples…
Harris, P, "Bush says God chose him to lead his nation," The Guardian, 29 August 2005
Ludlow, Lawrence M, Machiavelli and U.S. Politics, 25 October 2013
Machiavelli, The Prince, < http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1232 > 1513
Rycroft, D, Iraq: Prime Minister's Meeting, 23 July (Dearlove Memo), accessed 25th of October 2013
As governments look to eradicate deficits, it is often organization that fall under discretionary spending categories that bear the brunt of those cuts. Not only does the productive capacity of these organizations suffer but so, too, does morale. ith declining funding, public sector organizations also often have difficult recruiting top talent into their organizations.
Another issue that arises with public organization decline is that there is a lack of motivation and a lack of innovation. Innovation in particular is a challenge. hen considering Sayre's Model it is not hard to see how excessive bureaucracy can stifle the innovative capabilities of public organizations. Pathak (2007) argues that middle management needs to take a lead role in not only keeping up morale, but encouraging high levels of performance in public organizations as a policy to stem decline.
Cutbacks can be particularly challenging for public organizations. The most important aspect of cutbacks is…
McCarthy, R. & Aronson, J. (2001). Analyzing the balance between consumer, business and government: The emergent Internet privacy legal framework. IACIS 2001. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from http://iacis.org/iis/2001/mccarthy275.PDF
Padhi, N. (2010). The eight elements of TQM. iSixSigma.com. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from http://www.isixsigma.com/methodology/total-quality-management-tqm/eight-elements-tqm/
Pathak, P. (2007). The decline of public sector organizations: Can middle managers play the role of saviour? Indian School of Mines. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from http://www.ediindia.org/Creed/data/Govind%20Swaroop%20Pathak%20&%20Pallavi%20Pathak.htm
Sheppard, G. (2009). Public sector reward: More than motivation. Personnel Today. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from http://www.personneltoday.com/articles/06/07/2009/51319/public-sector-reward-more-than-motivation.htm
They are only trying to justify their actions; they are handing excuses, telling the events as they happened. And in the end maybe these characters do find an excuse, the one that they are both human, bound to fail and to be influenced, sharing the same planet and dealing with the same kind of people. The two personages enjoyed having power and realized in the end that having power doesn't necessary make them omniscient.
oth Robert McNamara and Yuri Orlov had the lives of numerous people in their hands. Maybe these characters felt the need to retell all their stories, in order to let all the demons trapped inside their conscious out.
The characters presented in the two movies were able to depict the laws and needs of man and rose above law; they become a sort of demigod. In Yuri's case this was shown during his tramping across west…
1. The Fog of War. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_fog_of_war
2. Lord of War. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_of_war
3. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eisenhower
4. Military-industrial complex. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/military_industrial_complex
Politics, literature and the arts -- Transformation, Totalitarianism, and Modern Capitalist life in Franz Kafka's "Metamorphosis," Fritz Lang's "Metropolis," and Albert Camus' Caligula
At first, the towering heights of the German director Fritz Lang's "Metropolis" may seem to have little to do with the cramped world of the Czech author Franz Kafka's "Metamorphosis." Fritz Lang portrayed a humanity whereby seemingly sleek human beings were dwarfed by towering and modernist structures, where one class of thinking humans were drunk on pleasure while others suffered in pain so that the upper classes or regions of Metropolitan society might prosper. Franz Kafka portrayed a man named Gregor Samsa who became a grotesque creature, increasingly beset upon by his tiny and encloistered environment until he is transformed into a gigantic cockroach. Rather than focusing on the higher echelons of society, Kafka focused on its lower elements immediately.
In Kafka, the transformed Gregor Samsa becomes…
Camus, Albert. "Caligula." 1936.
Kafka, Franz. "Metamorphosis." Translated by Ian Johnston. Released October 2003. http://www.mala.bc.ca/~johnstoi/stories/kafka-E.htm
'Metropolis." Directed by Fritz Lang. 1926.
Politics, Literature & the Arts: Modernism has been discussed as a reaction to modernity: from the following works, is this a fair description?
Modernism is often defined as a chaotic, pastiche-style of rendering the difficulties of modern, industrialized life. The attempted regimentation of modernity becomes, in modernism, exposed for the absurdity that it is through the surrealist and other modernist aesthetics, such as the improvised jazz riff. For example, in the 1928 film "The Andalusian Dog" by the surrealist artist Salvador Dali and the surrealist director Louis Bunuel the pace of the film's absurd depiction of life is harsh, fragmented and full of confusion. It seems to exist in no certain time, place, or within a conventionally identifiable range of historical or social images, and thus is coherent with the impersonal nature of modern life. It is like, to cite Ken Burn's documentary on music, a "jazz" riff on the…
"The Andalusian Dog." Directed and written by Salvador Dali and Louis Bunuel. 1928.
Benjamin, Walter. "Surrealism and Adorno. " in Critical Theory and Society. Edited by Bronner and Kellner.
"Jazz: A Documentary." Directed by Ken Burns, 2002.
" (Prince: 61)
The second important thing to focus on is the military strength of that person. Does the ruler possess greater military might than the displaced ruler? If yes, then there is no point in rejecting him as the new ruler. This is because with his military weapons, he is likely to prove valuable to the country in the long run. Michaela's views on the art of war and possession of arms make it clear that a well-armed ruler deserves our respect because he can be relied on in difficult times
Liberty is an important concept in this connection. Liberty is the collection of various rights, which must be safeguarded at all costs, or else the public will reject the new ruler. It is thus important to remember that even when the people of a country give up their freedom because of fear of the new ruler, the ruler…
Thomas Hobbes (author) a.R. Waller (editor) Leviathan: Or, the Matter, Forme & Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiasticall and Civill. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, England. 1904
Niccolo Machiavelli (author) Peter Bondanella (Editor) the Prince. Oxford University, Oxford 1998
When the military took over the government, it immediately enacted marital law in Thailand. That stayed in effect until February 2007, under the argument that it was necessary to preserve peace. Leaders in the military junta that orchestrated the takeover argued that they had no choice in the coup, that it was the only way to take back control of the government from a power-hungry tycoon (Kampf, 2007). The reality of the situation, however, is that within a democratic government there are other ways to produce political change. Despite any faults that were extant within Shinawatra's government, they should have been addressed and debated through the appropriate democratic channels. Before the coup, Thailand boasted one of the most stable and healthy democracies in the region. There had been no coups since 1991, in a nation once famous for them. A progressive, democratic constitution was adopted in 1997, and Thailand was…
Kampf, D. (2007, March 2). NO democracy yet in Thailand. Foreign Policy in Focus. Retrieved November 21, 2007, at http://www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/4042
Tejapira, K. (2006, May/June). "Toppling Thaksin." New Left Review, 39, pp. 5-37.
From the beginning of the war, there had been some variation in the Canadian attitude toward the conflict. Canada never questioned the legitimacy of the war and did not question the need for Canadian participation. There were differences of opinion, though, concerning how extensive the Canadian contribution should be. These variations affected the response to calls for enlistment and divided the country as the towns were more willing than the countryside, the prairies more willing than the Atlantic seaboard, and "it was observed that the proportion of enlistments achieved by any social group appeared to vary almost inversely to the length of its connection with Canada. On the one hand, the ritish-born -- the new arrivals with a large proportion of unattached males of military age -- gave the highest percentage of their numbers to the armed services, and, on the other hand, the French Canadians unquestionably gave the…
Ameringer, Charles D. Political Parties of the Americas, 1980s to 1990s: Canada, Latin America, and the West Indie.
Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1992.
Bothwell, Robert. History of Canada since 1867. Washington, D.C.: Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, 1996.
Boudreau, Joseph a. "Canada and the First World War: Essays in Honour of Robert "Canada and Worlod War I," the History of Canada (2007), http://www.linksnorth.com/canada-history/canadaandworldwar1.html .
Just a year later in 1918, Eugene V. Debs, who was a leader of the Socialist Party in the United States, proffered a speech in Ohio that protested the United State's involvement in World War I. It was during this speech that Debs encouraged socialism and -- more to the point -- he specifically spoke very highly of Americans who had refused to serve in the military as well as praising those individuals who had prevented military recruiting.
The case was similar to that of Schenck v. United States (1919) in which Schenck was arrested and sentenced to 10 years in prison for distributing pamphlets that opposed the draft.
The 1st Amendment is there to protect individuals' freedom of speech and the 1st Amendment does, indeed, give individuals the right to put down certain elements that they might not like about they government or the military, for that matter.…
DEBS v. UNITED STATES. The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 1
May 2012. http://www.oyez.org/cases/1901-1939/1918/1918_714 .
GITLOW v. NEW YORK. Casebriefs, LLC. 1 May 2012.
Origins of the Second World War, by A.J.P. Taylor. Specifically, it will critically analyze the book, its theme, and the author's methods.
THE OIGINS OF THE SECOND WOLD WA
Author of "The Origins of the Second World War," A.J.P. Taylor, was a noted British historian who wrote widely on European and world politics, policies, and history. His views were often unorthodox and controversial. "Taylor practiced a legitimate revisionism that is found in every field of history. Similar revisionists included Daniel J. Goldhagen who has argued that a deep-rooted anti-Semitism in Germany caused the Holocaust, not just Hitler and the Nazi party" (Schoenherr). He wrote numerous books and publications, including "The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848-1918," and "English History 1914-1945." He also worked as a broadcaster for the BBC. He was primarily interested in English and German history, but wrote extensively on a variety of historic and political subjects. Taylor…
Schoenherr, Steve. "The Taylor Thesis." University of San Diego. 18 July 2001. 17 Feb. 2003. http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/WW2Timeline/Taylorthesis.html
Taylor, A.J.P. The Origins of the Second World War. New York: Touchstone, 1996.
The crisis facing Soviet society as the union disintegrated came from several sources, but the economic problems, the growing crime rate, the inter-ethnic violence, and the political struggles all derived from the deep crisis rising questions about the legitimacy of Soviet political institutions and the identity of the Soviet people. Gorbachev brought about many changes in Soviet politics and society. The development of this national policy came as the Soviet Union spent more and more on defense and security while people had to wait in long lines for staples. The political regime began trying to reform the economic structure in the 1980s in the era of perestroika. Ronald Grigor Suny notes that official policies in the mid-1980s began to shift priorities in response to a perceived need, and at the time, socio-cultural demands by the people were being answered and were increasing the size of sections of the budget for…
May, Elaine Tyler. Homeward Bound. New York: Basic Books, 1988.
Newhouse, John. War and Peace in the Nuclear Age. New York: Vintage Books, 1988.
Suny, Ronald Grigory. The Making of the Georgian Nation. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1994.
Smith, Graham. The Post-Soviet State. London: Arnold, 1999.
Global Politics and Economy:
Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries
The world politics and economy of the late twentieth century were highlighted by the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the promise of a 'new world order' and the rise of 'globalization.' These developments were accompanied by a worldwide trend of increasing democracy, trade liberalization and booming economies. The start of the twenty-first century, on the other hand, has seen the emergence of the so-called 'clash of civilizations' and the long drawn out 'fight against terrorism' with the inevitable slump in global economies. In this essay we shall briefly discuss the major trends of the global politics and economy in this tumultuous period of world history.
Collapse of Communism
The 'Cold ar' period involving intense political and economic rivalry between the two superpowers, the U.S.A. And the Soviet Union, lasted from the end of orld ar…
Cold War." Article in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Deluxe, 2000. CD-ROM Version.
Fukuyama, Francis. "Their Target: The Modern World." Pp. 54-59. Newsweek International: Special Davos Edition, December 2001-February 2002
Voting to Violence, Jack Snyder starkly poses some of the most vexing questions for foreign policy analysts during the 1990's. Why was this decade, despite the collapse of the totalitarian system of communism and an overall greater global potential for democratic involvement, marked by a worldwide increase in ethnic conflict and hatred in Europe and across the larger world?
Why did this "the process of democratization" become seemingly "one of its own worst enemies," because of its populist nature of the democratic politics that seemed to point towards peace and freedom, rather than conflict. Why has the promise of democracy leading to a more stable worldwide peace seemingly inevitably become "clouded with the danger of war?" (Snyder 2000: 21)
In another section of Snyder's book, the author states that "the transition to democratic politics is meanwhile [still] creating fertile conditions for nationalism and ethnic conflict, which not only raises the…
However, this valuation of the individual must be for all individuals for this world democratic peace to ensue. In other words, new democracies must be rights-based rather than purely populist and ethnically based, otherwise an 'us vs. them' ethnic ideology will lead to warfare. In an ethnic democracy, the security of one's ethnic state becomes based in the stamping out of all ethnic groups, groups who were historically, previously opposed to one's own ethnic identity. What is called upon is not a naive liberal faith in the value of a democracy, but an intelligent understanding of the complications of democracy, a belief in a rights-based system with a questioning eye upon simple ethnic majority populism. (Snyder 2000: 16-17)
Snyder and Dahl's analysis is so cogent because their words explain why democracy does not automatically produce a "democratic peace," only a rights-based "civic democracy" as distinguished from an "ethnic democracy" can do so. (Snyder 2000: 353) In contrast, ethnic democracies undermine a democratic peace because they "deactivate the mechanisms that keep relations between democracies peaceful," in other words for ethnically-based democratic movements and states, the individual's rights is only valued if that individual is part of a specific ethnic frame of reference. Rather than civic or rights-based and individualistic liberal democracies, when democracies evolve in an ethnic-based conflict, they are not more likely to be at peace with one another. Instead, contending rival ethnic democracies are more likely to be at war with one another, reviving ancient hatreds. They are additionally more likely to have a perceived stake in the ethnic conflicts of wars outside their borders.
Synder and Dahl's analysis should not be read as a simply validation of the United States liberal political system, after all the U.S. is hardly free of inter-ethnic conflicts of its own. Instead, their books are intended as warnings to makers of United States policy who may have been too quick in the past to support movements simply because they are democratic, without looking into the specific ethnic tensions of various regions and regional movements. Only through a specific understanding of different country's ancient histories, histories that often stretch far back beyond that of the United State's own conception, can a truly democratic and peaceful world be orchestrated by the stable democracies of the current world order.
Brazilian exporters have diversified trading partners.
The emerging economies have come to the rescue of world leading economies with their financial bailouts. This they have done on condition that the International Monetary Fund (IMF) increases their voting share by around 6%. This is an indication that emerging economies are now demanding even greater share power. The United States spirited objection to joining IMF bail out fund characterized by the Congress increased embrace of isolationist economic policies is an indication that the U.S. is no longer a superpower as people initially believed. In fact, its share of global GDP which was 25% in 1980 declined to 19% in 2011 (Sachs, 2012). It is projected to hit a record low of 18% in 2017. By this time, China shall have overtaken the United States economy in absolute size.
With the emergence of BICS and smaller powers like Nigeria and Turkey we no…
Mansfield, E.D. (1993). Concentration, Polarity, and the Distribution of Power. International Studies Quarterly, 37 (1), 105 -- 128.
Peral, L. (2009). Global Security in a Multipolar world. Paris: European Union Institute of Security Studies.
Sachs, J.D. (2012). The Challenges of a Multipolar World. Retrieved from http://www.social -
It is because of this that Hinduism has become as powerful now as it has ever been (Hopfe and oodward 77-113).
Among the most powerful religions of the world, comes Buddhism. Its great history is one that makes this spiritual belief one that has withstood time. Not only is its origination in one of the most populated countries of the world, but the powerful influence that it has had on other religions and on the political institutions from which some nations base their governments, it has become clear that Buddhism, just as Christianity and Islam have become, is a great powerful influence on the insurgence of political atmospheres, and extremists views (Hopfe and oodward 134-155).
Buddhism is most closely associated with peaceful teachings and non-violent approaches to everyday issues. Because of this great belief in that everything can be resolved through peaceful means, governments have chosen to also adapt…
Hopfe, Lewis M. & Woodward, Mark R. Religions of the World. 11th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009. Print.
This is the risk countries take by entering the world economy.
China is an emerging economic power in the world. This has come about due to the enormous market there -- almost two billion people -- and their gradual movement into the global economy. China, Malaysia, and Singapore are all entering the last stage of economic development and much of their success has been a result of foreign direct investment. "Foreign direct investment has played an important role in many -- but not all -- of the most successful development stories in countries such as Singapore and Malaysia, and even China," (Stiglitz 67). Advocates of the world economy suggest that the third world nations in sub-Saharan Africa and Central America follow these examples.
However, the relative "success" of the second world nations has come about through cooperation with tyrannical governments and the exploitation of the working class. By making a…
Bush, George W. "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." Speeches delivered September 17 and June 1, 2002.
Downing, David. Capitalism: Political and Economic Systems. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2003.
Friedman, Thomas L. The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
Greenspan, Alan. "Banking in a Global World." Chicago: Delivered to the Conference on Bank Structure and Competition, May 6, 2004.
" Military History. [online]
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Snell, J.L. (1962). The Outbreak of the Second World War: Design or Blunder? Boston D.C.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education esearch, 6(1), p. 117.
Carr, p. 117.
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hickman, K. (2012). "World War II Europe: The oad to War." Military History. [online] available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.
Hickman, p. 1.
Corum, J.S. (2004, Summer). "The Luftwaffe and Its Allied Air Forces in World War II: Parallel War and the Failure of Strategic and Economic Cooperation." Air Power History, 51(2), p. 4.
Corum, p. 4.
Corum, p. 5.
Bassett, .L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…
Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics, from the Great
War to the War on Terror." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(3), 281-289.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic
Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), 117-121.
Most of the states in the world had cheerfully acknowledged the falling of the Communist block. The eastern European countries for example had felt that they've been liberated from the unjust regime. The western countries had regarded the end of the communism spreading across the world as a benefit, for they would have to fear less a potential attack from the Soviets.
In the present there is much controversy around the world's international system with its polarity being hard to identify. There are people claiming the world is ruled on all levels by the U.S. after the fall of the communist block and that we have a unipolar system. However, there are also people believing that the international system is, in fact, multipolar, with the world depending on more than four states and the superpowers never having been true rulers of the world.
Ari, Tayyar. At the CROSSROADS…
Ari, Tayyar. At the CROSSROADS of SYSTEMIC TRANSFORMATION: SECURITY or DEMOCRACY?
Lebow, Ned. Risse-Kappen, Thomas. International Relations Theory and the End of the Cold War. Columbia University Press, 1995.
World War II (WWII) Transformed the United States Domestically
World War II was a global military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was the most tragic war in human history. It started in 1939 as a European conflict between Germany and an Anglo-French coalition but eventually grew to include most of the nations of the world. It ended in 1945, leaving a new world that was dominated by the United States and the U.S.S.R.
When the United States became involved with World War II, there were immediate and long-term changes in virtually every aspect of American life. Millions of men and women joined the military and saw areas of the world they would likely never have seen on their own. The labor demands of war industries caused millions more Americans to relocate, mainly to the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts, where most defense plants were located.…
Encarta. World War. Encyclopedia Article. Retrieved from the Internet at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563737/World_War_II.html.
Sage, Henry. (March 23, 2004). The Postwar United States. The Library of Congress. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.nv.cc.va.us/home/nvsageh/Hist122/topics/PostWorldWarIIDom.htm.
Stravelli, Gloria. (March, 2004). In unexpected ways WWII changed women's lives: Role in war effort helped shift societal perceptions and expectations. New Jersey: The Hub.
The New Georgia Encyclopedia. (2004). Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/ArticlePrintable.jsp?id=h-2716 .
The U.S. emerged as a leading superpower and the sole nuclear power in the world, determined to play a leading role in international politics. The post-Second World War era saw the start of a prolonged Cold War in which the U.S. competed for political domination around the world with Soviet Communism until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990. The Second World War also helped the country to overcome the economic depression of the 1930s as its wartime industrial production stimulated its economy.
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew ockwell.com. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html
Keylor, William . (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
Steiner, Z. (2001). 2 the…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew Rockwell.com. Retrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html
Keylor, William R. (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
politics is and what it is not. Some definitions of politics are examined. The applications of politics in society are explored. The paper also looks at some of the things that are not politics, and examines why these things are not politics. The role of politics is distinguished from the role of government, and the reasons for this are looked at more closely.
This is a paper written in Harvard style that is actually three five page essays in one. These three essays all answer specific questions about politics, particularly the theories of elitism and pluralism.
What is Politics?
Many people believe that politics is simply the workings of the government, the ins and outs of the daily process of making, enforcing, and interpreting the laws. This is certainly one aspect of politics. However, politics encompasses so much more than just this. Politics also takes into account the structures of…
Dahl, R., "Pluralism revisited," Comparative Politics, 10, (1978)
Dunleavy, Patrick and O'Leary, Brendan, Theories of the State, (London, Macmillan, 1987). Chapters 2 and 6.
Schwarzmantel, J., The State in Contemporary Society (Harvester, 1994). Chapter 3
political, social and economical processes of the first century AD, it's important to distinguish main superpower, which dictated its values and spread its influence on other nations and ethnic groups. If to look on the problem from these perspective the problems that arose from such interaction will become obvious and clear. That's why we have to describe the processes that took place in the oman Empire, the only super state on the world's map of that epoch.
At the beginning of the first century the power of oman empire had expended over the territories of Mediterranean region: omans had conquered Britain, Spain in the West and reached eastern borders of their possessions on the territories of modern Armenia, Northern Mesopotamia in the East, omania in the North and Sarah in the South. oman emperors starting from Julius Caesar expanded and empowered oman Empire, its territories, increased army and turned into…
Craig, Albert M. Heritage of World Civilizations, Combined Volume (6th Edition) Prentice Hall; 6th edition 2002
Totalitarianism's Controversial Notions
The human social animal's capacity for collective tyranny and violence in Hannah Arendt's seminal work
Since the publication of her 1951 work on The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt has received much criticism as a philosopher and an historian for her theory of the human, historical development of notions of society or what Arendt terms 'the social.' From the social organizations of the salon, which were loose and diffuse, and based on ideological alliances, human beings evolved in their organization, she suggests, to alliances upon material interests in the forms of classes. But the nationalist and imperialist movements of the 19th century perverted these previous mental and material social alliances in history, to create the manifestation of 'the masses' that enabled totalitarianism to take hold in Germany, Russia, and other areas of the world.
Critical to Arendt's conception of totalitarianism is her notion of the…
Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Harcourt and Brace, 1951.
Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. U of Chicago Press, 1998. Originally Published 1958.
Jerry H. Bentley, the word "world history" has different meanings for different societies. While some may define it as a broad analysis of the whole world's history, others believe it implies foreign history. But, this word doesn't actually correspond to either definition. It denotes historical learning which undertakes an overt comparison of experiences beyond individual societal boundaries or studies interactions among individuals hailing from diverse communities or studies broad historical processes and trends which extend beyond discrete communities. Besides highlighting cross-cultural dealings in a historical context, one chief concern of the major part of modern world history deals with constructing alternative approaches to the established Eurocentric perspectives of history.[footnoteRef:1] [1:. Jerry H. Bentley, A Companion to Western Historical Thought, ed. Lloyd Kramer and Sarah Maza (Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 2002), 393.]
Ever since historical events began to be documented, the element of world history was apparent. The ancient world lacked access…
politics full concern environment, related oil auto industry. There a number ethical considerations arise issues. Please answer questions: Some propose concerns alleviated cars limited increased gasoline taxes-- gas expensive,, a beneficial -product, improve environment.
aising the price of fuel does appear to cut down on the amount of miles consumers drive. Even the CEO of General Motors has said: "People will start buying more Cruzes and they will start buying less Suburbans" with a higher gas tax (Blanco 2010). In Europe, for example, consumers are far more apt to use public transportation because of the high price of gas. High gas prices encourage consumers to purchase more fuel-efficient vehicles. The demand for hybrids increased as the price of gas increased. However, because gas, much like food, is a necessity for most consumers, a tax upon gas is disproportionately shouldered by the poor. Members of the poorer and working…
Blanco, Sebastian. (2010). CEO Akerson says higher gas tax would be good for environment.
Auto Blog. Retrieved:
Oster, Shari. (2011). World's top polluter emerges as green-technology leader.
The survival of Jordanian monarchy is determined by its capability to capture power and regulate over the political process, its efficacy in stabilising the negative forces of trans-national ideologies on the domestic arena between the early 1950s and the early 1970s coupled with the coming out of a feeling of loyalty to the state and nationhood etc. (Salloukh, 1996)
King Hussein is magnanimous than the Jordan itself. The great talent of Hussein was his diplomacy in dealing with the people that are antagonistic to one another mercilessly and fundamentally that he approved wholly with them. Normally, the people were never aware of the impossibility of the agreement due to his effectiveness in dealing. The diplomacy is not normally related to integrity but in case of Hussein it was not true. (Foster, 1999) the efforts of King Hussein in prevailing peace in the region were internationally acclaimed. (Aquino, 2002) the stability…
Allman, T.D. (1974) in Defense of Monarchy from J.J. Ray (Ed.) "Conservatism as Heresy." Sydney: A.N.Z. Book Co.
Aquino, Nucha. (2002) "The World's Monarchy" Retrieved at http://fun-articles.elaguna.net/culture/worlds_monarchy.htm. Accessed on 21 November, 2004
Burns, John. F. (June 28, 1999) Heir to Morocco's Throne Is Playing a Larger Role. The New York Times Company. Retrieved at http://home1.gte.net/eskandar/kinghassan.html. Accessed on 21 November, 2004
Clarke, L. (9 April, 1999) "Abdullah's Jordan: Assessing the First Two Months" the Estimate. Volume: 11; No: 8; pp: 27-35
Kafka, he Wannsee Conference, And Shadows and Fog
Kafka's protagonist of "he Metamorphosis," Gregor Samsa, perfectly embodies the totalitarian mindset in the sense that he is colonized by the desires of his employer, his family, and even the room in which he lives to the point that he can hardly think for himself. he room in which Samsa dwells is so small; the man becomes a virtual prisoner of its confines. Samsa turns into an insect seemingly as a result of the limiting pressures of his physical space and cramped social and emotional life. In fact, his life is so confining, he can only think of returning to the office, even after becoming transformed into a huge and hideous insect.
Over the course of the short story by Kafka, Gregor's own family rejects him after his physical alteration, despite the fact that Gregor has long been giving up his own…
The film shows the discussions that caused the Nazi officers to arrive at the exact particulars of settling the 'final solution' of the so-called Jewish question or problem of living space in Europe, as well as of Jewish culture. At the conference depicted in the film, which actually took place, the 'hothouse' nature of the discussion of the officers, according to the apparent theory of the director of the film regarding totalitarianism, created the necessary 'freedom' for the Nazi officials at the conference to discuss the removal of Jews from every sphere of life of the German people and the expulsion of the Jews from the supposed righful European living space of the Ayran German people. Because everyone at the conference agreed, in totalitarian lockstep and mind that Jews were inferior, this horrifying decision became feasible to the Nazi's mindset.
Over the course of the film, the ability to be the most restrictive in terms of Jewish life becomes a kind of competition for the Nazi officers, as they compare who enacted legislation to prohibit Jews from owning canaries, with those who engage in the most bloody anti-Semitic rherotic. Before the viewers' eyes, with beautiful scenery in the background, the totalitarian mindset takes hold, and measures about the concept of the deportation, labor use, and extermination of the Jews.
The much earlier 1955 film "Night and Fog" enacts as a similar depiction of the totalitarian mindset after the fact. The film is a documentary of the Holocaust crafted by Alain Resnais. Less than a decade after the end of the war, it interposes archival clips from the concentration camps with denials of the camps' existence. Under totalitarianism, it suggests, even as obvious a truth as the Final Solution can be ignored, as Gregor Samsa ignored his limited life, and as the Nazi officials as a collective denied their individual humanity.
.....music?" is similar to the question "what is art?" As the author points out, talking about music is actually an ethnocentric activity because historically, most cultures did not think of their own music as "music," just as they might not have considered their art as "art." In the 21st century, most cultures are familiar with the concept of "music," as well as the concept of "art." However, music has historically been an extension of human culture and even religious activity and not viewed as being something that is distinct from religion and society. Even when musical traditions are deep, historical, and sophisticated, the methods used to analyze music do have Western components. Therefore, it may be important to consider different ways of analyzing musical features, concepts, and structures.
In this article, the author presents a definition of music divided into five parts. The first is that "all music is sound,"…
But the real world was a whole and perfect entity." (Philosophy Is a Way of Life)
The theory of dualism and its implications in term ethics and politics can be derived from the following concise but insightful analysis.
A dualistic view of reality understands there to be two (thus dualism) levels of existence. The top level... is ultimate reality, and consists of ideas, such as truth, beauty, goodness, justice, perfection. In other words, the ultimate reality is non-corporeal, or non-physical. It is the level of spirit and deity. The lower level is the physical world which in which we live. It is the opposite of ultimate reality, thus it is not real in the sense that it is not ultimate. It contains the imperfect physical manifestations of the ideas that exist in the perfect plane, so by definition it is characterized by falsehood, ugliness, evil, injustice, imperfection.
Allen DG. (2006) Whiteness and difference in nursing. Nurs Philos. 7(2):65-78. Bratcher D. Body and Soul. Greek and Hebraic Tensions in Scripture: Thoughts on the Di-/Trichotomous Debate. Retrieved July 19, 2008, at http://www.cresourcei.org/bodysoul.html
Chadwick, Henry. (1984) Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition:
Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Engebretson, Joan.(2002) Hands-on: The persistent metaphor in nursing.
Middle East comprises a diverse group of regions, countries, peoples, customs, and cultures. On the one hand, it is daunting to offer a semester-long course that treats all Middle Eastern issues with clarity and fairness. The risk of oversimplification, however, is outweighed by the risk of ignorance. This course will explore the Middle East with as much depth and breadth as possible, stimulating student thought on political, social, religious, historical, ethnographic, and economic issues related to the region. Included in the course rubric will be current events ranging from gender issues to terrorism. In between the heavier topics, lighter lessons on local customs, culture, music, and food will reveal the ordinariness of daily life in the part of the world we call the Middle East.
Islam will be covered from a multidisciplinary perspective, allowing for nuanced and rich class discussions about the unique interface between politics, religion, and social norms.…
Anderson, Lisa. "Demystifying the Arab Spring." PDF Available: http://www.ssrresourcecentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Anderson-Demystifying-the-Arab-Spring.pdf
Henry, Clement Moore and Springborg, Robert. Globalization and the Politics of Development in the Middle East. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Kuran, Timur. "The Islamic Commercial Crisis: Institutional Roots of Economic Underdevelopment in the Middle East." The Journal of Economic History (2003), 63(2).
Examining & Weighing Community Participation
Community means more than people who live in proximity and occupy the same relative environment. Community, when in reference to terms such as community participation and community engagement, means several orders of interaction and motivation. People who participate in their communities are internally motivated. They care about the community socially, culturally, environmentally, economically, and otherwise; their motivation extends into action that supports their belief in their community. Community participation in many parts of the world may be the best and fastest ways for communities to rectify their own problems and establish firm ties with public administration and government.
Bureaucracy, administration, politics, and other factors often interfere with communities receiving the assistance or allocation of resources necessary to solve a problem. They may be issues, sociological ones for example, that may only find firm resolution if it is generated and executed by the community…
Baiocchi, G. 1999, 'Participation, Activism, and Politics: The Porto Alegre Experiment and Deliberative Democratic Theory.' University of Wisconsin: Madison.
Bovaird, T. 2007, 'Beyond Engagement and Participation: User and Community Coproduction of Public Services.' Public Administration Review, September/October, 846 -- 860.
Carr, D.S., & Halvorsen, K. 2001, 'An Evaluation of Three Democratic, Community-Based Approaches to Citizen Participation: Surveys, Conversation With Community Groups, and Community Dinners.' Society and Natural Resources, vol. 14, 107 -- 126.
Cornwall, A., & Coelho, V.S.P. (eds) 2004, 'New Democratic Spaces?' Institute of Development Studies Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 2, 1 -- 100.
I do not feel that the state should be allowed to draft marriage terms that do not adequately protect the liberty and equality of each spouse. I believe that cultures of the world are slowing moving towards a global culture that embraces liberty and equality through globalization and advances of information technologies. In fact, this point seems evident in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 16 of this document states (the United Nations, N.d.):
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) the family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection…
Exploring Constitutional Conflicts. (N.d.). The Right to Marry. Retrieved from Exploring Constitutional Conflicts: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/righttomarry.htm
The United Nations. (N.d.). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved from the United Nations: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml
Younus, F. (2013, January 28). Why Ban Cousin Marriages? Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/faheem-younus/why-ban-cousin-marriages_b_2567162.html
Government: An Unviable Solution to a Complex Need
According to Anne-Marie Slaughter, "world government is both infeasible and undesirable," an assertion that is supported by the historical record as well as contemporary experiences. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine why a world government is unviable, as well as the differences between a world government and global governance. A discussion concerning how these concepts relate to world order, globalization, international integration and the rise of new actors is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
Problems with a World Government
On the one hand, people need global institutions in an increasingly globalized marketplace. For instance, according to Slaughter, "Peoples and their governments around the world need global institutions to solve collective problems that can only be addressed on a global scale. They must be able to make and enforce global…
Rachman, Gideon. 2008, December 8. "And now for a world government." Financial
Times.com. [online] available: http://ft.com .
Slaughter, Anne-Marie. 2005. "Government Networks, World Order and the L20." In Reforming
from the Top: A Leaders' 20 Summit. 2005. John English, Ramesh Thakur & Andrew F.
Neo-fundamentalism's pan-Islamic ideology has a profound appeal only for such displaced Muslim ethnic groups, as is also evidenced in Palestinian radical mobilization in such groups as Hamas.
But for Algerian Muslims living happily in Algiers, in comparison, this is not often the case. In fact, the author points to the behavior of the Algerians during their last election, noting that many nationals were openly calling for greater democratization in the street. They did not see this as incompatible with an Islamic state, necessarily, because they were more secure in their fused national and Islamic identity, and did not need neo-fundamentalist Islam to be the main source of their status and identity. The more secure, nationalistic, and unified the Islamic populace, the less appeal neo-fundamentalism's pan-Islamic ideology has, while "deterritorialism" has produced the transformation of Islamic conservatism into terrorist, radical Islam united across borders, as migrant and alienated Islamic ethnicities strive…
Government & Politics
The arguments contrast two observations. Which of them is the best and why? Give a detailed and substantial response.
Charles eard and John Roche had differing views regarding the American constitution as they hailed from different background. Due to their diverse backgrounds, they have their own views regarding American constitution. A deep study of both authors shows that, John Roche is an optimist and a reformer, while Charles eard attempts to expose the inner intentions of the founding fathers (Thesis Statement, 2014). oth authors give interesting insight into the minds of the founding fathers with rock solid evidence. eard (1913) proposes that founding fathers had huge properties to protect while Roche (1961) argues that constitution united the nation quite effectively.
Those penning the constitution had sold commercial and financial interest of their own (p. 36)
The authors of the constitution were bent on penning a…
Berg, S. (2012). The Founding Fathers and the Constitutional Struggle over Centralized Power. Baltimore County: University of Maryland. Retrieved from: http://www.umbc.edu/che/tahlessons/pdf/The_Founding_Fathers_and_the_Constitutional_Struggle_PF.pdf
Dalleva, N. (2010, August 30). An Analysis Of John Roche's Essay "A Reform Caucus in Action." Retrieved from Essencearticles.com: http://www.essencearticles.com/book-reviews-politics/an-analysis-of-john-roches-essay-a-reform-caucus-in-action
Dalleva, N. (2010, September 15). Education. Retrieved from articlesfactory.com: http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/education/an-analysis-of-john-roches-essay.html
Folsom, B. (2009, June 11). The Freeman. Retrieved from Fee.com: http://www.fee.org/the_freeman/detail/the-founders-the-constitution-and-the-historians
public sphere and the culture industry: has the former been fundamentally corrupted through the latter? Are there new possibilities that the culture industry has to offer politics?
The public sphere of artistic discourse is one in which, according to Theodor Adorno, the culture industry sells its commodity goods that masquerade as truth and art. here the media and world of art should speak to a kind of anti-structured and individualistic discourse, according to Adorno, allowing the words of the artist to rally against the common and stereotyped patterns that are tempting for citizens to fall into, instead the culture industry merely reaffirms and panders to these preexisting tropes, and makes viewers feel comfortable with what they consider to be the truth, although these truths are often of a nature that 'America is good,' or 'America is beautiful.' Adorno's student Habermas, although less skeptical of the Enlightenment than his founding teacher,…
Adorno, Theodore. "The Culture Industry Reconsidered" In Critical Theory and Society. Edited by Bronner and Kellner.
Habermas, P. "The Public Sphere." In Critical Theory and Society. Edited by Bronner and Kellner.
"Hearts and Minds." Directed by Peter Davis. 1974
1). However, taking advantage of these opportunities require a CIO to obtain a new way of thinking. The business must move from an orientation that once was centered on technology to one centered around business processes (Hammer, p.1). The process concept must become the foundation of a whole series of managerial innovations that are transforming how businesses are organized, managed, and operated (Hammer, p.2). While there continues to be advantages in the Information Technology (IT) field, it suffers as well. Many IT professionals and managers are still inexperienced in change management, which is a key component to process management. They tend to focus more on the area of technology, which offers IT professionals a comfort zone considering this is an area that proves to be more familiar than others are (Hammer, p.3). Hammer proceeded to state that It executives are finding that an effective way to build credibility is by…
Hammer, M. (2005, August 1). CIO Evolution. CIO Magazine, 2005,August., pp. 1-4. Retrieved 07/21/2005, at http://www.cio.com/archive/080105/keynote.html
Matthews, C. (2005, May 1). Staff Development. CIO Magazine, 2005,March, pp. 1-6. Retrieved 07/31/05, at http://www.cio.com/archive/030105/forum.html
Prewitt, E. (2004, October 1). How to Succeed Under Pressure. CIO Magazine, 2004,Oct, pp.1-6. Retrieved 07/31/05, at http://www.cio.com/archive/100104/overview.html
One of the reasons for the formation of the National Organization for Women was the fact that, despite legislation like the Equal Pay Act of 1963, there were still many disparities in the way women were treated both in the halls of government and the offices and boardrooms of the corporate world. his Act was passed by Congress in order to ensure the equality of wages based on gender, but many women activists were angered by the fact that the legislation was not really enforced, and companies often got away with disparities in pay and even in hiring practices. itle VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was even more sweeping in its condemnation of discriminatory practices based on gender in many matters of business, including employment, wages, banking decisions, etc. yet despite such hard-won legislation, the issue of gender equality in this country is still far from over.…
The National Woman Suffrage Association was formed in 1869, with a focus on achieving a constitutional amendment granting women in the United States the right to vote. The American Woman Suffrage Association was formed alter in that same year, and its efforts were directed at achieving individual state amendments or laws allowing women to vote -- a tactic that would prove more successful for several decades. In 1913, however, here still had not been a significant amount of progress made, and a more radical group was formed. The Congressional Union for Women's Suffrage was more vocal in their fight, but also slighted women of color as a means of retaining popularity in the South. The struggle continues with such organizations as the National Organization for Women, which was founded in the 1960s in an effort to establish true equality and freedom from discrimination for women.
One of the reasons for the formation of the National Organization for Women was the fact that, despite legislation like the Equal Pay Act of 1963, there were still many disparities in the way women were treated both in the halls of government and the offices and boardrooms of the corporate world. This Act was passed by Congress in order to ensure the equality of wages based on gender, but many women activists were angered by the fact that the legislation was not really enforced, and companies often got away with disparities in pay and even in hiring practices. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was even more sweeping in its condemnation of discriminatory practices based on gender in many matters of business, including employment, wages, banking decisions, etc. yet despite such hard-won legislation, the issue of gender equality in this country is still far from over.
The first woman was elected to Congress in 1917, and the struggle for equality within the government itself has been in full force ever since. Currently, there are seventeen female U.S. Senators and seventy-four women sated in the House of Representatives, making for the highest number of women ever serving in the U.S. Congress in the nation's history. Nancy Pelosi is also the first female Speaker of the House, a very powerful political position (and second to the Vice President in terms of ascension to the Presidency). Still, given that these numbers represent far less than half of the available Congressional seats, it is clear that equality is not really a state that has been reached in terms of gender. The struggle for women's rights and equality continues with more political force today, however, thanks to the work of those in the past.
There are significantly more trade agreements in the world than I would have predicted. A list of final agreements between the United States and individual countries indicates that the United States alone has trade agreements with nations ranging from Argentina to Zimbabwe, and an impressive number of other countries, including Canada, Brazil, Taiwan, ussia, Mongolia, Korea, Jordan, and Ghana (Foreign Agricultural Service). Other countries have similarly large numbers of agreements (Government of Alberta). Trade agreements in the future are likely to become more prominent, given the increasing pressures of globalization. As such, countries with reciprocal trade agreements are likely to be more economically viable than those that tend to isolate themselves from trade in an increasingly interdependent world.
International politics are linked closely to international trade. Often, it is difficult to distinguish whether politics or trade takes the lead in global affairs. As an example, many Western countries…
Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Trade Agreements. FAS Online. Last modified: Wednesday, May 12, 2004. 04 June 2004. http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/agreements.html
Government of Alberta. Free Trade Agreements: Free Trade Agreements and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development. 04 June 2004. http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/psc8323?opendocument
U.S. Canada Partnership for Growth. The Lumber Tariff Dispute - Let's Work it Out. 04 June 2004. http://www.partnershipforgrowth.org
Language, Cultural Narrative, Symbols, and Myths Used for Political Purposes in the "ar on Terrorism" Today
In the initial years of the 21st century, the United States has entered a new heyday of manipulative language use, especially by high-level post 9-11 politicians and political operators. Increasingly, for example, metaphor, myth, cultural narrative and storytelling (for often distracting, obfuscating, or even downright nefarious purposes) by high-level politicians and their associates, is used to construct politically advantageous "truths," usually out of thin air. Moreover, in post-9-11 America, these sometimes even humorously hyperbolic, supposedly patriotically-inspired phrases and slogans are remarkably successful, in their aim convincing many Americans to think, act and believe in particular "appropriate" or "patriotic" ways. In fact, it increasingly seems that manipulative metaphorical or hyperbolic language is employed, with frequent effectiveness, to draw verbal distinctions between supposedly "patriotic" Americans (those who still favor the war with Iraq) and "unpatriotic" ones…
Brown, Drew, and Lisa Fadel. "U.S. General's Remarks Contradict Cheney on Strength of Insurgency. Knight Ridder Newspapers. Jun. 23, 2005.
Retrieved August 15, 2005, from: .
'Bush Administration Orwellian Logic." Center for Media and Democracy. March 23, 2005. Retrieved August 14, 2005, from: www.sourcewatch.org/index.php
Terror, Imperialism, And Totalitarianism
Imperialism is defined in the abstract, quite often, as the ideology of 'carrying the white man's burden,' in other words, of carrying the white cultural burden of civilization to the native or darker peoples of the world. But in practice, imperialism often has a less lofty goal and terror rather than teaching is the method used to enforce imperialism's 'laws' and values of social and political control. In the past, such as in French-controlled Algiers, depicted in the 1965 film directed by Pontecorvo "The Battle of Algiers," imperialism is often enforced through a series of dominating policies or military actions by a stronger European nation. One country seeks to exert its control over another country or territory, often to gain an economic or political advantage in a particular region.
In the film, the Algerian people fight long and hard to wrest control over their own territory…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. 1958.
"Battle of Algiers." Directed by Pontecorvo. 1965.
Camus, Alberto. "Caligula." 1936.
"The Great Dictator." Directed by Charlie Chaplin. 1940.
The Al-Aqsa Intifadah (which began, I believe, in about 2000 when the Camp David talks were then stalling) was begun by PLO and still exists today (much less actively than from about 2000 to about 2004, roughly) under the PLO umbrella.
3) Democratic nations including Great Britain and the United States have long called for democratic elections in Palestine. Now that Hamas was the unexpected winner of the first elections, should it be recognized by the United States?
No; at least not officially, since Hamas has been from its 1987 outset, and clearly is today, an overtly, aggressively and ruthlessly terrorist organization recognized internationally as such. Still, Hamas should definitely be talked to by the United States, as horrendous a prospect as that might well seem (and is). And unfortunately, it has become almost risible in today's world that Great Britain or the United States could still even semi-seriously think…
discrimination in U.S.
There are people still alive today who remember Jim Crow laws. Half a century ago, segregation of drinking fountains, public restrooms, public buses, and public schools was still legal. Fifty years ago blacks in many states could not make a living except to work in jobs that resembled slavery in their wages and work conditions. The Civil Rights movement ostensibly changed everything. Yet decades of political correctness and affirmative action have all but glossed over the deeply rooted problems of racism and other forms of injustice evident in the daily lives of many Americans. African-Americans are also not the only minority group to suffer from systematic discrimination. Half of all Americans -- black, white, rich poor -- experience daily discrimination at home and in the workplace. Less than a hundred years ago, women could not even vote. Suffrage created twice as many voters and like the Civil…
Second orld ar, Japan was a traditional absolute monarchy but since the adoption of a new constitution in 1946, Japan has become a constitutional monarchy in which the emperor serves as symbolic head of state and the legislature or Diet is parliamentary in nature. The Constitution of Japan expressly outlines the role of the emperor as "symbol of the state and of the unity of the people," (cited by Michigan State University 1). The Emperor serves in ceremonial functions such as the awarding of special honors and providing the ceremonial appointments of the Prime Minister and Supreme Court judges. Emperor Akihito is the reigning monarch; successors are hereditary.
Therefore, Japan possesses a similar system to the one used by Britain and its commonwealth countries. The current system of Japanese government was actually established during the Allied occupation of Japan in 1946 ("Government" 1). According to the Consulate-General of Japan in…
"Background: Politics and Political Campaigns in Japan." PBS: POV. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/pov/campaign/campaign_background.php
Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco. "Government/Political System." Retrieved online: http://www.sf.us.emb-japan.go.jp/en/e_m08_01_08.htm
Darlington, Roger. "A Short Guide to the Japanese Political System." 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.rogerdarlington.me.uk/Japanesepoliticalsystem.html
Goel, M. Lal. "Observations on Japanese Culture and Politics." Retrieved online: http://uwf.edu/lgoel/documents/AObservationsonJapaneseCulturePol.pdf
Political Framework of Islam
The Peninsula states of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, ahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Oman are under growing pressure from outspoken critics who use the language and authority of Islam in these overwhelmingly conservative Muslim societies to call for political and economic reform. The rise of a radically activist Islamic politics predates the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran, but Sunni and Shia Muslim radicals received significant boosts from the establishment of Islamic government in Tehran and, more recently, from the Gulf War in 1990-91.
Regional specialists from the government, the academic community, and the private sector debated the impact of radicalized Islamic politics on the regimes and U.S. interests in recent roundtables at the Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS). They agreed that Islamic radicals throughout the region have common perceptions of the causes of their societies' ills. These include dissatisfaction with ruling families that…
Mill take issue with the Puritans? Explain.
Famed government theoretician John Stuart Mill took great exception with the Puritans who traveled to the New orld in order to start a community based upon similar fanatical religious beliefs. The reason that he took such issue with the Puritans is that they used religion as a basis of government but worse than this they used that religious intolerance in order to oppress and marginalize others. The Puritans made their laws based upon the assertion that their restriction encouraged moral behavior, but in doing so they took away each person's right to make individual choices. Mill wrote, "ith respect to what is said of the necessity of protecting society from the bad example set to others by the vicious or the self-indulgent; it is true that bad example may have a pernicious effect, especially the example of doing wrong to others with impunity…
Douglass, Frederick. "Oration in Memory of Abraham Lincoln." N.p. n.d. Web. 18 March. 2013.
El-Shabazz, El-Hajj Malik (Malcolm X). "The Ballot or the Bullet." N.p. n.d. Web. 18 March.
Goldman, Emma. "Anarchism: What it Really Stands For." Print.