505 results for “Negotiation And Conflict Management”.
The reality is that coworkers are not always going to be able to get along in a successful and productive manner without manager intervention. A manager cannot avoid the conflict and hope that it disappears, because that runs the risk of the conflict erupting or simply spreading like a cancer throughout the entire organization. Instead, the manager must address the issue. Furthermore, while the manager cannot dictate the approaches of the coworkers, the manager, because the manager has some power over the coworkers, can ensure that the conflict is resolved and that no person is expected to simply accommodate the wants of a person who enters into conflict from a competing perspective.
Another power struggle in the health care setting that is amenable to negotiation and conflict management techniques is conflict with patients over payments. The payment environment for health care is incredibly complex and patients may genuinely misunderstand what…
Hayes, H. (2010, February 11). Applying conflict resolution skills in health care part I:
Principled negotiation method. Retrieved March 5, 2012 from Karl Bayer website: http://www.karlbayer.com/blog/applying-conflict-resolution-skills-in-health-care-part-i-principled-negotiation-method/
Kaufman, a. (2009). Conflict management strategy for health care organizations. Retrieved March 5, 2012 from Healthcare Conflict Management website: http://www.healthcare-conflict-management.com/documents / Conflict%20 Management% 20in%20 Healthcare%20White%20Paper.pdf
Kressel, K., Kennedy, C.A., Lev, E., & Taylor, L. (2002). Managing conflict in an urban health
Negotiation and Conflict Management
Third party interventions are often needed in order for conflicts to be effectively resolved. Whether or not a third party intervention is necessary depends on the severity of the conflict and whether the parties involved require outside assistance to maintain some sense of objectivity and reason while sorting through their dispute. Several skills characterize an effective third party in conflict resolution.
The readings outline several helpful attributes third parties demonstrate in effective interventions. These include: integrity; effective inquiry; listening; summarizing; framing; feedback; assertiveness; confidence; objectivity; sensitivity; empathy; the ability to give unconditional positive regard; and courage. I agree that all of these attributes and skills are necessary for successful third party interventions. The following discussion explains how all of these attributes fits into the context of a third party intervention.
The first helpful attribute of a third party is integrity. Demonstrating integrity within the context of…
Negotiation and Conflict Management to esolve Power Struggles in Health Care Settings
Many health care organizations, especially tertiary facilities, consist of large numbers of diverse professional and support staff. Not surprisingly, as with all types of organizations, turf battles take place on a regular basis, conflicts occur, and the potential for health care workers to place their self-interest above the organization's best interests is always present. To determine how managers can best use the principles of effective negotiation and conflict management to resolve power struggles within health care settings, and what types of power struggles in health care settings are most amenable to the application of negotiation and conflict management techniques, specific ways to limit the potential abuse of power in health care organizations, as well as specific human resources strategies and transparency mechanisms that can prevent stakeholders from pursuing self-interested goals, this paper provides a review of the relevant…
Bateman, N. (2000). Advocacy skills for health and social care professionals. London: Jessica
Golembiewski, R.T. (2000). Handbook of organizational consultation. New York: Marcel
Therefore, this marketing conflict has lead to the disaster, which could have been avoided, in my opinion, if the owner would have understood the commercial laws of the market and would have promoted the road cars' line.
Moreover, the crisis has been amplified by another event: "In November 1961 a dispute between Enzo Ferrari and his sales manager, Girolamo Gardini, turned into a crisis. Girolamo Gardini threatened to leave the company. Enzo Ferrari responded to the threat by throwing out Girolamo Gardini, and several employees who agreed with Girolamo Gardini were also ousted." Therefore, the professional relationships were not based on consensus and negotiations.
It is sure that the history of Ferrari form the 1970s onwards would have been different if the above mentioned conflicts, especially the latter one, would have been solved through negotiations. For example, the staff of the company could have been divided in 2 teams, one…
Ferrari World, at http://www.ferrariworld.com/FWorld/fw/index.jsp
Ferrari, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferrari
The History of Ferrari, at http://ezinearticles.com/?the-History-of-Ferrari&id=106449
Conflict Resolution and Thinking Styles, at http://www.syre.com/versionanglaise/Conflict.htm
Yet when we would go shopping the pressure has becoming more and more intense to spend thousands of dollars to redecorate the entire condo. I questioned the use of our credit for that if we were planning to start a family immediately after getting married. The conflict escalated until we had a major argument on the way back from furniture shopping one night, with my position being that if she wanted all this new furniture she would have to keep working to pay for it. She could not stop working and also get the furniture; besides we had not even talked about furnishing a baby's room and all those expenses. My point was simple: if we spend more we will have to work more hours, even more jobs to pay for them. To take on even more expenses and give up a salary now would be crazy, I insisted. In…
Potapchuk goes on to say that communities need centers of support for collaborative work, including the facilities, tools, and staff needed. There is merit in this suggestion, especially considering that many of the people involved in community collaboration efforts may not be trained or skilled in conflict management, collaboration, and communication. Effective tools and trained staff could help to ensure collaborators are able to work together effectively.
Potapchuk also says that communities need to continue their work on issues of race, class, and culture. This statement links back to Potapchuk's argument that underlying issues limit progress. However, it is unclear whether this is really a problem limiting progress. In fact, it seems that this is a much larger issue and one that collaborative community groups may not be able to overcome. Instead, it seems like it would be more reasonable for groups to be given the tools to work together…
Potapchuk, W. (1999). "Moving From Collaborative Processes To Collaborative Communities Building Our Agenda." Mediate.com. Retrieved October 21, 2005. URL:
Weiss, J.F. (2005). "You Never Can Tell." Mediate.com. Retrieved October 21, 2005. URL: http://www.mediate.com/articles/weissJF1.cfm
However, such strategy has the outcome in compliance in absence of commitment and feelings of frustration and resentment.
The fourth strategy is I lose a little, you win a little. The placate yield style represents a concern for the effects of conflict on the welfare and durability of all relationships that is entered. The hypothesis is that human relationships are so flexible that they cannot endure the trauma of working through normal differences. Therefore, the inclination is towards withdrawing from the conflict and pleases others by ignoring, denying and avoiding conflict. When the differences continue it is found worthwhile in placating and submitting oneself to ones objectives being seen as effective modes of self-protection and safeguarding our relationships with others. One-sided domination in ones relationship is evident in such type of strategies.
Finally, the strategy is 'I win, you win'. This approach to conflict resolution is regarded as the dominant…
Conflict Management Styles" (2002) Retrieved at http://www.njit.edu/activities/conflict.pdf . Accessed 14 September, 2005
Hartwick, Jon; Barki, Henri. "Conflict Management Styles of Users and Analysts, and Their
Impact on Conflict Resolution" (1999) Retrieved at http://csdl2.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/1999/0001/07/00017036.PDFAccessed 12 September, 2005
Lingren, Herbert G. "Managing Conflict Successfully" Retrieved at http://ianrpubs.unl.edu/family/heg181.htm . Accessed 12 September, 2005
Culturally, the Bush administration failed miserably at understanding what needed to be done within the Iraqi cultures. For example, Diamond notes that the U.S. tried to build security through an Iraqi police for4ce but that effort "withered from haste, inefficiency, poor planning, and sheer incompetence." Cops were rushed on the job with "too little training, insufficient vetting, and shamefully inadequate equipment" (Diamond, 2004). The U.S. lacked "an effective political strategy for postwar Iraq"; the U.S. never grasped the fact (based on Iraqi culture) that while "most Iraqis were grateful for having been liberated" from Saddam, that gratitude was mixed with "deep suspicion" of the real motives of the Americans. In reality, the Iraqis saw a "estern, Christian, essentially Anglo-American" power occupying their country.
Also, the Americans mistakenly thought that briefcases full of cash would bring political security. American officials in 2004, eager to hold elections in Iraq, "...offered some Sunni…
Collier, Paul. "The Market for Civil War." Foreign Policy issue 136 (2003): 38-46.
Diamond, Larry. "What Went Wrong in Iraq?" Foreign Affairs 83.5 (2004): 34-56.
El-Khawas, Mohamed a. "Nation Building in a War Zone: The U.S. Record in Iraq, 2003-
2007." Mediterranean Quarterly 19.1 (2008): 42-62.
Cross-cultural conflict management
According to the research of Geert Hofstede, Malaysia scores a 26 on individualism, which means that it is a collectivist country, characterized by “long-term commitment to the member group”, where loyalty is one of the most important aspects of the culture (Hofstede Insights, 2018). Because collectivist cultures place a value on long-term relationships, and loyalty to the group, these elements help define when conflict exists, and how it is resolved.
Indeed, the idea of conflict itself is subject to cultural values – the American view of conflict tends to reflect when two people disagree on something, and that disagreement seems to be intractable. Yet, in many of Asia’s collectivist cultures, the approaches to conflict are quite different. Part of the difference is that in the US, interpersonal conflict can be resolved by the two parties simply walking away from the transaction or conflict. In Asia, time frames…
individual deals with conflict reflects on his or her attitude, maturity level, and self-confidence. Explain how you would use the five basic rules when dealing with conflict to handle a conflict that you experience at work. Explain in detail.
Maturity and the ability to think and behave rationally is obviously the linchpin of dealing with conflict properly. Many people tend to react viscerally and with no hesitation when it comes to conflict. This would be a mistake…and potentially a big one. Rather than acting too prematurely and without the proper amount of diligence, a thorough and well-considered assessment of the problem should be done. Further, other parties involved in the issue should be approached with respect and deference and only when emotions are not flaring. If things get heated, people should disperse and circle back later. Further, getting heated in general over something that is not life and death is…
In these kinds of situations, the health care professional is taking the middle ground to satisfy both parties (which will lead to a number of challenges). This is from both sides feeling that they have won and will want more down the road. The only difference is that they are more emboldened in their position. This is problematic, because it can make the underlying situation worse in the future. (Feldman, 2008, pg. 128) (Daniels, 2004, pp. 485 -- 486)
To avoid these kinds of situations requires that compromise should be used as a solution when both sides agree to accept the proposal. This does not mean coming back in the future and exhibiting the same kind of behavior to achieve what they want. Instead, both parties have to be willing to accept the compromise completely. If this kind of approach can be taken it will create win -- win situations.…
Cavanaugh, S. (1988). The Conflict Management Style. Intensive Care Nursing, 4 (3), 118 -- 123.
Daniels, R. (2004). Nursing Fundamentals. Clifton, NY: Thomason.
DiMatteo, M. (1998). The Role of the Physician. Western Journal of Medicine. 168 (85), 328 -- 333.
Feldman, H. (2008). Nursing Leadership. New York, NY: Springer.
Intercultural Conflict Management
Today's society is a multicultural environment that holds both extreme promise and conflicts (Adler, 1998, pp. 225-245). Through rapid developments in technology, global communication has been revolutionized in the past few decades. By the end of the twentieth century, new technology made it simple for people in different cultures to communicate with each other at lightning speeds.
As a result, a greater number of people are exposed to cultures other than their own. Due to communication technology, people are no longer isolated by borders and other obstacles and have ample opportunities to experience different cultures.
However, this incredible occurrence has brought conflict amongst people from different cultures, due to differences in language, manners, opinions, lifestyles and other factors. As a result, intercultural conflict management has become necessary in helping people to understand one another.
Conflict occurs at all levels of human interactions, whether it is…
Adler, Peter S. Beyond Cultural Identity. (1998) Reflection on Multiculturalism. MA: Intercultural Press.
Augsburger, David. (1992) Conflict Mediation Across Cultures. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press.
Avruch, K. (1998). Culture & Conflict Resolution. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Avruch, Kevin and Peter Black. (1991). The Culture Question and Conflict Resolution. Peace and Change Vol. 16.
Conflicts and Communication at the Work Place
a) The conflict scenario as narrated in Case 10-2 has the following key elements that were important to analyze before an actual model for conflict resolution was taken:
The cause of the conflict provided in the scenario would have been the first element to be considered before any conclusions were jumped at by the conflict resolver. The paramount mode this could have been done was through giving an ear to each of the parties involved in the conflict, in this case, eese and Patel. This element would have ensured that the conflict was entirely solved other than the temporal act just to fulfill the company's and boss' objective (Borisoff, 1997).
The extent of conflict was supposed to be analyzed to help the resolver know the intensity of conflict resolution to be applied.
Time pressure for the defined job was an influence…
Boin, F. (2009, April 2). The Power of Technology in Marketing. Retrieved from http://home.snu.com/~hculbert/comintboin.htm
Terrence, H. (2010, August 21). The Essence of Mobile Technology. Retrieved from http://.mobcommnu.edu/~hculbert/comint.htm
Budjac, C. (2006). Conflict Management: A Practical Guide to Developing Negotiation
Strategies. New York: Prentice Hall.
With this, the manager was able to collect enough information as what might have started the conflict. The sector manager gave his part of clams. The employee too gave his opinions. Amidst the cross examination of the two individuals, emotions took over. The two had to be separated by the company security personnel (Abramson, 2004).
The proposals from the two individuals were offered with dignity and respect for each other. The manager had to accept all the proposals in the first place since when one was giving his proposals: the other seemed not to agree. Nonetheless, the conflict manager accepted the proposals. The negotiations were very effective. The manager in charge, who also happened to be in charge of conflict management and resolution in the company, was quick in taking this action. He never took sides while bringing the two individuals together (Shachar, 2011). He took enough time to listen…
Abramson, H, I. (2004). Mediation Representation: Advocating in a Problem-Solving Process.
New York, NY: Ntl Inst for Trial Advocacy
Fisher, R., Ury, W, Patton B. (1991). Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving in.
New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Managing Human esources
Change and conflict are some of the manager's current challenges. This thesis tries to inquire into the change processes and managers response to conflicts that arise as a result of change resistance. The manifestation of conflict and the impact of conflict are also discussed. The thesis also looks into the different theories formulated to explain change process and their relationship to conflict management. Also covered is the way decision makers can mitigate conflict and bring sanity in their organizations.
Today's managers are faced with the trade off between change and conflict. Change has become an irresistible part of organization and managers must therefore come up withy strategies and policies of managing change in an order to reduce conflict that may hinder the performance and also to reduce performance gap.
Conflict is bound to occur when different individuals have different perception, opinion, ideas and thought. Change and…
Knudsen T.(2003).Human Capital Management: New Possibilities in People Management. Journal of Business Ethics, 21(2),42-45.
Humphreys, M. (2005). Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Uncovering the Mechanisms. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (4), 23-36.
Kindler, H.S. (2005). Conflict Management: Resolving Disagreements in the Workplace. London: Thomson/Course Technology.
Kotter, J. (1995, march-april). Leading Change:Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Havard Business School Review, 59-67.
Conflict Management in Organizations
Apple and Samsung Drop Patent Disputes Against Each Other Outside of the U.S.
The business conflict covered here involves the two smartphone giants that operate globally with great reach and hold of the market not only in the U.S. But also across Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. Over the last three years, these two companies have filed more than 40 cases against each other involving patent issues. These suits have seen them go through a lot of cost of conflict, however, at last they agreed to sign an agreement that saw each side drop all the cases that they had against the other side but this was limited to the U.S.A. And they insisted that the cases within the U.S. courts were to continue to the logical conclusion (Chowdhry A., 2014).
The cost of conflict in any business conflict does not just come in the forms…
Chowdhry A., (2014). Apple And Samsung Drop Patent Disputes Against Each Other Outside Of The U.S. Retrieved November 8, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/amitchowdhry/2014/08/06/apple-and-samsung-drop-patent-disputes-against-each-other-outside-of-the-u-s/
Doherty N. & Guyler M., (2008). The Esential Guide to Workplace Mediation & Conflict Resolution. Retrieved November 8, 2014 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=DPMgUNyO6iMC&pg=PA187&lpg=PA187&dq=complete+guide+to+conflict+resolution+in+the+workplace&source=bl&ots=abmI2G6Eug&sig=WYC16euk6xR8CwwVjXqy3M4Rxo8&hl=en&sa=X&ei=F9tfVNvjG4rLaKKRgLgI&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=complete%20guide%20to%20conflict%20resolution%20in%20the%20workplace&f=false
John Ford and Associates, (2007). How Much is Conflict Costing You? Retrieved November 8, 2014 from http://www.conflictdynamics.org/files/HowMuchIsConflictCostingYou.pdf
Negotiation skills are important for various situations in life. Acquiring these skills early in life greatly reduces the chance that one will be taken advantage of by unscrupulous individuals. Negotiation skills can be used in the business environment as well as everyday life. For these reasons there is great value placed on having negotiations skills. The purpose of this discussion is to explain the use of negotiations in the context of a real-life scenario.
Description of the situation
Negotiation is always a tricky endeavor and the purchase of a new home or vehicle can be particularly problematic. This discussion will focus on the purchase of a new car. The vehicle is a 2011 Acura TL purchased at the Fountain Acura Dealership. I also have a vehicle that I hold the title to that I wanted to use as a trade-in so the cost of the vehicle could be offset.
(I also used the powerpoints and notes not sure if you were including that in the 12 sources)
"2011 Acura TL." Retrieved February 25, 2011 from; http://www.edmunds.com/acura/tl/2011/
Fisher, R., Ury, W. & Patton, B. (1991) Getting To Yes.New York: Penguin
"Principled Negotiation." Retrieved February 25, 2011 from; http://www.negotiations.com/definition/principled-negotiation/
Managing conflict is an important skill that needs to be mastered in order for those in leadership positions to become successful. In the world of sales, ensuring delivery of quality product is paramount for maintaining competitive advantage within an industry. My organization of choice to examine conflict negotiations is a construction materials distributor company. This company sells tools, steel, fasteners and hardware to smaller retailers. In this incident, a delivery of tools is being delayed due to logistical issues by the company to the customer. The customer has been a loyal for many years and gives the company most of its business. A promise by the sales representative was broken due to transportation troubles stemming from the weather. As a result, the retailer lost a sale valued at approximately $10,000. The customer is trying to recoup this loss by demanding a refund and other compensations.
The distribution company broke…
James, E.; James, E.H. (Vol. 10, No. 3, 2008). "Linking Crisis Management and Leadership Competencies: The Role of Human Resource Development." Advances in Developing Human Resources 10: 352
James, E. (Spring 2007). "Leadership as (Un)usual: How to Display Competence InTimes of Crisis." Leadership Preview. http://www.leadershipreview.org/2007spring/Article4.pdf. Seeger, M.W.; Sellnow, T.L., & Ulmer, R.R. (1998). "Communication, organization and crisis." Communication Yearbook 21: 231 -- 275.
Our interpretations, Mediation Strategies and Communication Types
The Nature of Conflict -- an introduction
hat is Conflict?
Conflict as Perception
Conflict as Feeling
Conflict as Actions
hat causes conflict?
Link between Interpersonal Conflicts and Effective Communication
Mediation and Dispute Resolution
The Nature of Conflict -- An introduction:
Conflict is a naturally existing problem in our society and the world as a whole. Conflict exists at all levels and it is so a certain extent quite natural and inevitable. ith a functionalist approach, it can be said that the existence of conflict is somewhat important for the society. It is however an understatement to say that we live amidst conflict. Conflict is present at every level in society and people at every second are reassuring each other as to how they are having a "discussion" instead of a conflict when…
Bellafiore, Donna. 2010. Interpersonal Conflict and effective communication. Journal.
Bolton, R. (1986). People skills: How to assert yourself, listen to others, and resolve conflicts
(2nd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN: 067162248X
Cesaratto, T., (2006). The Good Will Hunting technique. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 3, 307.328.
The 'negotiation' process, entailing conflicting parties' deliberation over the problem and arrival at a conclusion that works to all parties' advantage, constitutes a highly effective means of preventing tension and disputes. Disagreeing persons sit together, engage in open-forum problem discussion, bargain or negotiate, and arrive at a result satisfactory to every party. Successful communication leads to successful negotiation. Negotiations should be free from yelling and brawling; parties ought to peacefully exchange beliefs, views and feelings. Nobody can know one's ideas and feelings if one doesn't express them effectively before others. People's manner of speaking and non-verbal cues (gestures, posture, facial expression, etc.) contributes significantly to successful negotiations (MSG, 2016).
The UPS (United Parcel Service) Strike of 1996 Win-Lose Negotiation
American courier/messenger service business established in the year 1907, the UPS, is now the world's biggest courier, specialized transport and logistics firm. Its key corporate strategy was: largely…
Ciel, s. c. (2011, July 4). Negotiation Tips for Project Managers: Learning From Historic Cases. Retrieved from http://www.brighthubpm.com/methods-strategies/106943-negotiation-tips-for-project-managers-learning-from-historic-cases/
Dolnik, A., & Pilch, R. (2003). The Moscow Theaterhostage Crisis: The Perpetrators, theirTactics, and the Russian Response. International Negotiation, 8, 577 -- 611.
Enock, K. (2006). Principles of negotiation and influencing. Retrieved from http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/organisation-management/5a-understanding-itd/negotiating-influencing
Ionescu, R. (2011, December 7). Influencing for Results. Retrieved from http://www.negotiations.com/articles/negotiation-techniques/
They may have different ideas and strategies on how the work should be performed. There is a fine distinction between competition and cooperation (Porter and Fuller, 1986). The companies must maintain a balance between the alliances and their own strategic position. The companies must avoid situations where one partner overshadows the other one (Dussauge and Garrette 1995).
Borys and Jemison (1989) found that four main factors affect the performance of partnerships. These four factors were the breadth of purpose, boundary determination, value creation process, and stability mechanisms. The breadth of purpose of the project in the construction industry is typically defined as the duration of the construction phase of the project. Boundary determination has more to do with how contractors interact with one another. Sometimes this is defined by a contractor, subcontractor relationship and sometimes it represents a truly collaborative effort. Sometimes boundaries are a part of the negotiation process.…
Bartlett, C. & Sumantra, G. 1989. Managing across borders: The transnational solution. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.
Beersma, B. & De Dreu, C. 1999. Negotiation processes and outcomes in prosocially and egoistically motivated groups. International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 10. pp. 385-402.
Borys, B. & . Jemison, D. 1989. Hybrid arrangements as strategic alliances: Theoretical issues in organizational combinations. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 14. pp 234-49.
Brett, J. & Rognes, J. 1986. Intergroup relations. In P.S. Goodman (Ed.), Designing effective work groups. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Qualifications for the Position of an Operations Manager
The operations management function is one of the most important functions within an organisation. From materials acquisition and production to warehousing, distribution, and customer service, the function ensures day-to-day processes and activities run as effectively and efficiently as desired (Krajewski, Ritzman & Malhotra, 2013). The function is critical to the extent that it significantly affects the organisation's top-line and bottom-line results (Mahadevan, 2010). Indeed, the operations management function can be described as the heart of every organisation. It is through this function that an organisation executes its strategic goals and objectives. The critical nature of the operations management function explains why any prudent organisation ensures the function is functioning optimally all the time (Bozarth & Handfield, 2011).
Ensuring a solid operations management function without a doubt means having a highly qualified and competent operations management -- an individual with the necessary skills,…
The problem is that many people are simply not used to dealing with conflict in a reasonable manner. Instead, they believe that all conflict must be resolved in a competitive manner, and that there is always a loser in each conflict.
Conflict resolution should be taught and implemented at all possible points of conflict in an organization. These include, but are not limited to, interpersonal conflicts, conflicts in meetings, conflicts in negotiations, conflicts in resource allocation, conflicts in workload distribution, and the conflict inherent in any organizational change. If employees and managers know to anticipate conflict and are trained in how to resolve conflict, then most conflict should never reach the level of needing attention from H. Instead, H's emphasis on conflict can be on training.
3. Is it important or necessary in an organization, to understand these sources of conflict, as we have an autocratic structure that can impose…
Guttman, H.M. (2009). Conflict Management as a Core Competency for HR Professionals.
People and Strategy. New York: 2009. Vol. 32, Iss. 1; p. 32.
Schachar, M. (2011). Conflict Resolution Management (CRM) Textbook.
TUI University. (Unk.). NCM 501: Foundations of Conflict Resolution Module 2.
Deutsch, Coleman and Marcus (2006), conflict is an inevitable consequence of the human condition. Conflicts betweens humans frequently involve competition over scarce resources, but history has shown time and again that conflicts can occur for virtually any reason and that some people thrive on conflict while others actively avoid it. One recent conflict that has gained national attention has been the series of strikes by fast-food workers seeking a higher minimum wage. These strikes have gained momentum and the most recent one in December 2013 affected fast food establishments in more than 100 American cities across the country. This paper provides a description of this conflict situation, a description of the social context and participants, and an identification of antecedent conditions to the strikes. An identification of the behavior reflecting the cognition and personalization by individuals of the conflict and identification of a relevant conflict management model, the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict…
Bacon, J. (2013, December 5). Fast-food workers strike, protest for higher pay. USA Today.
Bratkovic, B. (2010, June). Managing conflict. Government Finance Review, 26(3), 51-55.
Bryce, D. (2000, November). Motivation by the book. Training & Development, 54(11), 66.
Analyze Various Approaches for Engaging an Audience During a Presentation
One of the easiest ways to engage an audience during a presentation is to talk to them – ask them a question, run a poll or quiz, solicit questions from the audience to help move you through your subject matter. By showing the audience that you are interested in them, and their ability to absorb the material you're presenting, you will engage with them, and encourage them to engage with you back (Hedges, 2014).
Another approach is that you need engaging content. If you present something the audience doesn’t care about, or spend too much time on background information that the audience already knows, you will lose people. Ultimately, you have to assume that the audience is intelligent, and adopt an information hierarchy where you provide them with value up front, and then if need be explain the context and…
One of the crucial elements towards the realization of organizational success and profitability is creating a suitable working environment for all employees to thrive as they carry out their respective responsibilities. In essence, employees' contributions towards the achievement of established business goals/objectives is largely influenced by the nature of the working environment and working conditions. However, employees' behaviors also play a crucial role in determining their productivity in the workplace. Self-defeating behaviors in the workplace contributes to stress, which in turn affects employees' input to work processes and the overall profitability of an organization. This paper examines the management of stress brought by self-defeating behaviors in the workplace. The evaluation includes recommendations of suitable solutions to this issue based on organizational theory concepts and the concepts of organizational behavior.
The organization I work for has several divisions or department that are mandated with various responsibilities and tasks towards…
If I had utilized a more appropriate conflict management solution, I could have used this opportunity to consider alternate, and perhaps better, solutions to the product design. "Employees need conflict management skills to manage themselves, make decisions, and work effectively in the ever-increasing team environment of today's organizations" (Lang 241). ithout these skills, I was unable to work effectively. In addition, my poor conflict management skills resulted in a negative working environment for the entire team, which likely decreased their effectiveness and productivity. Not only did I negatively affect the current team efforts, but I likely negatively affected future projects with these team members, as well as any other interactions we may have outside of a team setting.
I did not complete any of the steps required in effective conflict management. I did not seek to understand the conflict at hand or where it was stemming from. ithout understanding where…
Bradlow, Eric. "Regain Your Counterpart's Trust with an Apology." Negotiation Feb 2009: 6.
Lang, Matthew. "Conflict Management: A Gap in Business Education Curricula." Journal of Education for Business Mar/Apr 2009: 240-245.
Rothman, Jay. Conflict and Creativity: Opening the Window to New Ideas. 2006.The ARIA Group. 9 Apr 2009 .
Foremost, Richardson also recognized that Roth had indeed generated financial progress. Despite this however, he was uncertain as how should he proceed and most of his conflict management was based on separate discussions with the parties. It was a positive approach since it gave a fair chance for all parties involved to state their viewpoints, but it was inefficient as it did not lead to a resolution of the conflict.
3. The conflict created at Educational Pension Investments by the hiring of a new investment broker with a visionary and aggressive approach could have been resolved more effectively if the chief executive officer had implemented the concepts of the collaborative approach to conflict management. In this order of ideas, Dan Richardson should have represented the liaison between Mike Roth and the older senior executives and should have communicated the interest of each party more clearly. Additionally, he should have created…
The primary theoretical models of conflict include the cooperative model, principled negotiation, human needs model, conflict transformation, and conflict transmutation (Dixit, 2004). Theoretical bases for conflict resolution include both macro-level and micro-level frameworks that guide understanding of human behavior and decision-making (Cunningham, 1998). Many theories of conflict resolution at some point refer to human needs theory, which helps clarify sources of conflict as being traceable to unmet needs. Conflict arises when fundamental needs are not being met, and resolutions are more likely to arise when parties recognize what their needs are as well as those of their opponents. Conflict resolution theories based on needs theory focus on how multiple parties with differential needs can reach peaceable and mutually beneficial solutions (Burton, 1990). The goal of conflict resolution will be to attain win-win outcomes, which may ironically require both personal humility and the offering of concessions.
Although human needs…
A large manufacturer is facing problems relating to executive compensation, which has generated conflicts in its workforce. The nation's largest federal contractor revealed that the compensation of its former CEO had been increased by over $2 million on the same that warning of probable employee layoffs and furloughs were issued. As a result, the large manufacturer's human resource department is grappling with conflicts as disgruntled employees are seeking for explanations on the numerous concerns they have raised.
The ensuring conflict in this organization is an example of a human resource issue that could have significant impacts on workforce productivity because of its probable impact on employee motivation and contribution to work processes. As a result, suitable HM strategies and practices should be adopted to help resolve the issue and enhance employee motivation and contributions to the organization. My response to colleagues and management would be that this organizational…
Belak, T. (n.d.). How to Handle Difficult Behavior in the Workplace. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from http://www.mediate.com/articles/belak4.cfm
Nehavandi, A., Denhardt, R.B., Denhardt, J.V. & Aristigueta, M.P. (2012). Organizational behavior. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
oles and Experiences in Cross-Cultural Business
Cross-cultural differences are recognized as the biggest barrier to doing business in the world market (Fan & Zigang, 2004). esearch aimed at exploring cross-cultural differences in regards to international business investigated key differences in personality traits between business leaders in different countries. The key finding demonstrated by this research was that the factors that counted for most of the differences experienced by executives working internationally were agreeableness and emotional balance (P Newswire, 2007). This is expressed in differences between countries with regard to how extensively group harmony is valued and the extent to which emotions are expressed or muted (P Newswire, 2007).
The way businesses in China experience and process risk has been found to differ significantly to that of the West (Brumagim & Xianhua, 2005). These differences may be appropriated explained through prospect theory, which hypothesizes that potential losses are experienced more intensely…
Bouncken, R.B., Ratzmann, M., and Viviane, A., 2008. Cross-cultrual innovation teams: effects of four types of attitudes towards diversity. International Journal of Business Strategy [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 3 December 2010].
Brumagim, A.L. And Xianhua, W., 2005. An examination of cross-cultural differences in attitudes towards risk: testing prospect theory in the People's Republic of China. Multinational Business Review [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 5 December 2010].
Business Editors, 2003. Cultural and communication barriers are of the greatest challenges when conducting business in China. Business Wire [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 3 December 2010].
Fan, P. And Zigang, Z., 2004. Cross-cultural challenges when doing business in China. Singapore Management Review [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 3 December 2010].
Conflict is part of human life. It occurs every day when people relate to each other in the society as they try to understand their environment and themselves. Conflict also occurs when people try to grasp why natural happenings occur the way they do. However, as a student, I have realized that it is important to address conflict occurs within the society so that members can interact harmoniously. Almost every one of us is likely to encounter this conflict when we leave our comfort zone and expose ourselves to new environments. The best way to settle conflicts is by negotiating because both parties will present their personal views on the matter: in the process, a mutual agreement will result. Moral courage is fundamental during conflict resolution. During negotiation, it is necessary to make strong decisions for moral reasons even when a possibility of adverse consequences is imminent (Kritek,…
Kritek, P.B. (2008). Negotiating at an uneven table: developing moral courage in resolving our conflicts. Jossey-Bass
Taylor, M. (2005). Negotiation (2005/2006 [ed.]. ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Tracy, B. (2013). Negotiation. New York: American Management Association
Conflict Management Project Analysis
ere you surprised by the results of your conflict management style assessment? hy or why not? Explain.
I was not surprised by the results of my conflict management style assessment. The results depict my nature, behavior, and approach to conflicts. I endeavor to strike a balance between aspects revolving around conflicts. At times, I do not resist getting involved in a disagreement. Avoiding to back out from a conflict occurs as one of my pro-characteristics. I believe in effective ironing out issues through discussions, arguments. At the end of these arguments, there should result in a certain level of agreement between conflicting sides. The attribute of winning surpasses the attribute of backing out from an argument.
Encouraging open sharing of concerns and issues enables me to take decisively an angle of view that addresses my perspective on a certain subject. Despite my appetite for winning an…
Lexington. "America's gun divide" The Economist, 29 March 2013.
Ropeik, David. "On Gun Policy, Both Sides Have Something to Fear" The New York Times, 14 April 2014
esearch company work ( school attending) write a paper: 1. Discuss apply negotiation strategies address potential conflicts workplace. 2. Determine evidence-based management applied work environment researched.
Negotiation strategies addressing potential conflicts in the workplace
In conventional parlance, negotiation implies the process of one party conferring or talking with another party with the hope of arriving at a particular settlement on some matter. In whichever respect, negotiation has the element of two parties coming together and trying to understand each other. However, for a negotiation process to be successful, particular requisites or strategies must be applied effectively. One of the most critical strategies is to understand emotions of each other. Inasmuch as feelings might be strong, it is advisable to recognize and understand the emotions of one another so as to give each other the liberty to speak their mind regarding the issue in question. Incase emotions are not…
Raiffa, H. (2006). The art and science of negotiation. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Tirole, J. (2008). The theory of industrial organization. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Williams, C. (2009). Effective management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western.
Managing Across Cultures
Internationalization of the economy has influenced companies to operate their business globally. The global operation has impact managers with several challenges. Market, product, and production plans must be coordinated on a worldwide basis. The global operation necessitates organization structure to balance centralized home-office control with adequate local autonomy. As companies have started their business operation on the international front, the number of their employees has increased. Increase in the employee's abroad management is faced with new global challenges. The three broad international business management challenges were identified by the management gurus as follows (obert, Kossek & Ozeki, 1998):
a) Deployment: To get the right skills where it is required in an organization regardless of the geographical location.
b) Knowledge and creativity distribution: Spreading the knowledge and practices throughout the organization regardless of where they have actually originated.
c) Talent identification and development on global basis: To identify…
Drucker, P. (1988) The Coming of the New Organization. Harvard Business Review issue
Fadel, J. & Petti, M (1997). International HR policy basics.
Global workforce issue April 1997, pp. 29-30
Conflict in the Workplace
One of the things that makes us human is our need and ability to form groups. We thrive in groups, merge into groups, and even the process of civilization and moving from hunter-gatherers to cities was part of group behavior. owever, when groups form, any number of interesting psychological issues occur: behaviors change, organizational issues occur, bonds and alliances are formed and lost, and even individual leadership behaviors change (Johnson and Johnson, 2008). Whether it be individuals, small groups, or large groups -- sometimes behavioral issues arise that cause conflict. Breaking one or more of these rules, however, or disagreeing with them to the point where it becomes unbearable or makes the group ineffective then becomes "conflictual" (Corey, 2008, pp. 149-51). This conflict happens in most cultures and some time or another. We see it in animal behavior as internal aggression. In some human cultures, while…
Let the record show that I am James X., Human Resource Manager for Zycon Corporation, a privately held corporation located in the City of Brisbane, Australia. Today is the 28th of June, 2011, and we are meeting with Mr. B., an employee of Zycon since March, 2001. Mr. B. has steadily worked his way up from a process worker to a section Forman since Spring 2008. Our meeting today is the result of a letter sent by Mr. B. demanding a review of a recent hiring decision made for Factory Manager. According to Mr. B's letter of June 10, 2011, Mr. B. feels that he did not receive the desired position promotion because of "discriminatory and unfair" labor practices, especially those from the Operations Manager. Reviewing the situation we find the following:
In April, 2011, due to corporate growth and efficiency studies, Zycon Corporation created a new position for our Brisbane Factory -- that Zycon believed it necessary to have an overall person who would be
Because unresolved conflict within teams can undermine the talents and efforts of even the most dedicated individuals, conflict resolution is an essential component of modern business management. Specific approaches to conflict resolution generally consist of strategies intended to prevent conflict preemptively and strategies intended to resolve conflicts after they arise. As a rule, eliminating conflict prospectively is more effective and more efficient than resolving conflict after it emerges. Generally, once conflicts erupt within a working group, more time must be dedicated to their resolution than would have been required to avoid the conflict prospectively. Likewise, conflicts that require resolution waste the time dedicated to the conflict, even before any efforts at resolution. However, the primary reason that conflict resolution strategy should emphasize prevention ahead of time is that the mechanisms for resolution are essentially the same, but preventing conflicts in advance spares the organization the lost productivity associated directly with…
Bass, B. (1985) Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations.
New York: Free Press
Kinicki, a., Williams, B. (2005) Management: A Practical Approach.
New York: McGraw-Hill.
Conflict & Negotiation
The Bophuthatswana crisis of 1994
The Bophuthatswana crisis of 1994 entailed a devastating political crisis which started when the Bophuthatswana president, Lucas Mangope, made an attempt at crushing the widespread demonstrations and labor unrest from the people of South Africa as they demanded incorporation of the Bophuthatswana territory into the South African region pending the first multiracial election in 1994 (Holomisa, 2011; Lawrence & Manson1, 1994). Lucas Mangope was a Bantustan (Lentz, 2014). The crisis provoked violent protests after President Mangope made an announcement in 7th March 1994 to the effect that Bophuthatswana was intending to boycott the general elections in South Africa (Appiah & Gates, 2010). The violence quickly escalated into mutiny from local based armed forces and striking of civil servants. The crisis was further complicated when the right-wing extremists arrived with an intention to push for the preservation of Manope’s Bophuthatswana government (Cawthra, 1997).…
Diversity is a fact of American and International business and is a broader, more complex issue than one might initially believe. A universally vital element of global commerce, Diversity has spawned an abundance of theorists, journals and specialists, some of whom are encountered in this composition. Addressing the remarkable breadth and complexity of Diversity, this essay reviews: the nature of Diversity; legally protected classes within the United States; aspects of Diversity that fall outside the scope of U.S. legal protections; the benefits of Diversity for employers; the differences/challenges presented by Diversity for employers; general business adjustments/accommodations for Diversity; and suggested specific business adjustments/accommodations for Diversity. Though this work cannot exhaustively address all aspects of Diversity, it is meant to give a good overview of modern businesses' Diversity issues and possible solutions.
Nature of Diversity:
"Diversity" involves legally protected classes of people but also involves other classes of…
Akbari, H. (2008). Education business professionals for year 2010 and beyond: Six critical management themes and skills to emphasize. International Business & Economics Research Journal, 7(7), 57-62.
Comperatore, E., & Nerone, F. (2008). Coping with different generations in the workplace. Journal of Business & Economic Research, 6(6), 15-30.
Domina, C.S. (2011). Our strength is in our Diversity: Fact or fancy? Journal of Diversity Management, 6(1), 1-9.
Figiel, V.L., & Kummel Sasser, M.A. (2010). Factors contributing to employee decisions to ignore Diversity policies. Journal of Diversity Management, 5(4), 11-17.
These goals were both content and identity-based for both sides, with remuneration and fiscal capabilities making up the motivation on both sides of the table along with a need to assert certain rights and expectations that existed on both sides, as well. The face-saving aspects of the deals that were worked out presented themselves initially as a major potential problem, but ultimately the content-based goals were of greater interest to both parties despite earlier posturing. Had this been openly acknowledged and recognized earlier on, which might have occurred with a greater aggressiveness on the part of the city's negotiators, the negotiation would have been far less time consuming and ultimately more efficient. This increased efficiency, of course, has benefits for both parties in the negotiations.
There were also other areas in which the city's negotiating team could have performed more effectively to arrive at the mutually acceptable contract terms in…
They both serve the purposes of the stakeholder category formed from clients, they just do this with different understanding.
Then, the well-being of the stockholders was constantly on the minds of the negotiating CEOs at Wal-Mart and Procter and Gamble. In this order of ideas, all their endeavors were focused on increasing shareholder value. Basically, this materialized in an ongoing desire to increase profitability. Higher profits would result in larger funds to be distributed in the form of dividends, leading therefore to increased satisfaction from stock owners of P&G or Wal-Mart shares.
The discussions also considered how the legislation would apply to various potential endeavors. Foremost, one important category of stakeholders analyzed was formed from the employees at Wal-Mart and Procter and Gamble. It was known that given the tense past between the organizations, the employees could find it difficult to interact and efficiently collaborate. This was however necessary for…
Egan, C., Thomas, M.J., the CIM Handbook of Strategic Management, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998
Fisher, R., Ury, W., Patton, B., Getting to Yes: Negotiation Agreement without Giving in, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1991
Fortgang, R.S., Lax, D.A., Sebenius, J.K., Negotiating the Spirit of the Deal, Harvard Business Review, February 2003
Friedman, a.L., Miles, S., Stakeholders: Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press, 2006
Negotiation: A Required Skill in Leadership
Negotiation as a Leadership Skill
A Required Skill in Leadership
A Required Skill in Leadership
The purpose of this work is to write a memorandum to a colleague describing the characteristics of effective leaders for the public sector in the 21st century. Included will be negotiation and mediation skills and the reasons that these characteristics are important in today's leaders. In the work of Michael E. Siegel on Leadership in American Presidents presented is a "model of effective leadership based on a four-part framework used to analyze the performance of three recent American presidents" stated to be Carter, Reagan, and ush. The framework reportedly can be utilized by leaders as well as managers in the public and private sector organizations in self-analysis as to performance in what is stated to be "four critical areas of leadership." Siegel (2001) This is particularly true…
Braham, Barbara (2004) Negotiation Tips: Skills Techniques & Strategies for Effective Negotiation http://www.bbraham.com/html/negotiation.html
Howard Gardner "Using Multiple Intelligence to Improve Negotiation Theory and Practice." Negotiation Journal October 2000: 321-324.
Katheleen M. Eisenhardt, Jean L. Kahwajy and L.J Bourgeois III "How management teams can have a good Fight" Harvard Business Review. July-Aug 1997.
Lewicki, Roy J, David M. Saunders, and John Minton. Essentials of Negotiations. NY: McGrew Hill 2nd edition 2000.
Police Labor Conflict in Boston: Summer 2004
This report aims to discuss a recent negotiation that occurred in the city of Boston in June of 2004. As the 2004 election comes to a close and as of this writing we still have no official winner for the office of President of the United States. The Democratic Party is patiently awaiting the results of the vote from the state of Ohio. But that is not the only issues the Democrats faced in this will campaign for President. In May and June of 2004, the Democratic National Convention slated for a rousing Boston welcome was instead greeted by the Boston Police Union's bid for a major strike that targeted Boston's Fleet Center where the Democratic National Convention was to be held. The strike was a thorn in Mayor Thomas M. Menino's side as he tried to present Boston as a labor…
Associated Press (2004). Police Union, Boston Break Off Talks. phillyburbs.com, June. Retrieved November 2, 2004, from http://www.phillyburbs.com/pb-dyn/news/24-06142004-316115.html
Carnell, Jim. (2004). Contract settled Anger remains. Retrieved November 2, 2004, from http://www.bppa.org/pax/pax_current.asp
Van Voorhis, Scott, & Meyers, Jack (Tuesday, June 8, 2004). Cops give DNC labor pains: Unions won't cross picket line. The Boston Herald.
While Cadbury was initially vulnerable resulting in this take over, Kraft had to borrow heavily to afford the final price of 850p per share. In the coming months and years, Kraft will have to balance against recovering the money put into this acquisition (Wiggins, 2010). A risk, many British politicians and citizens alike fear will mean the end of their signature chocolate in an effort by Kraft to increase their profit margin quickly.
Case Study 2: Discussion
The Kraft acquisition of Cadbury is a corporate negotiation making headlines across the world both for the magnitude of the deal and the incredible hostility which marked the negotiations prior to the final signing of the agreement. Cadbury wound up in a financially vulnerable position after several strategically bold maneuvers ultimately resulted in a poor stock showing for the newly de- merged Dr. Pepper Snapple drinks company, and the reliance of Cadbury on…
1. "Exxon, Mobil in $80B deal." CNN Money official site. CNN, 1 Dec. 1998.
2. Beaudin, Guy. "Kraft- Cadbury: Making Acquisitions Work." BusinessWeek. 9 Feb. 2010.
3. "Mannesmann seals deal." CNN Money official site. CNN, 3 Feb. 2000.
4. "$58B bank deal set: J.P. Morgan agrees to buy Bank One in a deal that would combine two of the nation's biggest banks." CNN Money.com. 15 Jan 2004.
for Delta Airlines
The situation in the airline industry was already in trouble long before September 11, 2001. Major airlines like Delta was pursuing bankruptcy as an option to fight off organizational collapse caused by reduced traffic, skyrocketing expenses and potential pilot strikes for both the wholly owned subsidiary Comair and Delta's own pilots. Since deregulation, one of the only alternatives for the major airlines was bankruptcy. The terrorist hijackings on 9/11/2001, was simply added salt in Delta's wounds. This research paper is about a real-life negotiation for Delta Airlines and Comair. The report will do the following:
Identify the parties involved in the negotiation
Identify the central and secondary issues of the negotiation
Identify the interests of each party and why they care
Identify the opening positions of the parties and how they presented themselves
Identify the final position of the parties and how they evolved.
Collins, Michael, & Dias, Monica (2/3/2001). Delta Pilot Vote Sets Up Showdown. The Cincinnati Post.
Fonti, Nancy (6/21/2001). It's Official: Delta Pilots OK Contract 70% Vote Yes; Pay To Become Industry's Best. The Atlanta Constitution.
M2 Communications Ltd. (2001). Delta President discusses Comair pilot strike in Cincinnati. M2 Presswire, 5/11/2001.
Another surprising feature of our negotiations was the lack of back-and-forth collaboration and dialogue. In short, we did not engage in integrative bargaining or dynamic negotiation. I simply spat out my asking price based on what I had expected to receive based on the BATNA. Forgetting the condition of the engine and the other possible features my partner valued when he did spend time looking under the hood, I failed to probe my partner for his needs. I should have asked, for example, what he wanted to use the car for, if he has owned a similar automobile, and whether or not he was a collector. Had I gleaned some extra information about my partner, the two of us could have worked harder on "creating" value than on "claiming value." As the case progressed I realized that I had succeeded at neither.
The brevity and lackluster nature of the negotiations…
Shell, R.G. Bargaining for Advantage: Negotiation Strategies for Reasonable People. Penguin (1999).
Regardless, it is difficult to conceive of a different type of negotiation process that could have better satisfied both parties or resulted in a more expedient settlement. One factor to remember is that that the issue in dispute was not the correctness of company policy, as it was a matter of law that rest breaks be mandated and that employees were not required to pay to maintain their uniforms, rather company compliance and compensation was the question. Fact-finding required verification from outside parties who were deemed to be objective enough in determining whether the various chains had been compliant with California law or not. Another factor to remember is that arbitration can result in a scenario where disputants are "less than fully committed" to seeing the resolution put through and during this negotiation as many of the plaintiffs were no longer working for the Red Lobster or the Olive Garden…
Lewicki, Roy J. & David M. Saunders. (2005). Negotiation. 5th Edition.
New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Red Lobster and Olive Garden Employees Settle Meal and Rest Break Class Action for 9.5 Million." (2006). Wage Law: California Wage and Hour Law. Retrieved 21 Mar 2007 at http://wagelaw.typepad.com/wage_law/2005/06/red_lobsteroliv.html
Conflicts in the workplace are a common phenomenon and people are usually anything but shocked to find themselves or their colleagues in such conflicts. But the ubiquity of such conflicts doesn't follow we are equally ready to tackle them properly. In fact on the contrary, most people have absolutely no idea what needs to be done when conflict arises. Conflict resolution and management are certainly the key words these days because of intensely competitive and diverse workforce of today yet it appears that most companies hardly pay any attention to conflict resolution training and thus are not properly prepared to handle such situations.
In my workplace, I have noticed that despite diversity training and supposedly polite and healthy working environment, conflicts are almost a norm and most of them are grounded in interpersonal problems. Personality clashes are common and on numerous occasions, we find employees complaining about…
The same might be said for those who committed torture in the Nazi camps.
Importantly, Austin et al. (2004, p. 161) note that both violence and non-violence are cumulative in nature. It is therefore important to recognize that the existence of violence perpetuates further violence, while the same is true for non-violence. This is also an important recognition in the international sphere.
Schelling (1960, p. 53) notes that international violence an also be manifest in terms of the concept of "limited war." This means that short conflicts could result when agreements cannot be reached within a certain amount of time. On the other hand, the limited war also requires some degree of mutual recognition or acquiescence. Once war begins, negotiation and communication among adversaries become difficult. The recent situation and Egypt and the current situation in Libya appear to be cases in point for this assertion.
Finally, in international relations,…
Baldwin, D.A. (2002). Power and International Relations. Handbook of International Relations, editors Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T. And Simmons, B.A. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
Schelling, T. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Barak, G. (2003). Violence and Nonviolence: Pathways to Understanding, Sage Publications.
Azar, E. (1990) the Management of Protracted Social Conflict: Theory and Cases. Bookfield, VT: Gower Pub. Co.
India is a diverse country in terms of religion. The Hindu population constitutes 828 million people (80%), the Muslim population constitutes million (13.5%), the Christian population constitutes 24 million (2.5%), the Sikh population constitutes 19 million (2%), while other religious groupings including Jains and Buddhists constitute 19.5 million. eligion is an important aspect of Indian political scene. Although India maintains that it is a secular nation, Indian politics has had a deep religious flavor at all times. This has resulted in religion being an important component of the identity of many Indians. There are many cases of religious identity being elicited in response to the communalism politics. Communalism connotes the functioning of organizations or religious communities, or the bodies which state they represent them, in a manner which is prejudices to the nation as a whole or interests of other groups. Historical evidence shows that communalism in the…
Avruch, K. (2001), "Constructing ethnicity: culture and ethnic conflict in the New World Disorder," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol. 71 No. 23, pp. 281-90.
Avruch, K. (2003), "Type I and II errors in culturally sensitive conflict resolution practice," Conflict Resolution Quarterly, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 351-71.
Avruch, K. And Wang, Z. (2005), "Culture, apology, and international negotiation: the case of the Sino-U.S. 'spy plane' crisis," International Negotiation, Vol. 10, pp. 337-53.
Dalal, R. (2006), The Penguin Dictionary of Religion in India, Penguin Books, New Delhi.
(Feldman and Slattery 201)
In this environment, it is likely that the people of Somalia would welcome the devil himself if he was carrying food and water, and these circumstances have not been lost on those who would exploit them for their own political agenda.
Historical Role of NGOs in Somalian Reconstruction.
The experiences of the United Nations and other relief agencies in Somalia are proof positive that even the best intentioned humanitarian efforts cannot succeed if nongovernmental organizations are targeted by political forces that deem their presence counterproductive for their political agendas. According to Boulden (2001), "The UN response to the Somalia crisis ran the gamut from the extreme of total disregard to total involvement then back to total disregard. During the first year of anarchy, the situation within the country became so dangerous that most nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and UN humanitarian agencies left the country" (54). This author…
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Boulden, Jane. Peace Enforcement: The United Nations Experience in Congo, Somalia, and Bosnia. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
De Waal, Alex. (1998). "U.S. War Crimes in Somalia." New Left Review a (230):132.
Doh, Jonathan P., Hildy Teegen and Sushil Vachani. (2004). "The Importance of Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) in Global Governance and Value Creation: An International Business Research Agenda." Journal of International Business Studies 35(6):463.
Conflicting eward Systems and Their Impact on Criminal Justice Administration
It order to ensure that the desired response is generated one should link the reward with the proper output. Almost in every other domain of life the conflicting reward system is implemented. It has been established through various studies that people tend to behave in the manner which is appreciated and rewarded, hence it is important to design rewards in such a manner that people are encouraged to provide the required output and response. There are several examples which reflect the conflicting reward system where the behaviors or responses which are rewarded are those which are undesired and the required behaviors are not rewarded. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the impact of conflicting reward systems on the criminal justice administration (Kerr, 1995).
The duty or responsibility of the Criminal justice system is to control the…
CliffsNotes. (2011).Types of Sentences. Retrieved June 29, 2011 from
Drakeford, W., & Friedman, K. (2001). History of the Criminal Justice system. Retrieved June 29, 2011 from
Kelly, D.(2011).Stages of a Criminal Case: Sentencing. Retrieved June 29, 2011 from
Kerr, S. (1995). On the folly of rewarding A, while hoping for B. Academy of Management Executive, 9(1), 7-14.
Management Issues and Practices
James Strong, the former CEO and managing director of Qantas Airlines, twice sat on the panel convened at the Sydney office of CPA Australia to select those who would be recognized for the annual 40 Young Business Leaders list. Strong believed in the importance of nurturing young talent and threw himself wholeheartedly into leading much of the discussion among prominent leaders from all over the globe. Criteria for entrants included "the ability to land a top job, develop others and get the most from a team, and leading by example was also a must-have attribute" ("CPA Australia," 2014). To provide the scope and depth of the list-building endeavor, it is informative to explore the names of other participants on the panel, and to match them to the criteria they articulated for entrant evaluation. Here is a quick run down: James Strong looked for entrants who had…
40 young business leaders. In the Black. 2014 CPA Australia Ltd. Retrieved from http://www.itbdigital.com/lists/40-young-business-leaders-2013/
Bennis, W. (1997). Managing people is like herding cats. Covey Leadership Center.
Braithwaite, J. & Mannion, R. (2011). Managing change. In K. Walshe & J. Smith, Healthcare Management, pp. 830-861. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Cummings, G.G., McGregor, T., Davey, M. Lee, H., Wong, C.A., Lo, E., Muise, M. & Strafford, E. (2010). Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(3), 363-385. doi: 10.1016/j.jnurstu.2009.08.006.
Building Trust and espect through Constructive Conflict esolution
One of the most significant advantages of genuine conflict resolution (i.e. through effective communication, validation, and specific methodologies that address underlying causes of conflict) in the workplace is that it typically generates increased mutual respect and trust among coworkers (Blair, 2003; Kinicki & Williams, 2005; Wisinski, 1993). Whereas superficial (i.e. supervisor-imposed) solutions to isolated conflicts tends only to resolve those specific conflicts in the short-term, more in-depth resolutions can eliminate conflicts at a more fundamental level by addressing and actually resolving the underlying sources of those conflicts in principle (Blair, 2003; Kinicki & Williams, 2005; Wisinski, 1993).
The problem is that isolated, superficial, and primarily operational solutions that focus only on the outcome of the negotiation do not address the respective sentiments of the individuals involved (Kinicki & Williams, 2005). Conversely, when more thorough solutions address the underlying issues at the root…
Blair, G. (2003). Groups that Work. Washington, DC: IEEE Press.
Daft, R. (2005) Management. 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western.
Kinicki, a. And Williams, B. (2005). Management: A Practical Approach. New York:
Written communication in the workplace comes in many forms, the most commonly used is memos and proposals or special reports (Beck, 1999). One manner in which written communication can be used is to negotiate (Neale & Bazerman, 1991). Business employees and even managers should be well versed in written communications and have a strong grasp of the skills necessary to be familiar and proficient in writing in order to express well defined meaning and enhance business communications (Lyons, 2002).
Having good writing skills and abilities will also facilitate improved oral communications among employees. Those employees that are able to put their thoughts down on paper accurately and precisely are more likely to engage in oral communication that is directed and focused. Because of this one of the skills that might be considered for inclusion in the workshop might be translating written word into oral communications.
Employees who are participating in…
Beck, C. (1999). Managerial communication: Bridging theory and practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Lyons, C. (2002). "Integrating writing and negotiation skills." Business Communication
Marken, G.A. (2002). "Effective writing skills for public relations." Public Relations
Other ways to celebrate achievements would be to send thank-you cards, congratulatory notes, make phone calls, and send emails.
4. Being able to set challenging goals - people often strive to achieve what is expected of them, but if they are presented with a set of challenging goals they will work even harder to accomplish them.
5. Being able to provide the necessary tools to succeed - no team will stay motivated if they do not have the necessary tools that are required to do their job. This includes: equipment, internal support, inventory, marketing materials, and training among other things.
6. Performance management - teams expect their leader to manage individuals who do not perform up to standard. Many managers often ignore these situations because they are afraid to deal with them. They hope instead that the situation will resolve itself. This is never the case; bad situations that are…
5 Little-Known Giant Health Care Issues Facing the United States. (2007). Retrieved November
11, 2009, from Nursing Online Education Database Web site:
Francis, Margaret. (2007). Effective Management. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from Changing
Assembling a Negotiation Team Gathering Information Side
Negotiation team can bring a wide range of knowledge and information to the negotiation process and teams are considered to be more creative then individuals because it is the pool of skills, knowledge and experience belonging to team mates collectively working for a common objective. Well organized and properly managed negotiating teams are more efficient in scrutinizing the situations, analyze every details of the task and are proactive in their strategies due to collective approach in negotiations and project management. Negotiation teams tend to minimize the effect of risk more properly then does the individuals therefore team building for the purpose of planning, managing a project and crisis management is always recommended.
To develop the strategic plan for negotiation and conflict resolution is the first step taken by the negotiation team. In the process of plan assembling negotiation team gathering information would include…
Karrass, C. (2010). Team Negotiating Secrets. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from http://www.karrass.com/kar_eng/tips_9.htm
Conflict is something that we come across in our everyday life-be it at the workplace or in our homes or with the neighbor. The basic source of conflicts is disagreements. In this paper we would restrict ourselves to the conflicts at workplace. There are several aspects in which conflicts at workplace can happen. Conflicts can be between co-workers and between workers and the management or between the management and the union (Lansford, 2008).
The way to resolve conflict at workplace-or for that matter at any other place, is through negotiations. Negotiation is the term that is given to the process of dialogues to resolve disagreements two persons or two groups of persons and when the disagreement is based on interest, goals, values or beliefs (Deutsch & Coleman, 2000). The process through which such parties arrive at a common goal or a possible agreement is termed as negotiation.…
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Insomuch, Angela felt that she was being penalized because she worked from home. Although alph tried to explain that this was not the case, he was unsuccessful in conveying the real issue of missing a deadline. Consequently, the focus shifted to more of a personal nature because Angela felt unappreciated so they decided to reconvene to another meeting two weeks later.
Unfortunately, the meeting started with some hostility from Angela. She was very cold and nonresponsive to alph's questions regarding her well-being. Because Angela did not feel positive about the last exchange, she missed another meeting, plus she failed to submit a report. Her actions are labeled as passive aggressive because her lack of apathy has now transferred into a performance issue. With her constant interruptions and frustrations, Angela refuses to communicate and wants to resign. Clearly, conflict is an issue in which resolution is needed in the form of…
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.....project management approach is increasingly becoming popular in today's workplace. Organisations are ever more recognising the benefits of accomplishing tasks and activities as projects -- better task coordination, quicker task execution, and so on (Larson et al., 2013). The author's organisation, a renewable energy firm with operations in Australia and beyond, has particularly been shifting to the project management approach in recent years. The organisation is currently interested in acquiring or merging with a suitable rival to improve its market share and competitive advantage. The merger or acquisition process is often not an easy undertaking. It requires proper planning and execution. With the application of project management concepts, however, the process can be easier. This report analyses the relevance of various project management concepts to the merger or acquisition process. Attention is particularly paid to the project environment, project definition, time and cost estimation, project plan, risk management, resource scheduling,…
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Conflict The Situation Conflict is something that we come across in our everyday life-be it at the workplace or in our homes or with the neighbor. The basic source…Read Full Paper ❯
Insomuch, Angela felt that she was being penalized because she worked from home. Although alph tried to explain that this was not the case, he was unsuccessful in conveying…Read Full Paper ❯
.....project management approach is increasingly becoming popular in today's workplace. Organisations are ever more recognising the benefits of accomplishing tasks and activities as projects -- better task coordination, quicker…Read Full Paper ❯