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Each onion router removes a layer of encryption to uncover routing instructions, and sends the message to the next router where this is repeated. This prevents these intermediary nodes from knowing the origin, destination, and contents of the message.
The predicted solution of the problems related to e-government administration depends on answering the following questions as brainstorming ideas to solve the problem and the features provided by the system or application.
1. An important step for processing of e-Government.
2. To ensure the confidentiality of information such as contracts for military weapons and other by Providing a high level of security as it is based on singing the data by combining multiple key values like user id, date stamp and transaction id which produce an encrypted key utilized and used only internally by the system for authentication and validation of user privileges. This procedure would make it virtually impossible to falsify any part of a transaction approval.
3. Save time - have all tender and information available in one place.
4. More efficient searching - searching across the tender description as well as the categories.
5. Reliable and trusted information - comprehensive source list and category list available.
6. Easy user-friendly access - no additional software is required to access the information. (Browser printing, downloading and e-mail options are available for the full-text.)
7. Daily updates, and maintained day by day.
8. By using electronic signature of the data which is performed internally on behave of the user for all transactions to provide more security and confidentiality of the data in order to prevent illegal tampering with the data and to detect when it is occurred.
Objectives of Study
The primary objective of the study was to produce tangible physical output from a Web application that can be deployed in any web server. Upon completion of the study, the following outcomes were provided:
1. JSP files which represent the Web page interfaces;
2. Servlet as java classes which contain the business logic and interaction with data base;
3. Database tables which contain all stored data; and,
4. Documentation which describes the code.
2.0. Chapter 2: Review of the Relevant Literature
This chapter presents an overview of Kuwait and its major trading partners to establish potential cross-cultural issues that may become involved in the launch of the WMS Intranet for tender offers described in the introductory chapter. A discussion concerning e-government principles, tools and the framework in which these initiatives have been implemented in Kuwait is followed by a description of management system, including work flow management systems, relevant WFMS principles, tools and a corresponding WFMS framework used to implemented its internal use in the Kuwait MOD.
2.1.1. Kuwait Overview. Today, Kuwait has a small but relatively open economy that is heavily impacted by the oil industry and government sector. In fact, about nine out of ten members of Kuwait's civilian workforce are employed in the public sector, and a comparable percentage of private sector workers are non-Kuwaitis (Kuwait, 2009). The dominance of the oil industry is not surprising given that Kuwait's proven crude oil reserves of about 100 billion barrels account for almost 10% of the proven world reserves and represent almost half (45%) of the country GDP and almost all (95%) of its export revenues; it addition, the Kuwaiti government is almost wholly funded (between 90%-95%) by oil revenues (Kuwait, 2009). The government is not short-sighted concerning its oil resources, though, and allocates 10% of its oil revenues each year to a trust fund designated the, "Fund for Future Generations" preparatory to the inevitable transition to the country's needs following the exhaustion of its oil reserves (Kuwait, 2009). The Kuwaiti economy has experienced healthy growth in recent years due to high prices for oil, which together with the economic activity created by Operation Iraqi Freedom (Kuwait is a major logistical and transit hub for Coalition operations in Iraq), have resulted in a period of economic prosperity that is unprecedented in the country's history (Kuwait, 2009). According to U.S. government analysts, "Non-oil sectors such as banking, financial services, logistics, telecommunications, and construction have enjoyed strong growth in the past three to four years. The global financial crisis affected Kuwait in late 2008, with the Kuwait Stock Exchange -- the region's second-largest bourse -- losing almost 40% of its market capitalization during 2008" (Kuwait, 2009, p. 3). Kuwait has also experienced significant budget surpluses in recent years as a direct result of sustained high oil prices (Kuwait, 2009).
2.1.2. Kuwait Trading Partners. Currently, Kuwait's primary export partners are Japan, South Korea, the United States, Singapore, China and the Netherlands; the country's primary important partners are the United States; Japan, Germany, China, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Italy, India and the United Kingdom (Kuwait economy, 2009). The respective levels of trade with these export and import partners are shown in Figures 1 and 2 below
Figure 1. Export Partners' Percentage of Trade (2008 est.).
Source: Based on data in Kuwait economy, 2009 at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications / the-world-factbook/geos/ku.html
Figure 2. Import Partners' Percentage of Trade (2008 est.).
Source: Based on data in Kuwait economy, 2009 at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications / the-world-factbook/geos/ku.html
The importance of the Kuwait Ministry of Defense has become increasingly apparent in recent years. For example, on August 2, 1990, more than 100,000 Iraqi soldiers invaded Kuwait at which time Saddam Hussein stated categorically that he regarded Kuwait as being Iraq's nineteenth province, an invasion that was subsequently characterized as being "absolutely unacceptable" by British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and as a "naked act of aggression" by then-U.S. President George H.W. Bush (Cuervo, 2008). As a result, the price of oil increased significantly and on the same date, the UN Security Council voted unanimously to condemn the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq as a violation of international law (Cuervo, 2008). Prior to the Gulf War that resulted from this invasion, Kuwait's armed forces were relatively small, being comprised of various army, navy, and air force units with most of the materiel being provided by the United Kingdom; however, the vast majority of this military equipment was destroyed by the Iraqis or confiscated during their retreat (Cuervo, 2008). As a result, the Kuwaiti military forces have been beefed up and provisions for resupply and rearmament have been underway since that time with materiel being provided by other governments as well, now, including vendors from the United States (Kuwait, 2009). Indeed, since the end of the First Persian Gulf War, the United States has delivered both military and defense technical assistance to Kuwait from foreign military sales (termed "FMS") as well as through a wide range of commercial sources (Kuwait, 2009). Moreover, there are currently more than one hundred open FMS contracts between the U.S. military and the Kuwait Ministry of Defense totaling $8.4 billion. Some of the primary U.S. military systems currently being acquired by the Kuwait Defense Forces include the Patriot Missile systems, F-18 Hornet fighters, the M1A2 main battle tank, AH-64D Apache helicopter, and a major revitalization of the Kuwaiti naval forces using U.S. boats (Kuwait, 2009).
The term "electronic government" ("e-government") describes the use of electronic information and communications technology in order to integrate the customer into the activities of government and the public service. As the introduction of e-government continues apace, one focus has been on the optimization of administrative processes and structures using these technologies (Knaack & Gottsche, 2004). Kuwait is well situated to take advantage of e-government initiatives. According to Graafland-Essers and Ettedgui (2003), the presence of e-government is projected to increase in the years to come as online activities become more ubiquitous. These authors add that, "Generally, e-government designates any transaction that involves the government and that is carried out, even partially, using electronic means. E-government plays an important function in mediating government actions and its role will continue to grow as communications technologies become more widespread. Already, communications technologies change the way that government operates by facilitating information dissemination, communications and transactions" (Graafland-Essers & Ettedgui, 2003, p. 37).
e-Government Principles. There is more involved in administering an e-government approach than merely transferring existing government operations to an online approach. In this regard, Graafland-Essers and Ettedgui emphasize that, "It calls for rethinking the way government functions are carried out today to improve some processes, to introduce new ones and to replace those that require it. The range of services that may be provided by e-government spans from simple information sites to fully interactive experiences where users and government engage in a dialog mediated by information technology" (2003, p. 37).
e-Government Tools. Unlike many of its neighbors in the Middle East, Kuwait enjoys a well developed information technology infrastructure and a relatively high level of personal computer ownership among its citizenry. These aspects of Kuwaiti's information technology are consistent with the goals of 21st century e-government as well. According to Ayert (2005), "Knowledge age government operates in a world of flat politics, where the distance between rulers and…[continue]
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