Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
She attempts to take a balanced, historical view and place both the hysteria and the views of the movement in an appropriate historical context.
Then, no one knew that the Soviet Union would eventually be defeated, as we do today -- but nor did leftists realize the full extent of Stalin's purges, and what would transpire after the Yalta Conference of 1945 in Eastern Europe. There was some vague plausibility to the idea of communists as spies intent upon creating a new form of government in the United States, just as there was the possibility in the mind of some leftists that the American media, after praising Russia when the U.S.S.R.'s help was necessary to defeat Hitler, was exaggerating the evils of Stalin in the eyes of many communists. Schrecker attempts to put the reader into the mindset of both communists and anti-communists of the period.
Anti-communism was not simply a product of mass, cultural hysteria. It also provided a practical foundation for many politicians' emerging careers. For example, as early as the smaller 'Red Scare' of 1919-20, J. Edgar Hoover made his name and solidified his institutional base within the Department of Justice by rounding up suspected foreign communists. Later, these ideologues and Hoover loyalists within the F.B.I would allow Hoover to conduct illegal wiretaps, and commit other civil liberties violations, with the power of the F.B.I. Richard Nixon first came to national prominence during the Alger Hiss trials. And McCarthy himself was a relatively obscure senator, until he began to wave his famous lists in the air. President Truman, despite the fact he held the highest office in the land, may have oversold the communist threat, to gain the necessary funds from the Republican-dominated congress for his postwar agenda and to prove himself worthy of the legacy of F.D.R.
The fear of seeming to ignore the communist threat created a kind of conspiracy of silence amongst civil libertarians, such as they existed, in American government. "An important element of the power of the modern state is its ability to set the political agenda and to define the crucial issues of the moment, through its actions as well as its words. During the early years of the cold war, the actions of the federal government helped to forge and legitimize the anti-Communist consensus that enabled most Americans to condone or participate in the serious violations of civil liberties that characterized the McCarthy era" (Chapter 4, p.20). Being a communist was never a crime in America, but the implicit charge of espionage was in the atmosphere, every time communism was mentioned.
Schrecker suggests that anti-communism is not merely a shameful era of American history, it also explains much of the social conformity of the 1950s. For example, "in the late 1950s a group of graduate students at the University of Chicago wanted to have a coffee vending machine installed outside the Physics Department for the convenience of people who worked there late at night. They started to circulate a petition to the Buildings and Grounds Department, but their colleagues refused to sign. They did not want to be associated with the allegedly radical students whose names were already on the document" (Chapter 16, p.92). This association may seem absurd. But the idea that political activities of any kind were suspect and potentially communist had kind of a paralyzing, stultifying effect upon American culture.
Schrecker also mourns how Truman abandoned FDR's New Deal, for fear of seeming to instate a socialist government in the United States. Unlike the other nations of Europe, such as Britain, hardly a bulwark of radicalism, America never created a national healthcare system, for fear of seeming communistic. Thus, in many ways, the effects of McCarthyism are still being felt today. The book ends with documents of the period that corroborate the author's characterization of the period as a sad time in American history. In the name of freedom, America encroached upon the civil liberties of its own populace. Moreover, by connecting McCarthyism to earlier purges of foreign influence on American soil, Schrecker gives the uncomfortable suggestion that the ideal of the melting pot and freedom exists in a kind of uncomfortable tension with xenophobia and intolerance, within the American psyche.
Schrecker, Ellen. The Age of McCarthyism. Boston: St. Martin's Press, 1994.[continue]
"Age Of Mccarthyism America Began" (2007, April 05) Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/age-of-mccarthyism-america-began-38832
"Age Of Mccarthyism America Began" 05 April 2007. Web.25 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/age-of-mccarthyism-america-began-38832>
"Age Of Mccarthyism America Began", 05 April 2007, Accessed.25 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/age-of-mccarthyism-america-began-38832
President Eisenhower and his diplomats also chose to stop talking about the defeat of communism and instead focus on peaceful measures aimed at ending the "Cold War." And as the years passed, any attack on liberal thought which echoed "McCarthyism" automatically implied a paranoid and dysfunctional view of reality and placed the attacker in jeopardy. Congressionally, most of the members, both conservative and liberal, Republican and Democrat, considered the
Cold War Prior to World War II, American foreign policy had been predicted upon isolationism. Afterward, determined to avoid the mistakes of the pre-war period, American leaders embarked upon an unprecedented era of worldwide commitments. This included entry into a number of alliances with foreign nations, interventions in foreign conflicts (either covertly or overtly) and an unlimited commitment to maintain the nation's military readiness. In doing so, they irrevocably changed this
First, American ideas about freedom have evolved over time, and this might be the natural model for freedom. To believe that an emerging democracy would immediately look like modern day America ignores the fact that freedom continues to evolve in America. Moreover, freedom is guaranteed by certain institutions, such as an independent judiciary, that generally develop over time. In Presidential address: American freedom in a global age, Eric Foner gives
This springs from the inherent flaw to the logical and practical underpinnings of the 2001 bill. Its twofold set of assumptions-that safety can only be preserved through the sacrifice of personal liberties and that terrorism is the product of bureaucratic obstacles to law-enforcement-both proceed from a faulty ideological seedling that far predates 9/11. In its forceful attainment of new authorities which have even further removed it from the province of democratic process, the United States government
Free Speech vs. Security Freedom of Speech and Homeland Security They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety. Benjamin Franklin, 1775 Freedom of speech is one of the essential cornerstones of democratic societies. Absent the right to free speech, democracy cannot function -- one might even say there is no democracy without freedom of speech. While most citizens and members of the governing body
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William Buckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the
Atomic Bomb and Nuclear Power - Blessing or Curse DANNENBERG, Germany, Nov 14 (Reuters) - A force of 15,000 police sealed roads in part of northern Germany on Wednesday in a crackdown against protesters trying to disrupt the final leg of a shipment of nuclear waste. The security operation, one of Germany's biggest in peacetime and likely to cost at least 50 million marks ($22.52 million), entered its third day with