Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.
6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)
In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.
The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts followed by stochastic recombination into the plant genome. Electroporation is thought to generate transient pores within the plasmalemma and facilitate transfer of the DNA inside the plant cell. Integration would subsequently be enriched or selected for in order to identify plants which have successfully incorporated the desired transgene.
7. If you were the lab technician hired by the Jerry Springer show, how could you determine which of the 4 possible men was the baby's biological father? (Include the theory and techniques involved in the identification.)
The identification of the baby's biological father can be accomplished through standard paternity testing. Paternity testing is a "genetic fingerprinting" method that involves PCR amplification of specific regions of the father's and child's DNA, followed by restriction enzyme digestion. Since all humans possess polymorphisms, they thus have restriction fragment length polymorphisms as a result of differing restriction sites within the DNA. Since the fragment lengths of the digested DNA is extremely variable depending on the individual restriction sites, the likelihood of having similar length fragments amongst individuals is low unless they are blood related. Therefore, half of the fragments of the father will be identical to the child's DNA fragments, since the child will possess half of the father's DNA. The other men will possess restriction fragments of varied lengths that are dissimilar to the child's fragments.
8. Imagine that you are planning to treat a patient with the antibiotic Kanamycin for his Staphylococcus aureus infection. Explain how you would determine both: A) the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Kanamycin for this infection and, B) the Therapeutic Index of Kanamycin. Include an explanation of why this information is important.
The minimum inhibitory concentration of kanamycin can be determined through standard agar dilution techniques or disk diffusion methods, wherein the concentration of antibiotics necessary for inhibition can be determined using S. aureus. The therapeutic index of kanamycin is the ratio between the median lethal dose and the effective dose. Both the MD50 and the ED50 are known values, since they are based on the population testing (of animals). It is important to know these values so that the physician can determine the appropriate amount of antibiotic to be administered, without placing the patient danger but also maintaining its effectiveness against the patient's S. aureus infection.
9. Analyze the rise of antibiotic-resistant infections including how bacteria become resistant, how someone gets an antibiotic-resistant superinfection and how our society encourages the development of antibiotic resistances.
The overuse of antibiotics has resulted in a rise in antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. When a population of bacteria are subjected to an antibiotic, depending on the size of the population, there is possibility that a certain contingency of bacteria will be resistant and will survive. These surviving bacteria will multiply and thus become more prevalent as a result. This process continues over and over until a substantial percentage of the bacteria are resistance to the antibiotic and it no longer becomes an effective treatment. The imprudent use of antibiotic within consumer products has contributed significantly to the development of antibiotic resistant strains. The societal belief that all bacteria must be destroyed in order to be clean has further contributed to this problem. An antibiotic-resistant superinfection is typically an infection which comes subsequent to a previous infection, wherein the bacteria have developed antibiotic-resistance as a result. One of the most common…