Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis in Children Research Paper
- Length: 6 pages
- Sources: 5
- Subject: Children
- Type: Research Paper
- Paper: #6767069
Excerpt from Research Paper :
Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDREN
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a diverse behavioral set of symptoms described by the hub indication of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Even as, these symptoms have a tendency to gather together, some individuals are for the most part hyperactive and impetuous, even as others are predominantly inattentive. This disease affects both toddlers and adults of all ages and should be taken seriously. When this disease is being diagnosed in children, doctors often make quick decisions to make a diagnosis and handing out prescriptions. This should not be the case as doctors are supposed to take enough time to well analyze the condition of the children before offering prescriptions.
About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
There are two main diagnostic decisive factors that are currently in use. These are the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders uses the initials (ICD-10) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders that employs the initials (DSM-IV). The ICD-10 makes use of a narrower indicative category, which includes individuals with more harsh symptoms and harm. DSM-IV has a broader, more comprehensive definition that includes several diverse ADHD subtypes. Even though ICD-10 rules out any co-morbidity, for the rationale of this guideline simultaneous conditions are acknowledged as a general feature of the identification and management of this disease (Webb, 2006).
Symptoms of ADHD are scattered throughout the populace and show a discrepancy in rigorousness. Only those with noteworthy impairment meet conditions for identification of ADHD. Some symptoms of ADHD can have common characteristics with symptoms of other correlated disorders, thus, ADHD cannot be measured a definite diagnosis. For that reason, care in different diagnosis is required. Widespread simultaneous conditions in kids with ADHD are disorders of conduct, mood, learning, communication, motor control, and anxiety disorders; when exhibited in adults they incorporate bipolar disorder, personality disorders, substance abuse, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Consequently, ADHD cannot be measured as a categorical diagnosis.
Modest ADHD in children is taken to be at hand when the indications of hyperactivity, impulsivity and lack of concentration. Moreover all three can come about together, and are related with at least restrained impairment that should be there in several settings and in numerous domains where the stage appropriate to the young child's sequential and rational age has not been reached. In order to determine the harshness of the disorder, the decision should be a subject left for clinical judgment, while taking into account the harshness of pervasiveness, impairment, character factors and social contexts (Kushner, 2010). In later adolescence, the extent of probable impairment stretches out to occupational and educational underachievement, hazardous driving, difficulties in doing daily activities such as organizing household duties, making and keeping acquaintances, close relationships) and in childcare.
For the benefit of clarity, the Guideline Development Group has analyzed the soundness of diagnosing ADHD, and recommendations have been given about analysis in the counsel. Given the narrower measure of ICD-10, the hyperkinetic disorder is projected to happen in about 1 -- 2% of offspring in the United Kingdom. On the other hand, using the larger decisive factor of DSM-IV, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is considered to have an effect on an estimate of about 3 to 9% of school-age children in the United Kingdom.
Making ADHD Diagnosis in Children
It is estimated that up to 10% of children now hold a diagnosis of ADHD and are in dynamic handling for the distress. The majority of commonly prearranged treatment is a stimulant prescription such as Ritalin. Nevertheless, some mental health professionals and parents are worried that ADHD is sometimes over-diagnosed and sometimes under-diagnosed, and not sufficient enough that care is arranged for the exact circumstances that are necessary to make a correct ADHD diagnosis (Honos-Webb, 2010).
Usually, a number of professionals are on average involved in the evaluation process for ADHD in children. Learning specialists, school psychologists, clinical psychologists, physicians, clinical social workers, speech-language pathologists, and class instructors may each play an essential role in the ADHD evaluation. Just like with adults, there are no tests to be had in order to agree on a diagnosis; in its place, clinicians base their determination on the recognizable symptoms, as well as, by eliminating other likely disorders. The medical specialist that conducts a child's assessment should ask the parent or guardians a wide range of questions that should be responded to honestly and openly.
The medical specialist may also use this opportunity to obtain a detailed medical and family history, and conduct an all-purpose physical and neurological exam. Standardized ADHD screening tools should be used together with psychological examinations meant to determine the IQ, emotional, and social adjustment. In order to ensure accuracy in the determination of this disorder, doctors need to talk to a number of sources starting with the child, his or her parents, teachers and other individuals who are involved in the child's life. This can be done in the form of an interview so as to collect the required information. The medical specialist can also observe the child as he or she is playing of while they are alone.
Ensure that the mental health specialist takes enough time to question both the child and family members so as to get the most correct diagnosis achievable. While family doctors can help evaluate for a predicament such as attention deficit disorder, one should place their trust only a skilled and practiced mental health expert in order to make an exact diagnosis. Parent should also be knowledgeable that some experts believe ADHD can be diagnosed mistakenly such as in the instance when a mood disorder, for example bipolar disorder, would be the correct diagnosis. It is important to ask mental health experts to be assured that they have the accurate diagnosis, as it can have an effect on the child's treatment and care (Nass & Leventhal, 2011).
Important things in ADHD
ADHD is described by meeting a minimum of six of the eighteen lack of concentration or hyperactivity symptoms. More often than not, both clinicians and parents can readily recognize the indications in their children, and many still believe that is all that is necessary in order to make a precise diagnosis. On the other hand, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual indicative criteria for ADHD in addition specify several significant factors that also ought to be met.
These indicators must be noticeable for a period of at least 6 months. This should be noted in two or more settings. Doctors often make a conclusion based on the information they have received from one setting. This should not be the case as it is a requirement that the diagnosis be made based on the information collected from two settings. The conditions also spell out that some noticeable symptoms should have been evident before the child has reached age 7. ADHD symptoms also should not come about exclusively at some point in the course of a psychotic disorder and should not be accounted for by an additional mental disorder such as Anxiety Disorder, Mood Disorder, Personality Disorder, or a Dissociative Disorder.
Carrying out an ADHD Diagnosis
It has been renowned that it is particularly tricky to ascertain ADHD identification in children who are younger than 4 years of age. This is because their distinguishing behavior is much more unpredictable than that exhibited by older children. They may also take account of features that are comparable to symptoms exhibited in Attention Deficit Disorder. Moreover, symptoms of inattentiveness in toddlers are often not willingly observed for the reason that young children on average experience a small number of demands for constant attention. On the other hand, even the attention of children can be held in a mixture of situations (Sonna, 2005).
As these children grown up, symptoms more often than not become less striking. In late childhood, signs…