Aerobic and Anaerobic Training on the Performance of Female High School Soccer Players
The purpose of this study is to look at aerobic and anaerobic conditioning and exercise. Female soccer players are used for this study and the results of how well they do on specific tests are measured. The goal then becomes to see whether those that perform better on these tests are also better soccer players and to therefore conclude whether this type of training and exercise has an effect on the performance of female high school soccer players.
Since the researcher is a coach for a high school female soccer team, the ease with which this data can be collected and analyzed is significant. The importance of a study such as this should not be underestimated, as there are many athletes that could likely benefit from both aerobic and anaerobic exercise if it is found that there is a benefit for these female soccer players.
Logically, the results of this study can be extended to male high school soccer players, and to professional soccer players as well. It also has the potential to be extended to other sports where the players may also benefit from this type of exercise and activity.
Table of Contents
Background of the Study
Who am I as a teacher? .
How did I get to be that way?
How did I get here?
Teacher action research.
Purpose of the study
The research question
What are the issues and concerns?
Review of the Literature
Test #1 -- 1 mile run
Test #2 the coopers test
Test #3 40-yard sprint
Test #4 300-yard shuttle
Test #5 200-yard dash
Test #6 400-yard test
We should never let our fears hold us back from pursuing our hope"
-John F. Kennedy
Marple Newtown School District is a suburban Philadelphia school district in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, in a community of approximately 35,000 people, most of who are involved in business and the professions. There are approximately 3,500 students enrolled in grade K. through 12. Accelerated and advanced placement courses are offered in all academic areas. The academic curriculum of the district reflects the strength of traditional programs while meeting the changing needs of a technological society.
A variety of opportunities are available to students through elective courses, independent study programs, and a wide range of extra-curricular activities and athletics. There are accelerated courses in all disciplines and a comprehensive Special Education program for students who require special instruction.
Background of the Study
It is important to understand what is being studied here, and why. In order to do that, a question must first be asked. What are the Benefits of Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Programs? In simpler terms, this means producing energy with oxygen, or in the case of anaerobic exercise, producing energy without oxygen.
The working ability of a muscle depends on sufficient blood flow, oxygen, and nutrition intake. For an athlete to play at her top performance level she must be conditioned properly. The present day athlete has many variables that affect her performance, one of them being cardiovascular training. The metabolic pathways by which the body can produce Adenosine triosphate (ATP) include: the anaerobic (ATP-CP) energy system and the aerobic energy system (Ransone, 2003).
Adenosine triosphate (ATP), known as the energy currency or coin of the cell, transfers energy from chemical bonds to endergonic (energy absorbing) reactions within the cell. Energy is stored in the covalent bonds between phosphates, with the greatest amount of energy (approximately 7 kcal/mole) in the bond between the second and third phosphate groups. This covalent bond is known as a pyrophosphate bond. In simplified terms: adenosine diphosphate + inorganic phosphate + energy produces adenosine triphosphate (Farabee, 2001). These two training methods are very important and play a pivotal part in the success of any athlete.
Dating back to the middle 1970's, soccer has been an important part of my life. Either as a player or a coach I have been involved with numerous teams over the past 25 years, and there has been one constant with all of those teams, that is having players properly conditioned to perform at their peak performance level. As a player I often found myself not being in the condition I needed to attain at a particular moment; either I was able to run longer distances for a longer period and not able to sprint short distances or I was able to run short sprints, while longer distances were giving me difficulty.
I have found that in order to be a successful soccer player you need to be able to run long distances and short distances with equal consistency. As a coach, I expect my players to be able to jog for the duration of the game-with quick changes of speed and sudden change of direction-without feeling the effects of fatigue. This is known as aerobic and anaerobic conditioning. I realized that when I conditioned myself with this type of training I would be better prepared for the upcoming season and have a greater impact as a player on my team.
I have seen that, all other things being equal, the teams that are trained by this method are the teams that have the most success. I have incorporated this type of training program into my high school soccer team's program with the emphasis being on anaerobic and aerobic conditioning techniques for optimal performance.
Who am I as a teacher? I feel a certain compassion toward my students. I believe in a direct line of communication, which offers trust and honesty. I am available to listen and lend a helping hand whenever needed. I often develop various teaching strategies that will allow me to better educate my students. Whether it is incorporating Gardner's Multiple Intelligences or Kagen's Cooperative learning I strive to engage my students in learning.
I feel that my students would describe me as someone who is easy to approach and one who can relate to what is going on in their lives.
I believe that all my students should treat each other with the same respect, as they would like to be treated. "Do unto others as you would want done to you" this is a statement that I often verbalize to my students.
How did I get to be that way? I have always shared a great fondness for my past teachers. They are the ones who have given me the foundation and the knowledge to pursue life's challenges. From my first grade teacher, Miss. Berger to my Sixth grade teacher, Mr. Kriebel, to my ninth grade history teacher Mr. Lowden, to my 12th grade math teacher Mrs. Crowell. They are just a few of the many teachers that touched my life and have inspired me to be the role model I desire to be.
My parents have taught me many lessons and have helped me formulate my own opinions, which in turn have helped me formulate my own values and relay them to my students.
How did I get here? When I took the head coaching position at Marple Newtown High School I was anxious to implement a conditioning program that would benefit the student athlete throughout the season.
Having played the game of soccer for over 25 years I have been involved with many coaches who emphasize the importance of conditioning. Whether it is interval training, aerobic training or anaerobic training they all provided me with the baseline for implementing these practices as a coach.
I started to play competitive soccer at the age of 10 and was fortunate to play for the league championship my first year. Even though we lost the championship game on penalty kicks, I was driven to come back the next year and compete for the title again. This gave me the fire inside to compete at an early age. I continued to play club soccer for the next 12 years, which took me into my high school career at Lower Merion.
While at Lower Merion High School I was captain of the 1984 varsity soccer team that finished second in the state of Pennsylvania. After graduating from Lower Merion I was recruited to play soccer, under the watchful eye of Dr. Jay Martin, for Division III powerhouse Ohio Wesleyan University. Coach Martin had guided his teams to an astonishing 17 straight NCAA playoff appearances, more than any other coach in NCAA history up to that time. I learned a great deal about the training methods used for soccer players while under Coach Martin and have carried those training ideas into my coaching practices today.