In the sport of running, the distance someone goes will determine how they prepare and train. Those who run in the half and full marathons will often use various training methods to improve their endurance, strength and flexibility. These factors enable their bodies to perform more efficiently. To achieve these objectives requires establishing a training regime over years. This will be accomplished by looking at the sport / systems, pre / post tests, program design, prescribed activities and physiological factors. Together, these elements will illustrate the importance of this program for the athlete in reaching their goals. (Henderson, 2004)
Describe the sport/position, specific motions performed, musculature used and energy systems activities
Long distance running dates back to days of ancient Greece. This is when the marathon was started in 490 B.C. By a Greek soldier named Pheidippides. He ran 26.2 miles from the Battle of Marathon to Athens and announced their victory over the Persians. In long distance running, this has become one way of challenging the person's mindset and physical fitness. (Higdon, 2005)
The standard most people will use to determine if someone is a good marathon runner is their capacity to finish it in less than 3 hours. Those who can do this will be able to increase their potential to run competitively. The basic motions involve utilizing every muscle in the body (such as: the legs, arms and core). The legs have to carry the body longer distances. They will be placed under tremendous amounts of strain during the process. The arms will swing independently and must remain lose. This enables the athlete to focus on their performance. The core is impacted by having to carry the mid section of the person. As the individual becomes more efficient, this will improve muscle tone and it can perform a variety of other activities. (Higdon, 2005)
The musculature will concentrate on having major groups working together. These include: the upper body, abdomen / back and lower body. During these activities, the upper body will continually move back and forth. This helps the athlete to maintain balance and feel relaxed. It works with the abdomen and back to control the legs. (Higdon, 2005)
The legs will do the majority of the work. As they carry the person's weight and endure the constant pounding it takes from the running. This enables the individual to perform more efficiently and go longer distances. Each one of these areas will work together to directly impact the athlete's results. When this happens, they will improve their times and physical / mental state. (Higdon, 2005)
The energy systems activities are concentrating on having a positive effect on the way different areas will function. For instance, on the cellular level, the glycolytic system is efficient in helping the athlete to perform better. This is taking place having them consume dietary carbohydrates and proteins. They will circulate through the blood and provide glycogen to the muscles. This helps the person to recover faster and perform better under greater amounts of stress. (Higdon, 2005)
While at the same time, there will be an emphasis on oxidative system. This is when the body will perform strongly for a specified periods of time. Then, it will begin to breakdown. This is a process, known as the Krebs cycle. In these situations, the muscles will become tight and fill with lactic acid. This cause stiffness and it hurts performance. To address these issues, the most effective strategies require using a combination of rest, low impact exercises and nutrition. (Higdon, 2005)
These different areas will have an impact on how well the body functions and its capacity to recover. This is the key, for improving their times and ability to run more efficiently at longer distances. The above example, is illustrating how various systems are evaluated and monitored to track performance. (Higdon, 2005)
State the norms for pre-tests and post-tests along with athlete's theoretical pre and post test scores.
To effectively determine the impacts of training programs requires conducting pre and post tests. This will be accomplished utilizing their performance goals in conjunction with their results. This will offer specific insights about their challenges, how they adjusted and the long-term impacts on stakeholders. (Henderson, 2004)
In this situation, these tests will focus on areas that can objectively monitor what is happening. The most notable include: VO2, agility and endurance. VO2 is looking at the total amounts of oxygen the body is consuming. This is when there is a focus on increasing the heart rate between 65% and 85% of its maximum for at least 40 four minutes five times a week. This will ensure that the body is capable of performing at these levels for longer periods of time. The pretesting procedures will measure these abilities before, during and after the training program. This will take place once every other month. (Henderson, 2004)
Agility will emphasize the person's capacity to maintain a sense of balance. In this case, they want to ensure that all of the major muscles groups are functioning effectively. Yet, not a rate that increases the chances of becoming injured. To avoid these challenges requires taking an approach that involves the athlete participating in low impact aerobic activities. Some good examples of this include: yoga, martial arts, dance and low impact aerobics. This will help them to learn to control their mind, body and strengthen different parts of the body using isometrics. This will be measured by giving the person a series of practical tests. They will determine their ability to maintain balance. Then, have discussing how this has influenced their mindset. This will occur, through having coaches / trainers talking with the athlete about these goals. At the same time, they will have practical measurements where they will demonstrate the long-term impact (such as: the ability to perform certain amounts of pull ups, pushups and abdominal exercises). This will take place on a daily and weekly basis. The basic idea is to use as a way to motivate them and work various muscle groups in the process. This enhances their running abilities. (Henderson, 2004)
Endurance will emphasize how effective the runner moves at different distances and paces. This will be achieved by having them go through a series of tests prior to the training. It involves analyzing their heart rate and breathing capacity. Every month, another test will be conducted and compared with previous results / performance. After the program is finished, the athlete will conduct final tests and these figures will illustrate the impact it had on them. (Henderson, 2004)
Design a program (resistance training, plyometrics, cardiovascular) for a theoretical athlete to carry out during an entire macrocycle (pre-season, in-season and off-season) on a weekly/monthly basis.
The program will involve resistance and cardiovascular training in the pre-season. This is when the individual will lift weights, engage in other activities (such as: cycling, swimming or skiing). In the first month before practice starts, is the time they will be taking this kind of focus. Once the season begins, is when they will start to work on running longer distances. This involves having the person utilize interval training during their running sessions. Under these guidelines, they will run longer distances and at faster pace for select amounts of time. This will take place, in months 2 through 4. As the season progress, this will be utilized to increase speed and the capacity to go farther. The last two months of the season, will concentrate on having the person running the longer distances. This will be achieved by having them pick up their pace towards the middle to end of their training runs. The basic idea is to enable them outperform weaker competitors during the final races of the season. This is when they need to…