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Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.
6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)
In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.
The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts followed by stochastic recombination into the plant genome. Electroporation is thought to generate transient pores within the plasmalemma and facilitate transfer of the DNA inside the plant cell. Integration would subsequently be enriched or selected for in order to identify plants which have successfully incorporated the desired transgene.
7. If you were the lab technician hired by the Jerry Springer show, how could you determine which of the 4 possible men was the baby's biological father? (Include the theory and techniques involved in the identification.)
The identification of the baby's biological father can be accomplished through standard paternity testing. Paternity testing is a "genetic fingerprinting" method that involves PCR amplification of specific regions of the father's and child's DNA, followed by restriction enzyme digestion. Since all humans possess polymorphisms, they thus have restriction fragment length polymorphisms as a result of differing restriction sites within the DNA. Since the fragment lengths of the digested DNA is extremely variable depending on the individual restriction sites, the likelihood of having similar length fragments amongst individuals is low unless they are blood related. Therefore, half of the fragments of the father will be identical to the child's DNA fragments, since the child will possess half of the father's DNA. The other men will possess restriction fragments of varied lengths that are dissimilar to the child's fragments.
8. Imagine that you are planning to treat a patient with the antibiotic Kanamycin for his Staphylococcus aureus infection. Explain how you would determine both: A) the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Kanamycin for this infection and, B) the Therapeutic Index of Kanamycin. Include an explanation of why this information is important.
The minimum inhibitory concentration of kanamycin can be determined through standard agar dilution techniques or disk diffusion methods, wherein the concentration of antibiotics necessary for inhibition can be determined using S. aureus. The therapeutic index of kanamycin is the ratio between the median lethal dose and the effective dose. Both the MD50 and the ED50 are known values, since they are based on the population testing (of animals). It is important to know these values so that the physician can determine the appropriate amount of antibiotic to be administered, without placing the patient danger but also maintaining its effectiveness against the patient's S. aureus infection.
9. Analyze the rise of antibiotic-resistant infections including how bacteria become resistant, how someone gets an antibiotic-resistant superinfection and how our society encourages the development of antibiotic resistances.
The overuse of antibiotics has resulted in a rise in antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. When a population of bacteria are subjected to an antibiotic, depending on the size of the population, there is possibility that a certain contingency of bacteria will be resistant and will survive. These surviving bacteria will multiply and thus become more prevalent as a result. This process continues over and over until a substantial percentage of the bacteria are resistance to the antibiotic and it no longer becomes an effective treatment. The imprudent use of antibiotic within consumer products has contributed significantly to the development of antibiotic resistant strains. The societal belief that all bacteria must be destroyed in order to be clean has further contributed to this problem. An antibiotic-resistant superinfection is typically an infection which comes subsequent to a previous infection, wherein the bacteria have developed antibiotic-resistance as a result. One of the most common…[continue]
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animals -- whether they are carnivorous, omnivorous, or herbivorous -- depend upon the mechanisms of photosynthesis as a source of food. Carnivorous and omnivorous animals eat other animals as a source of food, but prey animals such as herbivores consume plants as a source of energy. And oxygen, the by-product of plant photosynthesis, enables all animal life on land and in the water to breathe. The chlorophylls and carotenoids,
Cellular respiration is the process whereby living cells gain energy through the oxidation of organic substances, which maybe, carbohydrates, proteins or fats. The preferred source of nutrient for most cells in the body is glucose. (Russell, 2004) The first step in cellular respiration is glycolysis. The end product in this stage of respiration for cells with mitochondria and an adequate supply of oxygen is Pyruvate. This is a series of ten
Therefore, each hemoglobin molecule can bind four oxygen molecules. In a healthy adult, the concentration of hemoglobin in blood is 150 g/L. Importantly, 1.34 ml of O2 can bind 1 g of hemoglobin. Each liter of blood can therefore carry 3 ml of dissolved CO2 and 201 ml hemoglobin-bound O2. The hemoglobin bound O2 does not contribute to arterial PO2. By contrast, CO2 is transported by the blood in three
Heart Disease Relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms
Photosynthesis is critical for the survival of all life on earth. The process of photosynthesis within plants consists of two processes, one which begins with energy from the sun in the form of visible light, and another which is light-independent and capture carbon dioxide for glucose production (Audesirk, Audesirk, & Byers, 2008). Plants are green because they absorb the red and blue wavelengths of visible light, thereby reflecting the color green
Muscular System Function of action potentials? The function of action potentials is to rapidly communicate information within a neuron, coupling the neurons "input," either synaptic, sensory or intrinsic stimulation with its output, neurotransmitter secretion. Cell electrical properties are the result of? Cells use atoms that have become charged as a result of gaining, or losing, valency shell electrons. Cells are wet circuits that operate in a salty, conductive, medium. How is the outside surface of
The primary byproduct is lactic acid, but butyric acid and acetone also occur. The theoretical final result of oxygen deprivation is death, due to the buildup of byproducts from anaerobic respiration and the severe reduction in energy production. In athletics, death from oxygen deprivation is rare, as it usually causes unconsiousness first, which immidiately ceases the strenuous activity that significantly contributes to inadaquate availability of oxygen. Athletes engage in carbohydrate