business management, there are a number of different issues that will be faced on a regular basis. To fully understand the overall scope of the challenges and the most effective way to resolve them requires looking at a variety of sources in annotated bibliography. Once this occurs, it will provide us with specific insights about the how these issues can be effectively rectified.
Goldstein, A. (2009). Sticks, Stones and $600 Hammers. Journal of Content Management, 33 -- 40.
The article that was written by Goldstein (2009), talks about the negative perceptions that government procurement programs and contracts have received over the last several years. Part of the reason for this, is because there have been considerable cost overruns for the most mundane items. At the same time, the increasing amounts of spending have meant that these actions are continually brought into focus. To deal with these issues, there have been a number of different programs to improve accountability. A few of the most notable include: the Panel Session Fraud and Accountability, GAO Reports on Unmet Professional Standards in DCAA along with Contract Negotiations with Integrity and Accountability. These elements are important, because they are showing one aspect that managers will face when they are working with governmental entities. As they must meet these higher ethical guidelines, to ensure that they are in compliance with the various laws that have been enacted.
Hyman George Rickover Biography. (2011). Bookrags. Retrieved from: http://www.bookrags.com/biography/hyman-george-rickover
This article discusses the life Admiral Hyman Rickover. Where, he was one of the chief engineers in helping the U.S. Navy to develop its nuclear submarine fleet. The contributions that he made were significant, because he was illustrating how these techniques can improve effective management for a variety of different programs. The pricing issues that he faced were: developing fewer nuclear-based vessels in comparison with the cheaper gas turbines. The reason why this was selected is because; it helped to give the Navy a superior advantage in warfare. At the same time, it allowed them to keep the project in line with various budgetary estimates. This information is important, because it is highlighting a strategy that can be used to increase an organization's ability to maintain their competitive advantage in a prudent manner.
Walker, D. (2011). ASBCA Decision Allowability of Short-Term Credit Facility Costs. Government Contract Insights, 1, 1 -- 8.
The article that was written by Walker (2011), discusses an ASBCA decision involving: Well Fargo along with the California Infrastructure and Development Bank. What was happening was; the contractor working on the project (SRI International) had additional costs that were incurred during the project. The DCAA determined that these costs were accountable and can be applied for a total of $609, 621 in fees that are allowable. The ASBCA agreed with the way these were being accounted for. The information from this source is useful, because it is highlighting how there are certain costs that can be applied to select aspects of a government contract by: organizations that are involved in completing different pieces of the work.
Handbook on Fraud Indicators. (1993). Washington DC: Department of Defense.
This piece of literature provides a background for detecting an understanding fraud in various government contracts. The most common red flags that were identified include: a variance between the proposed / negotiated vendor, a high percentage of non-competitive contracts (with few details provided), the use of courtesy bids, failures to decrease subcontract pricings and subcontractors providing government employees with various perks. These different elements are important, because they are highlighting the most common signs of fraud or abuse inside an organization.
Lieberfeld, D. (2008). Secrecy and Two Level Games. International Negotiation, 13, 133 -- 146.
The article that was written by Lieberfeld (2008), talks about the different levels of negotiations that were occurring during the time frame leading up to the Oslo Accords. As, there was a working discussion to help implement a foundation for some kind of peace treaty between: the Israelis and the Palestinians going back to the 1991. This led to the eventual signing of the accords in 1993, with the both parties agreeing to establish future talks about dealing with a host of unresolved issues. The most notable include: the status of refugees, settlement and control of the City of Jerusalem. Yet, at the same time this agreement was a failure because it never addressed these issues in the future. Instead, they were continually pushed down the road. The information from this source is useful because, it is showing how all negotiations are not set in stone. As a result, there must be continuous follow up to ensure that everyone is in compliance with these objectives.
Camp David Seen from Israel. (1979). Journal of Palestine Studies, 8 (2), 144 -- 155.
This article discusses the views of the Camp David Accord from the vantage point of the Israeli press. In general, the agreement is seen favorably. However, many of the settlers in the West Bank and Gaza Strip view what is happening with select amounts of uneasiness. At the same time, two different commentators feel that this agreement will not yield the kinds of economic benefits with Egypt in: comparison to what the government is portraying. The information from this source is useful, because it is illustrating how new ideas may not necessarily be perceived as something good. Therefore, breakthrough decisions will often be seen as controversial.
McCadden, S. (2009). If your Not Charging Your Customers for Employee Expenses You are Losing Money. Service Magic Pros. Retrieved from: http://pros.servicemagic.com/servlet/RedirectServlet?D=STATIC&targetPage=/rfs/smpros/viewArticle.jsp&edOID=14477
The article that was written by McCadden (2009), discusses the impact that hard labor costs can have on business. This is because, labor is one the largest expenses that all business will have deal with over the course of time. As a result, these costs must be taken into account when negotiating with any customers and they need to be included in all of the various pricing structures. At which point, McCadden provides a list of hard labor costs that should be considered such as: collecting enough money from the fees that are related to the productivity of working employees, keeping track of labor costs as efficiently as possible (i.e. using a spread sheet), calculating Workers Compensation / gasoline costs and getting accurate quotes from insurance providers. These different elements are important, because they are illustrating how this basic approach can help to improve the cost structure for businesses. Once this occurs, it will make their negotiations more effective.
Fiol, M. (2009). Managing Intractable Identify Conflicts. Academy of Management Review, 34 (1), 32 -- 55.
The article that was written by Fiol (2009), discusses the impact that various conflicts can create inside all organizations. Where, differences in views and opinions can often lead to a host of challenges that can have an effect on how they are able to a deal with various issues and it can often impact morale. Once this occurs, it increases the chances that infighting and other problems will have an effect on their ability to achieve their objectives. As a result, Fiol has identified a workable model that can be used to improve the effectiveness of an entity to deal with these issues. The most notable include: promoting integrative goals, building intergroup distinctiveness and encouraging respect. These different elements are important, because they are illustrating how this can approach can be used to improve working with the different groups inside any organization. This is the point that everyone can come together in achieving their overall objectives.
Timura, C. (2010). International Negotiation Pedagogy. International Negotiation, 15, 155 -- 161.
The article that was written by Timura (2010), discusses how using different negotiation skills can improve the effectiveness of an entity to be able to achieve its objectives. The way that this is accomplished…